Environmental Engineering and Management Journal

September 2012, Vol.11, No. 9, 1535-1545


“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania

Ioan Ianoş∗, Daniel Peptenatu, Radu-Daniel Pintilii, Cristian Drăghici
University of Bucharest, The Interdisciplinary Center for Advanced Researches on Territorial Dynamics, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Blvd., Bucharest, Romania

The purpose of this study is to identify certain environmental imbalances triggered by the new emerging structures and to highlight some effects on sustainable development for the metropolitan area of Bucharest. The morphogenesis of these imbalances is based primarly on the restructuring process experienced by the city in the transition process from planned to market economy and secondly, on the result of interaction between it and the new structures appearing due to uncontrolled urban and suburban development. The 15 new emerging structures, individualized for the first time on a uniform methodology, create a constant pressure on the natural environment. This pressure cumulates with the one developed by the city itself, both being evaluated through field research, interviews and through data and information analysis gathered from diferrent institutions and enteprises. All this have emphasized the alteration degree for some natural environmental components along the main access roads, and also between the new emerging structures. Statistical data related to water and air pollution have been provided mainly by the environmental agencies. Information from 30 interviews regarding the decision makers in sustainable urban development have enabled the creation of a pattern for environmental risks in new emerging structures of the metropolitan area of Bucharest. By taking into consideration the regional functions for emerging structures, which are seen as growth poles, this model can be a starting point for a sustainable development approach along with a spatial vision on polycentrism. Key words: emergent structures, pollution, sustainable development, territorial management, trans-temporal pollution
Received: March 2011; Revised final: February, 2012; Accepted: March 2012

1. Introduction The new forms of the urbanization process in the areas surrounding big metropolises of the countries in transition from a centralized system to a system based on market economy, led to the coming out of new structures, characterized by a dynamism which is excessive and often hard to control by the decision-makers from local or regional level. The notion of emergent territorial structure must be regarded in a much larger context, prefigured by (Elliot and Perry, 1965) by the term emergent metropolitan area. By such an approach, classical

theories can be partially contradicted regarding the role of processes of population concentration in the apparition of new territorial structures, placing them on a secondary place, after the processes of economic concentration. The breach between town and surrounding space, noticed during the totalitarian period, is less consistent and permanently pushed towards exterior, ”impoverishing” the natural components of environment, as vegetation, soil, underground waters and microclimate. The new emergent territorial structures have an important role in shaping the relationships metropolis – insertion environment

Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed: e-mail: ianos50@yahoo.com

