Environmental Engineering and Management Journal

September 2012, Vol.11, No. 9, 1535-1545

http://omicron.ch.tuiasi.ro/EEMJ/

“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania

ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORIAL EMERGENT STRUCTURES FROM THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF BUCHAREST
Ioan Ianoş∗, Daniel Peptenatu, Radu-Daniel Pintilii, Cristian Drăghici
University of Bucharest, The Interdisciplinary Center for Advanced Researches on Territorial Dynamics, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Blvd., Bucharest, Romania

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify certain environmental imbalances triggered by the new emerging structures and to highlight some effects on sustainable development for the metropolitan area of Bucharest. The morphogenesis of these imbalances is based primarly on the restructuring process experienced by the city in the transition process from planned to market economy and secondly, on the result of interaction between it and the new structures appearing due to uncontrolled urban and suburban development. The 15 new emerging structures, individualized for the first time on a uniform methodology, create a constant pressure on the natural environment. This pressure cumulates with the one developed by the city itself, both being evaluated through field research, interviews and through data and information analysis gathered from diferrent institutions and enteprises. All this have emphasized the alteration degree for some natural environmental components along the main access roads, and also between the new emerging structures. Statistical data related to water and air pollution have been provided mainly by the environmental agencies. Information from 30 interviews regarding the decision makers in sustainable urban development have enabled the creation of a pattern for environmental risks in new emerging structures of the metropolitan area of Bucharest. By taking into consideration the regional functions for emerging structures, which are seen as growth poles, this model can be a starting point for a sustainable development approach along with a spatial vision on polycentrism. Key words: emergent structures, pollution, sustainable development, territorial management, trans-temporal pollution
Received: March 2011; Revised final: February, 2012; Accepted: March 2012

1. Introduction The new forms of the urbanization process in the areas surrounding big metropolises of the countries in transition from a centralized system to a system based on market economy, led to the coming out of new structures, characterized by a dynamism which is excessive and often hard to control by the decision-makers from local or regional level. The notion of emergent territorial structure must be regarded in a much larger context, prefigured by (Elliot and Perry, 1965) by the term emergent metropolitan area. By such an approach, classical

theories can be partially contradicted regarding the role of processes of population concentration in the apparition of new territorial structures, placing them on a secondary place, after the processes of economic concentration. The breach between town and surrounding space, noticed during the totalitarian period, is less consistent and permanently pushed towards exterior, ”impoverishing” the natural components of environment, as vegetation, soil, underground waters and microclimate. The new emergent territorial structures have an important role in shaping the relationships metropolis – insertion environment

Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed: e-mail: ianos50@yahoo.com

