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Stabilization of soil using commercially available OPC

Objective: to study the behavior of soil by mixing of ordinary Portland cement. Apparatus:
unconfined compression test divices remoulding devices weighing balance and oven.

Test meterials:
Ordinary Portland cement Soil studied in compression test Water

Related theory: Stabilization:

Improving the engineering properties of soils by chemical, mechanical , physical or physiochemical methods is called stabilization.

Engineering properties:
Compaction/density, shear strength,void ratios,and drainage characteristics ets.

Stabilization techniques: Mechanical stabilization:

In this technique mechanical energy is used to improve the soil mass and the method, in general ,is known as compaction for the construction of embankments for roads, railways,dams and levees etc. generally rollers, vibratory plates,and tampers are used for compaction.

Physical stabilization:
In this technique, the physical properties of the soils are improved by blending two or three soils, together so as to improve the graduation of mixture to well graded material.this

technique is usually used in the construction of roads when more then one type of soils are readily available at or near the site. The method of stabilization is named after the name of the additive being added to the soils to improve its characteristics for stability.

Chemical stabilization:
Chemical stabilizers also known as soil binders or soil palliatives, provide temporary soil stabilization. Materials made of vinyl, asphalt, or rubbers are sprayed onto the surface of exposed soils to hold the soil in place and protest against erosion from runoff and wind. chemicals used for stabilization are easily applied to the surface of soil, can be effective in stabilizing areas where vegetative practices cannot be established, and provide immediate protection.

chemical stabilization can be used in areas where other methods of stabilization such as temporary seeding or permanent vegetation are not effective because of environmental constraints .they can also be used in combination with vegetation or perimeter practices to enhance erosion and sediment controls.

Cement stabilization:
Cement stabilization is quite frequently used in road construction to improve the stability to the sub-grade. any soil which can be economically pulverized can be stabilized with cement. Heavy clays are difficult to pulverize and are not suitable for cement-stabilization.the best soil for cement stabilization are well graded sand gravel mixtures with at least 10% of the material passing #200 sieve, and a uniformity coefficient of less then ar equal to 5. The presence of sulphates and organic matter in soil may make the soil unstable for cement stabilization. Cement stabilization prefer in case of non-cohessive soils.

Lime stabilization
Lime stabilization is also a sort of chemical stabilization. Both hydrated lime or quicklime (unslaked lime) may be used for lime stabilization but the material cost of stabilizing with quick lime is generally less then with hydrated lime. Handling of quick lime ,however ,is difficult due

to safety reasons and usually causes health hazards.When unslaked lime is mixed into the soil the following four reactions take place:

Hydration of lime Ion exchange Cementation(pozzalonic reaction) carbonation

lime stabilization prefer in cases of cohesive clay soils.

Bitumen stabilization:
Certain granular soils, may be stabilized by adding bitumen, such as asphaltic bitumens,cut-back bitumen, and bitumen emulsions. The bitumen seals the pores of the soil,reducing its permeability , and may also increase the shearing strength by providing cohesion between the particles. Bitumen stabilization is used in places where moisture are very less.

Procedure of test:
1. If density and moisture content of the soil is known, calculate the weight of the dry soil needed for preparation of three soil sample of 1.5 inch diameter and 3 inch height. 2. add 5% moisture content to the dry soil and mix thoroughly. put some of the soil for moisture content determination. 3. add 3% of OPC to the soil. 4. prepare three soil sample of required density by packing the soil in the specimen mould. 5. if the sample specimen crumbles easily or a good bearing surface for the platen cannot be obtained.it is permissible to cap the end using plaster of paris. 6. carefully align the specimen in the compression machine. 7. set the load dial gage to zero load and set the deformation dial to zero at this time a very small load should be on the sample . 8. turn on machine and take load and deformation dial readings as follow 10,20,30,.,until the soil fails. 9. compute the unit strain ,the corrected area, and the unit stress, for enough of the readings to define the stress strain curve adequately. Plot the results on the graph paper

from the test results, show qu as the peak stress of each test and show the average value of qu for three tests. 10. draw a mohr,s circle using average qu and show the soil cohesion. If this is not drawn with a compass the report is unacceptable. 11. perform the test at the same day, one day later and one test after 7 days later.