From here resulted the necessity of some policies of response. 2010. inconsistent and contradictory (Peptenatu et al. generated by their affiliation to at least 5 counties. Braghină et al. intense traffic... 2011.. . due to an excessive consuming of the primary eco-energies (Ianoş et al. generating enormous risks for an environment profoundly affected by urban sprawl. respectively of environment goods. These are visible in the way of using fields (Petrişor et al. 2011). which may supply a lot the lack of a territorial cooperation culture (Ianoş. Present global changes and especially climatic changes are able to quicken preoccupations for adapting large urban concentrations to an obvious warming. these roads cross longitudinally the new emergent structures. by the lack of regulations that determine a strong increase of urban pressure. Consequently. higher education. especially of young population. The lack of some administrative systems. but they introduce new breaches at mezzo. Pollution by noise adds to these categories of pollutants. but especially by the very intense traffic which affects the capacity of work power and the health of population from such structures (Alimohammadi et al.. 2010). and in this respect protecting environment goods is essential (Roshan et al.. The dynamic of economic and demographic components from large metropolises in transition shows a permanent de-localizing of activities and population and a transfer of those towards metropolitan areas. Usually. The higher and higher pressure upon natural environment determined by these structures needs the elaboration of new systems of territorial management. generate pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects (Gavrilescu. which contributes to exceeding the maximum allowed concentrations along the main roads of penetration into towns (Braghină et al. Peptenatu et al.. These pollutants with very complex structures and in which heavy metals have a special place. Humeau et al. 2009). logistical. 2010. 2003). 2010. being determined by economic activities. 2010. and at the level of economic and social environments (Brueckner and Largey. starting from a strategic evaluation of 256 metropolitan environment (Iojă. Damian et al.. Makhelouf. contribute to the degradation of environment quality by the increase of soil surfaces affected. Fortuna et al. 2000. Ensuring a sustainable development of new emergent structures must be based on a multi-criteria approach. 1535-1545 (Newman. makes decisional impulses is different. residential. The industry’s destructuring meant the closing of some big industrial enterprises and for some of them the fragmentation or de-localizing (Cepoiu. After the centralized system’s collapse. which globally approach these functional disruptions and take into account the big problems related to the precariousness of urban environment (Mrkajik et al. generating pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects. Vargas-Vargas et al. Bucharest metropolis must inefficiently cohabitate with different ways of management. two processes had to be guessed: the industry’s de-structuring and the tendencies of mass-leaving from the communist blocks from large districts. Petraru and Gavrilescu.Ianos et al. 2009). The fundamental change of relationships between metropolis and metropolitan area was so brutal. it will refer mainly to those tightly connected to some components of natural environment. Robu and Macoveanu. which should take into account the main directions of future development. but never green spaces. on the one hand. 2009. 2011). 2010). 2008. 2009). 2010). which is extremely dynamic.. able to take into consideration all changes which take place both at the level of natural environment. 2012). The unprecedented aggression of urban upon surrounding space was an uncontrolled process. for the sustainable development of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest. chaotically developed.. 2008).. without a prospective management. The dislocation of economic activities towards suburbs did not mean also the development of accessibility corridors. 2011. 2007). in the process of their conversion and especially in the pressure applied upon natural ecologic systems around metropolises. interfering one with another.and micro-scale.. 2010). and on the other hand of the way in which they are sustainably enclosed in the context of the insertion environment.. The global management of a metropolitan area as Bucharest is difficult enough due to very different options of the decision factors from local level. 2010). The result was the reconversion of fields in other types of activities: commercial. 2011. The special importance of territorial management models results from the difficulties identified in the global approach of the unbalances from the natural environment of emergent structures.. 9.. new economic activities developed outside the metropolis./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). concretized in concrete plans of urban and metropolitan space organization and development (Edwin. but in tight connection to it. Gümrükçüoğlu.. 2006). the air pollution with different chemical elements and sediment dusts (Secu et al. The activities’ de-localizing. Peptenatu et al. which would influence positively the urban microclimate (Ferreira et al. 2004) and to adopt some measures of preventing the degradation of metropolitan area and compromising the chances of sustainable development of the entire assembly: metropolis – metropolitan area. This pressure will have to be properly estimated and monitored.. The solution is only one: accepting a type of collaborative management. Nouri et al. in order to diminish the loss of resources. by the infection of ground waters. This means a complexity of processes for whose management a strategic thinking is necessary. 2010. it’s about sustainable development of each new emergent structure. In such cases. As it was mentioned before. 2011.. able to administer emergent structures uniformly.

To define this area of influence it has been considered a methodology based on the overlapping of at least three of the following areas of influence (area of economic influence.C.A.C. S. PROTAN S. S. frequent on large areas in the metropolitan area of Bucharest city. it has also got dissipative structures or structures with a dissipative character. area of commercial influence. starting with the year 2009. The delineation of the analyzed area was realized in two phases: the first one – defining an active area of influence. 1): Ia =I aj (n ≥3 ) j= 1 n (1) Ia = the influence area of a town/city.A. at the level of the entire metropolitan area. area of demographic influence. real obstacles in implementing a strategy of sustainable development at supra-local level and.A.M. S. SC SILVER HAWK COM IMPORT EXPORT S. ECOREC S. HOBAS PIPE SYSTEMS S. demographic growth and the profound identity reconstruction of these areas. Main industrial sources of pollution from the metropolitan area Bucharest (Regional Agency for Environment Protection (RAEP) Bucharest.A S. The second phase was the individualization in the active influence area. 2008) were selected the territorial structures that have "popped" in relation to its surrounding structures.C ROMSUINTEST PERIS S. there were used the data obtained from the field researches and those registered at the county agencies for environment. S.C. respectively large transport corridors which connect the capital with the surrounding space and implicitly with the entire country.C. For the quantifying of the pressure exerted by the de-localizing of economic activities and of population towards suburbs.A. Table 1. 2. driven around Bucharest. area of socio-cultural influence. SC URBB SRL LOULIS S. S. 2009) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Company S. n = number of elements taken into account. S.C. MONDO ALUMINIUM METAL-M.C. obviously. Taking into account that the influence of a city consists of several areas of influence. the analysis of the way in which pollution sources may restrain the process of sustainable development of these structures. In this respect.L. and the second – the individualizing of the emergent structures within it. of the new emergent structures. we have delineated 15 regional structures emerging.A. Thus. in the metropolitan area of the city of Bucharest. Field researches along these axes and inside new emergent structures revealed the main unbalances of natural environment (especially air and water pollution). AVICOLA BUFTEA S. with the complex development index (Pintilii et al.R. whose uncontrolled development can lead to serious environmental problems. a special attention was given to trans-temporal pollution. Material and method The methodological demarche regarded: the individualizing of emergent structures.L Location Pantelimon Jilava Voluntari PopeştiLeordeni Vidra PopeştiLeordeni 1 Decembrie Buftea Periş PopeştiLeordeni Pantelimon Pantelimon Clinceni Economic profile Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals The industrial scale production of main pharmaceutical products Wastes deposits Wastes deposits Installations for the elimination or recycling of animals’ carcasses and animals’ wastes Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents 257 . S. the dynamic of economic development. it could be said that its average extension is given by the "junction areas of influence of at least three elements" (Ianoş.A. Iaj = influence area of an element. Also. the analysis of the functional process restructuring and their impact upon the environment from the metropolitan area.C. as follows: the convergence of transport systems.A. S.. 1987) (Eq. The location of these emergent structures emphasizes the role of the structural axes of space.C ROMVAC COMPANY S.C. once with the researches carried on in order to prove that except the fact that the town behaves as a thermodynamic and informational open system.R. area of leisure activities and weekend travel influence).L.L.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest This study was done. NEFERAL S.R.R. PICOVIT ROM IMPEX S. The identification of emergent structures was done on the basis of a set of indicators and criteria. ECOSUD S.

