Environmental Engineering and Management Journal

September 2012, Vol.11, No. 9, 1535-1545

http://omicron.ch.tuiasi.ro/EEMJ/

“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania

ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORIAL EMERGENT STRUCTURES FROM THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF BUCHAREST
Ioan Ianoş∗, Daniel Peptenatu, Radu-Daniel Pintilii, Cristian Drăghici
University of Bucharest, The Interdisciplinary Center for Advanced Researches on Territorial Dynamics, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Blvd., Bucharest, Romania

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify certain environmental imbalances triggered by the new emerging structures and to highlight some effects on sustainable development for the metropolitan area of Bucharest. The morphogenesis of these imbalances is based primarly on the restructuring process experienced by the city in the transition process from planned to market economy and secondly, on the result of interaction between it and the new structures appearing due to uncontrolled urban and suburban development. The 15 new emerging structures, individualized for the first time on a uniform methodology, create a constant pressure on the natural environment. This pressure cumulates with the one developed by the city itself, both being evaluated through field research, interviews and through data and information analysis gathered from diferrent institutions and enteprises. All this have emphasized the alteration degree for some natural environmental components along the main access roads, and also between the new emerging structures. Statistical data related to water and air pollution have been provided mainly by the environmental agencies. Information from 30 interviews regarding the decision makers in sustainable urban development have enabled the creation of a pattern for environmental risks in new emerging structures of the metropolitan area of Bucharest. By taking into consideration the regional functions for emerging structures, which are seen as growth poles, this model can be a starting point for a sustainable development approach along with a spatial vision on polycentrism. Key words: emergent structures, pollution, sustainable development, territorial management, trans-temporal pollution
Received: March 2011; Revised final: February, 2012; Accepted: March 2012

1. Introduction The new forms of the urbanization process in the areas surrounding big metropolises of the countries in transition from a centralized system to a system based on market economy, led to the coming out of new structures, characterized by a dynamism which is excessive and often hard to control by the decision-makers from local or regional level. The notion of emergent territorial structure must be regarded in a much larger context, prefigured by (Elliot and Perry, 1965) by the term emergent metropolitan area. By such an approach, classical

theories can be partially contradicted regarding the role of processes of population concentration in the apparition of new territorial structures, placing them on a secondary place, after the processes of economic concentration. The breach between town and surrounding space, noticed during the totalitarian period, is less consistent and permanently pushed towards exterior, ”impoverishing” the natural components of environment, as vegetation, soil, underground waters and microclimate. The new emergent territorial structures have an important role in shaping the relationships metropolis – insertion environment

Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed: e-mail: ianos50@yahoo.com