and in this respect protecting environment goods is essential (Roshan et al. Peptenatu et al. generating pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects. on the one hand. and at the level of economic and social environments (Brueckner and Largey. Petraru and Gavrilescu. 2011). but they introduce new breaches at mezzo. Robu and Macoveanu. The dynamic of economic and demographic components from large metropolises in transition shows a permanent de-localizing of activities and population and a transfer of those towards metropolitan areas. especially of young population. intense traffic.and micro-scale. inconsistent and contradictory (Peptenatu et al. 2011. 2010). 2007). Gümrükçüoğlu. which globally approach these functional disruptions and take into account the big problems related to the precariousness of urban environment (Mrkajik et al. being determined by economic activities. 2011). 2010). 2003). in the process of their conversion and especially in the pressure applied upon natural ecologic systems around metropolises. two processes had to be guessed: the industry’s de-structuring and the tendencies of mass-leaving from the communist blocks from large districts. Consequently. This means a complexity of processes for whose management a strategic thinking is necessary.. Ensuring a sustainable development of new emergent structures must be based on a multi-criteria approach. Vargas-Vargas et al. 2011. able to take into consideration all changes which take place both at the level of natural environment. residential. 2000. In such cases. The unprecedented aggression of urban upon surrounding space was an uncontrolled process. 2011. which is extremely dynamic. new economic activities developed outside the metropolis. 2004) and to adopt some measures of preventing the degradation of metropolitan area and compromising the chances of sustainable development of the entire assembly: metropolis – metropolitan area.. Bucharest metropolis must inefficiently cohabitate with different ways of management. 2011. by the infection of ground waters.. but especially by the very intense traffic which affects the capacity of work power and the health of population from such structures (Alimohammadi et al.. the air pollution with different chemical elements and sediment dusts (Secu et al.. The dislocation of economic activities towards suburbs did not mean also the development of accessibility corridors. 2010. 2006).Ianos et al. for the sustainable development of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest. 2012). generate pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects (Gavrilescu. in order to diminish the loss of resources.. Nouri et al. 2010. Usually. The higher and higher pressure upon natural environment determined by these structures needs the elaboration of new systems of territorial management... logistical. Makhelouf./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). Pollution by noise adds to these categories of pollutants. due to an excessive consuming of the primary eco-energies (Ianoş et al. which may supply a lot the lack of a territorial cooperation culture (Ianoş. Humeau et al. 2009). The global management of a metropolitan area as Bucharest is difficult enough due to very different options of the decision factors from local level. 1535-1545 (Newman. The industry’s destructuring meant the closing of some big industrial enterprises and for some of them the fragmentation or de-localizing (Cepoiu. Fortuna et al. The special importance of territorial management models results from the difficulties identified in the global approach of the unbalances from the natural environment of emergent structures. 2010. these roads cross longitudinally the new emergent structures. Present global changes and especially climatic changes are able to quicken preoccupations for adapting large urban concentrations to an obvious warming. Peptenatu et al.. respectively of environment goods. contribute to the degradation of environment quality by the increase of soil surfaces affected. higher education. 2008). and on the other hand of the way in which they are sustainably enclosed in the context of the insertion environment. 2008. 2009). interfering one with another.. it’s about sustainable development of each new emergent structure.. chaotically developed. but never green spaces. The result was the reconversion of fields in other types of activities: commercial. which would influence positively the urban microclimate (Ferreira et al. but in tight connection to it. 9. As it was mentioned before. After the centralized system’s collapse. 2010). it will refer mainly to those tightly connected to some components of natural environment. The lack of some administrative systems. 2010. Damian et al. 2010). .. able to administer emergent structures uniformly. makes decisional impulses is different. The solution is only one: accepting a type of collaborative management. concretized in concrete plans of urban and metropolitan space organization and development (Edwin. 2010. by the lack of regulations that determine a strong increase of urban pressure. generating enormous risks for an environment profoundly affected by urban sprawl.. which contributes to exceeding the maximum allowed concentrations along the main roads of penetration into towns (Braghină et al.. Braghină et al. 2009. which should take into account the main directions of future development. From here resulted the necessity of some policies of response. This pressure will have to be properly estimated and monitored. 2009). The fundamental change of relationships between metropolis and metropolitan area was so brutal. These pollutants with very complex structures and in which heavy metals have a special place. These are visible in the way of using fields (Petrişor et al. generated by their affiliation to at least 5 counties.. without a prospective management.. The activities’ de-localizing. 2010). starting from a strategic evaluation of 256 metropolitan environment (Iojă..

