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The basics about network for my beloveds ICT exam

Internet, intranet and extranet

Internet is the world wide network where the local networks and computers are connected. Each connection has its own IP address (if your computer is directly connected, then it has its own IP address. If youre in a LAN, all the computers have same IP address, but they also get internal IP adresses to comunicate to each other). It started as a US government Project to make possible the communication between militar bases, soliders and scientists. Nowadays, as well as the GPS (Global Positioning System) which had the same starting in US Army, its public and global. Its based in too many protocols. Maybe the most used is the HTTP (HyperText Transfers Protocol), which allow us to access webservers with websites. But there are many protocols, like XMPP for most of the desktop chat applications (like Windows Live Messenger), FTP to transfer files (mainly from computers to servers), SMTP to send e -mails, POP3 or IMAP to receive e-mails and many others. Its Worth to remember that some applications have their own protocol, since a protocol is relatively easy for a programmer to create. All the protocols uses a main protocol called TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). However, its worth to remember that there are some protocols, like UDP (User Datagram Protocol, used mostly for VoIP and vdeo conferences/webcam chat and also for DoS/DDoSDenial of Service and Distributed Denial of Serviceattacks) and ICMP (Internet Control Message Requestused, for example, in the ping, a tool to check if a remote host is online or not). In the TCP/IP version 4, also called IPv4, the IP adresses are 4 groups with 1 to 3 digits from 0 to 255. For example: But some IP adresses cant be used in the internet. For example, IP adresses starting with 192.168 are used in LANs. The IP address is called loopback or localhost, and it returns the computer that is requesting it (for example, if you use your computer to ping, you will ping your own computer). IPs with less numbers, like,, or with the max, like 255.255.255.* are also used for network configurations (router, default gateway configuration) or DNS (Domain Name System server, a server that converts a domain name, like www.adliya.tk (the real domain is only adliya.tk, since www is a subdomain) into a IP address ( in this case). Using IP LookUp tools its also possible to locate an IP address and get its physical address, although it isnt reliable, since it would be privacy breaking (and also hard to do). Most of the times, IP LookUps return only the ISP (Internet Service Provider) address (it makes possible to know the country, state or, sometimes, city where the IP address is in).

Internet, intranet and extranet

Intranet is a private network with the same protocols that the Internet, but... Privately. Its commonly based on LANs and also in LANs IP adresses, starting with 192.168 (this means from to Its used often in companies and offices to provide the communication between all the computers, employees and/or reas privately. It can use HTTP applications (opened in webbrowsers) as well as desktop applications (with a common database in the network, in one or more of the computersthe called server). It depends on the company and also on the programmer or development team that will create the application. Its like a special social network. It can include messaging and birthdays, but also special things, like logs, documents, products, clients list and many other things, depending of the necessity of the company. Since its a LAN it can be accessed only from the computers in the same network. Some employees (like me, Jefrey, the man of your life :D ), since can also work from home, use remote desktop applications like TeamViewer or VNC to access the intranet and do something when from of the network. But a intranet can also be in the internet. It must be hosted in a webserver like any other site (but this webserver can also be owned by the company, since it wont receive too many visitors) and must be protected by login and password. When a intranet is in the internet its called extranet, and an example of use is to create administration panels for websites, where the administrators can post News, edit products or read comments, for example, depending of the site. But its often more simple than a LAN intranet.


LAN (Local Area Network) is a private computers (and also other devices, like PDAs and cellphones) network that can transfer data between them. It can measure the max of 1 KM (after 1 KM its called MAN). Its mostly used in houses and schools, to connect all the computers and cellphones into only one network connection by cable. If, however, it is used a Wi-Fi router instead of cables, its called WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network), but you can also refer to WLAN using only LAN when talking about a network which uses both LAN and WLAN (cables for some stations and Wi -Fi for others). It has stations (the computers or devices connected to the network), network devices (routers, bridges, wifi access points and network cards) and the communication protocol (TCP/IP is still the most used). It may also have a server. In offices, a server is frequently a computer used to store the database. In schools, its mostly an administrator computer, to manage all the others. At home it may not exist (all the devices may have the same privileges), but its often used, for example, a main computer as printing server (the only where a printer is connected, but any computer in the LAN/WLAN can use this printer) or file storing server.


MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) is a network supporting a city. Its good to remember that network may connect other things, and not just internet or computers data, since the main example for the use of MAN are cable TVs.

WAN (Wide Area Network) is a main network hosting subnetworks and creating a web in a geographic rea, like a continent or a country. Its cheaper to big ISPs (internet services providers) to manage a main network instead of many little networks. Its based in many subnetworks interconnecteds. The biggest WAN existing today is the Internet, which includes many WANs from countries and continents connected by undersea cables called backbones.

Backbones in the world.

A backbone, showing its layers. Backbones are undersea cables which connect the WANs in a main network, the Internet. If one of this cables break, a big area wont have internet access until its repaired.