2012). These are visible in the way of using fields (Petrişor et al.. The dynamic of economic and demographic components from large metropolises in transition shows a permanent de-localizing of activities and population and a transfer of those towards metropolitan areas.. The special importance of territorial management models results from the difficulties identified in the global approach of the unbalances from the natural environment of emergent structures. 9. intense traffic. 2009). 2010). but in tight connection to it. by the infection of ground waters. contribute to the degradation of environment quality by the increase of soil surfaces affected. After the centralized system’s collapse. 2009). This means a complexity of processes for whose management a strategic thinking is necessary. This pressure will have to be properly estimated and monitored. but never green spaces. able to administer emergent structures uniformly. for the sustainable development of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest. 2010). Braghină et al. 2006). it’s about sustainable development of each new emergent structure. From here resulted the necessity of some policies of response.. These pollutants with very complex structures and in which heavy metals have a special place. The solution is only one: accepting a type of collaborative management./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). two processes had to be guessed: the industry’s de-structuring and the tendencies of mass-leaving from the communist blocks from large districts.. generating pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects. logistical. and in this respect protecting environment goods is essential (Roshan et al. which globally approach these functional disruptions and take into account the big problems related to the precariousness of urban environment (Mrkajik et al. Nouri et al. In such cases. residential. 2008). . As it was mentioned before. but especially by the very intense traffic which affects the capacity of work power and the health of population from such structures (Alimohammadi et al. generating enormous risks for an environment profoundly affected by urban sprawl. these roads cross longitudinally the new emergent structures. which may supply a lot the lack of a territorial cooperation culture (Ianoş. due to an excessive consuming of the primary eco-energies (Ianoş et al.. 2010. on the one hand. 2011). The fundamental change of relationships between metropolis and metropolitan area was so brutal. 2007). The dislocation of economic activities towards suburbs did not mean also the development of accessibility corridors. The result was the reconversion of fields in other types of activities: commercial.. 1535-1545 (Newman.. The industry’s destructuring meant the closing of some big industrial enterprises and for some of them the fragmentation or de-localizing (Cepoiu. 2011). new economic activities developed outside the metropolis. 2010). in order to diminish the loss of resources. 2011. and at the level of economic and social environments (Brueckner and Largey. Peptenatu et al. being determined by economic activities. especially of young population. The lack of some administrative systems. The unprecedented aggression of urban upon surrounding space was an uncontrolled process.. in the process of their conversion and especially in the pressure applied upon natural ecologic systems around metropolises. Present global changes and especially climatic changes are able to quicken preoccupations for adapting large urban concentrations to an obvious warming. 2003)... by the lack of regulations that determine a strong increase of urban pressure.. makes decisional impulses is different. Robu and Macoveanu. and on the other hand of the way in which they are sustainably enclosed in the context of the insertion environment. generate pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects (Gavrilescu. which would influence positively the urban microclimate (Ferreira et al. 2009). 2009. 2011... 2010. starting from a strategic evaluation of 256 metropolitan environment (Iojă. 2004) and to adopt some measures of preventing the degradation of metropolitan area and compromising the chances of sustainable development of the entire assembly: metropolis – metropolitan area.. inconsistent and contradictory (Peptenatu et al. chaotically developed. Petraru and Gavrilescu. 2011. which contributes to exceeding the maximum allowed concentrations along the main roads of penetration into towns (Braghină et al. which is extremely dynamic. without a prospective management. higher education. it will refer mainly to those tightly connected to some components of natural environment. 2010). Bucharest metropolis must inefficiently cohabitate with different ways of management. interfering one with another. able to take into consideration all changes which take place both at the level of natural environment. 2000. Humeau et al. The higher and higher pressure upon natural environment determined by these structures needs the elaboration of new systems of territorial management. Gümrükçüoğlu. but they introduce new breaches at mezzo. Pollution by noise adds to these categories of pollutants. Makhelouf. 2010). The activities’ de-localizing.. Fortuna et al.. Usually. Damian et al.Ianos et al. which should take into account the main directions of future development. respectively of environment goods. Consequently. concretized in concrete plans of urban and metropolitan space organization and development (Edwin.. Vargas-Vargas et al. The global management of a metropolitan area as Bucharest is difficult enough due to very different options of the decision factors from local level. the air pollution with different chemical elements and sediment dusts (Secu et al. 2008. Peptenatu et al. generated by their affiliation to at least 5 counties. 2010.and micro-scale. 2010. 2011. Ensuring a sustainable development of new emergent structures must be based on a multi-criteria approach. 2010.