A. starting with the year 2009. AVICOLA BUFTEA S. In this respect. S. The delineation of the analyzed area was realized in two phases: the first one – defining an active area of influence. 1): Ia =I aj (n ≥3 ) j= 1 n (1) Ia = the influence area of a town/city.C. Taking into account that the influence of a city consists of several areas of influence.R. driven around Bucharest. S.C. SC SILVER HAWK COM IMPORT EXPORT S. 2. 2008) were selected the territorial structures that have "popped" in relation to its surrounding structures.L. obviously. with the complex development index (Pintilii et al.A. there were used the data obtained from the field researches and those registered at the county agencies for environment. once with the researches carried on in order to prove that except the fact that the town behaves as a thermodynamic and informational open system. To define this area of influence it has been considered a methodology based on the overlapping of at least three of the following areas of influence (area of economic influence. whose uncontrolled development can lead to serious environmental problems. S. Table 1. area of demographic influence. a special attention was given to trans-temporal pollution. it has also got dissipative structures or structures with a dissipative character. of the new emergent structures.R.C ROMVAC COMPANY S. PROTAN S. The location of these emergent structures emphasizes the role of the structural axes of space. we have delineated 15 regional structures emerging. Material and method The methodological demarche regarded: the individualizing of emergent structures.R. in the metropolitan area of the city of Bucharest. demographic growth and the profound identity reconstruction of these areas. the analysis of the way in which pollution sources may restrain the process of sustainable development of these structures.C.A. MONDO ALUMINIUM METAL-M. The second phase was the individualization in the active influence area.M.C.C.L. the dynamic of economic development. SC URBB SRL LOULIS S. Thus. respectively large transport corridors which connect the capital with the surrounding space and implicitly with the entire country. area of socio-cultural influence. S. S. ECOREC S.C. 1987) (Eq. n = number of elements taken into account. at the level of the entire metropolitan area. real obstacles in implementing a strategy of sustainable development at supra-local level and. the analysis of the functional process restructuring and their impact upon the environment from the metropolitan area. The identification of emergent structures was done on the basis of a set of indicators and criteria.C ROMSUINTEST PERIS S.L Location Pantelimon Jilava Voluntari PopeştiLeordeni Vidra PopeştiLeordeni 1 Decembrie Buftea Periş PopeştiLeordeni Pantelimon Pantelimon Clinceni Economic profile Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals The industrial scale production of main pharmaceutical products Wastes deposits Wastes deposits Installations for the elimination or recycling of animals’ carcasses and animals’ wastes Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents 257 .A.C. HOBAS PIPE SYSTEMS S. as follows: the convergence of transport systems.A. Main industrial sources of pollution from the metropolitan area Bucharest (Regional Agency for Environment Protection (RAEP) Bucharest. frequent on large areas in the metropolitan area of Bucharest city. area of leisure activities and weekend travel influence). area of commercial influence. and the second – the individualizing of the emergent structures within it.A S.. Iaj = influence area of an element.A. 2009) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Company S. NEFERAL S. PICOVIT ROM IMPEX S.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest This study was done. For the quantifying of the pressure exerted by the de-localizing of economic activities and of population towards suburbs.L. S. S. ECOSUD S. Also.R. it could be said that its average extension is given by the "junction areas of influence of at least three elements" (Ianoş.C. Field researches along these axes and inside new emergent structures revealed the main unbalances of natural environment (especially air and water pollution). S.A.

migrated towards surrounding communes. This information allowed the identification of the location and the economic profile of the most polluting companies. It must be mentioned that unlike other metropolises from Central and Eastern Europe. able to absorb the more and more intense traffic. especially those localities situated nearby some forestry surfaces. located in Pantelimon) or even newer as those from Chitila. annex 11. This explains how in almost two decades some rural settlements (which are towns today) succeeded to have a numerous population (over 15. which remained under-dimensioned. or some concentrations of economic activities (Mihăileşti). in parallel with the coming out of some restrictions regarding the functioning of some pollutant factories in the main urban space. 9. by declaring the town closed. Other emergent structures. ROMANO TUB S. which the development of economic activities directly contribute to environmental pollution. 1535-1545 14 S. emissions of pollutants evacuated. 310/2004. Comana). it is considered that it is about a trans-temporal pollution. published in 2009. which establishes five classes of quality. Due to their life period as pollution sources. especially of young population. after the year 1970. 2009 The mapping by technical observations allowed identifying the areas where unbalances from the natural environment are generated by underdimensioned infrastructure. Bucharest registered an accentuated economic dynamic. 3. In our analysis. settled in the first belt of communes around the capital. as an efficient way of reducing the unbalances from territorial systems. Hence. a false suburbanization resulted. some of the factories. conducted with local decision makers and representatives of institutions in the environmental field. on the other. a special attention was given to international standards in the field of environment risks management. Results and comments After 1990. once economic activities were de-localized towards the metropolitan area. which generated material and human flows which were superior to other towns from Romania. The population which came from poor regions of the country. towards the metropolis./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). towards the localities around the capital. especially energy-eating factories. as well as the necessity of a systemic approach. Jilava and Măgurele. determining big agglomerations of motor vehicles and implicitly a very high pollution of the air along the corridors of access in Bucharest. once the de-localising of economic activities from 258 . the identification and centralization of production units.C. A bird’s eye view upon air pollution in some of the emergent structures nearby the capital shows that emission sources are those “inherited”. the process of (re)privatization and the development of urban economic activities led to a rapid aggression upon metropolitan space.A. areas where the building of an efficient diffluence system was proposed. which repeatedly exceed the maximum allowed concentrations at different types of pollutants. which kept in the line with the process of extensive industrialization did not allow a classical suburbanization process. Some relevant environmental issues and characteristics of the emergent structures from the metropolitan area The dynamic of the town after 1990 meant a hunger for space. Discussing the modality in which a sustainable development of these areas could be reached. 1). lakes or hydrographic arteries. Field researches identified a tight connection between their location and the accessibility. around Bucharest there was a real process of suburbanization in the post-war period. The concentrations of economic activities and population concentrations were the basis for the new emergent structures. The field tests and the 30 interviews. waters were divided into three quality categories: very polluted (grade 0). These instruments establish the main principles within risks management. sustained by the status of capital. Buftea Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents Souce: Agency for Environment Protection. polluted (grade 1) and feebly polluted (grade 2). are situated at distances of about 30 km from the capital and they are specialized either around some touristic attraction objectives (Snagov. not having the possibility to settle in the town. The rhythm of houses construction (multi-family constructions). mainly concentrated at the periphery of the Capital. 3. and others were closed.1. a very strong process was that of population migration. some of them dating even from the inter-war period (Neferal. Pantelimon. Popeşti-Leordeni etc. as it can be noticed. These fundamental changes in the relationship between the old and the new metropolis with the space around it generated high pressures upon the road infrastructure of the territory. existent and projected. The retardation produced between the economy restructuring. physical-chemical parameters. After the year 1990. The appreciation of waters’ quality was reported to Law no. Except the localization-delocalization process of economic activities. have allowed the collection of information about developing a model for environmental risk management on the one hand. giving a stellar configuration to the entire anthropogenic space (Fig. depending on the hydro-morphological biological parameters.Ianos et al.000 inhabitants): Voluntari. As a result. A useful instrument in building the risks management models is the ISO Standard 31000 and the ISO Guide 73.