Pantelimon. existent and projected. able to absorb the more and more intense traffic. around Bucharest there was a real process of suburbanization in the post-war period. This explains how in almost two decades some rural settlements (which are towns today) succeeded to have a numerous population (over 15. as it can be noticed. not having the possibility to settle in the town. This information allowed the identification of the location and the economic profile of the most polluting companies. some of the factories. Except the localization-delocalization process of economic activities. towards the localities around the capital. 1). After the year 1990. a false suburbanization resulted. which generated material and human flows which were superior to other towns from Romania. migrated towards surrounding communes. depending on the hydro-morphological biological parameters. by declaring the town closed. The field tests and the 30 interviews. ROMANO TUB S. and others were closed. a special attention was given to international standards in the field of environment risks management. It must be mentioned that unlike other metropolises from Central and Eastern Europe. especially those localities situated nearby some forestry surfaces. Other emergent structures.A. The concentrations of economic activities and population concentrations were the basis for the new emergent structures. once the de-localising of economic activities from 258 . The retardation produced between the economy restructuring. 9. Discussing the modality in which a sustainable development of these areas could be reached. The population which came from poor regions of the country. Hence. giving a stellar configuration to the entire anthropogenic space (Fig. 1535-1545 14 S. published in 2009. have allowed the collection of information about developing a model for environmental risk management on the one hand. 310/2004. some of them dating even from the inter-war period (Neferal. Buftea Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents Souce: Agency for Environment Protection. Results and comments After 1990. These fundamental changes in the relationship between the old and the new metropolis with the space around it generated high pressures upon the road infrastructure of the territory. as an efficient way of reducing the unbalances from territorial systems. located in Pantelimon) or even newer as those from Chitila. In our analysis. the identification and centralization of production units. The appreciation of waters’ quality was reported to Law no. a very strong process was that of population migration. once economic activities were de-localized towards the metropolitan area. Comana). which establishes five classes of quality.000 inhabitants): Voluntari. physical-chemical parameters.C. Jilava and Măgurele. 2009 The mapping by technical observations allowed identifying the areas where unbalances from the natural environment are generated by underdimensioned infrastructure. determining big agglomerations of motor vehicles and implicitly a very high pollution of the air along the corridors of access in Bucharest. A bird’s eye view upon air pollution in some of the emergent structures nearby the capital shows that emission sources are those “inherited”. after the year 1970. settled in the first belt of communes around the capital. lakes or hydrographic arteries. As a result. on the other. which remained under-dimensioned. in parallel with the coming out of some restrictions regarding the functioning of some pollutant factories in the main urban space. Due to their life period as pollution sources. areas where the building of an efficient diffluence system was proposed. sustained by the status of capital. towards the metropolis. which the development of economic activities directly contribute to environmental pollution. These instruments establish the main principles within risks management. especially energy-eating factories.Ianos et al. it is considered that it is about a trans-temporal pollution. the process of (re)privatization and the development of urban economic activities led to a rapid aggression upon metropolitan space. polluted (grade 1) and feebly polluted (grade 2). A useful instrument in building the risks management models is the ISO Standard 31000 and the ISO Guide 73. The rhythm of houses construction (multi-family constructions)./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). 3. conducted with local decision makers and representatives of institutions in the environmental field. annex 11. waters were divided into three quality categories: very polluted (grade 0). Bucharest registered an accentuated economic dynamic. which kept in the line with the process of extensive industrialization did not allow a classical suburbanization process. emissions of pollutants evacuated. are situated at distances of about 30 km from the capital and they are specialized either around some touristic attraction objectives (Snagov. which repeatedly exceed the maximum allowed concentrations at different types of pollutants. mainly concentrated at the periphery of the Capital. Field researches identified a tight connection between their location and the accessibility. especially of young population.1. 3. or some concentrations of economic activities (Mihăileşti). Popeşti-Leordeni etc. as well as the necessity of a systemic approach. Some relevant environmental issues and characteristics of the emergent structures from the metropolitan area The dynamic of the town after 1990 meant a hunger for space.