as follows: the convergence of transport systems. area of demographic influence. In this respect.. Main industrial sources of pollution from the metropolitan area Bucharest (Regional Agency for Environment Protection (RAEP) Bucharest. we have delineated 15 regional structures emerging.L. in the metropolitan area of the city of Bucharest. PICOVIT ROM IMPEX S.C. S. HOBAS PIPE SYSTEMS S. it could be said that its average extension is given by the "junction areas of influence of at least three elements" (Ianoş.C. S. S.A. Taking into account that the influence of a city consists of several areas of influence. area of commercial influence. 2. there were used the data obtained from the field researches and those registered at the county agencies for environment. and the second – the individualizing of the emergent structures within it. MONDO ALUMINIUM METAL-M. S. once with the researches carried on in order to prove that except the fact that the town behaves as a thermodynamic and informational open system. NEFERAL S.L.A. the analysis of the functional process restructuring and their impact upon the environment from the metropolitan area. S. Table 1.R. ECOSUD S.M. 2009) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Company S. of the new emergent structures. The second phase was the individualization in the active influence area. real obstacles in implementing a strategy of sustainable development at supra-local level and.A. a special attention was given to trans-temporal pollution.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest This study was done. with the complex development index (Pintilii et al. 1): Ia =I aj (n ≥3 ) j= 1 n (1) Ia = the influence area of a town/city.C.A. frequent on large areas in the metropolitan area of Bucharest city. 2008) were selected the territorial structures that have "popped" in relation to its surrounding structures. area of socio-cultural influence.A. respectively large transport corridors which connect the capital with the surrounding space and implicitly with the entire country.C ROMVAC COMPANY S. SC SILVER HAWK COM IMPORT EXPORT S. 1987) (Eq. driven around Bucharest. n = number of elements taken into account. AVICOLA BUFTEA S.A S. Also.L. SC URBB SRL LOULIS S. Thus. it has also got dissipative structures or structures with a dissipative character.A.C. S. Field researches along these axes and inside new emergent structures revealed the main unbalances of natural environment (especially air and water pollution).L Location Pantelimon Jilava Voluntari PopeştiLeordeni Vidra PopeştiLeordeni 1 Decembrie Buftea Periş PopeştiLeordeni Pantelimon Pantelimon Clinceni Economic profile Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals The industrial scale production of main pharmaceutical products Wastes deposits Wastes deposits Installations for the elimination or recycling of animals’ carcasses and animals’ wastes Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents 257 . the dynamic of economic development. PROTAN S.R.R. The delineation of the analyzed area was realized in two phases: the first one – defining an active area of influence. demographic growth and the profound identity reconstruction of these areas.C. obviously. Iaj = influence area of an element.R. area of leisure activities and weekend travel influence). The identification of emergent structures was done on the basis of a set of indicators and criteria. For the quantifying of the pressure exerted by the de-localizing of economic activities and of population towards suburbs.A. ECOREC S. whose uncontrolled development can lead to serious environmental problems. S.C ROMSUINTEST PERIS S.C. starting with the year 2009. To define this area of influence it has been considered a methodology based on the overlapping of at least three of the following areas of influence (area of economic influence.C. Material and method The methodological demarche regarded: the individualizing of emergent structures. at the level of the entire metropolitan area. S. the analysis of the way in which pollution sources may restrain the process of sustainable development of these structures. The location of these emergent structures emphasizes the role of the structural axes of space.C.