In this context. or some forest surfaces (Voluntari. Măgurele). HCl. 1. respectively 30%) (Table 2). Neferal detaches. or some fields at relatively advantageous prices (Popeşti-Voluntari. when eastern and north-eastern winds dominate.1 5.medie anuală Pb. Brăneşti).04767 0. Al. Most enterprises from the table above release in the air large quantities of gases and vapours (SO 2. Cu. Ni. the pollution on a strap of approximately 3 km on one side and another is very high. This assymetry explains the aggression of population and economic activities upon natural environment. In this respect. diminishing the air’s quality and affecting the population’s health state. with a superior quality in the northern part of the Capital. CO. it can be noticed that territorial distribution of „environment goods” was the cause of assymetric development both of the city and especially of its metropolitan area.24h PM10 PM10 Pb. but especially in the period with frequent thermic inversions (December – February). Fig. Cernica). The general configuration of circulation shows that outside the axes of penetration in Bucharest.1 29 41 0. must be mentioned a paradox: a good part of the new residential assemblies developed around these very polluted areas. which know a very intense traffic twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).8 6. If the way of appearance and the subsequent evolution of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest is analysed.24h SO2. of that determined by the supplying of economic units situated on one side and the other. especially in the areas of some localities as: Otopeni. pollution sources multiplied.1h SO2. this registers very different values (10%. 2009). Măgurele.medie anuală No determinations 7323 4151 322 181 158 245 90 91 Yearly concentration (μg/mc) 5. situated nearby the ring road (Baloteşti and Măgurele). Fe. either thanked to the existence of some lake surfaces (Pantelimon. as well as of the flow of daily travelers. Popeşti-Leordeni and others. A part of these production units contribute to air pollution with organic and inorganic dusts which contain metals.1h SO2. Afumaţi. Zn. Due to the transit road flow. organic solvents. especially in winter time. Voluntari. H2S). too (Pb. NOx. Pantelimon.05029 No exceeding of timetable limit values 0 0 0 0 15 60 0 0 259 .7 6. Cr. NH3. Cernica. Territorial distribution of the new emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Table 2. smoke etc (RAEP Bucharest. the ring road of Bucharest knows a traffic almost constant all the time. CO2. it can be noticed that in two opposite points. The situation of air pollutant elements in Ilfov county Town Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Pollutant type SO2. Only if the frequency of suspension dusts’ exceeding is analyzed. Cd).About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Bucharest was done.