This assymetry explains the aggression of population and economic activities upon natural environment. Territorial distribution of the new emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Table 2. HCl.24h SO2. NH3. CO2. Zn. when eastern and north-eastern winds dominate. Al.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Bucharest was done. Only if the frequency of suspension dusts’ exceeding is analyzed.24h PM10 PM10 Pb.medie anuală No determinations 7323 4151 322 181 158 245 90 91 Yearly concentration (μg/mc) 5.8 6. H2S). diminishing the air’s quality and affecting the population’s health state. pollution sources multiplied. In this context. NOx. either thanked to the existence of some lake surfaces (Pantelimon. it can be noticed that in two opposite points. Cr.1h SO2. Cernica. as well as of the flow of daily travelers. respectively 30%) (Table 2). If the way of appearance and the subsequent evolution of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest is analysed. or some fields at relatively advantageous prices (Popeşti-Voluntari. Neferal detaches. Fig. Măgurele.1h SO2. this registers very different values (10%. 2009). Brăneşti). smoke etc (RAEP Bucharest. Cernica). Most enterprises from the table above release in the air large quantities of gases and vapours (SO 2. Cu. Măgurele). The situation of air pollutant elements in Ilfov county Town Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Pollutant type SO2. but especially in the period with frequent thermic inversions (December – February). it can be noticed that territorial distribution of „environment goods” was the cause of assymetric development both of the city and especially of its metropolitan area. 1. Fe. Cd). the pollution on a strap of approximately 3 km on one side and another is very high. with a superior quality in the northern part of the Capital. Due to the transit road flow.7 6.1 29 41 0. In this respect. which know a very intense traffic twice a day (in the morning and in the evening). especially in winter time.1 5. of that determined by the supplying of economic units situated on one side and the other. Pantelimon. A part of these production units contribute to air pollution with organic and inorganic dusts which contain metals. Popeşti-Leordeni and others. especially in the areas of some localities as: Otopeni. or some forest surfaces (Voluntari. CO.04767 0. organic solvents. the ring road of Bucharest knows a traffic almost constant all the time.medie anuală Pb. The general configuration of circulation shows that outside the axes of penetration in Bucharest. Ni. too (Pb. situated nearby the ring road (Baloteşti and Măgurele). Voluntari.05029 No exceeding of timetable limit values 0 0 0 0 15 60 0 0 259 . Afumaţi. must be mentioned a paradox: a good part of the new residential assemblies developed around these very polluted areas.

2. The high values of pollution in the urban influence area are determined also by the lack of an efficient system of traffic diffluence. as well as the construction of a rapid connection between the two highways. and in some cases very dangerous for the territorial structures outside it. due to the blocking of traffic by large means of transport. Keeping the present functions and especially economic structures will produce big distortions in the sustainable development of the city. Along the main structural axes from this emergent system. to build some diffluence systems at the entrance in Bucharest of the main access corridors towards central areas (Fig. 9./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). The quantity of pollutants at the level of the big city is enormous. there appears a frequent exceeding of maximum allowed quantities. different from its present role. The biggest danger for the sustainable development of new emergent territorial structures is Bucharest itself.Ianos et al. Thus. it should be started with the allocation of resources for the modernization of this ring road and its functional restructuring.9 11 0 Souce: RAEP. still the values remain threatening by cumulative effects (Table 3). 260 . without diffluence systems and parking areas which should be useful for economic units along these. able to permanently adapt to the tendencies of localization of economic activities and population in the influence area. 2). 1535-1545 Baloteşti Măgurele O3. The integrated management of peripheral traffic of the Capital lacks totally. due to the deficient organizing of accessibility corridors. air pollution at rush hours is very high.medie 8 h 7990 7045 53. besides the modernizing of accessibility corridors from periurban areas. Despite the fact that the Capital’s atmosphere knows an obvious process of improvement. the circulation being extremely defective on this road way. the sustainable development of new emergent structures needs. The connection and integration of new emergent structures to the urban space of the Capital turns the present ring road into an internal rink. although when implementing a strategy of sustainable development of the Capital and its metropolitan area. Bucharest.8 36.medie 8 h O3. From this cause. 2009 Fig. many of the activities becoming incompatible with a healthy urban environment. with another role. Functional restructuring of Bucharest The traffic is so intense that Bucharest risks to be suffocated by its own inaction.

