Você está na página 1de 45

LNGUA INGLESA

COMPREENSO DE TEXTOS

NDICE
Apresentao . . . . . . . . . . . ndice . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 03

Part A Estudo de textos . . . . . . . .......... . 04 Nveis de compreenso . . . . . . . . O Vocabulrio . . . . . . . . . Grupos Nominais . . . . . . . . . 05 Idia Principal. . . . . . . . . . Texto 1 . . . . . . . . . . Cognatos . . . . . . . . . . 06 Texto 2 . . . . . . . . . . Afixos (I) . . . . . . . . . . 08 Afixos (II) . . . . . . . . . . 09 Texto 3 . . . . . . . . . . 10 Referncia Textual . . . . . . . . . 12 Marcadores de discurso (I). . . . . . . . Texto 4 . . . . . . . . . . 13 Falsos cognatos . . . . . . . . . 15 Uso do dicionrio . . . . . . . . . Marcadores de discurso (II) . . . . . . . 16 Afixos (III) . . . . . . . . . . Marcadores de discurso (III) . . . . . . . 17 Parte B Gramtica Bsica da Lngua Inglesa . . . . . 18 Parte C Lista de verbos irregulares . . . . . . . Parte D Exerccios estruturais . . . . . . . . 24 25

Pgina 1 de 45.

PARTE A ESTUDO DE TEXTOS


Voc deve aprender vrias estratgias para entender textos em Ingls. Voc precisa lembrar que voc no precisa entender todas as palavras. E estas so regras muito importantes: a) b) c) d) e) f) prestar ateno ao ttulo; prestar ateno ao vocabulrio que voc j sabe; no tentar ler o texto em portugus; estar ciente de que voc no precisa do dicionrio inicialmente; tentar obter informaes a partir das ilustraes e disposio do texto; tentar entender as palavras novas pelo contexto.

E aqui esto duas tcnicas muito importantes para compreenso de leitura: A) Skimming: uma leitura rpida para se obter a idia geral do texto; B) Scanning: uma leitura detalhada para se obter informaes especficas de um texto. Outros pontos importantes: x x x x x x x prever o contedo do texto depois que voc analisar o ttulo; baseado em seu conhecimento anterior, voc pode fazer uma tempestade de idias a partir do ttulo; depois de ler o ttulo, tente predizer sobre o que ser o texto; ler o texto do comeo ao fim, prestando ateno especial s palavras cognatas; geralmente, a primeira frase em cada pargrafo a sentena-tpico, isto , a idia desenvolvida no pargrafo; usar o dicionrio se a palavra desconhecida for impossvel de entender pelo contexto e se ela for repetida freqentemente; outro uso do dicionrio e para entender as palavras mais importantes em cada pargrafo (se necessrio).

NVEIS DE COMPREENSO Dependendo dos objetivos da leitura, voc pode precisar distinguir trs nveis de compreenso: a) b) c) compreenso geral (uma leitura rpida para obter informaes gerais do texto); compreenso dos pontos principais (as principais informaes do texto, observando cada pargrafo cuidadosamente; compreenso detalhada (exige mais tempo e muito importante para se obter informaes especficas, instrues...).

Pgina 2 de 45.

O VOCABULRIO Algo muito importante que voc precisa lembrar sempre ao ler um texto que voc no deve tentar entender todas as palavras. Haver, certamente, muitas palavras novas. Tente entend-las pelo contexto. Para aumentar seu vocabulrio voc deve, ao final do trabalho de cada texto, fazer uma lista das palavras que deseja memorizar e traduzi-las ou colocar sinnimos ou explicaes ou, ainda, uma frase em que ela aparea. TPICOS IMPORTANTES EM COMPREENSO DE TEXTO 1) Grupos Nominais So grupos de palavras, geralmente compostos de substantivos e adjetivos (s vezes com substantivos com funo de adjetivos; exemplo: the car door. Estamos referindo-nos porta ou ao carro?) Em cada grupo nominal h uma palavra que a mais importante (headword), que um substantivo, e outras que so adjetivos, advrbios e outros substantivos (modifiers).

EXERCCIOS: A) Traduza estes grupos nominais: a) computer software: .................................................. b) history book: . c) force and torque system: . d) the car engine: .. e) operating system: f) food production: g) the early fabrication of implements and weapons: . B) Circule as headwords nos grupos nominais do exerccio acima e sublinhe os modifiers.

2) Idia principal Uma importante atividade ao lermos um texto identificar sua idia principal, seu mais importante tpico. Para conseguirmos isso necessrio que leiamos todo o texto, do comeo ao fim. muito importante no cair na tentao de querer traduzir o texto, ou seja, de ler o texto em portugus. Muitos aprendizes alegam que se no traduzirem o texto, no o compreendero. Ora, se conseguem traduzir porque conhecem o vocabulrio e as estruturas. E se conhecem esses dois itens, conseguem entender o texto. Se no os conhecem, tambm no conseguiro traduzi-los. Uma simples questo de bom senso! de suma importncia ter em mente, sempre, que no necessrio entender todas as palavras de um texto para se entender seu assunto principal.

Pgina 3 de 45.

EXERCCIO 1 (Texto 1) Read this text. Then, on the line after it, write one sentence with its main idea. Vitamins, Medicine, and Chicken Soup
A lot of people get two or three colds every year. Right now, there is no cure. What can you do to get well faster? Many people take cold tablets or other medicine for their colds. They think the medicine will help them feel better. But medicine wont make the cold go away. And some cold medicines can make you sleepy or nervous. Some people dont like to take medicine. They think the best thing to do for a cold is to take Vitamin C. You can get extra Vitamin C by drinking orange juice or grapefruit juice, or by eating oranges and grapefruits. Or you can take Vitamin C tablets. Some people like to drink hot tea or eat hot chicken soup when they have a cold. They think the best thing to do for a cold is to have a lot of hot liquids. Hot liquids help you breathe more easily and help you feel better. Some people say you should stay home from work for a day or two. They think the best thing to do for a cold is to rest. And if youre in bed, you cant give your cold to your co-workers! (I. Frankel & M. Fuchs, in Crossroads Workbook 3, p. 58)

EXERCCIO 2 Now, check the sentence with gives the summary (principal idea) of the text: a) You should take extra Vitamin C when you have a cold. b) Every year, many people get two or three colds. c) There are many different things you can do for a cold. d) You should stay home from work or school when you have a cold. Again, check the alternative that gives the main idea of the text, this time with options in Portuguese: a) Voc deve tomar vitamina C extra quando tiver um resfriado. b) Todos os anos, muitas pessoas tm dois ou trs resfriados. c) H muitas coisas que se pode fazer quando se tem um resfriado. d) No se deve ir ao trabalho ou escola quando se tem um resfriado.

Pgina 4 de 45.