the sustainable development of new emergent structures needs. The connection and integration of new emergent structures to the urban space of the Capital turns the present ring road into an internal rink. as well as the construction of a rapid connection between the two highways. able to permanently adapt to the tendencies of localization of economic activities and population in the influence area. different from its present role. the circulation being extremely defective on this road way. 260 . The integrated management of peripheral traffic of the Capital lacks totally. with another role. to build some diffluence systems at the entrance in Bucharest of the main access corridors towards central areas (Fig. 1535-1545 Baloteşti Măgurele O3. without diffluence systems and parking areas which should be useful for economic units along these. air pollution at rush hours is very high. although when implementing a strategy of sustainable development of the Capital and its metropolitan area. due to the blocking of traffic by large means of transport. The high values of pollution in the urban influence area are determined also by the lack of an efficient system of traffic diffluence. The quantity of pollutants at the level of the big city is enormous./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). Keeping the present functions and especially economic structures will produce big distortions in the sustainable development of the city. and in some cases very dangerous for the territorial structures outside it. due to the deficient organizing of accessibility corridors.8 36.medie 8 h O3. From this cause. Despite the fact that the Capital’s atmosphere knows an obvious process of improvement. Bucharest.9 11 0 Souce: RAEP.medie 8 h 7990 7045 53. 2). 2009 Fig. there appears a frequent exceeding of maximum allowed quantities. Thus. it should be started with the allocation of resources for the modernization of this ring road and its functional restructuring. besides the modernizing of accessibility corridors from periurban areas. Along the main structural axes from this emergent system. Functional restructuring of Bucharest The traffic is so intense that Bucharest risks to be suffocated by its own inaction. still the values remain threatening by cumulative effects (Table 3).Ianos et al. many of the activities becoming incompatible with a healthy urban environment. 2. 9. The biggest danger for the sustainable development of new emergent territorial structures is Bucharest itself.

32 Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov 4.053 16.25 2005 29.17 44.880 4. all other pollutant elements register a decrease. the Agency for Environment Protection Bucharest.071 11.17 7 2008 2.26 370.77 2 2006 9. Bucharest is also a big producer of greenhouse effect gases.0795 0.51 6 38.173 1270.2 2003 104.06 2. and after that a rapid decrease followed.45 584 1. Bucharest.83 556.018 1.284 Source: Yearly report regarding the state of environment in Bucharest City for the year 2009.32 17.258 2.13 6 11.477 9.648 15 0. Starting with 2007 there is a tendency of growth.154 0.5 2.528 0.8 2.48 3 22.3 645.063 1244.056 0.63 6 2007 11.47 8 32.881 2.69 1.304 7778.8 8 56. after a big part of them had reached very high values in the years 2001-2003.88 5 341.049 110. The dynamic of these gases is oscillatory.8 994 1.110 68.39 6 38.026 58.2 5 12. The effect of passing to the implementation of European norms regarding environment is visibly strong starting with the year 2004.87 3 1607.054 107.452 132.90 7 2009 3.305 0.626 1348.94 1 33.720 5.901 225.08 0. except ammonia and dioxin.5 2001 41.55 617.571 12.5 5 27.088 0.827 0.88 6 25. The development of agricultural and industrial economic activities in the second part of the 20th century.642 467.83 977 13.265 82.02 1 20.7 293. and they used to be deposited in wastes’ deposits.13 555.899 150. 261 .43 2004 25.384 0. CH4 and N2O.09 7 202.478 15.520 4.90 6 21.7 2002 31.157 129. At the same time. The higher values at the dioxin level are due to the fact that until 2004 there wasn’t a products’ incinerator with this containing. when most of them were adopted.8 5 2. The dynamic of some air pollutant elements at the level of Bucharest City and Ilfov County Yearly emissions (t/an) SO2 (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NOx (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NH3 (t/an) Nonmethane volatile organic compounds (t/year) Cadmium (t/an) Mercury (t/an) Plumb (t/year) Total dusts (t/year) Dioxine (grams/year ) Bucharest Ilfov 2000 28. reaching a maximum in the year 2003.261 14. especially of CO2.679 765 1.427 50. at the closing of the process of the alignment of legislation in the field. 7 29 145.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest As it can be noticed. until 2007.035 7 104.25 14.107 119.9 0.41 2.526 68.19 0.19 3. 2010.7 1195. having relatively low values in the year 2000.83 6 880 677 0.282 2.38 2 190.40 5 40.093 0.081 0.035 0.048 0.017 5.8 2.069 8 0. Table 3.30 1 30.955 5.12 0. which makes that at the capital’s level the main greenhouse effect gases register almost 8 million tons per year.676 9.7 0. as well as the present dimensions of the activities unfolded in the new emergent structures of the metropolitan area seriously affected the quality of ground and surface waters.