069 8 0. when most of them were adopted.018 1.8 8 56.571 12.955 5.0795 0. and they used to be deposited in wastes’ deposits.94 1 33.676 9. The dynamic of some air pollutant elements at the level of Bucharest City and Ilfov County Yearly emissions (t/an) SO2 (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NOx (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NH3 (t/an) Nonmethane volatile organic compounds (t/year) Cadmium (t/an) Mercury (t/an) Plumb (t/year) Total dusts (t/year) Dioxine (grams/year ) Bucharest Ilfov 2000 28.3 645.017 5.081 0. Table 3.528 0.5 2.261 14.088 0. and after that a rapid decrease followed. at the closing of the process of the alignment of legislation in the field.30 1 30.38 2 190.45 584 1.720 5. The higher values at the dioxin level are due to the fact that until 2004 there wasn’t a products’ incinerator with this containing.054 107.648 15 0. which makes that at the capital’s level the main greenhouse effect gases register almost 8 million tons per year.8 2. Starting with 2007 there is a tendency of growth. as well as the present dimensions of the activities unfolded in the new emergent structures of the metropolitan area seriously affected the quality of ground and surface waters.8 994 1.093 0.154 0.51 6 38.9 0. The effect of passing to the implementation of European norms regarding environment is visibly strong starting with the year 2004.063 1244.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest As it can be noticed.477 9.40 5 40.8 2. Bucharest is also a big producer of greenhouse effect gases.09 7 202.7 0.035 7 104.88 6 25.47 8 32.39 6 38.83 977 13.90 6 21.5 2001 41. all other pollutant elements register a decrease. until 2007. 7 29 145.384 0.048 0. except ammonia and dioxin. The dynamic of these gases is oscillatory. 261 .88 5 341.32 17.12 0.282 2.071 11.19 3.478 15.026 58.48 3 22.69 1. Bucharest.7 2002 31.173 1270.899 150.26 370.25 14. the Agency for Environment Protection Bucharest.056 0.32 Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov 4.8 5 2.83 6 880 677 0. having relatively low values in the year 2000. after a big part of them had reached very high values in the years 2001-2003.2 5 12.110 68.87 3 1607.17 44.679 765 1. especially of CO2.107 119.02 1 20.90 7 2009 3.13 555.43 2004 25.63 6 2007 11.5 5 27. reaching a maximum in the year 2003.827 0.83 556.642 467.19 0.258 2.304 7778.7 1195.880 4.626 1348.55 617.06 2.08 0. The development of agricultural and industrial economic activities in the second part of the 20th century.284 Source: Yearly report regarding the state of environment in Bucharest City for the year 2009.901 225.265 82.25 2005 29. At the same time.049 110.7 293.17 7 2008 2.13 6 11.452 132.41 2.157 129.520 4.053 16. CH4 and N2O.881 2.526 68.427 50. 2010.035 0.77 2 2006 9.2 2003 104.305 0.