mainly concentrated at the periphery of the Capital.A. Other emergent structures. it is considered that it is about a trans-temporal pollution. as well as the necessity of a systemic approach. Some relevant environmental issues and characteristics of the emergent structures from the metropolitan area The dynamic of the town after 1990 meant a hunger for space. settled in the first belt of communes around the capital. 9. emissions of pollutants evacuated. located in Pantelimon) or even newer as those from Chitila. Due to their life period as pollution sources. sustained by the status of capital. Except the localization-delocalization process of economic activities. 1535-1545 14 S. lakes or hydrographic arteries. Comana). conducted with local decision makers and representatives of institutions in the environmental field. As a result. The population which came from poor regions of the country. After the year 1990. The appreciation of waters’ quality was reported to Law no. The rhythm of houses construction (multi-family constructions). migrated towards surrounding communes. especially energy-eating factories. It must be mentioned that unlike other metropolises from Central and Eastern Europe. or some concentrations of economic activities (Mihăileşti). annex 11. published in 2009. physical-chemical parameters. polluted (grade 1) and feebly polluted (grade 2). and others were closed. Buftea Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents Souce: Agency for Environment Protection. existent and projected. 3. determining big agglomerations of motor vehicles and implicitly a very high pollution of the air along the corridors of access in Bucharest. able to absorb the more and more intense traffic. A useful instrument in building the risks management models is the ISO Standard 31000 and the ISO Guide 73. which kept in the line with the process of extensive industrialization did not allow a classical suburbanization process. as it can be noticed. the identification and centralization of production units. have allowed the collection of information about developing a model for environmental risk management on the one hand. depending on the hydro-morphological biological parameters. Jilava and Măgurele. This explains how in almost two decades some rural settlements (which are towns today) succeeded to have a numerous population (over 15. in parallel with the coming out of some restrictions regarding the functioning of some pollutant factories in the main urban space.C. towards the localities around the capital. around Bucharest there was a real process of suburbanization in the post-war period. These instruments establish the main principles within risks management. not having the possibility to settle in the town. 3. 310/2004. which the development of economic activities directly contribute to environmental pollution. This information allowed the identification of the location and the economic profile of the most polluting companies. which repeatedly exceed the maximum allowed concentrations at different types of pollutants. The concentrations of economic activities and population concentrations were the basis for the new emergent structures. Hence. Bucharest registered an accentuated economic dynamic. The retardation produced between the economy restructuring. Pantelimon. a very strong process was that of population migration. once the de-localising of economic activities from 258 . Popeşti-Leordeni etc. the process of (re)privatization and the development of urban economic activities led to a rapid aggression upon metropolitan space. These fundamental changes in the relationship between the old and the new metropolis with the space around it generated high pressures upon the road infrastructure of the territory. waters were divided into three quality categories: very polluted (grade 0). ROMANO TUB S.1. which generated material and human flows which were superior to other towns from Romania. Field researches identified a tight connection between their location and the accessibility. once economic activities were de-localized towards the metropolitan area. as an efficient way of reducing the unbalances from territorial systems. In our analysis. A bird’s eye view upon air pollution in some of the emergent structures nearby the capital shows that emission sources are those “inherited”. a false suburbanization resulted. especially of young population. especially those localities situated nearby some forestry surfaces. giving a stellar configuration to the entire anthropogenic space (Fig. some of them dating even from the inter-war period (Neferal. which remained under-dimensioned.Ianos et al.000 inhabitants): Voluntari. 1). 2009 The mapping by technical observations allowed identifying the areas where unbalances from the natural environment are generated by underdimensioned infrastructure. are situated at distances of about 30 km from the capital and they are specialized either around some touristic attraction objectives (Snagov. The field tests and the 30 interviews. Results and comments After 1990. by declaring the town closed. Discussing the modality in which a sustainable development of these areas could be reached./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). on the other. after the year 1970. which establishes five classes of quality. towards the metropolis. a special attention was given to international standards in the field of environment risks management. some of the factories. areas where the building of an efficient diffluence system was proposed.

24h SO2. it can be noticed that territorial distribution of „environment goods” was the cause of assymetric development both of the city and especially of its metropolitan area. If the way of appearance and the subsequent evolution of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest is analysed. NOx. the ring road of Bucharest knows a traffic almost constant all the time. The situation of air pollutant elements in Ilfov county Town Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Pollutant type SO2. Pantelimon.04767 0. must be mentioned a paradox: a good part of the new residential assemblies developed around these very polluted areas.1 29 41 0. Most enterprises from the table above release in the air large quantities of gases and vapours (SO 2. Voluntari.1h SO2. pollution sources multiplied. Popeşti-Leordeni and others. when eastern and north-eastern winds dominate. 2009). it can be noticed that in two opposite points. but especially in the period with frequent thermic inversions (December – February). Cr. this registers very different values (10%. Măgurele). smoke etc (RAEP Bucharest. Cernica).About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Bucharest was done. Al. HCl. Măgurele. too (Pb. with a superior quality in the northern part of the Capital.1h SO2. Fig. as well as of the flow of daily travelers. Neferal detaches.medie anuală No determinations 7323 4151 322 181 158 245 90 91 Yearly concentration (μg/mc) 5. or some fields at relatively advantageous prices (Popeşti-Voluntari. This assymetry explains the aggression of population and economic activities upon natural environment. organic solvents.24h PM10 PM10 Pb. either thanked to the existence of some lake surfaces (Pantelimon. Due to the transit road flow.05029 No exceeding of timetable limit values 0 0 0 0 15 60 0 0 259 . H2S). CO. NH3. Territorial distribution of the new emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Table 2. A part of these production units contribute to air pollution with organic and inorganic dusts which contain metals. which know a very intense traffic twice a day (in the morning and in the evening). situated nearby the ring road (Baloteşti and Măgurele). especially in winter time. Cu. 1. diminishing the air’s quality and affecting the population’s health state. Cernica. of that determined by the supplying of economic units situated on one side and the other. especially in the areas of some localities as: Otopeni. Ni. Afumaţi.8 6. respectively 30%) (Table 2). CO2. Only if the frequency of suspension dusts’ exceeding is analyzed.1 5.7 6. In this context. In this respect.medie anuală Pb. The general configuration of circulation shows that outside the axes of penetration in Bucharest. Brăneşti). Fe. Cd). Zn. the pollution on a strap of approximately 3 km on one side and another is very high. or some forest surfaces (Voluntari.