3 the main water-courses by the pollution degree are presented. The unitary approach can eliminate the very high costs. The main collector of waters which crosses the influence area of Bucharest city is the Argeş. which registers very high pollution values. by the improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides following the development of an intensive agriculture. Cociovaliştea and Pasărea. Argeş. Field researches identified economic agents which spillover polluted waters into rivers or undeveloped holes. revealing a dominance of the content in organic materials in the eastern and south-eastern part of Bucharest and the dominance of some micro-elements in the western and northwestern part. due to the discharge of polluted waters in the area Glina. Proposal for a management model of the environment risk in emergent structures A useful instrument in elaborating and implementing the strategies of territorial management is the management model of the environment risk in emergent structures. In this area there were exceeded the limits imposed by the Government Decision no 563/2006 for: dissolved oxygen. The functional disruptions determined by the de-localizing and development of economic activities need. in areas situated nearby some agro-zootechnical complexes (Jilava and Buftea) and in the area Clinceni– Bragadiru. The most important polluted surfaces are nearby Neferal platform in Pantelimon (100 ha). 2009). 9. Ciorogârla. due to oil exploitations. from the surface. the reduced capacity of the existent ones and the deficient management of solid wastes are directly felt in the level of waters’ pollution. The river Dâmboviţa is one of the most polluted rivers in the country. soils in this sylvan-steppe region have a very good cushion capacity of different types of pollutants. beneath the first one. and the one with wastewaters. by their wideness.Ianos et al. Chitila. a unitary approach by institutional structures. coming from the getting together of waters from the two cassettes: the one with clean waters./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). One of the major unbalances determined by the development of economic activities in new emergent structures is the soil pollution. able to elaborate and implement common strategies at the level of those emergent structures. Pollution of natural environment in urban area of influence of Bucharest The lack of water treatment stations. This includes a succession of steps towards an optimization of relationships between the 262 . 1 Decembrie. In Fig. in different areas where the chaotic depositing of garbage and construction materials appears (150 ha). which should serve the capital. Important areas. 1535-1545 Fig. NH4 and NH3 (RAEP Bucharest. 3. Jilava. Buftea.2. thus contributing to the pollution of surface waters and soil. as surface. Măgurele. According to the Agency for Environment Protection. CBO5. Dobroeşti. The analysis of chemical compounds from underground waters shows a certain region-like process around Bucharest. Dărăşti. Sabar. 3. critical areas under the aspect of waters’ pollution are: Dâmboviţa (downstream the capital). which cannot be assumed at individual level by the administrative units from these areas. Overall. were identified in: PopeştiLeordeni.

