Environmental Engineering and Management Journal

September 2012, Vol.11, No. 9, 1535-1545

http://omicron.ch.tuiasi.ro/EEMJ/

“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania

ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERRITORIAL EMERGENT STRUCTURES FROM THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF BUCHAREST
Ioan Ianoş∗, Daniel Peptenatu, Radu-Daniel Pintilii, Cristian Drăghici
University of Bucharest, The Interdisciplinary Center for Advanced Researches on Territorial Dynamics, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Blvd., Bucharest, Romania

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to identify certain environmental imbalances triggered by the new emerging structures and to highlight some effects on sustainable development for the metropolitan area of Bucharest. The morphogenesis of these imbalances is based primarly on the restructuring process experienced by the city in the transition process from planned to market economy and secondly, on the result of interaction between it and the new structures appearing due to uncontrolled urban and suburban development. The 15 new emerging structures, individualized for the first time on a uniform methodology, create a constant pressure on the natural environment. This pressure cumulates with the one developed by the city itself, both being evaluated through field research, interviews and through data and information analysis gathered from diferrent institutions and enteprises. All this have emphasized the alteration degree for some natural environmental components along the main access roads, and also between the new emerging structures. Statistical data related to water and air pollution have been provided mainly by the environmental agencies. Information from 30 interviews regarding the decision makers in sustainable urban development have enabled the creation of a pattern for environmental risks in new emerging structures of the metropolitan area of Bucharest. By taking into consideration the regional functions for emerging structures, which are seen as growth poles, this model can be a starting point for a sustainable development approach along with a spatial vision on polycentrism. Key words: emergent structures, pollution, sustainable development, territorial management, trans-temporal pollution
Received: March 2011; Revised final: February, 2012; Accepted: March 2012

1. Introduction The new forms of the urbanization process in the areas surrounding big metropolises of the countries in transition from a centralized system to a system based on market economy, led to the coming out of new structures, characterized by a dynamism which is excessive and often hard to control by the decision-makers from local or regional level. The notion of emergent territorial structure must be regarded in a much larger context, prefigured by (Elliot and Perry, 1965) by the term emergent metropolitan area. By such an approach, classical

theories can be partially contradicted regarding the role of processes of population concentration in the apparition of new territorial structures, placing them on a secondary place, after the processes of economic concentration. The breach between town and surrounding space, noticed during the totalitarian period, is less consistent and permanently pushed towards exterior, ”impoverishing” the natural components of environment, as vegetation, soil, underground waters and microclimate. The new emergent territorial structures have an important role in shaping the relationships metropolis – insertion environment

Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed: e-mail: ianos50@yahoo.com

