Chattering Control Design on a Variable-Speed Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine L. Acho, Y. Vidal, M. Zapateiro, F. Pozo and N.

Luo∗
CoDAlab, www-ma3.upc.edu/codalab Departament de Matem` atica Aplicada III Escola Universit` aria d’Enginyeria T` ecnica Industrial de Barcelona Universitat Polit` ecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automatic Control, Institute of Informatics and Applications, University of Girona, Girona, Spain

Introduction
Increasing attention to wind power electricity generation dependence of global economies on fossil fuels concern about the environment

Introduction
Increasing attention to wind power electricity generation dependence of global economies on fossil fuels concern about the environment Prevailing goal of WT with rudimentary control systems minimization of the cost minimization of the maintenance of the installation.

Introduction
Increasing attention to wind power electricity generation dependence of global economies on fossil fuels concern about the environment Prevailing goal of WT with rudimentary control systems minimization of the cost minimization of the maintenance of the installation. Recently, increasing size of the WT use of mechanical actuators opened the door to active control of the captured power.

Introduction There are two types of wind control for turbines constant speed control variable speed control .

Introduction There are two types of wind control for turbines constant speed control variable speed control Constant speed rotors are designed to deflect high wind gust loads .

.Introduction There are two types of wind control for turbines constant speed control variable speed control Constant speed rotors are designed to deflect high wind gust loads Variable wind turbines are designed to control strong and gusty winds Some WT are able to operate at variable pitch A new control strategy for variable-speed. variable pitch horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) is proposed in this work.

Introduction Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Copyright. .

Introduction Control strategy summary nonlinear dynamic chattering torque control linear blade pitch angle control .

Introduction Control strategy summary nonlinear dynamic chattering torque control linear blade pitch angle control The proposed controllers allow a rapid transition of the WT generated power between different desired set values electrical power tracking with a high-performance behavior for all other state variables .

and Turbulence) code. .Introduction Control strategy summary nonlinear dynamic chattering torque control linear blade pitch angle control The proposed controllers allow a rapid transition of the WT generated power between different desired set values electrical power tracking with a high-performance behavior for all other state variables The proposed controllers are validated using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) WT simulator FAST (Fatigue. Aerodynamics. Structures.

open-source. publicly available.Brief simulator description (FAST) NREL’s National Wind Technology Center develops CAE tools that support the wind industry with state-of-the-art design and analysis capability that have become the industry standard for analysis and development that are free. professional-grade products .

publicly available. open-source. professional-grade products In particular. the FAST code is an aeroelastic simulator was evaluated in 2005 by Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie and found suitable for the calculation of onshore WT loads for design and certification .Brief simulator description (FAST) NREL’s National Wind Technology Center develops CAE tools that support the wind industry with state-of-the-art design and analysis capability that have become the industry standard for analysis and development that are free.

Brief simulator description (FAST) FAST main features Computes structural-dynamic and control-system responses as part of the aero-hydro-servo-elastic solution Uses a combined 24-DOF modal and multi-body representation Control system modeling through subroutines. DLLs. or Simulink R with MATLAB R Nonlinear time-domain solution for loads analysis Linearization procedure for controls and stability analysis .

Brief simulator description (FAST) .

.Control strategy: Torque Control The electrical power-tracking error is defined as e = Pe − Pref . (1) where Pe is the electrical power and Pref is the reference power.

. Boukhezzar et al. (1) where Pe is the electrical power and Pref is the reference power. e (2) and let us take in account that the electrical power is given by Pe = τc ωg . (3) where τc is the torque control in the rotor side and ωg is the generator speed. Kα > 0. .Control strategy: Torque Control The electrical power-tracking error is defined as e = Pe − Pref . 2007]. ˙ = −ae − Kα sgn(e) a. Let us impose a first-order dynamic to this error [B.

2007]. Let us impose a first-order dynamic to this error [B.. ˙ = −ae − Kα sgn(e) a. e (2) and let us take in account that the electrical power is given by Pe = τc ωg .Control strategy: Torque Control The electrical power-tracking error is defined as e = Pe − Pref . (3) where τc is the torque control in the rotor side and ωg is the generator speed. ωg . (1) where Pe is the electrical power and Pref is the reference power. Substitution of (1) and (3) in (2) yields the torque control −1 τ˙c = [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref + Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. Boukhezzar et al. Kα > 0.

. the settling time can be chosen by properly defining the values of the parameters a and Kα . ensures finite time stability. Moreover.Control strategy: Torque Control Theorem The proposed controller τ˙c = −1 [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref ωg +Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )].

Moreover. Bernstein. 1997. Proof mainly based on Lyapunov functions and S. ensures finite time stability. . P. ACC. Bhat and D.Control strategy: Torque Control Theorem The proposed controller τ˙c = −1 [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref ωg +Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. the settling time can be chosen by properly defining the values of the parameters a and Kα . S.

Bhat and D. Bernstein. P. ACC. Proof mainly based on Lyapunov functions and S. the settling time can be chosen by properly defining the values of the parameters a and Kα . 1997. ensures finite time stability. S.Control strategy: Torque Control Theorem The proposed controller τ˙c = −1 [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref ωg +Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. 800 P 600 ref 1600 1400 1200 1000 Asymptotically stable Finite time stability 400 200 0 5 10 . Moreover.

. Kg m2 g Kt : Turbine total external damping. Nm ωg : generator speed.Control strategy: Torque Control How can we approximate ω ˙ g? 1. Nm rad−1 s Ta : Aerodynamic torque. Nm Tg : Generator torque in rotor side.. 2007] .Use the one-mass model of a wind turbine Jt ω ˙ g = Ta ng − Kt ωg − Tg ng Jt : Turbine total inertia. rad s−1 ng : gearbox ratio [B. Boukhezzar et al.

