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Luo∗

CoDAlab, www-ma3.upc.edu/codalab Departament de Matem` atica Aplicada III Escola Universit` aria d’Enginyeria T` ecnica Industrial de Barcelona Universitat Polit` ecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

∗

Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Automatic Control, Institute of Informatics and Applications, University of Girona, Girona, Spain

Introduction

Increasing attention to wind power electricity generation dependence of global economies on fossil fuels concern about the environment

Introduction

Increasing attention to wind power electricity generation dependence of global economies on fossil fuels concern about the environment Prevailing goal of WT with rudimentary control systems minimization of the cost minimization of the maintenance of the installation.

Introduction

Increasing attention to wind power electricity generation dependence of global economies on fossil fuels concern about the environment Prevailing goal of WT with rudimentary control systems minimization of the cost minimization of the maintenance of the installation. Recently, increasing size of the WT use of mechanical actuators opened the door to active control of the captured power.

Introduction There are two types of wind control for turbines constant speed control variable speed control .

Introduction There are two types of wind control for turbines constant speed control variable speed control Constant speed rotors are designed to deﬂect high wind gust loads .

variable pitch horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) is proposed in this work. .Introduction There are two types of wind control for turbines constant speed control variable speed control Constant speed rotors are designed to deﬂect high wind gust loads Variable wind turbines are designed to control strong and gusty winds Some WT are able to operate at variable pitch A new control strategy for variable-speed.

Introduction Ofﬁce of Energy Efﬁciency and Renewable Energy Copyright. .

Introduction Control strategy summary nonlinear dynamic chattering torque control linear blade pitch angle control .

Introduction Control strategy summary nonlinear dynamic chattering torque control linear blade pitch angle control The proposed controllers allow a rapid transition of the WT generated power between different desired set values electrical power tracking with a high-performance behavior for all other state variables .

Introduction Control strategy summary nonlinear dynamic chattering torque control linear blade pitch angle control The proposed controllers allow a rapid transition of the WT generated power between different desired set values electrical power tracking with a high-performance behavior for all other state variables The proposed controllers are validated using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) WT simulator FAST (Fatigue. and Turbulence) code. . Structures. Aerodynamics.

open-source.Brief simulator description (FAST) NREL’s National Wind Technology Center develops CAE tools that support the wind industry with state-of-the-art design and analysis capability that have become the industry standard for analysis and development that are free. professional-grade products . publicly available.

the FAST code is an aeroelastic simulator was evaluated in 2005 by Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie and found suitable for the calculation of onshore WT loads for design and certiﬁcation .Brief simulator description (FAST) NREL’s National Wind Technology Center develops CAE tools that support the wind industry with state-of-the-art design and analysis capability that have become the industry standard for analysis and development that are free. publicly available. open-source. professional-grade products In particular.

or Simulink R with MATLAB R Nonlinear time-domain solution for loads analysis Linearization procedure for controls and stability analysis . DLLs.Brief simulator description (FAST) FAST main features Computes structural-dynamic and control-system responses as part of the aero-hydro-servo-elastic solution Uses a combined 24-DOF modal and multi-body representation Control system modeling through subroutines.

Brief simulator description (FAST) .

Control strategy: Torque Control The electrical power-tracking error is deﬁned as e = Pe − Pref . . (1) where Pe is the electrical power and Pref is the reference power.

Boukhezzar et al. (3) where τc is the torque control in the rotor side and ωg is the generator speed. Let us impose a ﬁrst-order dynamic to this error [B.Control strategy: Torque Control The electrical power-tracking error is deﬁned as e = Pe − Pref . Kα > 0. (1) where Pe is the electrical power and Pref is the reference power. 2007]. . e (2) and let us take in account that the electrical power is given by Pe = τc ωg . ˙ = −ae − Kα sgn(e) a..