which besides the essential function they have at the level of the big geosystem. drier and full of unpredictability climate. Bolintin Vale. inclusively by territorial extension on certain directions. Fig. by individual visions. the special natural touristic resources (Snagov. in concordance with the metropolis. will be meant to facilitate the town’s adapting to global climatic changes. In the concrete situation. Pantelimon. The environmental risks management model in the metropolitan area Bucharest 263 . Besides. Comana) or the agricultural resources (Mihăileşti. These may offer the chance for the metropolis and its surrounding area to structure its space in such a manner that on the one hand it could develop itself. in such a context it can be considered that the common strategies of development of Bucharest and metropolitan area must be based on a polycentric vision.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest components of natural environment and socioeconomic environment (Fig. Otopeni and Buftea). The concentration of economic activities and population in these areas usually located along the penetration ways in Bucharest imposes the restriction of the aggression upon forestry and agricultural surfaces. which knew. by their position towards the capital (Voluntari. Popeşti-Leordeni. The specific management of these emergent structures means ensuring a management which takes into consideration the coordinates of a general development. Having these structures in view. must be replaced with a vision which takes into account the characteristics of general flows. Bragadiru. These are the perennial values of Bucharest (besides its cultural values). lake spaces and some wet areas. lakes and hydrographic arteries. new emergent structures are crystallized around some local growth poles. but also to preserve its environment goods. 4). The costs of these inventions will be absorbed by the aware participation of inhabitants and by the advantages which will arise from the smaller efforts of future generations to adapt to a warmer. 4. Chitila. Măgurele. Fundulea) an economic and demographic impulse. the environment resources and the necessity of recreating some natural forestry. which they depend on. polycentrism is based on the idea of avoiding the town’s super saturation and the de-localizing of some activities in accordance with the capacity of harmonization with natural environment. Their chaotic development. This model supposes a vision of sustainable development of Bucharest city together with these emergent territorial structures which for the moment are regarded as disturbing factors of environment.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. air. 33-40.. Ianoş I. Brueckner J. After a chaotic development of these concentrations of economic activities and population carried on around some local growth poles and along the axes of penetration into town. 10.. Ianoş I. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. The carried on researches emphasize the importance of taking into account the town as the main provider of pollutants. Zamfir. water and soil. (2010). as main attacker regarding natural areas and the main actor in shaping the environment and surrounding settlements. New emergent structures must take over a part of these pressures... Elliot J. determines numerous distortions in the process of optimization of the big city’s insertion in the territory.. Palma-Oliveira.. Air Quality Monitoring and Management in Lizbon. C. Năsui D..3 million inhabitants. Draghici C. no. Tente H. Bucharest. Behavior of persistent pollutants and risks associated with their presence in the environment – integrated studies. 1517-1531. Braghină C. Pintilii R. Urban sprawl causes. 5. Braghină C. 90. Cardoso S. consequences and policy responses. 139-147. 342-352.. (2010).. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. The pressure exerted on the natural environment in the open pit exploitation areas in Oltenia. Peptenatu D. The Towns and Organization of the Geographical Space. 65.Ianos et al. 78..L. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. as areas in which the town’s tensions release. Urban Dynamics.D.. Pop C. towards which there are transferred the attributions of identification. Governmental Decision no. The lack of some regulations even from the beginning of transition. 563/2006. Metropolizing NonmetroSpace: Population redistribution and Emergent Metropolitan Areas’.. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the strategic grant POSDRU / 89/1. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal . GD... 141-145..K. 5.. 6. Cercleux.. (in Romanian). 1950). (2011). published in Romanian Official Monitor. These are represented by space.. territorial management supposes the overlapping of the institutional system with a network consisting of the development poles from the metropolitan area. Stoica.D. which ensure the monitoring of the process of implementation according to the targets elaborated at supra-systems’ level. Schvab A. Pintilii R. 1987-1996. Conclusions The new forms of space structuring around a metropolis in transition are in resonance with the processes which take place at its level.. Center for Demography and Ecology. The soils quality from the southern – eastern part of Baia Mare zone affected by metallurgical industry. (in Romanian).. A. Pintilii R. By creating some polycentric structures. Romania. Damian G. Largey A. Peptenatu D. (2010). (2011)..L. Peptenatu D. 169-174. 2006. Urban air pollution monitoring by using geographic information systems: a case study from Sakarya. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. On line at: http://www. Technical Publishing House.. The elaboration of intervention strategies is the responsibility of superior levels.M.. its inconsistency and contradictions after more than two decades stand for a more profound reflection and to action in order to ensure the conditions of sustainable development of such an urban conglomerate. University of Wisconsin-Madison. regarding the procedure for approval of licensing the use of radio frequencies in order to provide mobile communications networks and services of third generation. The role of polycentric network in the demographic dynamic of human settlements. (in Romanian). 10... Ferreira F. The new emergent structures can be considered as the roots of this insertion. Gavrilescu M. The passing from a planned system to another system. Romania. 33. Social interaction and urban sprawl. Constantinescu Ş. which must be preserved at a quality as close as possible to their natural state. Gümrükçüoğlu M.ro/nota-de-fundamentare-h-g-nr-56326-04-2006__l1a84640.gov. 73-84.. Hoseini M.. Cepoiu A. and project Territorial Management Based on Growth Poles Theory (UEFICSU-PNII – Idei. Pricop C. 96-02.5/S/58852.J. it is necessary to ensure the sustainable development of each of these structures.. Bucharest. Nassiri P.. evaluation and treatment of territorial functional disruptions. Schvab A. 25-37. Factors affecting road traffic noise annoyance among white-collar employees working in Tehran. 2. 1535-1545 4.. Bucharest. The Role of Industrial Activities in the Development of Settlements in the Metropolitan Space of Bucharest. 492 from 7th of June. 9. I... (2010)....E. D. (1965). Gavrilescu M. A. (2011). (2006)..M. Academy Publishing House. Sustainability in Environmental Remediation. Territorial management within the systems affected by mining. but by a proper development it should limit its own aggression regarding the resources they have. (2009). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. Case study the SouthWestern Development Region in Romania. Perry M. 1-17.G. Romania.M.. (2000). Fortuna M.R. 251-252. 8. 8. Torres P. Drăghici C. Regional Science and Urban Economics. Project Program for postdoctoral researchers in science education. Journal of Urban and Regional Analysis. Turkey. (2011). Drăghici C.. (1987).V. analysis.. Ianoş I. specific to market economy... as well as of all together with Bucharest..I. J. co-financed by the European Social Fund within the Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources’ Development 2007 – 2013”. (2004).. (2003). Edwin S. (2007). 443-450. 25-34.html.. Damian F. Journal of Urban Economics. Economic Geography Study on The Romanian Territory. CDE Working paper No. Azkhosh M. The different consuming of primary eco-energies and their degradation in 264 . (2009). References Alimohammadi I.. Bucharest University Publishing House. Sarbu. Petrisor. Simion I..B. Humeau J... 7./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). which exceeds 2.