Braghină et al... these roads cross longitudinally the new emergent structures. 2003). Ensuring a sustainable development of new emergent structures must be based on a multi-criteria approach. chaotically developed. Peptenatu et al. 2010./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). 2011. . The solution is only one: accepting a type of collaborative management. The higher and higher pressure upon natural environment determined by these structures needs the elaboration of new systems of territorial management. 2008.. by the lack of regulations that determine a strong increase of urban pressure. makes decisional impulses is different. 2010). 2009). two processes had to be guessed: the industry’s de-structuring and the tendencies of mass-leaving from the communist blocks from large districts. on the one hand... The dynamic of economic and demographic components from large metropolises in transition shows a permanent de-localizing of activities and population and a transfer of those towards metropolitan areas. generated by their affiliation to at least 5 counties. These are visible in the way of using fields (Petrişor et al.. without a prospective management. 2007). The global management of a metropolitan area as Bucharest is difficult enough due to very different options of the decision factors from local level. intense traffic. higher education. 2009). due to an excessive consuming of the primary eco-energies (Ianoş et al. but in tight connection to it. 2011. inconsistent and contradictory (Peptenatu et al. able to administer emergent structures uniformly. and on the other hand of the way in which they are sustainably enclosed in the context of the insertion environment. Humeau et al. the air pollution with different chemical elements and sediment dusts (Secu et al. Pollution by noise adds to these categories of pollutants. in the process of their conversion and especially in the pressure applied upon natural ecologic systems around metropolises. generate pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects (Gavrilescu.. but never green spaces. From here resulted the necessity of some policies of response. 2011. 2010).. This means a complexity of processes for whose management a strategic thinking is necessary. 2010. Present global changes and especially climatic changes are able to quicken preoccupations for adapting large urban concentrations to an obvious warming.. Vargas-Vargas et al. The activities’ de-localizing. logistical. and in this respect protecting environment goods is essential (Roshan et al. 2004) and to adopt some measures of preventing the degradation of metropolitan area and compromising the chances of sustainable development of the entire assembly: metropolis – metropolitan area. 9. but they introduce new breaches at mezzo. Usually. and at the level of economic and social environments (Brueckner and Largey. for the sustainable development of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest. This pressure will have to be properly estimated and monitored. The lack of some administrative systems. which contributes to exceeding the maximum allowed concentrations along the main roads of penetration into towns (Braghină et al. 2012). Robu and Macoveanu. which should take into account the main directions of future development. The fundamental change of relationships between metropolis and metropolitan area was so brutal. The result was the reconversion of fields in other types of activities: commercial. generating enormous risks for an environment profoundly affected by urban sprawl. which would influence positively the urban microclimate (Ferreira et al. The unprecedented aggression of urban upon surrounding space was an uncontrolled process. The special importance of territorial management models results from the difficulties identified in the global approach of the unbalances from the natural environment of emergent structures. respectively of environment goods. 2009). Gümrükçüoğlu. being determined by economic activities. new economic activities developed outside the metropolis. 2010. 2008). Nouri et al. 2010).and micro-scale. Peptenatu et al. Consequently. starting from a strategic evaluation of 256 metropolitan environment (Iojă.. Damian et al. 2006). interfering one with another. 2010. Bucharest metropolis must inefficiently cohabitate with different ways of management. able to take into consideration all changes which take place both at the level of natural environment. by the infection of ground waters. After the centralized system’s collapse. which is extremely dynamic. which may supply a lot the lack of a territorial cooperation culture (Ianoş. which globally approach these functional disruptions and take into account the big problems related to the precariousness of urban environment (Mrkajik et al. 2010). Petraru and Gavrilescu. 1535-1545 (Newman. As it was mentioned before.. residential. especially of young population..Ianos et al. 2010. contribute to the degradation of environment quality by the increase of soil surfaces affected. 2000. concretized in concrete plans of urban and metropolitan space organization and development (Edwin. The dislocation of economic activities towards suburbs did not mean also the development of accessibility corridors. These pollutants with very complex structures and in which heavy metals have a special place. but especially by the very intense traffic which affects the capacity of work power and the health of population from such structures (Alimohammadi et al. it will refer mainly to those tightly connected to some components of natural environment. 2011.. Makhelouf. 2011). The industry’s destructuring meant the closing of some big industrial enterprises and for some of them the fragmentation or de-localizing (Cepoiu. generating pollutants which have the capacity to persist by cumulative effects. 2009. Fortuna et al. 2011).. In such cases. it’s about sustainable development of each new emergent structure.. in order to diminish the loss of resources. 2010)...