3)

COGNATOS

So palavras muito semelhantes em ingls e em portugus tanto na forma quanto no significado. Por exemplo: constitution facilmente nos faz lembrar de constituio em portugus. Os cognatos so muito importantes para nos ajudar a entender um texto, pois eles so de grande ajuda com o novo vocabulrio. Em ingls eles so chamados de cognates ou transparent words. EXERCCIO: Copy five cognates from the text above: __________________________________________________________________________

Outros recursos de que devemos lanar mo so: a) conhecimento anterior: toda compreenso de texto ser baseada no que j sabemos do assunto. Quanto mais soubermos, mais entenderemos do texto. Todas as leituras que tivermos feito anteriormente em nossa lngua materna ajudaro na compreenso do texto sobre o mesmo assunto numa lngua estrangeira. b) informao no-verbal: como leitores, j vimos muitos tipos de textos: narrativos, com ilustraes, com grficos, com tabelas, negritos, itlicos, aspas... Isso deve ser explorado na leitura de texto em lngua estrangeira. Aps a compreenso geral do texto, normalmente, parte-se para uma compreenso mais detalhada. Faz-se, ento, outra leitura com um dos seguintes objetivos: a) captar a idia principal de cada pargrafo ou b) buscar informaes especficas. Um outro ponto importante no estudo de texto, aps os expostos acima, o estudo do vocabulrio, seja para compreender mais do texto, seja para enriquecimento do vocabulrio do leitor. Este ponto ns praticaremos com textos da nossa rea de estudo, nas prximas pginas.

Pgina 5 de 45.

(Texto 2) HISTORICAL NOTE 1.1 History of Manufacturing The history of manufacturing can be separated into two subjects: (1) the discovery and invention of materials and processes to make things and (2) the development of systems of manufacturing. The materials and processes to make things predate the systems by several millennia. Some of the processes casting, hammering (forging), and grinding date back 6,000 years or more. The early fabrication of implements and weapons was accomplished more as crafts and trades than by manufacturing as we know it. The ancient Romans had what might be called factories to produce weapons, scrolls, pottery and glassware, and other products of the time, but the procedures were largely based on handcraft. Let us examine the systems aspects of manufacturing here, and postpone materials and processes until Historical Note 1.2. Systems of manufacturing refer to the ways of organizing people and equipment so that production can be performed more efficiently. Several historical events and discoveries stand out as having had a major impact on the development of modern manufacturing systems. Certainly one significant discovery was the principle of division of labor dividing the total work into tasks and having individual workers each become a specialist at performing only one task. This principle had been practiced for centuries, but the economist Adam Smith (1723-1790) is credited with first explaining its economic significance. The Industrial Revolution (circa 1760-1790) had a major impact on production in several ways. It marked the change from an economy based on agriculture and handicraft to one based on industry and manufacturing. The change began in England where a series of machine inventions and the replacement of water, wind, and animal power by steam power took place. These advances gave British industry significant advantages over other nations, and England attempted to restrict export of the new technologies. However, the revolution eventually spread to other European countries and to the United States. The industrial revolution contributed to the development of manufacturing in the following ways: (1) Watts steam engine, a new power-generating technology for industry; (2) development of machine tools, starting with John Wilkinsons boring machine around 1775 (...); (3) invention of the spinning jenny, power loom, and other machinery for the textile industry, which permitted significant increases in productivity; and (4) the factory system, a new way of organizing large numbers of production workers based on division of labor. While England was leading the industrial revolution, an important concept was being introduced in the United States: interchangeable parts manufacture. Much credit for this concept is given to Eli Whitney (1765-1825), although its importance had been recognized by others. In 1797, Whitney negotiated a contract to produce 10,000 muskets for the U.S. government. The traditional way of making guns at the time was to custom fabricate each part for a particular gun and then hand fit the parts together by filing. Each musket was unique, and the time to make it was considerable. Whitney believed that the components could be made accurately enough to permit parts assembly without fitting. After several years of

Pgina 6 de 45.

development in his Connecticut factory, he traveled to Washington in 1801 to demonstrate the principle. Before government officials, including Thomas Jefferson, he laid out components for 10 muskets and proceeded to select parts randomly to assemble the guns. No special filing or fitting was required and all the guns worked perfectly. The secret behind his achievement was the collection of special machines, fixtures, and gages that he had developed in his factory. Interchangeable parts manufacture required many years of development before becoming a practical reality, but it revolutionized methods of manufacturing. It is a prerequisite for mass production. Because its origins were in the United States, interchangeable parts production came to be known as the American system of manufacture. EXERCISES ON THE TEXT A) Check ( ) the sentence that gives the general idea of the text: a. ( ) The two big divisions of the history of manufacturing. b. ( ) More efficiency in production. c. ( ) The discovery of the principle of division of labor. d. ( ) The history of the Industrial Revolution. e. ( ) The history of manufacturing. Now, number these parentheses according to the ideas in some paragraphs of the text: ( ) A introduo do conceito de partes intercambiveis na manufatura nos Estados Unidos enquanto a Inglaterra liderava a Revoluo Industrial. ( ) Conseqncias da Revoluo Industrial. ( ) A descoberta do princpio da diviso do trabalho. ( ) A diviso da histria da manufatura em dois grandes temas. B) Complete these questions using appropriate interrogative words: a) ___________________ subjects can we divide the history of manufacturing into? Two. b) ___________________ had factories to produce weapons? The Romans. c) ___________________ was one significant discovery? The division of labor. d) ___________________ did the Industrial Revolution happen? In England. e) ___________________ did John Wilkinson invent the "boring" machine? In 1775. C) Copy a discourse marker from paragraph 1 and say (in Portuguese) what idea it expresses. _______________________________________________________________________ D) Circle an indefinite article in paragraph 3. E) What does the pronoun it in paragraph 1 refer to? ( ) Fabrication of implements. ( ) Weapons. ( ) Crafts. ( ) Trades.

Pgina 7 de 45.

F) Copy ten words from the second paragraph that are cognates. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ G) Copy 5 cognates from the text. __________________________________________________________________________ H. Faa uma lista de palavras do texto acima que so novas para voc. Tente entend-las pelo contexto, ou seja, pelas palavras que esto em volta delas, pelas frases onde elas se encontram. Troque idias com um colega sobre as palavras que voc listou e tentem, juntos, encontrar um sinnimo ou traduo para elas. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Pgina 8 de 45.

4)

AFIXOS (I)

Como voc sabe, existem palavras que derivam de outras pelo uso de afixos (prefixos e sufixos). Esses afixos podem alterar a classe gramatical da palavra e/ou o seu significado. Assim, importante reconhecer os principais afixos, que so um recurso importante para entender vocabulrio. Muitos dos afixos usados em ingls so semelhantes ou idnticos aos seus equivalentes portugueses devido sua origem grega ou latina. Exemplos: inadequate, disconnect, communication. Entretanto, h muitos outros que tm origem diferente e, por esta razo, so menos fceis de se entender. Exemplos: unhappy, underground, misunderstand, useful, useless. Que prefixos voc j conhece?