soils in this sylvan-steppe region have a very good cushion capacity of different types of pollutants. Ciorogârla. were identified in: PopeştiLeordeni. thus contributing to the pollution of surface waters and soil. Proposal for a management model of the environment risk in emergent structures A useful instrument in elaborating and implementing the strategies of territorial management is the management model of the environment risk in emergent structures. The most important polluted surfaces are nearby Neferal platform in Pantelimon (100 ha). Field researches identified economic agents which spillover polluted waters into rivers or undeveloped holes. The functional disruptions determined by the de-localizing and development of economic activities need. and the one with wastewaters. due to oil exploitations. In this area there were exceeded the limits imposed by the Government Decision no 563/2006 for: dissolved oxygen. due to the discharge of polluted waters in the area Glina. Jilava. 3. 1535-1545 Fig./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). CBO5. Buftea. 9. Chitila. which registers very high pollution values. 1 Decembrie. This includes a succession of steps towards an optimization of relationships between the 262 . Dărăşti. The main collector of waters which crosses the influence area of Bucharest city is the Argeş. Dobroeşti. Argeş. in different areas where the chaotic depositing of garbage and construction materials appears (150 ha). Overall. beneath the first one. from the surface. which should serve the capital.Ianos et al. by their wideness. revealing a dominance of the content in organic materials in the eastern and south-eastern part of Bucharest and the dominance of some micro-elements in the western and northwestern part. coming from the getting together of waters from the two cassettes: the one with clean waters. According to the Agency for Environment Protection. as surface. a unitary approach by institutional structures. NH4 and NH3 (RAEP Bucharest. Sabar. the reduced capacity of the existent ones and the deficient management of solid wastes are directly felt in the level of waters’ pollution. in areas situated nearby some agro-zootechnical complexes (Jilava and Buftea) and in the area Clinceni– Bragadiru. One of the major unbalances determined by the development of economic activities in new emergent structures is the soil pollution. 3. critical areas under the aspect of waters’ pollution are: Dâmboviţa (downstream the capital).2. Măgurele. Important areas. Cociovaliştea and Pasărea. 3 the main water-courses by the pollution degree are presented. The unitary approach can eliminate the very high costs. In Fig. The river Dâmboviţa is one of the most polluted rivers in the country. The analysis of chemical compounds from underground waters shows a certain region-like process around Bucharest. Pollution of natural environment in urban area of influence of Bucharest The lack of water treatment stations. which cannot be assumed at individual level by the administrative units from these areas. able to elaborate and implement common strategies at the level of those emergent structures. 2009). by the improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides following the development of an intensive agriculture.

The concentration of economic activities and population in these areas usually located along the penetration ways in Bucharest imposes the restriction of the aggression upon forestry and agricultural surfaces. Their chaotic development. the environment resources and the necessity of recreating some natural forestry. Having these structures in view. Comana) or the agricultural resources (Mihăileşti. Fig. 4). the special natural touristic resources (Snagov. These are the perennial values of Bucharest (besides its cultural values). must be replaced with a vision which takes into account the characteristics of general flows. Popeşti-Leordeni. but also to preserve its environment goods. which knew. Fundulea) an economic and demographic impulse. This model supposes a vision of sustainable development of Bucharest city together with these emergent territorial structures which for the moment are regarded as disturbing factors of environment. The environmental risks management model in the metropolitan area Bucharest 263 . lakes and hydrographic arteries. inclusively by territorial extension on certain directions. Chitila. Besides. The costs of these inventions will be absorbed by the aware participation of inhabitants and by the advantages which will arise from the smaller efforts of future generations to adapt to a warmer. drier and full of unpredictability climate. in such a context it can be considered that the common strategies of development of Bucharest and metropolitan area must be based on a polycentric vision. new emergent structures are crystallized around some local growth poles. 4. Otopeni and Buftea). Măgurele.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest components of natural environment and socioeconomic environment (Fig. lake spaces and some wet areas. will be meant to facilitate the town’s adapting to global climatic changes. The specific management of these emergent structures means ensuring a management which takes into consideration the coordinates of a general development. polycentrism is based on the idea of avoiding the town’s super saturation and the de-localizing of some activities in accordance with the capacity of harmonization with natural environment. Bragadiru. These may offer the chance for the metropolis and its surrounding area to structure its space in such a manner that on the one hand it could develop itself. Pantelimon. Bolintin Vale. which besides the essential function they have at the level of the big geosystem. which they depend on. in concordance with the metropolis. by individual visions. In the concrete situation. by their position towards the capital (Voluntari.

published in Romanian Official Monitor.D. The pressure exerted on the natural environment in the open pit exploitation areas in Oltenia. 7. Ianoş I.. Perry M. Brueckner J.. Torres P. (in Romanian). The passing from a planned system to another system. Metropolizing NonmetroSpace: Population redistribution and Emergent Metropolitan Areas’. 5. 6. analysis. Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis.. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 78. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the strategic grant POSDRU / 89/1.K. Bucharest.. 5. it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of each of these structures. (1965).gov.. 96-02.5/S/58852. Edwin S. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. Cepoiu A.. regarding the procedure for approval of licensing the use of radio frequencies in order to provide mobile communications networks and services of third generation. Case study the SouthWestern Development Region in Romania. On line at: http://www. no. Schvab A.... 8. 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