The quantity of pollutants at the level of the big city is enormous. The connection and integration of new emergent structures to the urban space of the Capital turns the present ring road into an internal rink. able to permanently adapt to the tendencies of localization of economic activities and population in the influence area. many of the activities becoming incompatible with a healthy urban environment. although when implementing a strategy of sustainable development of the Capital and its metropolitan area. Along the main structural axes from this emergent system. due to the blocking of traffic by large means of transport. Despite the fact that the Capital’s atmosphere knows an obvious process of improvement. without diffluence systems and parking areas which should be useful for economic units along these. 2). the circulation being extremely defective on this road way. air pollution at rush hours is very high. Keeping the present functions and especially economic structures will produce big distortions in the sustainable development of the city.Ianos et al. 260 .medie 8 h O3. 9. and in some cases very dangerous for the territorial structures outside it. Thus.medie 8 h 7990 7045 53. as well as the construction of a rapid connection between the two highways./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012).9 11 0 Souce: RAEP. with another role. Bucharest. The integrated management of peripheral traffic of the Capital lacks totally. the sustainable development of new emergent structures needs. different from its present role. 2. besides the modernizing of accessibility corridors from periurban areas.8 36. it should be started with the allocation of resources for the modernization of this ring road and its functional restructuring. The high values of pollution in the urban influence area are determined also by the lack of an efficient system of traffic diffluence. Functional restructuring of Bucharest The traffic is so intense that Bucharest risks to be suffocated by its own inaction. 2009 Fig. 1535-1545 Baloteşti Măgurele O3. there appears a frequent exceeding of maximum allowed quantities. due to the deficient organizing of accessibility corridors. From this cause. to build some diffluence systems at the entrance in Bucharest of the main access corridors towards central areas (Fig. still the values remain threatening by cumulative effects (Table 3). The biggest danger for the sustainable development of new emergent territorial structures is Bucharest itself.