area of leisure activities and weekend travel influence). Field researches along these axes and inside new emergent structures revealed the main unbalances of natural environment (especially air and water pollution). 2009) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Company S. driven around Bucharest.L Location Pantelimon Jilava Voluntari PopeştiLeordeni Vidra PopeştiLeordeni 1 Decembrie Buftea Periş PopeştiLeordeni Pantelimon Pantelimon Clinceni Economic profile Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals Installations for the melting of non-ferrous metals The industrial scale production of main pharmaceutical products Wastes deposits Wastes deposits Installations for the elimination or recycling of animals’ carcasses and animals’ wastes Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of fowls or pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Intensive breeding of pigs Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Treating and processing with the purpose to obtain food products and drinks from raw materials of vegetal origin Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents 257 . S.R. at the level of the entire metropolitan area. and the second – the individualizing of the emergent structures within it. 2008) were selected the territorial structures that have "popped" in relation to its surrounding structures. we have delineated 15 regional structures emerging.A.A.A. n = number of elements taken into account. of the new emergent structures. PROTAN S. S. For the quantifying of the pressure exerted by the de-localizing of economic activities and of population towards suburbs.C.A.L. the analysis of the way in which pollution sources may restrain the process of sustainable development of these structures. S.A.C.C. as follows: the convergence of transport systems. The identification of emergent structures was done on the basis of a set of indicators and criteria. S. 2.C ROMVAC COMPANY S. it has also got dissipative structures or structures with a dissipative character. in the metropolitan area of the city of Bucharest. obviously. the dynamic of economic development. once with the researches carried on in order to prove that except the fact that the town behaves as a thermodynamic and informational open system. MONDO ALUMINIUM METAL-M.M. respectively large transport corridors which connect the capital with the surrounding space and implicitly with the entire country. S.C. The second phase was the individualization in the active influence area.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest This study was done. starting with the year 2009. The location of these emergent structures emphasizes the role of the structural axes of space. Also. whose uncontrolled development can lead to serious environmental problems..A. Table 1.C ROMSUINTEST PERIS S. In this respect. The delineation of the analyzed area was realized in two phases: the first one – defining an active area of influence. SC URBB SRL LOULIS S. area of commercial influence. Iaj = influence area of an element. NEFERAL S. AVICOLA BUFTEA S. demographic growth and the profound identity reconstruction of these areas. Material and method The methodological demarche regarded: the individualizing of emergent structures. Thus. with the complex development index (Pintilii et al.C. area of socio-cultural influence. Main industrial sources of pollution from the metropolitan area Bucharest (Regional Agency for Environment Protection (RAEP) Bucharest. S. SC SILVER HAWK COM IMPORT EXPORT S. 1): Ia =I aj (n ≥3 ) j= 1 n (1) Ia = the influence area of a town/city.L.C.A. S.C.C. PICOVIT ROM IMPEX S. HOBAS PIPE SYSTEMS S.R. real obstacles in implementing a strategy of sustainable development at supra-local level and. 1987) (Eq.R. To define this area of influence it has been considered a methodology based on the overlapping of at least three of the following areas of influence (area of economic influence. S. ECOSUD S. ECOREC S. the analysis of the functional process restructuring and their impact upon the environment from the metropolitan area. there were used the data obtained from the field researches and those registered at the county agencies for environment. frequent on large areas in the metropolitan area of Bucharest city.A S. it could be said that its average extension is given by the "junction areas of influence of at least three elements" (Ianoş. Taking into account that the influence of a city consists of several areas of influence.L. area of demographic influence. a special attention was given to trans-temporal pollution.R.

A. towards the localities around the capital. which establishes five classes of quality. 3. giving a stellar configuration to the entire anthropogenic space (Fig. Jilava and Măgurele. 1). by declaring the town closed. physical-chemical parameters. after the year 1970. especially those localities situated nearby some forestry surfaces.Ianos et al. Pantelimon. 9. 1535-1545 14 S. This information allowed the identification of the location and the economic profile of the most polluting companies. the process of (re)privatization and the development of urban economic activities led to a rapid aggression upon metropolitan space. located in Pantelimon) or even newer as those from Chitila. This explains how in almost two decades some rural settlements (which are towns today) succeeded to have a numerous population (over 15. mainly concentrated at the periphery of the Capital. as an efficient way of reducing the unbalances from territorial systems. Field researches identified a tight connection between their location and the accessibility. As a result. 2009 The mapping by technical observations allowed identifying the areas where unbalances from the natural environment are generated by underdimensioned infrastructure. annex 11. ROMANO TUB S. settled in the first belt of communes around the capital. which remained under-dimensioned. some of them dating even from the inter-war period (Neferal. Except the localization-delocalization process of economic activities. Buftea Installations for the products’ treatment using organic solvents Souce: Agency for Environment Protection. migrated towards surrounding communes.C. The concentrations of economic activities and population concentrations were the basis for the new emergent structures. Comana). Discussing the modality in which a sustainable development of these areas could be reached. not having the possibility to settle in the town./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). once the de-localising of economic activities from 258 . Popeşti-Leordeni etc. These fundamental changes in the relationship between the old and the new metropolis with the space around it generated high pressures upon the road infrastructure of the territory. determining big agglomerations of motor vehicles and implicitly a very high pollution of the air along the corridors of access in Bucharest. 310/2004. in parallel with the coming out of some restrictions regarding the functioning of some pollutant factories in the main urban space. and others were closed. which kept in the line with the process of extensive industrialization did not allow a classical suburbanization process. especially of young population.1. a very strong process was that of population migration. Hence. Bucharest registered an accentuated economic dynamic. able to absorb the more and more intense traffic. once economic activities were de-localized towards the metropolitan area. Other emergent structures. around Bucharest there was a real process of suburbanization in the post-war period. emissions of pollutants evacuated. existent and projected. have allowed the collection of information about developing a model for environmental risk management on the one hand. on the other. 3. especially energy-eating factories. A bird’s eye view upon air pollution in some of the emergent structures nearby the capital shows that emission sources are those “inherited”. After the year 1990. In our analysis. towards the metropolis. conducted with local decision makers and representatives of institutions in the environmental field. The field tests and the 30 interviews. It must be mentioned that unlike other metropolises from Central and Eastern Europe. a false suburbanization resulted. the identification and centralization of production units. a special attention was given to international standards in the field of environment risks management. The retardation produced between the economy restructuring. The population which came from poor regions of the country. polluted (grade 1) and feebly polluted (grade 2). it is considered that it is about a trans-temporal pollution. which repeatedly exceed the maximum allowed concentrations at different types of pollutants. or some concentrations of economic activities (Mihăileşti). areas where the building of an efficient diffluence system was proposed. Some relevant environmental issues and characteristics of the emergent structures from the metropolitan area The dynamic of the town after 1990 meant a hunger for space. which the development of economic activities directly contribute to environmental pollution. The appreciation of waters’ quality was reported to Law no. depending on the hydro-morphological biological parameters.000 inhabitants): Voluntari. as well as the necessity of a systemic approach. A useful instrument in building the risks management models is the ISO Standard 31000 and the ISO Guide 73. Results and comments After 1990. are situated at distances of about 30 km from the capital and they are specialized either around some touristic attraction objectives (Snagov. waters were divided into three quality categories: very polluted (grade 0). sustained by the status of capital. as it can be noticed. lakes or hydrographic arteries. Due to their life period as pollution sources. These instruments establish the main principles within risks management. The rhythm of houses construction (multi-family constructions). some of the factories. published in 2009. which generated material and human flows which were superior to other towns from Romania.