ωg .Control strategy: Torque Control The electrical power-tracking error is deﬁned as e = Pe − Pref . ˙ = −ae − Kα sgn(e) a. 2007]. (3) where τc is the torque control in the rotor side and ωg is the generator speed.. Boukhezzar et al. e (2) and let us take in account that the electrical power is given by Pe = τc ωg . (1) where Pe is the electrical power and Pref is the reference power. Substitution of (1) and (3) in (2) yields the torque control −1 τ˙c = [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref + Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. Kα > 0. Let us impose a ﬁrst-order dynamic to this error [B.

the settling time can be chosen by properly deﬁning the values of the parameters a and Kα .Control strategy: Torque Control Theorem The proposed controller τ˙c = −1 [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref ωg +Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. . Moreover. ensures ﬁnite time stability.

Bernstein. Proof mainly based on Lyapunov functions and S. ACC. the settling time can be chosen by properly deﬁning the values of the parameters a and Kα . ensures ﬁnite time stability.Control strategy: Torque Control Theorem The proposed controller τ˙c = −1 [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref ωg +Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. . Moreover. P. S. 1997. Bhat and D.

Moreover. P. the settling time can be chosen by properly deﬁning the values of the parameters a and Kα . 800 P 600 ref 1600 1400 1200 1000 Asymptotically stable Finite time stability 400 200 0 5 10 .Control strategy: Torque Control Theorem The proposed controller τ˙c = −1 [τc (aωg + ω ˙ g ) − aPref ωg +Kα sgn(Pe − Pref )]. Proof mainly based on Lyapunov functions and S. ensures ﬁnite time stability. ACC. Bernstein. S. 1997. Bhat and D.

2007] . Nm ωg : generator speed...Control strategy: Torque Control How can we approximate ω ˙ g? 1. Nm Tg : Generator torque in rotor side. Boukhezzar et al. Kg m2 g Kt : Turbine total external damping.Use the one-mass model of a wind turbine Jt ω ˙ g = Ta ng − Kt ωg − Tg ng Jt : Turbine total inertia. Nm rad−1 s Ta : Aerodynamic torque. rad s−1 ng : gearbox ratio [B.

Vidyasagar.Use the one-mass model of a wind turbine Jt ω ˙ g = Ta ng − Kt ωg − Tg ng Jt : Turbine total inertia. 1989] ...Control strategy: Torque Control How can we approximate ω ˙ g? 1. Nm ωg : generator speed. Spong. Nm rad−1 s Ta : Aerodynamic torque.1s + 1 [M. and M.Use the estimator (transfer function in the Laplace domain) s 0. W. John Wiley and Sons.. 2007] 2. rad s−1 ng : gearbox ratio [B. Boukhezzar et al. Kg m2 g Kt : Turbine total external damping. Nm Tg : Generator torque in rotor side.

where ωr is the rotor speed and ωn is the nominal rotor speed.Control strategy: Pitch Controller A pitch proportional controller is added upon the rotor speed tracking error β = Kβ (ωr − ωn ). Kβ > 0. .

2 Kβ > 0. . where ωr is the rotor speed and ωn is the nominal rotor speed. Kβ > 0.Control strategy: Pitch Controller A pitch proportional controller is added upon the rotor speed tracking error β = Kβ (ωr − ωn ). As we want to disable this control when ωr < ωn the ﬁnal proposed controller is given by the following expression 1 β = Kβ (ωr − ωn ) [1 + sgn(ωr − ωn )] .

Installation of a General Electric 1.5 MW WT used for numerical validation using FAST. and comparison (scale in meters) with the Statue of Liberty (right) .5 MW WT at the National Wind Technology Center (left).Simulation results The 1.

Simulation results Wind speed proﬁle 15 14 13 wind (m/s) 12 11 10 9 8 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .

39 m 70 m 1.5 MW 20 rpm 13 Height of tower Rotor diameter Rated power wind (m/s) 12 11 10 9 8 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 Nominal rotor speed (ωn ) .Simulation results Wind speed proﬁle 15 14 WT Characteristics Number of blades 3 82.