520 4.899 150. The dynamic of these gases is oscillatory.054 107.035 0.43 2004 25.8 2. The development of agricultural and industrial economic activities in the second part of the 20th century.88 6 25.452 132.093 0.056 0.069 8 0.053 16.901 225.8 994 1.88 5 341.107 119.83 556.7 293.571 12.94 1 33.648 15 0.642 467. having relatively low values in the year 2000.720 5.39 6 38.017 5. Starting with 2007 there is a tendency of growth.47 8 32.081 0.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest As it can be noticed.304 7778.018 1. except ammonia and dioxin.679 765 1.19 0.30 1 30.7 0.26 370.63 6 2007 11.90 7 2009 3. at the closing of the process of the alignment of legislation in the field. as well as the present dimensions of the activities unfolded in the new emergent structures of the metropolitan area seriously affected the quality of ground and surface waters. and they used to be deposited in wastes’ deposits.258 2.0795 0.17 44. especially of CO2.5 2.55 617.8 2.049 110.110 68.265 82. Bucharest is also a big producer of greenhouse effect gases.157 129.035 7 104.026 58.384 0. all other pollutant elements register a decrease.071 11.048 0.880 4.90 6 21.305 0. the Agency for Environment Protection Bucharest.83 977 13.12 0. after a big part of them had reached very high values in the years 2001-2003.173 1270.19 3.7 2002 31.478 15.83 6 880 677 0. The effect of passing to the implementation of European norms regarding environment is visibly strong starting with the year 2004.881 2. 2010.676 9.2 2003 104. Bucharest.69 1.827 0.45 584 1. reaching a maximum in the year 2003.526 68.77 2 2006 9.51 6 38.8 8 56.32 Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov 4. which makes that at the capital’s level the main greenhouse effect gases register almost 8 million tons per year.9 0.13 6 11.48 3 22. and after that a rapid decrease followed. 261 . The dynamic of some air pollutant elements at the level of Bucharest City and Ilfov County Yearly emissions (t/an) SO2 (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NOx (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NH3 (t/an) Nonmethane volatile organic compounds (t/year) Cadmium (t/an) Mercury (t/an) Plumb (t/year) Total dusts (t/year) Dioxine (grams/year ) Bucharest Ilfov 2000 28. CH4 and N2O.41 2.088 0.3 645.38 2 190.5 5 27.06 2.427 50. 7 29 145.08 0.32 17.40 5 40.955 5. The higher values at the dioxin level are due to the fact that until 2004 there wasn’t a products’ incinerator with this containing. when most of them were adopted.5 2001 41.477 9. Table 3.284 Source: Yearly report regarding the state of environment in Bucharest City for the year 2009.13 555.063 1244.7 1195.626 1348.8 5 2.2 5 12.154 0. until 2007.528 0.87 3 1607.25 2005 29.02 1 20.25 14.282 2.17 7 2008 2.261 14.09 7 202. At the same time.

Overall. in areas situated nearby some agro-zootechnical complexes (Jilava and Buftea) and in the area Clinceni– Bragadiru. NH4 and NH3 (RAEP Bucharest. The river Dâmboviţa is one of the most polluted rivers in the country. critical areas under the aspect of waters’ pollution are: Dâmboviţa (downstream the capital). In this area there were exceeded the limits imposed by the Government Decision no 563/2006 for: dissolved oxygen.2. In Fig. 9. revealing a dominance of the content in organic materials in the eastern and south-eastern part of Bucharest and the dominance of some micro-elements in the western and northwestern part. a unitary approach by institutional structures. 3. thus contributing to the pollution of surface waters and soil. CBO5.Ianos et al. soils in this sylvan-steppe region have a very good cushion capacity of different types of pollutants. Dobroeşti. Dărăşti. 3 the main water-courses by the pollution degree are presented. One of the major unbalances determined by the development of economic activities in new emergent structures is the soil pollution. 3. The most important polluted surfaces are nearby Neferal platform in Pantelimon (100 ha). Field researches identified economic agents which spillover polluted waters into rivers or undeveloped holes. due to oil exploitations. the reduced capacity of the existent ones and the deficient management of solid wastes are directly felt in the level of waters’ pollution. Sabar. which should serve the capital. Jilava. which registers very high pollution values. According to the Agency for Environment Protection. The functional disruptions determined by the de-localizing and development of economic activities need. due to the discharge of polluted waters in the area Glina. Important areas. which cannot be assumed at individual level by the administrative units from these areas. beneath the first one. The analysis of chemical compounds from underground waters shows a certain region-like process around Bucharest. 1535-1545 Fig. Buftea. The main collector of waters which crosses the influence area of Bucharest city is the Argeş. Măgurele. 1 Decembrie. by the improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides following the development of an intensive agriculture. from the surface. Cociovaliştea and Pasărea. Pollution of natural environment in urban area of influence of Bucharest The lack of water treatment stations. and the one with wastewaters. by their wideness. coming from the getting together of waters from the two cassettes: the one with clean waters. The unitary approach can eliminate the very high costs. Chitila. able to elaborate and implement common strategies at the level of those emergent structures. Argeş. in different areas where the chaotic depositing of garbage and construction materials appears (150 ha). were identified in: PopeştiLeordeni. Proposal for a management model of the environment risk in emergent structures A useful instrument in elaborating and implementing the strategies of territorial management is the management model of the environment risk in emergent structures. 2009)./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). Ciorogârla. as surface. This includes a succession of steps towards an optimization of relationships between the 262 .