or some fields at relatively advantageous prices (Popeşti-Voluntari. situated nearby the ring road (Baloteşti and Măgurele). Pantelimon.7 6. but especially in the period with frequent thermic inversions (December – February). Territorial distribution of the new emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Table 2. CO. If the way of appearance and the subsequent evolution of emergent territorial structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest is analysed. Only if the frequency of suspension dusts’ exceeding is analyzed. Cr. organic solvents. Fig.24h PM10 PM10 Pb.medie anuală Pb. Cu. respectively 30%) (Table 2). A part of these production units contribute to air pollution with organic and inorganic dusts which contain metals. as well as of the flow of daily travelers. Fe. HCl. Voluntari. or some forest surfaces (Voluntari. NH3. The situation of air pollutant elements in Ilfov county Town Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Baloteşti Măgurele Pollutant type SO2. Măgurele. Ni.1h SO2. CO2. Cd). either thanked to the existence of some lake surfaces (Pantelimon. Al. too (Pb.04767 0. especially in the areas of some localities as: Otopeni. especially in winter time. this registers very different values (10%. smoke etc (RAEP Bucharest. Cernica). H2S). NOx. Zn.1 29 41 0. In this context. the ring road of Bucharest knows a traffic almost constant all the time.05029 No exceeding of timetable limit values 0 0 0 0 15 60 0 0 259 .8 6. The general configuration of circulation shows that outside the axes of penetration in Bucharest. with a superior quality in the northern part of the Capital. Cernica. Due to the transit road flow.1 5. This assymetry explains the aggression of population and economic activities upon natural environment.medie anuală No determinations 7323 4151 322 181 158 245 90 91 Yearly concentration (μg/mc) 5. In this respect.24h SO2. it can be noticed that in two opposite points. Afumaţi. when eastern and north-eastern winds dominate. must be mentioned a paradox: a good part of the new residential assemblies developed around these very polluted areas. Brăneşti). Most enterprises from the table above release in the air large quantities of gases and vapours (SO 2. diminishing the air’s quality and affecting the population’s health state. which know a very intense traffic twice a day (in the morning and in the evening). pollution sources multiplied. Neferal detaches. Popeşti-Leordeni and others.1h SO2. 1. 2009). of that determined by the supplying of economic units situated on one side and the other.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest Bucharest was done. it can be noticed that territorial distribution of „environment goods” was the cause of assymetric development both of the city and especially of its metropolitan area. Măgurele). the pollution on a strap of approximately 3 km on one side and another is very high.