Torque Control 1600 1400 1200 1000 Pe (kW) 800 600 400 200 P ref Boukhezzar K =1.5⋅ 106 α 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .

Torque Control 50 45 40 ωr (rpm) 35 30 25 Boukhezzar Kα=1.5⋅ 106 20 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .

Torque and Pitch Control 1600 1400 1200 1000 Pe (kW) 800 600 400 200 P ref Boukhezzar K =1.5⋅ 106 α 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .

5 22 ωr (rpm) 21.Torque and Pitch Control 23.5⋅ 106 20 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 35 .5 23 22.5 21 20.5 Boukhezzar Kα=1.

5⋅ 10 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 6 35 .Torque and Pitch Control 14 12 10 8 β (deg) 6 4 2 Boukhezzar Kα=1.

Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. .

.Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. however it generates large rotor speed ﬂuctuations. The nonlinear torque control leads to a good power regulation.

Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. When the pitch controller is added upon the torque controller then a good performance is obtained in rotor speed and electrical power regulation. however it generates large rotor speed ﬂuctuations. The nonlinear torque control leads to a good power regulation. .

When the pitch controller is added upon the torque controller then a good performance is obtained in rotor speed and electrical power regulation.Conclusions A WT controller is presented for a turbulence wind condition. . The proposed controller is easily applicable to other WTs. however it generates large rotor speed ﬂuctuations. The nonlinear torque control leads to a good power regulation.

Chattering Control Design on a Variable-Speed Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine L. Y. Barcelona. Girona.edu/codalab Departament de Matem` atica Aplicada III Escola Universit` aria d’Enginyeria T` ecnica Industrial de Barcelona Universitat Polit` ecnica de Catalunya. M. Acho. Zapateiro. Spain . Electronics and Automatic Control. www-ma3. Vidal. University of Girona. Pozo and N. Luo∗ CoDAlab.upc. Spain ∗ Department of Electrical Engineering. Institute of Informatics and Applications. F.

the origin is a ﬁnite time stable equilibrium and ts ≤ 1 √ (V )1/2 .Control strategy: Torque Control Proof. from Theorem 1 in [S. (1997)]. Moreover. 2 Let us take the Lyapunov function V = 1 2 e . V That is. √ √ ˙ ≤ −Kα |e| = −Kα 2 V . Bhat and D. ˙ = ee ˙ = e(−ae − Kα sgn(e)) = −ae2 − Kα |e| < 0. From (4). S. Kα 2 → ts ≤ e Kα . P. V (4) Thus. the equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Then. Bernstein. ﬁnite time stability can be proven.

where τ = RC .Control strategy: Torque Control Comparison Resistor-Capacitor circuit ˙+ Cv v R Error dynamic Kα = 0 ˙ + ae = 0 e e(t) = e0 exp(−at) Settling time after 5τ sec. where τ = 1/a =0 −t v(t) = v0 exp( RC ) Capacitor discharged after 5τ sec.

Control strategy: Torque Control Objective Choose the values of the parameters a and Kα in the proposed controller to obtain the desired value in just 0. .2(5τ ) seconds.

Kα and.Control strategy: Torque Control Objective Choose the values of the parameters a and Kα in the proposed controller to obtain the desired value in just 0.2(5τ ) = 0. by rearranging terms.5 · 106 (rated power of the WT) 1.5 · 106 1 e < < 0. ts ≤ Kα Kα a Taking a = 1 it is obtained that 1. .2(5 ). Kα > 1. Assuming that in a neighborhood of t = 0 the error is bounded by |e| = |Pe − Pref | < 1.2(5τ ) seconds.5 · 106 ts ≤ < 1.5 · 106 .

Torque Control 8 7 6 5 τc (kN·m) 4 3 2 1 Boukhezzar Kα=1.5⋅ 10 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 6 35 .

Torque and Pitch Control 8 7 6 5 τc (kN·m) 4 3 2 1 Boukhezzar Kα=1.5⋅ 10 0 0 5 10 15 time (s) 20 25 30 6 35 .

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