Que idia eles expressam? _______________________________________________________________ EXERCCIO: Combine os prefixos com as idias que eles expressam: (1) un-, non-, in-, dis-, ( ) localizao (2) semi-, mini-, micro( ) nmero (3) inter-, super-, trans-, peri( ) tempo e ordem (4) pre-, ante-, fore-, post( ) negativo e positivo (5) mono-, bi-, hex-, oct-, multi( ) tamanho

ALGUNS PREFIXOS IMPORTANTES:

-mis (expressa a idia de incorreto, errado).


Ex.: mispronounce: pronunciar de forma incorreta, pronunciar mal.

-re (novamente).
Ex.: do: fazer redo: refazer

-in (-im, -il, -ir) (negao)


Ex.: credible (crvel) incredible (incrvel)

Pgina 9 de 45.

EXERCCIO: Crie novas palavras pelo uso dos prefixos acima: Grupo A: To place (colocar) / To inform (informar) / To use (usar) / To behave (comportar-se) / To judge (julgar) / To spell (escrever, soletrar) / To understand (entender) / Grupo B: To read (ler) / To appear (aparecer) / To arrange (organizar) / To build (construir) / To double (dobrar) / To produce (produzir) / Grupo C: Possible (possvel) / Literate (alfabetizado) / Rational (racional) / Legal (legal) / Polite (corts) / Appropriate (adequado) / Coherent (coerente) / Moral (moral) /

___________________________ _________________________ _______________________________ _____________________ ____________________________ ____________________ _____________________ ________________________________ _________________________ _______________________ __________________________ ___________________________ ________________________

___________________________ ________________________ ___________________________ _______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________ __________________________ ______________________________

(Texto 3) HISTORICAL NOTE 1.1 History of Manufacturing (cont.) The mid and late 1800s witnessed the expansion of railroads, steam-powered ships, and other machines that created a growing need for iron and steel. New steel production methods were developed to meet this demand (...). Also during this period, several consumer products were developed, including the sewing machine, bicycle, and automobile. To meet the mass demand for these products, more efficient production methods were required. Some historians identify developments during this period as the Second Industrial Revolution, characterized in terms of its effects on manufacturing systems by the following: (1) mass

Pgina 10 de 45.

production, (2) scientific management movement, (3) assembly lines, and (4) electrification of factories. In the late 1800s, the scientific management movement was developing in the United States in response to the need to plan and control the activities of growing numbers of production workers. The movement was led by Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915), Frank Gilbrath (18681924) and his wife Lillian (1878-1972), and others. Features of scientific management included: (1) motion study, aimed at finding the best method to perform a given task; (2) time study to establish work standards for a job; (3) extensive use of standards in industry; (4) the piece-rate system and similar labor-incentive plans; and (5) use of data collection, record keeping, and cost accounting in factory operations. Henry Ford (1863-1947) introduced the assembly line in 1913 at his Highland Park plant (...). The assembly line made mass production of complex consumer products possible. Use of assembly line methods permitted Ford to sell a Model T automobile for as little as $ 500, thus making ownership of cars feasible for a large segment of the U.S. population. By 1881, the first electric power-generating station had been built in New York City, and soon electric motors were being used as a power source to operate factory machinery. This was a far more convenient power delivery system than steam engines, which required overhead belts to distribute power to the machines. By 1920, electricity had overtaken steam as the principal power source in U.S. factories. The 20th century has been a time of more technological advances that in all other centuries combined. Many of these developments have resulted in the automation manufacturing. We might mention a few of the topics that are covered in other historical notes in this book: transfer lines, numerical control, industrial robotics, programmable logic controllers, and flexible manufacturing systems. EXERCISES ON THE TEXT: Answer these questions in Portuguese: 1) Que grandes transformaes aconteceram na segunda metade do sculo XIX? O que essas mudanas acarretaram? 2) Mencione alguns produtos desenvolvidos nessa poca (segunda metade do sc. XIX). 3) O que era necessrio para suprir essa demanda? 4) Como alguns historiadores denominam essa fase de expanso da indstria? 5) O que caracterizou a chamada "Segunda Revoluo Industrial"? 6) Quando e onde se desenvolveu o gerenciamento cientfico? 7) A que se deveu o aparecimento do gerenciamento cientfico? 8) Quem foram os principais lderes do gerenciamento cientfico? 9) Quais as principais caractersticas do gerenciamento cientfico? 10) Quando e por quem foi introduzida a linha de montagem? 11) O que o uso da linha de montagem possibilitou a Ford? O que isso implicou? 12) Quando comeou a ser usada a fora eltrica para operar mquinas de fbricas? Que sistema era usado antes?

Pgina 11 de 45.

13) 14) 15) 16)

Quando a energia eltrica substituiu a principal fonte de energia nas fbricas dos Estados Unidos? Qual ela substituiu? Que comparao se pode fazer entre o desenvolvimento tecnolgico do sculo XX com os anteriores? Muitos desses desenvolvimentos resultaram em qu? Que outros tpicos so mencionados nas outras notas histricas ao longo deste livro?

Pgina 12 de 45.

5) AFIXOS (II)
Quando ns acrescentamos um sufixo a uma palavra, ela geralmente troca a classe gramatical. Por exemplo, um adjetivo (slow) transforma-se num advrbio (slowly). Por outro lado, quando ns acrescentamos um prefixo, a palavra torna-se uma nova, mas sem mudar a classe gramatical. Dois exemplos: form (verbo) reform (verbo); happy (adjetivo) unhappy (adjetivo). Sufixos que transformam verbos em substantivos: -tion / -ition / -ation : to invent invention / to limit _________________ / to compose ________________ -ment : to develop development __________________ / to improve _______________ / to assess

-ing : to read reading / to teach / __________________ / to swim _______________________ -ance / -ence : to appear ____________________ / to depend _________________ / to attend _________ -er / -or : to teach ________________ / to play _________________ / to invent _____________________ In the space below, write more words with the prefixes studied above: Find, in the text, examples of words with the prefixes studied above.

Pgina 13 de 45.