zinc and copper in the bio-accumulative horizon of soils from Iasi and the surrounding areas. Delivering Assurance-Based on ISO 31000:2009. Criteria and indicators for determining the areas of urban influence (In Romanian). Iojă I. The environmental impact of cities. Per capita CO2 emission trends among European OECD countries. (2004).. Stoian D.. 12. policies in Romania: multi-criteria method. Robu B.M. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering..anpm. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal . (2008). Pintilii R.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest territorial systems.pdf. Gavrilescu M. G. (2010). 7.. (2010). On line at: http://www. 10. Mondejar-Jimenez J.. Methods and Techniques for Assessing Environmental Quality in the Metropolitan Area of Bucharest. Vargas-Vargas M. Environmental risk management of urban growth poles regarding national importance. Urban sprawl and climatic changes in Tehran.. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. Risk assessment and crisis management in gas stations...M. 3.. (2009).. Drăghici C.. Draghici C. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering . 9. 6. Law no.. 275-295. 7. Iancu O. Romania. Drăghici C. Peptenatu D. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences.. 7.. Merciu G. Pintilii R. Montero-Lorenzo J. Hodolic J.. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. 5. 765-772 Pintilii R.C. (in Romanian)... (2010)... RAEP. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences..ro/files/APM %20BUCURESTI/Rapoarte %20anuale/ANUAR2009. On line at: http://www. 3540. The effect of green spaces on urban climate and pollution..R. (2009).. Petraru M.. 310/28th of June 2004.. Merciu C. 107/1996.org/iso/catalogue_detail? csnumber=43170. Draghici C. Omidvari M. Sydney. Stamenkovic M. Environmental pollution in functionally restructured urban areas: case study–the city of Bucharest. (2011).G. (2006). amending and supplementing of Water Law no. a key to economic and environmental sustainability. 18. International Journal of Environmental Research. Peptenatu D. 118-126. 6. On line at: http://arpmbuc.. Peptenatu D.L. 87-96.. Secu C.iso. (2008). Petrişor A. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal..D... 43-52. Cercleux A.I. 143-152. 461-468. 421426. (2012). (2010). Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 131-144.pdf. Bucharest..L. 9. Fernandez-Aviles G. Roshan G.. Geography Notices. Tehrani S. 4. Yearly Report regarding the State of Environment in Region 8 Bucharest – Ilfov. (2011).. 135-143. 251-260. Macoveanu M. Standards Australia and the Institute of Internal Auditors.. (2009).D. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Borna R. (2008).C. Environment and Urbanization. Land cover and use changes focused on the urbanization processes in Romania. Pollution prevention.ngo. Tălângă C.. Buzgar N. programs.. Specific Features Of Environment Risk Management In Emerging Territorial Structures. 8.. (2010). 49-56. Strategic environmental assessment for plans.D. Vukelic D. 1865-1872.. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering... Mrkajic V. HB 158. Zanganeh Shahraki S. (2010). 1451-1456. Newman P. Bucharest University Publishing House. 8. Regional Agency for Environment Protection Bucharest..ro/img_upload/745539cf84df80f1b31 6b421e706b571/LEGISLATIE_MEDIU_L_107_1996 _LEGEA_APELOR. 265 . Proposal for reducing problems of the air pollution and noise in the urban Environment. Peptenatu D..V. Lead. Sauri D. Makhelouf A. Ianoş I. 737-746... (2010). Nouri J.. Males M.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful