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KP2024: Manufacturing Process 1

Heat Treatment
Various heating and cooling procedures performed to effect structural changes in a material, which in turn affect its mechanical properties Most common applications are on Metals Similar treatments are performed on Glass-ceramics Tempered glass Powder metals and ceramics


Annealing Martensite Formation in Steel Precipitation Hardening Surface Hardening g Heat Treatment Methods and Facilities

Heat Treatment in the Manufacturing Sequence

Heat treatment operations on a metallic workpart can be performed at various times during its manufacturing sequence In some cases, heat treatment is applied prior to shaping; p g for example, p to soften a metal for forming g In other cases, heat treatment is used to relieve strain hardening that occurs during forming And A d fi finally, ll h heat tt treatment t t can be b accomplished li h d at t or near the end of the sequence to achieve final strength g and hardness

Principal Heat Treatments

Annealing Martensite formation in steel Tempering of martensite Precipitation hardening S f Surface h hardening d i

Heating the metal to a suitable temperature, soaking at that temperature for a certain time, and slowly cooling Reasons to use annealing: Reduce hardness and brittleness Alter microstructure to obtain desirable mechanical properties Soften metals to improve machinability or formability Recrystallize cold worked (strain-hardened) metals Relieve residual stresses induced by prior shaping

Annealing of Steel
Full annealing (usually associated with low and medium carbon steels) - heating the alloy into the austenite region, region followed by slow cooling (furnace cooling) to produce coarse pearlite Normalizing g - similar heating g and soaking g cycles, y but cooling rates are faster (air cooling), which results in fine pearlite, higher strength and hardness, but lower ductility than the full anneal treatment

Annealing to Reduce or Eliminate Strain Hardening

Cold worked parts are often annealed to reduce strain hardening and increase ductility by allowing strain hardened metal to recrystallize partially or strain-hardened completely When annealing g is p performed to allow for further cold working of the part, it is called a process anneal When no subsequent deformation will be accomplished, it is simply called an anneal

Annealing for Stress-Relief

Annealing operations are sometimes performed solely to relieve residual stresses caused by prior shape processing or fusion welding Called stress-relief annealing They help to reduce distortion and dimensional variations that might otherwise result in the stressed parts

Martensite Formation in Steel

The iron-carbon phase diagram shows the phases of iron and iron carbide under equilibrium conditions It assumes that th t cooling li f from hi high ht temperature t has h been slow enough to permit austenite to transform into a mixture of ferrite and cementite ( (Fe3C) ) However, under rapid cooling, so that equilibrium is prevented, austenite transforms into a nonequilibrium phase called martensite, which is hard and brittle

Time-Temperature-Transformation Curve

A unique phase consisting of an iron-carbon iron carbon solution whose composition is the same as the austenite from which it was derived A non non-equilibrium equilibrium single-phase single phase sructure that results from a diffusionless transformation of austenite Face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of austenite is transformed into body-centered body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure of martensite almost instantly The extreme hardness of martensite results from the lattice strain created by carbon atoms trapped in the BCT structure (no carbon diffusion), thus providing a barrier to slip Any diffusion whatsoever will result in the formation of ferrite and cementite phases

Figure 27.1 - The TTT curve, showing transformation of austenite into other phases as function of time and temperature for a composition of about 0.80% 0 80% C steel. steel Cooling trajectory shown yields martensite

Heat Treatment of Steel to Form Martensite

Consists of two steps: 1. Austenitizing - heating the steel to a sufficiently high t temperature t for f a long l enough h time ti to t convert t it entirely or partially to austenite 2. Quenching - cooling the austenite rapidly enough to avoid passing through the nose of the TTT curve

Figure 27.2 Hardness of plain carbon steel as a function of carbon content in martensite and pearlite (annealed)

Quenching Media and Cooling Rate

Various quenching media are used in commercial heat treatment operations to affect cooling rate Brine (salt water, usually agitated) Still fresh water Still oil Air Quenching in agitated brine provides the fastest cooling rate rate, while air quench is the slowest The faster the cooling, the more likely are internal stresses, distortion, and cracks in the product

Tempering of Martensite
A heat treatment applied to martensite to reduce brittleness, increase toughness, and relieve stresses The Th treatment t t t involves i l heating h ti and d soaking ki at ta temperature below the eutectoid for approximately one hour, followed by y slow cooling g Results in precipitation of very fine carbide particles from the martensite iron-carbon solution, gradually transforming the crystal structure from BCT to BCC The new structure is called tempered martensite

The relative capacity of a steel to be hardened by transformation to martensite It determines d t i the th depth d th below b l the th quenched h d surface f to which the steel is hardened Steels with good hardenability can be hardened more deeply below the surface and do not require high cooling rates Hardenability H d bili d does not refer f to the h maximum i hardness that can be attained

The hardenability of steel is increased through alloying Alloying All i elements l t h having i th the greatest t t effect ff t are chromium, manganese, molybdenum The mechanism by which these alloying elements work is to extend the time before the start of the austenite-to-pearlite transformation In I effect, ff t the th TTT curve is i moved d to t the th right, i ht thus th permitting slower quenching rates

Jominy Jo y End-Quench d Que c Test es for o Hardenability a de ab y

Figure 27.4 - Jominy end-quench test: (a) setup, showing end quench of the test specimen; and (b) typical pattern of hardness readings as a function of distance from quenched end

Precipitation Hardening
Heat treatment that involves formation of fine particles (precipitates) that act to block the movement of dislocations and thus strengthen and harden the metal Principal p heat treatment for strengthening g g alloys y of aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, and other nonferrous metals Also utilized to strengthen a number of steel alloys that cannot form martensite by the usual method

Necessary Conditions for Precipitation Hardening

The necessary condition for whether an alloy system can be strengthened by precipitation hardening is the presence of sloping solvus line in the phase diagram A composition in this system that can be precipitation hardened is one that contains two equilibrium q p phases at room temperature, but which can be heated to a temperature that dissolves the second phase

Heat Treatment Sequence in Precipitation Hardening

1. Solution treatment - alloy is heated to a temperature Ts above the solvus line into the alpha phase region and held for a period sufficient to dissolve the beta phase 2. Quenching g - to room temperature p to create a supersaturated solid solution 3. Precipitation treatment - alloy is heated to a temperature Tp, below Ts, to cause precipitation of fine particles of the beta phase

Figure 27.5 - Precipitation hardening: (a) phase diagram of an alloy system consisting of metals A and B that can be precipitation hardened; and (b) heat treatment: (1) solution treatment, (2) quenching, and (3) precipitation treatment

Precipitation Hardening (cont.)

The third step is also called aging. Precipitation hardening is also called Age hardening b because the h strength hd develops l over time i When the aging step is performed at room temp, it is called natural aging. When it is accomplished at an elevated temp, the term artificial aging is often used. Prolonged aging process can result in overaging, which is the reduction of hardness and strength properties.

Precipitation Hardening in Al-Cu

Precipitation hardening most widely studied in Al-Cu alloys phase is a substitutional solid solution of Cu in Al phase is an intermetallic compound CuAl2

Microstructural Changes During Ageing Precipitation Hardening in Al-Cu (cont.)

Solution treat at 550C Water quench Age at 120 120-260 260C

Yi Yield ld St Strength th i increases as zones or precipitates i it t f form Strength reaches a peak value and then dec eases(o e age g) decreases(overageing)

Mechanism of Strengthening
During plastic deformation: Zones or precipitates act as obstacles to di l dislocation ti motion ti Stress must be increased to push the dislocation through the distribution of precipitates. Consequently the alloy becomes harder and stronger.

Surface Hardening
Any of several thermochemical treatments applied to steels in which the composition of the part surface is altered by addition of various elements Often called Case Hardening Most common treatments are carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding Commonly applied to low carbon steel parts to achieve hi ah hard, d wear-resistant i outer shell h ll while hil retaining a tough inner core

Surface Hardening (cont.)

H Heating ti a part t of f low l carbon b steel t li in a carbon b rich i h environment so that C is diffused into the surface In effect the surface is converted to a high carbon steel, capable of higher hardness than the low-C core Carburizing followed by quenching produces a case hardness of around HRC = 60 Because internal regions consist of low C steel, whose hardenability is low low, it is unaffected by the quench and remains relatively tough and ductile Most common surface hardening treatment

Carburizing (cont.)
Types of: Pack carburizing with carbonaceous materials in a chamber (thickness of 0 0.6 6 -3.8 3 8 mm) Gas carburizing - hydrocarbon fuel in a chamber (thickness of 0.13-0.75 mm) ( ) Liquid carburizing molten salt bath with chemicals (thickness 0.7 mm )

Carburizing (cont.)

Carburizing (cont.)

Pack P kC Carburizing b i i

Gas Carburizing g

Carburizing g( (cont.) ) Carburizing (cont.)