(Texto 4)

ARRK expands use of Delcam software


ARRK, the worlds largest rapid product development provider, has increased its use of Delcams Power SHAPE hybrid modeling software and Power MILL machining system. The company is now using the Delcam software at its sites in the UK, France and Hungary, and has it under evaluation at a number of other locations. ARRK has been a leader in rapid product development services for over 50 years and is now also expanding its production toolmaking and molding operations. The company has a growing number of strategically situated locations throughout the world, including recent acquisitions in Japan, China, France and Spain. All are staffed with highly skilled and experienced professionals who use the latest technology to provide clients with outstanding quality, precision and service. ARRK PDG, based on Teesside, UK, was the first part of the company to use Delcam software. This site specializes in the production of aluminum and steel prototype and production tooling, as well as low-volume molding. Automotive projects make up a significant part of the work, with most of the remainder being for the electronics industry. Most aluminum tools are for prototypes and low-run production molding up to 10,000 parts and have to be delivered within between three and six weeks lead time. Steel molds are then manufactured when converting to larger scale production. Tooling Manager Steve Watson introduced PowerMILL four and a half years ago and then added PowerSHAPE for surface modeling eighteen months later. "The initial attraction of PowerMILL was its ability to machine STL files," said Mr. Watson. "This gave us maximum flexibility when deciding whether to produce a model with machining or rapid prototyping. It was also really simple to use, with very rapid training." "After a short trial period, we rated the Delcam software high enough to standardize on it. Now, we do all our surface modeling with PowerSHAPE and all our machining with PowerMILL. In the time weve had our Delcam software, I havent seen anything else that could compete with it." "Whenever possible we machine to the final finish," said Mr. Watson. "Any extra details, such as ribs, that cant be machined, we add with electrodes designed in PowerSHAPE. "I have total confidence when generating programs for our Makino and Hitachi Seiki machines. Often, we simply load up two pallets of parts and leave the machines cutting unsupervised over the weekend." Mr. Watson also uses Delcams PS-Exchange for data exchange. "This works really well with CATIA files" he commented. "It means that we are not spending a lot of time fixing imported data."

Pgina 14 de 45.

"The long-term benefit of being a Delcam user is the continuous improvement in the software," said Mr. Watson. "We push every new release of the software to the limits to keep our delivery times down. We have regular contact with the company and definitely feel as though our voice is being heard. This is critical in order for us to continually improve our service to our customers, enabling us to help them perform." (From News Delcam Magazine Issue 2, 2002, page 7) EXERCISES ON THE TEXT: 1) Check the alternative with the general idea of the text: a. ( ) O aumento no uso dos programas da Delcam. b. ( ) A abertura de uma filial da ARRK no Japo. c. ( ) O uso de prottipos de alumnio nos produtos da ARRK. d. ( ) A eleio de Steve Watson para a presidncia da ARRK. e. ( ) O difcil momento por que est passando a ARRK. 2) In which paragraphs are these ideas? Match the columns: (a) ARRK has been a leader for more than 50 years. (b) Prototypes that are made of aluminum. (c) Delcam software is good enough to standardize on it. (d) Mr. Watson has total confidence in programs for Mak machines. (e) The first part of the company to use Delcam software. (f) PowerMILL was introduced four and a half years ago. (g) Details, such as ribs, are added with electrodes. (h) The long-term benefit of being a Delcam user.

( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

) Paragraph 1. ) Paragraph 2. ) Paragraph 3. ) Paragraph 4. ) Paragraph 5. ) Paragraph 6. ) Paragraph 7. ) Paragraph 8.

3) Circle the correct alternative: a) ARRK ( has increased / has decreased / has stopped ) the use of Delcam software. b) The worlds largest rapid product development provider is (Delcam / PowerSHAPE / ARRK). c) The company (ARRK) is using Delcam software in ( Europe / North America / Africa ). d) ( Two / Three / Several ) locations are evaluating Delcam Software. e) ARRK has been a leader for ( over 50 years / 40 years / 35 years ) .

4) Copy the answers to these questions from the text: a) Em que pases a ARRK est usando programas Delcam? __________________________________________ b) H quanto tempo a ARRK lder em servios de desenvolvimento de produtos?

Pgina 15 de 45.

__________________________________________ c) Em que pases a ARRK fez recentes aquisies de empresas? ______________________________________ d) Qual foi a primeira parte da ARRK a usar os programas Delcam? ___________________________________ 5) Circle a discourse marker in the following sentence: ARRK are very happy to use Delcam software, so they will continue to use it. 6) Translate these words: a) to lead: _______________ c. to grow: ____________ e. skilled: _____________ b) to develop: _________________ d. leader: ___________________ 7) Write these nominal groups in English: a) sistema de usinagem: ______________________________________ b) prottipo de ao: __________________________________________ c) indstria eletrnica: ________________________________________ d) ferramentas de alumnio: ____________________________________ e) moldes de ao: ____________________________________________ f) produo em larga escala: ____________________________________ g) perodo de ajustes (testes): ___________________________________ h) intercmbio de dados: _______________________________________

Pgina 16 de 45.

6) REFERNCIA TEXTUAL
Muito freqentemente, ns vemos elementos de referncia que so usados para evitar repeties e para ligar oraes, fazendo com que o ato da leitura seja mais compreensvel e mais fluente. Esses elementos podem ser pronomes (he, she, it, him, her...), demonstrativos (this, that), pronomes relativos (that, who, which) e possessives (my, your, mine, his). Por exemplo, na frase This description is very simple. It follows a diagram in numbered pages" a que est o pronome it referindo-se? EXERCCIOS: 1) What do the following words in the text refer to? who (l. 4): _______________________________________________ this site (l. 7): ___________________________________________ it (l. 16): ____________________________

2) Faa uma lista de palavras do texto acima que so novas para voc. Tente entend-las pelo contexto, ou seja, pelas palavras que esto em volta delas, pelas frases onde elas se encontram. Troque idias com um colega sobre as palavras que voc listou e tentem, juntos, encontrar um sinnimo ou traduo para elas.

__________________________________________________________________________

Pgina 17 de 45.

7) MARCADORES DE DISCURSO (I)


So palavras usadas para unir oraes ou partes delas e agregar certos significados a essa unio. Abaixo, encontra-se uma tabela de alguns marcadores de discurso importantes. Vamos complet-la juntos: Marcador de discurso if or like then from when because Significado Idia

Find in previous texts some (or all) of the discourse markers above and explain their use.

Pgina 18 de 45.

8) FALSOS COGNATOS
Temos de ter cuidado com palavras inglesas semelhantes a palavras portuguesas porque nem todas tm significados semelhantes. Elas so chamadas de falsos cognatos (false cognates ou false friends). EXERCCIO: Translate (and study) this list of false cognates: actual - ................................. actually - .................................... assist - ..................................... carton - ........................... comprehensive - ....................... directory - .... eventually - .... fabric - large - library - notice - push - ................................... realize - resume - .. silicon - .. terrific - Notes: .. .. .. ..

Pgina 19 de 45.