Network topologies
A network in ring topology is a closed circle where each station is connected to two other stations and a signal will run to all the network until find the target station. The signal trips only to one direction. One of the stations must be the HUB, something as server, to manage the signals. The main problem is, if one of the stations, part of (or all) the network wont work. Nowadays this topology is not used (although this doesnt mean its impossible to exist). It was used mainly in optical fiber communications. A network in tree is a main network based in subnetworks, something like grandparents, parents and children in a Family tree. Its used in big companies, where each area or office has its own network, and all the networks are connected in a main network. A network in bus were constantly LANs, where a main cable (the backbone - dont confuse with the undersea cable with the same name) is used to connect all the computers, and each computer had a conector in T, to get the cables signal, but transfer it again to the remaining stations. The used cables (coaxial) are no longer used (they were replaced by UTP cables, the ones with connectors like cubes). Coaxial cables are nowadays used only for UHF (open TV) channels, from the antenna to the television. A network in star is the most used. Its where all the computers and devices (stations) are connected to a main host (sometimes just a router). The data sent from a computer to the other must be transfered to this host first. Its good because if one of the devices fails, the network is still working. But, if the host fails, all the network stops to work. Since its the most used, its easy to find a star network, like in the computers room in a school, where all the computers is connected to a main computer/gateway, or at home, where all computers and cellphones are connected to a router, by cable or Wi-Fi. Its worth to remember that a network may include many of the topologies. For example, imagine a main tree network with subnetworks in star topology. Its possible and often used.




UTP cable

Coaxial cable


Computers nomeclature
E-commerce are online stores and shopping (commerce) websites. Remember the word commerce. E-banking is online banking service online, like Money transfering or bills paying from the internet. Remember: e banking comes from bank, its like an online bank. E-learning are schools or university from internet. My mother (mother of your owner) is almost finishing pedagogy university from distance, using e-learning. Hacker: someone who understands about computers, mainly about network (security, most of the times). He may be White hat (the good guy. If finds a vulnerability, tells the network owner), gray hat (hes not really bad, but if he finds a vulnerability, will request your Money to tell or fix it, like the security analysts) or black hat (all he wants is to destroy, sometimes just to get famous. Example: Yudhistira :P ). Its come from rat, because rats poke around. Cracker: most of the peoples and ICT teachers say that cracker is the same of black hat hacker from above, the one who wants only to destroy. But, truly, cracker is reverse engineer, who makes warez (illegal copies of softwares and movies, by removing its licenses). My love, verify your notebook for what your teacher calls cracker, but im almost sure about the first option (the wrong one), so i think it will be better if you say that cracker is a guy who knows as much as hackers, but wants only to destroybut verify it first in your notebook! And remember the verb to crack: they crack and destroy everything. Carder: (or bankerdont confuse with e-banking) is the black hat hacker (or cracker, right?) who steals banking card or online payment sites accounts (like PayPal). They can steal it by hacking e-banking sites and getting its database or by sending keyloggers to many peoples. Then they can sell it to other carders or use it, by buying what they want or transfering some Money to their own accounts. The name carder comes from card or carding. Carding is also used as the crimes name, as well as banking (do not confuse with e -banking and avoid this name. Its used mostly only by carders. Prefer carding).

Tests (answer with the mind)

1. In my home (your boys home), all the computers and cellphones are connected to a router: the computer by ADSL (ethernet/UTP cable) and all the remaining by Wi-Fi. The printer is connected to my desktop computer, but all the devices in my home can print using that printer. All the devices can also access my desktop computers files. A) What network topology is it? B) Some of this devices is being a server? If yes, what kind of server? C) Sometimes, when the signal is slow in my bedroom, I create a bridge using an old Wi -Fi router. What kind of network am I creating?


In my work, we use a private software called TronSolution (wont find in internet) to manage products and clients, send e-mails and make reserves for bedrooms or tables. Theres a computer being used to store the database, and all the computers are using the same database. Its in a LAN, but if my father or I must access it, we use TeamViewer from our home to our computers in our office, so whats the name of the network architecture used: internet, intranet or extranet? My friend, Guilherme, when we created a website, attacked his network with DNS Spoofing (that makes possible to redirect users from a site to the other) and made many users who tried to visit Google.com to be redirected to our website. But we verified that he was using a small provider and we received only visitors from his city, So Paulo. What network type did he hack (LAN, MAN, WAN, WLAN)? In february 2012, a ships anchor made the Africas east lose the internet access. What happened to make it possible? While WhiteCollarGroup was active, me and some friends like Guilherme, Rodrigo, Luan, Yudhistira and Irfan have done too many activities. What weve been (black/white/gray hat hacker, cracker, carder/banker...) when doing: (Dont kill me :) ) A) Homepage defacement: modifying websites and putting our own messages.




B) Entering virtual stores and rewritting its code to send to our email all the clients cards and selling it to turkish friends. C) Discovering vulnerabilities, telling the programmer and writting exploits codes to show off the vulnerability. D) Entering websites to steal all its source-codes and selling it, but not modifying it. E) Writting tutorials about hacking and publishing it for free. F) Getting paid softwares or scripts, studying it and removing its protection (or understanding it and creating our own serial, as if we paid for it), and giving it for free in our website. 6. 7. 8. My works manager pays his bills by internet. What did he use? My mothers university is from distance, in the internet. What is she using? My mother bought our sofa in a brazilian known virtual store. What did she use?


Tests (answers)
1. A) LAN (although mixed with WLAN, we can just call LAN) B) Yes, my desktop computer is being used as file and printing server. C) A tree network mixed with stars.


Intranet. When I use teamviewer I can access the computer, and then i use the computer to access the intranet. Thats why its not na extranet. MAN, since it was only for his city. The anchor broke a backbone undersea cable. When WhiteCollarGroup was active, me and some friends have done too many activities. What weve been (black/white/gray hat hacker, cracker, carder/banker...) when doing: (Dont kill me :) ) A) Black hat hacker or cracker B) Carder or banker C) White hat hackers D) Gray hat hackers E) White hat hackers F) Crackers

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

E-banking E-learning E-commerce