260 . many of the activities becoming incompatible with a healthy urban environment. 1535-1545 Baloteşti Măgurele O3. and in some cases very dangerous for the territorial structures outside it. 9. with another role. 2009 Fig. as well as the construction of a rapid connection between the two highways. 2). the sustainable development of new emergent structures needs. 2. Bucharest. Along the main structural axes from this emergent system. The quantity of pollutants at the level of the big city is enormous. able to permanently adapt to the tendencies of localization of economic activities and population in the influence area. although when implementing a strategy of sustainable development of the Capital and its metropolitan area. it should be started with the allocation of resources for the modernization of this ring road and its functional restructuring. The connection and integration of new emergent structures to the urban space of the Capital turns the present ring road into an internal rink. Despite the fact that the Capital’s atmosphere knows an obvious process of improvement.Ianos et al. The integrated management of peripheral traffic of the Capital lacks totally. there appears a frequent exceeding of maximum allowed quantities. to build some diffluence systems at the entrance in Bucharest of the main access corridors towards central areas (Fig. The biggest danger for the sustainable development of new emergent territorial structures is Bucharest itself. due to the blocking of traffic by large means of transport. Functional restructuring of Bucharest The traffic is so intense that Bucharest risks to be suffocated by its own inaction. the circulation being extremely defective on this road way. besides the modernizing of accessibility corridors from periurban areas.8 36. without diffluence systems and parking areas which should be useful for economic units along these. due to the deficient organizing of accessibility corridors. The high values of pollution in the urban influence area are determined also by the lack of an efficient system of traffic diffluence./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). Thus.medie 8 h O3. From this cause. air pollution at rush hours is very high.9 11 0 Souce: RAEP. different from its present role. still the values remain threatening by cumulative effects (Table 3).medie 8 h 7990 7045 53. Keeping the present functions and especially economic structures will produce big distortions in the sustainable development of the city.

520 4.304 7778.13 555.48 3 22.026 58. at the closing of the process of the alignment of legislation in the field.2 2003 104. The dynamic of these gases is oscillatory.7 1195.626 1348.018 1.40 5 40.305 0.39 6 38.955 5.452 132.899 150.19 0. as well as the present dimensions of the activities unfolded in the new emergent structures of the metropolitan area seriously affected the quality of ground and surface waters.880 4.261 14.107 119.265 82.7 293.87 3 1607.901 225. The dynamic of some air pollutant elements at the level of Bucharest City and Ilfov County Yearly emissions (t/an) SO2 (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NOx (t/an) Bucharest Ilfov NH3 (t/an) Nonmethane volatile organic compounds (t/year) Cadmium (t/an) Mercury (t/an) Plumb (t/year) Total dusts (t/year) Dioxine (grams/year ) Bucharest Ilfov 2000 28. The development of agricultural and industrial economic activities in the second part of the 20th century.053 16.054 107. and they used to be deposited in wastes’ deposits.5 2.88 5 341.069 8 0.035 0.017 5.90 6 21. Starting with 2007 there is a tendency of growth. Bucharest. especially of CO2. 7 29 145.8 5 2.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest As it can be noticed.8 2.679 765 1.08 0.110 68.642 467.83 977 13.0795 0.9 0.528 0.258 2.427 50.30 1 30.63 6 2007 11.41 2.69 1.7 2002 31.088 0.827 0.7 0. except ammonia and dioxin.25 2005 29. Bucharest is also a big producer of greenhouse effect gases.8 2. reaching a maximum in the year 2003. CH4 and N2O.526 68.83 6 880 677 0.282 2. which makes that at the capital’s level the main greenhouse effect gases register almost 8 million tons per year.157 129.8 994 1.154 0.478 15.048 0. when most of them were adopted.049 110.55 617.77 2 2006 9. all other pollutant elements register a decrease.676 9.17 7 2008 2.45 584 1.94 1 33.83 556.093 0.384 0.284 Source: Yearly report regarding the state of environment in Bucharest City for the year 2009.09 7 202. having relatively low values in the year 2000.47 8 32.38 2 190.720 5. and after that a rapid decrease followed.90 7 2009 3. The higher values at the dioxin level are due to the fact that until 2004 there wasn’t a products’ incinerator with this containing. The effect of passing to the implementation of European norms regarding environment is visibly strong starting with the year 2004.063 1244.02 1 20.477 9.3 645.19 3.035 7 104.26 370.06 2.881 2.43 2004 25. the Agency for Environment Protection Bucharest.51 6 38.13 6 11.32 17. At the same time.88 6 25.071 11.25 14.5 5 27.081 0.2 5 12. until 2007.5 2001 41. Table 3.173 1270.571 12.17 44. 261 .056 0.648 15 0. after a big part of them had reached very high values in the years 2001-2003.8 8 56.12 0. 2010.32 Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov Bucharest + Ilfov 4.