9) USO DO DICIONRIO
muito importante saber encontrar no dicionrio o significado adequado da palavra que queremos. Normalmente, uma palavra no dicionrio bilnge tem mais de um significado. Voc precisa saber, pela frase onde ela est, se um substantivo, um verbo, etc. Com isso em mente, ir ao dicionrio. Find the meaning, in Portuguese, of the word in bold type in these sentences: a) Im thirsty; I need some water desperately. (________________)

b) Can you water the flowers for me while Im away? (________________) c) She is using a computer, but she cannot type fast. (___________________) d) What type of music do you like best? e) Was the test hard? f) Did you study hard? (________________) (_________________) (____________________)

Pgina 20 de 45.

10) MARCADORES DE DISCURSO (II)


Marcador de discurso therefore (so) on the other hand and (also, besides, in addition) Significado Idia

Find in previous texts some (or all) of the discourse markers above and explain their use. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Pgina 21 de 45.

11) AFIXOS (III)


Sufixos que transformam adjetivos em advrbios:

-ly :
slow (lento) slowly (lentamente) Continue: quick (rpido) __________________________ careful (cuidadoso) ____________ careful (cuidadoso) ______________________ attentive (atento) ______________ ................................................................................. ............................................................. Sufixos que transformam substantivos em adjetivos:

-ful:
beauty (beleza) beautiful (belo) Continue: wonder (maravilha) _____________________ use (uso) ____________________ tact (tato) _____________________________ help (ajuda) __________________ .

-less:
cord (fio) cordless (sem fio) Continue: hair (cabelo) ___________________________ use (uso) _____________________ fear (medo) ___________________________ end (fim) _____________________ ................................................................................ ...............................................................

-ous:
fame (fama) famous (famoso) Continue: nerve (nervo) __________________________ glory (glria) __________________ danger (perigo) ________________________ marvel (maravilha) _____________

Pgina 22 de 45.

-al:
nature (natureza) natural (natural) Continue: nation (nao) __________________________ occasion (ocasio) ______________ person (pessoa) _________________________ critic (crtica) __________________ ................................................................................. ...............................................................

-y:
cloud (nuvem) cloudy (nublado) Continue: storm (tempestade) ______________________ wind (vento) __________________ Sun (sol) ______________________________ thirst (sede) ___________________ Sufixos que transformam verbos em adjetivos:

-ing:
grow (crescer) growing (crescente) Continue: develop (desenvolver) ___________________ interest (interessar) _____________ wash (lavar) ___________________________ operate (operar) ________________

Pgina 23 de 45.

12) MARCADORES DE DISCURSO (III)


Marcador de discurso for example (such as) to (in order to, so that) however (nonetheless, but) Significado Idia

Find in previous texts some (or all) of the discourse markers above and explain their use. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Pgina 24 de 45.

PARTE B GRAMTICA BSICA DA LNGUA INGLESA


Nesta parte esto os principais pontos gramaticais da lngua inglesa. Devem ser consultados e, principalmente, estudados. A Parte D traz exerccios para a fixao destes assuntos. 1) PRONOMES PESSOAIS A) Pronomes pessoais do caso reto:

(I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they)


Exercem a funo de sujeitos dos verbos. Eles vm antes dos verbos. (Em ingls: subject pronouns) Ex.: John is a student. He is a student. (He pronome sujeito) (_____________________________)

B) Pronomes pessoais do caso oblquo:

(me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them)


Exercem a funo de objetos (complementos) dos verbos. Eles vm depois dos verbos. (Em ingls: object pronouns) Ex.: Jack loves Mary. Jack loves her. (her pronome objeto) (__________________________)

2) POSSESSIVOS A) Pronomes adjetivos possessivos:

(my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their)


Indicam posse e sempre antecedem substantivos. (Em ingls: possessive adjectives) Ex.: This is my computer. (______________________________________________) B) Pronomes substantivos possessivos:

(mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs)

Pgina 25 de 45.

Indicam posse e no antecedem substantivos. (Em ingls: possessive pronouns) Ex.: This computer is mine. (____________________________________________)

3) VERBO TO BE O verbo to be conjugado no tempo presente : Forma afirmativa: Forma interrogativa: Forma negativa: Forma negativa contrada: I am, you are, he is, she is, it is, we are, you are, they are. Am I, are you, is he, is she, is it, are we, are you, are they. I am not, you are not, he is not Im not, youre not (you arent), hes not (he isnt)...

4) VERBO TO BE NO PASSADO O verbo to be conjugado no tempo passado : Forma afirmativa: Forma interrogativa: Forma negativa: I was, you were, he was, she was, it was, we were, you were, they were. Was I, were you, was he, was she, was it, were we, were you, were they. I was not (I wasnt), you were not (you werent), he was not (he wasnt)

5) VERBO THERE TO BE Este verbo tem duas formas no tempo presente: there is e there are. Ex.: There is a computer here. (____________________________________________) There are three CDs in the drawer. (____________________________________________) Forma interrogativa: Forma negativa: Is there? / Are there...? There isnt... / There arent..

6) VERBO THERE TO BE NO PASSADO Este verbo tem duas formas no tempo passado: there was e there were.

Pgina 26 de 45.

Ex.: There was a test on Monday. (______________________________________________) There were two tests on Friday. (_______________________________________________) Forma interrogativa: Forma negativa: Was there? / Were there? There wasnt / There werent

7) ARTIGOS H dois artigos em ingls: A e THE.

o artigo indefinido, ou seja, significa um, uma. Esse artigo usado antes de palavras que comeam com som de consoante (a book _________________). Antes de palavras que comeam com som de vogal ele se transforma em AN (an apple ___________________).

THE o artigo definido, ou seja, significa o, a, os, as. (the book, the apple, the books, the apples)

8) DEMONSTRATIVOS THIS (isto, este, esta) THESE (estes, estas) THAT (isso, esse, essa, aquilo, aquele, aquela) THOSE (esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas)

9) CASO POSSESSIVO uma forma especial de se indicar posse em ingls. Como regra geral, acrescenta-se s ao possuidor. Ex.: Jacks car (____________________________); the boys bike (______________________________) Quando o possuidor for um nome plural terminado em S acrescentamos s o apstrofo. Ex.: The boys dog (____________________________________________) 10) O PRESENTE DO INDICATIVO (SIMPLE PRESENT) Tempo verbal que expressa ao habitual ou verdade universal.

Pgina 27 de 45.

Ex.: I get up at 7 oclock every day. (___________________________________________) The sun rises in the east. (___________________________________________) A forma interrogativa feita com do (para os sujeitos I, you, we e they) e does (para he, she e it). A forma negativa feita com do not (dont) (para I, you, we e they) e does not (doesnt) (para he, she, it). A terceira pessoa do singular recebe um -S; s vezes, -ES (I work he works; I go he goes). A 3 pessoa do verbo to have (ter) has.

11) O TEMPO PRESENT CONTINUOUS um tempo verbal formado pelo verbo to be no presente mais o verbo principal no particpio presente (-ing). usado para expressar uma ao que est acontecendo no momento em que se fala. Ex.: The teacher is working. Este tempo verbal tambm pode ser usado para expressar planos futuros j confirmados. Ex.: Im working next Saturday. As formas interrogativa e negativa seguem as regras do verbo to be. 12) O TEMPO PAST CONTINUOUS um tempo verbal formado pelo verbo to be no passado mais o verbo principal no particpio presente (-ing). usado para expressar uma ao que estava acontecendo num determinado momento (implcito ou explcito). Ex.: I was preparing this lesson. (______________________________________________) As formas interrogativa e negativa seguem as regras do verbo to be no passado. 13) O IMMEDIATE FUTURE um tempo verbal formado pelo verbo to be no presente mais a expresso going to mais o verbo principal no infinitivo. usado para expressar um plano futuro, uma inteno, ou uma probabilidade. Ex.: Susan is going to travel on Sunday. As formas interrogativa e negativa seguem as regras do verbo to be no presente.

Pgina 28 de 45.

14) FUTURO DO PRESENTE um tempo verbal formado por will mais o infinitivo do verbo principal. Expressa: a) uma ao que certamente ocorrer: They will arrive tomorrow. b) uma deciso do momento em que se fala: Ill answer the phone. c) um oferecimento: I will help you. A forma interrogativa feita pela inverso do sujeito com will: You will go. Will you go? A forma negativa feita com will not (ou wont): She will travel. She wont travel.

15) O TEMPO PASSADO SIMPLES O simple past expressa uma ao passada, geralmente em tempo definido. formado colocando-se o verbo na sua forma de passado. preciso memorizar as formas de passado dos verbos. Felizmente, a maioria termina em -ED. Assim: to work worked, to play played. Mas existem muitos verbos importantes que tm formas especiais, que devemos aprender. Uma grande facilidade do passado em ingls que existe apenas uma forma de passado para todas as pessoas (com exceo do verbo to be, que tem duas [was e were]). Assim: I went (eu fui), you went (tu foste/voc foi), he went (ele foi), we went (ns fomos), you went (vocs foram), they went (eles/elas foram). A forma interrogativa feita com did antes do sujeito; o verbo volta para o infinitivo. Ex.: Did you go to So Paulo last year? A forma negativa feita com didnt antes do verbo; o verbo volta para o infinitivo. Ex.: I didnt go to the beach last weekend. A seguir, uma lista importante de verbos com sua forma no passado que voc deve saber: Infinitivo To become To bend To blow To build Passado became bent blew built Traduo Infinitivo To begin To bind To bring To burst Passado began bind brought burst Traduo

Pgina 29 de 45.

To buy To catch To come To deal To draw To drive To fall To feel To fly To freeze To give To grow To have To hit To keep To lay To lend To light To make To meet To quit To ring To run To see To send To show To shut To sit

bought caught came dealt drew drove fell felt flew froze gave grew had hit kept laid lent lit made met quit rang ran saw sent showed shut sat

To cast To choose To cut To do To drink To eat To feed To find To forget To get To grind To hang To hide To hold To know To leave To let To lose To mean To pay To read To rise To say To sell To set To shrink To sing To sleep

cast chosen cut did drank ate fed found forgot got ground hung hid held knew left let lost meant paid read rose said sold set shrank sang slept

Pgina 30 de 45.

To slide To spend To spread To strike To take To think To wear To win To write

slid spent spread struck took thought wore won wrote

To speak To split To stand To swim To tear

spoke split stood swam tore

To understand understood To wet To wind wet wound

16) PALAVRAS ESPECIAIS

Some:
algum, alguma, alguns, algumas, um pouco de (usado, geralmente, em frases afirmativas) Ex.: I have some friends in Curitiba.

Any:
algum, alguma, alguns, um pouco de (em frases interrogativas) Ex.: Do you have any friends in Curitiba?

Any:
nenhum, nenhuma, nada de (em frases negativas) Ex.: I dont have any friends in Curitiba.

Any:
qualquer (em frases afirmativas) Ex: Any person can do this exercise.

No:
alm de significar no, antes de substantivos significa nenhum. Ex.: I have no friends in Curitiba. Existem algumas palavras compostas de some, any e no:

Pgina 31 de 45.

Somebody/someone (algum); something (alguma coisa); somewhere (algum lugar): em afirmativas. Anybody/anyone (algum); anything (alguma coisa); anywhere (algum lugar): em interrogativas. Anybody/anyone (qualquer pessoa); anything (qualquer coisa); anywhere (qualquer lugar): em afirmativas. Anybody/anyone (ningum); anything (nada); anywhere (nenhum lugar): em negativas. Nobody/no one (ningum); nothing (nada); nowhere (nenhum lugar): em negativas, com verbo positivo.

17) ALGUMAS PREPOSIES Preposies so palavras que servem para unir termos de uma orao. As mais comuns so:

IN (em, dentro): usada para sculos, dcadas, anos, estaes, meses, continentes, pases,
estados, cidades, bairros;

ON (sobre, em cima de): usada para dias do ms e da semana, ruas, avenidas, praas; AT (em, [s]): usada para horas, nmeros de endereo e nas expresses at night, at home,
at school, at work.

AMONG (entre [vrios]) /

ABOUT: sobre, a respeito de; aproximadamente ABOVE: acima

AROUND (ao redor de, em volta de) / BEHIND (atrs de) AGAINST: contra BEFORE: antes de
/ / /

AFTER: aps, depois de / BETWEEN (entre [dois]) IN FRONT OF (na frente de) OUT OF (fora de)
/

FOR: por, para

TO (para [em direo a]) /

FROM: de (indicando origem, procedncia)

Pgina 32 de 45.

UNDER (embaixo de)

THROUGH: atravs

18) ADJETIVOS So palavras que qualificam o substantivo. Em ingls, antecedem os substantivos a que se referem. Ex.: This is an easy lesson. Obs.: s vezes, substantivos fazem o papel de adjetivos. Observe e traduza estes grupos nominais: The car door (_____________________________) The history book (_________________________) The physics class (__________________________) Steelworks (______________________________)

19) ADVRBIOS So palavras que expressam circunstncia de lugar, tempo, modo, afirmao, negao, dvida, intensidade ou freqncia. Geralmente, referem-se a um verbo, mas podem referirse, tambm, a um adjetivo ou a outro advrbio. Ex.: They are working hard. (_______________________________________________) She is very beautiful. (_________________________________________) They arrived very late. (_______________________________________________)

Pgina 33 de 45.

20) COMPARAES COM ADJETIVOS A) Comparativo de igualdade:

as ... as
Ex.: She is as tall as Jane. (________________________________________________) B) Comparativo de superioridade: (a) -er than* Ex.: Brazil is larger than Argentina. (_______________________________________________) (b) more than** Ex.: J is more famous than Tom. (____________________________________________) C) Comparativo de inferioridade:

less than
Ex.: A tape is less expensive than a CD. (_______________________________________)

21) O SUPERLATIVO A) Superlativo de superioridade: (a) the -est* Ex.: This is the easiest lesson. (___________________________________________) (b) the most** Ex.: This is the most expensive book. (_______________________________________) B) Superlativo de inferioridade:

the least...
Ex.: The Uno is the least expensive car in Brazil. (_________________________________) * ** Esta forma usada com adjetivos de uma slaba e com adjetivos de duas slabas terminados em Y. Esta forma usada com adjetivos de duas slabas no terminados em Y e com trs ou mais slabas.

Pgina 34 de 45.

22) O PRESENT PERFECT TENSE um tempo verbal formado por have/has mais o particpio passado do verbo principal. muito mais usado em ingls do que em portugus. A Parte C traz uma lista de verbos com o particpio passado. Complete-a e estude-a. Ex.: I have studied a lot. (_______________________________________________)* O present perfect tense geralmente usado com estas palavras: HOW LONG (h quanto tempo ao que comeou no passado e continua; idia de presente) Ex.: How long have you lived here? (__________________________________________) FOR (h para falar de uma ao que comeou no passado e continua; idia de presente) Ex.: I have lived here for three years. (__________________________________________) SINCE (desde para dizer desde quando uma ao acontece; idia de presente) Ex.: I have lived here since 2000. (______________________________________________) EVER (j, alguma vez com a idia de passado) Ex.: Have you ever eaten sushi? (______________________________________________) NEVER (nunca com a idia de passado) Ex.: I have never visited Braslia. (_____________________________________________) ALREADY (j com idia de passado; geralmente em frases afirmativas) Ex.: I have already found the answer. (___________________________________________) YET (ainda com idia de passado, negativo) Ex.: I havent found the answer yet. (____________________________________________) JUST ("agora mesmo", "acabar de" com idia de passado) Ex.: I have just spoken with her. (_______________________________________________) * nico caso (tempo indefinido) em que usamos o verbo auxiliar (ter) em portugus (traduo literal).

Pgina 35 de 45.

23) O PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Tempo verbal usado para expressar uma ao que comeou no passado e continua. formado por have/has mais o particpio presente (-ing) do verbo principal. No tem equivalente em portugus. Traduzimos como no "presente contnuo". D mais nfase continuidade da ao do que o presente perfect simple. Ex.: I have been studying here for three months. (_________________________________)

24) A VOZ PASSIVA A voz passiva empregada quando queremos dar mais nfase ao do que a quem a fez. Em ingls, usamos o verbo to be (is, are, was...) seguido do particpio passado (a 3 coluna das listas de verbos) do verbo principal. Ex.: Voz ativa: The Germans founded Joinville. (___________________________________) Voz passiva: Joinville was founded by the Germans.(______________________________) 25) WHO / THAT / WHICH Alm de seus significados j vistos anteriormente (who e which como interrogativos e that como demonstrativo), essas trs palavras so usadas em ingls para unir oraes, sendo traduzidas como "que". Who usada quando o antecedente for pessoa (ou animal de estimao), which quando o antecedente for animal ou objeto, e that pode ser usado no lugar dos dois (menos aps vrgula). Ex.: He is the man who painted the Mona Lisa. (__________________________________) Swimming, which I love, is very good exercise. (___________________________________) The book that you lent me is very interesting. (____________________________________)

26) WOULD Would um verbo auxiliar usado para, entre outras coisas, expressar o futuro do pretrito (e.g. trabalharia). Ex.: I thought I would travel on Saturday. (_____________________________________) If I had time, I would go there. (______________________________________________)

Pgina 36 de 45.

27) GERNDIO O gerndio (-ing no antecedido de to be) tem trs usos em ingls: A) Como substantivo: Ex.: Swimming is very good exercise. (_________________________________________) B) Como adjetivo: Ex.: This is a washing machine. (______________________________________________) C) Como objeto (complemento de verbo ou preposio): Ex.: She avoids typing all day. (_______________________________________________) They are tired of reading. (___________________________________________________)

28) A CAUSATIVE FORM uma forma especial que existe em ingls para dizer que algum vai fazer alguma ao por ns. Usamos o verbo have (ou get) seguido de um objeto e o verbo principal no particpio passado. Ex.: Im going to have my computer fixed. (______________________________________)

Pgina 37 de 45.

PARTE C LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES


Os verbos ingleses apresentam apenas quatro variaes:

x o infinitivo ( to go ), x o passado ( went ), x o particpio passado ( gone ) e x o particpio presente ( going ).


Devemos memoriz-los nas trs formas principais, que esto no quadro abaixo: Infinitivo To become To blow To build To buy To catch To come To deal To draw To drive To fall To feel To fly To freeze To give To grow To have To hit To keep Passado became blew built bought caught came dealt drew drove fell felt flew froze gave grew had hit kept Particpio Passado become blown built bought caught come dealt drawn driven fallen felt flown frozen given grown had hit kept Infinitivo To begin To bring To burst To cast To choose To cut To do To drink To eat To feed To find To forget To get To grind To hang To hide To hold To know Passado began brought burst cast chosen cut did drank ate fed found forgot got ground hung hid held knew Particpio Passado begun brought burst cast chosen cut done drunk eaten fed found forgotten gotten / got ground hung hidden held known

Pgina 38 de 45.

To lay To lend To light To make To meet To quit To ring To run To see To send To show To shut To sit To slide To spend To spread To strike To take To think To wear To win To work *

laid lent lit made met quit rang ran saw sent showed shut sat slid spent spread struck took thought wore won wrought

laid lent lit make met quit rung run seen sent shown shut sat slid spent spread struck taken thought worn won wrought*

To leave To let To lose To mean To pay To read To rise To say To sell To set To shrink To sing To sleep To speak To split To stand To swim To tear To understand To wet To wind To write

left let lost meant paid read rose said sold set shrank sang slept spoke split stood swam tore understood wet wound wrote

left let lost meant paid read risen said sold set shrunk sung slept spoken split stood swum torn understood wet wound written

Este verbo, como irregular, significa moldar, bater, forjar; como regular, significa trabalhar; funcionar. A despeito da lista acima, a maioria dos verbos ingleses regular, terminando em ed no passado e particpio: Alguns exemplos: To need, needed, needed To live, lived, lived To work, worked, worked

Pgina 39 de 45.

PARTE D EXERCCIOS ESTRUTURAIS


Exerccio 1: Circule o pronome correto: 1. (I / Me) think English is very important. 2. They want to study with (I / me). 3. (He / Him) needs to study very hard. 4. We need to ask (he / him) for his help. 5. (She / Her) is a very good student. 6. Do you know (she / her)? 7. (We / Us) want to learn many words. 8. Do you know (we / us)? 9. (They / Them) have a big problem! 10. Look at (they / them). Exerccio 2: Circule a alternativa correta: 1. I am doing (my / mine) exercise. 2. He has his book and I have (my / mine). 3. Does she use (her / hers) computer here? 4. I use my computer and she uses (her / hers). 5. (Our / Ours) homework is more difficult. 6. She uses her car and we use (our / ours). 7. They need (their / theirs) machines today. 8. We need our machines; they need (their / theirs). Exerccio 3: Circule a alternativa correta: 1. They ___ late for school. (was / were) 2. We ___ good friends. (are / is) 3. ___ she your teacher? (Is / Are) 4. ___ she here yesterday? (Was / Were) 5. It __ a very easy test. (was / were) 6. My PC ___ a very good one. (is / am) 7. These CDs ___ bought in May. (are / were) Exerccio 4: There is, there are, there was ou there were? 1. ___ a teacher here now. 2. ___ many students here now. 3. ___ a difficult test yesterday. 4. ___ three questions in the test yesterday.

Pgina 40 de 45.

Exerccio 5: Circule a palavra correta: 1. Do you like ___ diskette? (this / these) 2. ___ is a very good computer. (That / those) 3. We need ___ very good materials. (this / these) 4. ___ are interesting instruments. (That / Those) Exerccio 6: Escreva estas expresses usando o caso genitivo (possessivo): 1. (car / Don) Dons car. 2. (computer / Susie) 3. (book / my teacher) 4. (dictionary / this boy) 5. (modem / that guy) Exerccio 7: Transforme estas frases para que elas expressem ao do momento em que se fala: 1. I work hard. 2. You study at night. 3. She talks on the phone. 4. Charles uses a computer. 5. It rains hard. 6. We do our homework. Exerccio 8: Reescreva estas frases fazendo com que elas expressem aes que estavam acontecendo num certo momento: 1. They are buying new equipment. 2. He is hiring a new secretary. 3. We are typing the contract. 4. The company is importing some goods. Exerccio 9: Transforme estas frases para que elas expressem planos futuros: 1. I meet the clients. 2. You write the contracts. 3. He types the letters. 4. She buys the machinery. 5. We pay the bills. 6. They send the goods.

Pgina 41 de 45.

Exerccio 10: Reescreva estas frases no futuro simples: 1. The goods (arrive) tomorrow. 2. We (pay) the bill on Friday. 3. The meeting (be) tonight. 4. You (meet) the customers this evening. 5. I (need) the goods this afternoon. Exerccio 11: Reescreva estas frases comeando com He ou She: 1. I need more clients. 2. You prefer to pay by check. 3. We buy from other countries. 4. They receive the goods quickly. Exerccio 12: Reescreva as frases em que voc pode acrescentar yesterday: 1. We need to order new equipment. 2. We needed to order new equipment. 3. They buy new computers every year. 4. They bought new computers. 5. Our company fired many people. 6. Our company hires many people. 7. Your company used our equipment. 8. Your company uses our equipment. Exerccio 13: Reescreva estas frases com dont ou didnt. Altere o que for necessrio: 1. We buy new computers. 2. They used new software. 3. He brought some information. 4. They told us to be careful. 5. We call them in case of problems. Exerccio 14: Complete estas frases com some ou any: 1. I want ___ new books. 2. Do you need ___ new books? 3. Are there ___ clients in So Paulo? 4. Yes, there are ___ clients in So Paulo.

Pgina 42 de 45.

5. We dont need ___ screwdrivers. Exerccio 15: Complete com no ou any conforme a palavra entre parnteses: 1. We need ___ warranty. (nenhuma) 2. ___ warranty is welcome. (qualquer) 3. It is very easy; ___ person can do it. (qualquer) 4. ___ machine is working well. (nenhuma) Exerccio 16: Complete com o adjetivo ou advrbio dos parnteses: 1. She is a ___ driver. (slow; slowly) 2. She drives ___. (slow; slowly) 3. He is an ___ guy. (intelligent; intelligently) 4. He speaks ___. (intelligent; intelligently) 5. They are __ workers. (happy; happily) 6. They always work ___. (happy; happily) 7. This is a ___ document. (simple; simply) 8. I am ___ reading it. (simple; simply) Exerccio 17: Traduza as partes sublinhadas: 1. A desk top computer is less expensive than a laptop. 2. A CD is more expensive than a cassette. 3. A printer isnt as cheap as a web cam. 4. This printer is bigger than a laser printer. Exerccio 18: Reescreva com o superlativo de superioridade: 1. That is (expensive) car. 2. That company is our (important) customer. 3. This is (busy) street in our city. 4. This is our (young) employee. Exerccio 19: Reescreva estas frases inserindo as palavras dos parnteses, alterando o que for necessrio: 1. How long have you (study) in this college? 2. I (study) here for three months. 3. I (live) in this city since 1995. 4. Have you ever (be) to the U.S.A.?

Pgina 43 de 45.

5. We have never (buy) from that company. 6. The insurance man has already (arrive). 7. They have just (call) our secretary. Exerccio 20: Reescreva estas frases substituindo that por who e which adequadamente: 1. Ive bought a printer that is very silent. 2. That is the manager that will come here tomorrow. 3. The secretary that telephoned us yesterday is coming here. 4. This is the piece that we need. Exerccio 21: Complete estas frases em ingls conforme a traduo entre parnteses: 1. I ___ if I had money. (viajaria) 2. ___ you ___ to work with us? (gostaria) 3. In this case you ___ a new printer. (precisaria) 4. Did you think you ___ early? (chegaria) Exerccio 22: Complete estas frases em ingls conforme a traduo entre parnteses: 1. This machine ___ everywhere. ( vendida) 2. This piece ___ three years ago. (foi comprada) 3. The salaries ___ yesterday. (foram pagos) 4. Our computers ___ abroad. (so comprados) Exerccio 23: Transforme estas frases do present perfect simple para o present perfect continuous: 1. How long have you worked here? 2. I have worked here for three years. 3. I have worked here since 2000. Exerccio 24: Reescreva as frases de tal forma que elas indiquem que uma outra pessoa far o trabalho: 1. I cant wash my car. Im going to have my car washed. 2. I cant paint my house. 3. He cant fix the machine. 4. She cant repair the printer. 5. We cant sell our company.

Pgina 44 de 45.

Exerccio 25: Transforme estas frases fazendo com que elas comecem com um gerndio (-ing): 1. Its a shame to lose money. Losing money is a shame. 2. Its difficult to work under pressure. 3. Its not easy to run a business successfully. 4. Its important to pay our debts correctly. 5. Its necessary to fix all the machines.

Pgina 45 de 45.