new emergent structures are crystallized around some local growth poles. These may offer the chance for the metropolis and its surrounding area to structure its space in such a manner that on the one hand it could develop itself. but also to preserve its environment goods. Chitila. the environment resources and the necessity of recreating some natural forestry. This model supposes a vision of sustainable development of Bucharest city together with these emergent territorial structures which for the moment are regarded as disturbing factors of environment. The costs of these inventions will be absorbed by the aware participation of inhabitants and by the advantages which will arise from the smaller efforts of future generations to adapt to a warmer.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest components of natural environment and socioeconomic environment (Fig. Besides. 4. in concordance with the metropolis. These are the perennial values of Bucharest (besides its cultural values). Otopeni and Buftea). Fig. Măgurele. Comana) or the agricultural resources (Mihăileşti. Bolintin Vale. lake spaces and some wet areas. Their chaotic development. The concentration of economic activities and population in these areas usually located along the penetration ways in Bucharest imposes the restriction of the aggression upon forestry and agricultural surfaces. Having these structures in view. polycentrism is based on the idea of avoiding the town’s super saturation and the de-localizing of some activities in accordance with the capacity of harmonization with natural environment. 4). Popeşti-Leordeni. in such a context it can be considered that the common strategies of development of Bucharest and metropolitan area must be based on a polycentric vision. inclusively by territorial extension on certain directions. which they depend on. by their position towards the capital (Voluntari. Pantelimon. must be replaced with a vision which takes into account the characteristics of general flows. The specific management of these emergent structures means ensuring a management which takes into consideration the coordinates of a general development. The environmental risks management model in the metropolitan area Bucharest 263 . Bragadiru. will be meant to facilitate the town’s adapting to global climatic changes. drier and full of unpredictability climate. which besides the essential function they have at the level of the big geosystem. which knew. Fundulea) an economic and demographic impulse. the special natural touristic resources (Snagov. In the concrete situation. lakes and hydrographic arteries. by individual visions.

Drăghici C. 1517-1531. Pintilii R. Cercleux. (2003). Behavior of persistent pollutants and risks associated with their presence in the environment – integrated studies. Urban Dynamics.ro/nota-de-fundamentare-h-g-nr-56326-04-2006__l1a84640.E.. 169-174. Damian G. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 1535-1545 4.. Journal of Urban Economics. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. The passing from a planned system to another system. Stoica. Cepoiu A.. By creating some polycentric structures.J. Pintilii R. regarding the procedure for approval of licensing the use of radio frequencies in order to provide mobile communications networks and services of third generation.. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. Ferreira F. Peptenatu D. Damian F. water and soil.. which must be preserved at a quality as close as possible to their natural state.. and project Territorial Management Based on Growth Poles Theory (UEFICSU-PNII – Idei. The lack of some regulations even from the beginning of transition. determines numerous distortions in the process of optimization of the big city’s insertion in the territory. (2009). Braghină C. A. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences.. 6.. Ianoş I... Environmental Engineering and Management Journal . (2009). 10. 33. 5. J. Drăghici C... C.L. specific to market economy. (1987).. (2010). CDE Working paper No. 9. Edwin S. Zamfir. Conclusions The new forms of space structuring around a metropolis in transition are in resonance with the processes which take place at its level. 1-17. 443-450.B.D.. (2011). (1965). Territorial management within the systems affected by mining. 7. (2010)... but by a proper development it should limit its own aggression regarding the resources they have. Case study the SouthWestern Development Region in Romania..K. 1987-1996. These are represented by space. (2006). Nassiri P. 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