Liquid q Carburizing g

Carburizing followed by quenching produces a case hardness of around HRC = 60 60.

Carburizing (cont.)

Treatment in which nitrogen is diffused into surface of special p alloy y steels to p produce a thin hard casing g without quenching Carried out at around 500C (950F) To be most effective, the steel must contain alloying ingredients such as aluminum or chromium to form nitride compounds p that p precipitate p as very y fine p particles in the casing to harden the steel Hardness up to HRC 70. Case thicknesses 0.025 0.5 mm. Methods: gas nitriding steel pars heated in ammonia atmosphere; liquid nitriding parts dipped in molted cyanide salt baths.

However However, because the internal regions of the part consist of low-carbon steel, and its hardenability is low, it is unaffected by the quench and remains relatively tough and ductile to withstand impact and fatigue stresses stresses.

Diffusing g chromium to surface Case thickness 0.025 to 0.05 mm. Requires higher temperatures and longer treatment times than the preceding hardening treatments Usually applied to low carbon steels g is not only y hard and wear resistant; ; it is also heat Casing and corrosion resistant Techniques: packing steel parts in Cr-rich powders or granules; dipping in molten salt bath containing Cr and Cr salts; or Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) (chap. 29).

Furnaces for Heat Treatment

Fuel-fired Fuel fired furnaces Normally direct-fired, meaning the work is exposed directly to the combustion products Fuels include natural gas or propane and fuel oils that can be atomized Electric furnaces Electric resistance for heating Cleaner, Cleaner quieter quieter, and more uniform heating More expensive to purchase and operate

Other Furnace Types

Atmospheric control furnaces Desirable in conventional heat treatment to avoid excessive i oxidation id ti or d decarburization b i ti Include C and/or N rich environments for diffusion into work surface Vacuum furnaces Radiant energy is used to heat the workparts Disadvantage: time needed each cycle to draw vacuum

Batch vs. Continuous Furnaces

Batch furnaces Consist of a heating system in an insulated chamber, h b with ith a d door f for l loading di and d unloading l di Production is in batches Continuous furnaces Generally for higher production rates Mechanisms for transporting p g work through g furnace include rotating hearths and straight-through conveyors

S l ti S Selective Surface f H Hardening d i M Methods th d

These methods heat only y the work surface, , or local areas of the work surface They differ from surface hardening methods in that no chemical h i l changes h occur Methods include: Flame hardening Induction hardening High-frequency g q y resistance heating g Electron beam heating Laser beam heating

Flame Hardening
Heating of work surface by one or more torches followed by rapid quenching Applied A li d t to carbon b and d alloy ll steels, t l t tool l steels, t l and d cast irons Fuels include acetylene (C2H2), propane (C3H8), and other gases Lends itself to high production as well as big components such h as l large gears that h exceed d the h size i capacity of furnaces

Induction Heating
Application of electromagnetically induced energy supplied by an induction coil to an electrically conductive workpart Widely used for brazing, soldering, adhesive curing, and various heat treatments When used for steel hardening treatments, quenching follows heating Cycle C l times i are short, h so process l lends d i itself lf to hi high h production

Figure 27.7 - Typical induction heating setup. High frequency alternating current in a coil induces current in the workpart to effect heating g

High-frequency (HF) Resistance Heating

Used to harden specific areas of steel work surfaces by application of localized resistance heating at high frequency (400 kHz typical) Contacts are attached to workpart at the outer edges of the area When HF current is applied, region under conductor is heated quickly to high temperature - heating to austenite range typically takes less than a second When power is turned off, area is quenched by heat transfer to the surrounding g metal

Figure g 27.8 - Typical yp setup p for high-frequency g q y resistance heating g

Electron Beam (EB) Heating

Electron beam focused onto a small area, resulting in rapid heat buildup Involves localized surface hardening of steel - high energy densities in a small region of the part so that austenitizing temperatures can be achieved often in less than a second When beam is removed, heated area is immediately quenched and hardened by heat transfer to surrounding di metal t l Disadvantage: best results are achieved when performed in a vacuum, so production rates are slow

Laser Beam (LB) Heating

High-density beam of coherent light is focused on a small area - the beam is usually moved along a defined path on the work surface Laser - acronym for Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation When beam is moved, area is immediately quenched by heat conduction to surrounding metal Advantage Ad of f LB over EB h heating i i is that h l laser b beams do not require a vacuum to achieve best results