Proposal for a management model of the environment risk in emergent structures A useful instrument in elaborating and implementing the strategies of territorial management is the management model of the environment risk in emergent structures. Field researches identified economic agents which spillover polluted waters into rivers or undeveloped holes. were identified in: PopeştiLeordeni. Buftea. from the surface. due to the discharge of polluted waters in the area Glina. 1 Decembrie. and the one with wastewaters. the reduced capacity of the existent ones and the deficient management of solid wastes are directly felt in the level of waters’ pollution. The functional disruptions determined by the de-localizing and development of economic activities need.Ianos et al. thus contributing to the pollution of surface waters and soil. Chitila. 3 the main water-courses by the pollution degree are presented. In Fig. able to elaborate and implement common strategies at the level of those emergent structures.2. by their wideness. beneath the first one. NH4 and NH3 (RAEP Bucharest. Ciorogârla. 2009). due to oil exploitations. The unitary approach can eliminate the very high costs. CBO5. The river Dâmboviţa is one of the most polluted rivers in the country. 1535-1545 Fig. Argeş. Overall. Jilava./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11 (2012). Cociovaliştea and Pasărea. revealing a dominance of the content in organic materials in the eastern and south-eastern part of Bucharest and the dominance of some micro-elements in the western and northwestern part. by the improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides following the development of an intensive agriculture. Pollution of natural environment in urban area of influence of Bucharest The lack of water treatment stations. in areas situated nearby some agro-zootechnical complexes (Jilava and Buftea) and in the area Clinceni– Bragadiru. which cannot be assumed at individual level by the administrative units from these areas. in different areas where the chaotic depositing of garbage and construction materials appears (150 ha). The most important polluted surfaces are nearby Neferal platform in Pantelimon (100 ha). One of the major unbalances determined by the development of economic activities in new emergent structures is the soil pollution. This includes a succession of steps towards an optimization of relationships between the 262 . as surface. Dărăşti. The analysis of chemical compounds from underground waters shows a certain region-like process around Bucharest. The main collector of waters which crosses the influence area of Bucharest city is the Argeş. which should serve the capital. Important areas. Sabar. Măgurele. critical areas under the aspect of waters’ pollution are: Dâmboviţa (downstream the capital). 3. which registers very high pollution values. coming from the getting together of waters from the two cassettes: the one with clean waters. Dobroeşti. a unitary approach by institutional structures. 3. 9. soils in this sylvan-steppe region have a very good cushion capacity of different types of pollutants. In this area there were exceeded the limits imposed by the Government Decision no 563/2006 for: dissolved oxygen. According to the Agency for Environment Protection.

Bragadiru. new emergent structures are crystallized around some local growth poles. drier and full of unpredictability climate. Pantelimon. in concordance with the metropolis. which besides the essential function they have at the level of the big geosystem. Popeşti-Leordeni. 4). in such a context it can be considered that the common strategies of development of Bucharest and metropolitan area must be based on a polycentric vision. polycentrism is based on the idea of avoiding the town’s super saturation and the de-localizing of some activities in accordance with the capacity of harmonization with natural environment. which knew. This model supposes a vision of sustainable development of Bucharest city together with these emergent territorial structures which for the moment are regarded as disturbing factors of environment. Chitila. Their chaotic development.About sustainable development of the territorial emergent structures from the metropolitan area of Bucharest components of natural environment and socioeconomic environment (Fig. Besides. by individual visions. inclusively by territorial extension on certain directions. lakes and hydrographic arteries. These are the perennial values of Bucharest (besides its cultural values). the environment resources and the necessity of recreating some natural forestry. Măgurele. Otopeni and Buftea). Having these structures in view. The concentration of economic activities and population in these areas usually located along the penetration ways in Bucharest imposes the restriction of the aggression upon forestry and agricultural surfaces. The specific management of these emergent structures means ensuring a management which takes into consideration the coordinates of a general development. Fundulea) an economic and demographic impulse. The costs of these inventions will be absorbed by the aware participation of inhabitants and by the advantages which will arise from the smaller efforts of future generations to adapt to a warmer. 4. but also to preserve its environment goods. In the concrete situation. Bolintin Vale. will be meant to facilitate the town’s adapting to global climatic changes. by their position towards the capital (Voluntari. must be replaced with a vision which takes into account the characteristics of general flows. which they depend on. Comana) or the agricultural resources (Mihăileşti. These may offer the chance for the metropolis and its surrounding area to structure its space in such a manner that on the one hand it could develop itself. Fig. The environmental risks management model in the metropolitan area Bucharest 263 . the special natural touristic resources (Snagov. lake spaces and some wet areas.

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