John Wiley and Sons. Nm ωg : generator speed. and M. rad s−1 ng : gearbox ratio [B. W. Nm rad−1 s Ta : Aerodynamic torque. Spong.1s + 1 [M.Use the estimator (transfer function in the Laplace domain) s 0..Control strategy: Torque Control How can we approximate ω ˙ g? 1.Use the one-mass model of a wind turbine Jt ω ˙ g = Ta ng − Kt ωg − Tg ng Jt : Turbine total inertia. Kg m2 g Kt : Turbine total external damping.. Boukhezzar et al. 2007] 2. 1989] . Nm Tg : Generator torque in rotor side. Vidyasagar..

Kβ > 0. .Control strategy: Pitch Controller A pitch proportional controller is added upon the rotor speed tracking error β = Kβ (ωr − ωn ). where ωr is the rotor speed and ωn is the nominal rotor speed.

where ωr is the rotor speed and ωn is the nominal rotor speed. As we want to disable this control when ωr < ωn the final proposed controller is given by the following expression 1 β = Kβ (ωr − ωn ) [1 + sgn(ωr − ωn )] . .Control strategy: Pitch Controller A pitch proportional controller is added upon the rotor speed tracking error β = Kβ (ωr − ωn ). 2 Kβ > 0. Kβ > 0.

5 MW WT at the National Wind Technology Center (left). Installation of a General Electric 1.Simulation results The 1.5 MW WT used for numerical validation using FAST. and comparison (scale in meters) with the Statue of Liberty (right) .

Simulation results Wind speed profile 15 14 13 wind (m/s) 12 11 10 9 8 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .

5 MW 20 rpm 13 Height of tower Rotor diameter Rated power wind (m/s) 12 11 10 9 8 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 Nominal rotor speed (ωn ) .Simulation results Wind speed profile 15 14 WT Characteristics Number of blades 3 82.39 m 70 m 1.

5⋅ 106 α 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .Torque Control 1600 1400 1200 1000 Pe (kW) 800 600 400 200 P ref Boukhezzar K =1.

5⋅ 106 20 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .Torque Control 50 45 40 ωr (rpm) 35 30 25 Boukhezzar Kα=1.

Torque and Pitch Control 1600 1400 1200 1000 Pe (kW) 800 600 400 200 P ref Boukhezzar K =1.5⋅ 106 α 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .

5⋅ 106 20 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .Torque and Pitch Control 23.5 23 22.5 22 ωr (rpm) 21.5 21 20.5 Boukhezzar Kα=1.

5⋅ 10 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 6 35 .Torque and Pitch Control 14 12 10 8 β (deg) 6 4 2 Boukhezzar Kα=1.

.Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition.

however it generates large rotor speed fluctuations.Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. The nonlinear torque control leads to a good power regulation. .

however it generates large rotor speed fluctuations.Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. The nonlinear torque control leads to a good power regulation. When the pitch controller is added upon the torque controller then a good performance is obtained in rotor speed and electrical power regulation. .

When the pitch controller is added upon the torque controller then a good performance is obtained in rotor speed and electrical power regulation. The proposed controller is easily applicable to other WTs.Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. however it generates large rotor speed fluctuations. The nonlinear torque control leads to a good power regulation. .

Girona.edu/codalab Departament de Matem` atica Aplicada III Escola Universit` aria d’Enginyeria T` ecnica Industrial de Barcelona Universitat Polit` ecnica de Catalunya.Chattering Control Design on a Variable-Speed Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine L. Zapateiro. Spain ∗ Department of Electrical Engineering. Acho. Vidal. Pozo and N. Electronics and Automatic Control. University of Girona. Institute of Informatics and Applications. Luo∗ CoDAlab. Y. Barcelona. M. www-ma3. Spain . F.upc.

Moreover. P. finite time stability can be proven. the equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. (1997)]. 2 Let us take the Lyapunov function V = 1 2 e . Then. from Theorem 1 in [S. Bernstein. Bhat and D. Kα 2 → ts ≤ e Kα . ˙ = ee ˙ = e(−ae − Kα sgn(e)) = −ae2 − Kα |e| < 0. V That is. √ √ ˙ ≤ −Kα |e| = −Kα 2 V .Control strategy: Torque Control Proof. S. From (4). the origin is a finite time stable equilibrium and ts ≤ 1 √ (V )1/2 . V (4) Thus.

Control strategy: Torque Control Comparison Resistor-Capacitor circuit ˙+ Cv v R Error dynamic Kα = 0 ˙ + ae = 0 e e(t) = e0 exp(−at) Settling time after 5τ sec. where τ = 1/a =0 −t v(t) = v0 exp( RC ) Capacitor discharged after 5τ sec. where τ = RC .

2(5τ ) seconds.Control strategy: Torque Control Objective Choose the values of the parameters a and Kα in the proposed controller to obtain the desired value in just 0. .

2(5τ ) = 0.5 · 106 (rated power of the WT) 1.5 · 106 .5 · 106 1 e < < 0.5 · 106 ts ≤ < 1. Kα and.2(5τ ) seconds.Control strategy: Torque Control Objective Choose the values of the parameters a and Kα in the proposed controller to obtain the desired value in just 0. Assuming that in a neighborhood of t = 0 the error is bounded by |e| = |Pe − Pref | < 1. Kα > 1.2(5 ). . ts ≤ Kα Kα a Taking a = 1 it is obtained that 1. by rearranging terms.

Torque Control 8 7 6 5 τc (kN·m) 4 3 2 1 Boukhezzar Kα=1.5⋅ 10 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 6 35 .

Torque and Pitch Control 8 7 6 5 τc (kN·m) 4 3 2 1 Boukhezzar Kα=1.5⋅ 10 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 6 35 .