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Wilsons 14 Points
Pres. Wilson outlined his

8. Evacuation of France & return of goals for a peace settlement Alsace-Lorraine in January 1918 9. Expansion of Italy to include all Main goal was to remove the Italian peoples causes of war 10 & 11. Application of self 1. No secret treaties determination to the Balkans, including Austria-Hungary 2. Freedom of the seas 12. Application of self determination 3. Free trade to Ottoman Empire 4. Reduction of armaments 13. Self determination for Polish 5. Self determination for people colonies 14. League of Nations 6. Evacuation of Russia by Britain & France viewed most of Germany these ideas as idealistic and nave 7. Evacuation of Belgium Served as the basis for the Treaty

Paris Peace Conference

January, 1919 to January 1920 30 countries sent delegations to

Paris to create a peace treaty to end the war They had drastically differing goals
France: to permanently weaken Germany Britain: to ensure French security,

David Lloyd George (Britain), Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Georges Clemenceau (France) & Woodrow Wilson

weaken the Germany navy, and strengthen the British Empire US: to resist what it saw as the punitive and imperialist goals of France & Britain Italy: to gain the Austria territories promised by the Allies in 1915 Japan: to gain German colonies in Pacific region and to pass a racial equality clause

Central Powers & Russia were not

Treaty of Versailles
Alsace-Lorraine returned to Anschluss with Austria

France French occupation of the Saarland until 1935 Rhineland permanently demilitarized Loss of small territories to Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark & Lithuania Large chunk of territory given to Poland Port of Danzig made a free city

banned Sudetenland given to Czechoslovakia All German colonies given to Allies as mandates Permanent limits put on size of Germanys military Article 231: War Guilt Clause assigned blame for war to Germany Reparations: Germany must pay 132 billion gold marks to Allies

Northern Schlieswig given to Denmark Demilitarization of Rhineland Anschluss banned Army may not exceed 100,000 Navy may not exceed 15,000 Armed aircraft, tanks, & poison gas banned Colonies given to Allies as mandates War Guilt Clause Reparations Given to Belgium Sudetenland kept by Czechoslovakia Saarland occupied by France until 1935 Alsace-Lorraine to France

Memel given to Lithuania Danzig made a free city

Given to Poland

French thought Treaty too

Anti-treaty protests in Berlin

lenient US Senate rejected the treaty as too harsh and refused to join the League of Nations Germans were outraged at the harsh terms and initially refused to sign it New govt was elected and signed it on June 28, 1919 German conservatives created the stab-in-the-back myth blaming Jews and communists for betraying Germany and vowing revenge

The hour has struck for the weighty settlement of our account. You have asked us for peace. We are disposed to give it to you. Georges Clemenceau The demand is made that we shall acknowledge that we alone are guilty of having caused the war. Such a confession in my mouth would be a lie. Count von Brockdorff-Rantzau If I were a German, I think I should never sign it. Woodrow Wilson Victory was to be bought so dear as to be almost indistinguishable from defeat. Winston Churchill

Treaties of St. Germain & Neuilly

Austria lost land to Italy,

Czhechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia Hungary lost 2/3 of land and its population to Romania, Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia Bulgaria lost land to Romania, Greece & Serbia Italy gained major parts of Austria, including many Germans
Was denied Fiume and African

colonies Italy withdrew from the conference and nationalists took over Fiume

Treaties of Sevres and Lausanne

Treaty of Sevres dismantled

Ottoman Empire French mandates: Syria & Lebanon British mandates: Iraq, TransJordan & Palestine Removed all Arab lands Straits internationalized Armenia created from eastern Turkey Greece given territory in western Turkey Much of the rest of Turkey carved into spheres of influence by France, Britain & Italy

Mustapha Kemal organized a

rebel force which drove out the Greeks and established Republic of Turkey in 1922 Treaty of Lausanne (1923) restored much territory to Turkey Southern Turkey returned and spheres of influence eliminated Straits returned to Turkish control

Ottoman Empire dismantled

Treaty of Sevres

League of Nations
Covenant of the League Not to resort to war
Fascists gained power in Italy in

1922 and demanded Fiume German freikorp (war veterans) Open relations formed and demanded treaty Adherence to international law revision and constantly Respect for treaty obligations challenged the Weimar government Faults Excluded defeated countries Japanese were outraged by the rejection of racial equality Excluded Russia League failed to respond when: US Senate refused to join Japan invaded Manchuria in Lacked strength to enforce 1931 decisions Germany began to rearm in Defeated countries and some 1934 Allies vowed to reverse Italy invaded Abyssinia in 1935


Though it is a harsh treaty, it is a just one. Woodrow Wilson In the end, it is what it is; above all else it is the work of human beings and, as a result, it is not perfect. Georges Clemenceau This is not a peace treaty. It is an armistice for twenty years. Ferdinand Foch


Allies maintain a naval blockade

of Germany for 8 months after the armistice

250,000 civilians die of hunger and

disease in 1919

Communists briefly seize control

of Berlin Many veterans join bands of nationalist thugs called freikorps Nationalists proclaim the stab in the back myth German Army was betrayed by communists and Jews Elected assembly drafts new democratic constitution Weimar Republic

1917: Bolsheviks under Lenin

establish communist regime Immediately seize all land and redistribute all wealth 1918: Violently suppress all opposition Coalition of conservative and liberal opponents called the Whites forms 8 nations send to troops to aid the White armies 1919: Red Army defeats the White Armies one by one 1920: defeats an invasion by Poland

Eastern Europe
1918: Czechs, Poles,

Hungarians, Romanians, Yugoslavs, and Italians all declare independence All create new armies try to snatch as much territory as possible Communists briefly seize power in Hungary Italian nationalists seize the Yugoslav port of Fiume 23 million find themselves ethnic minorities in a newly created country

1918: Allies occupy Istanbul and

open the Straits Greek army occupies key points in western Turkey 1918: Turkish nationalists rally to Mustapha Kemal who creates a new army Turkey defeats Armenia and annexes much of it 1922: Turkish army defeats Greek-French-British coalition and forces 1.5 million Greeks to leave Anatolia 750,000 Turks are deported from Greece

Britain & France

Both end the war with huge

debts Both experienced huge inflation during the war Both expand welfare programs for the poor Britain grants women the right to vote Many colonies begin to call for independence Irish nationalists launch a civil war to gain independence for Ireland successful in 1922

United States
President Wilson suffers a

stroke and is seriously disabled Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles US chooses not to join the League of Nations 1920: Republicans promise a return to normalcy and a return to isolation from world affairs Women receive the right to vote Rising xenophobia leads to tight restrictions on non-white immigration

Italian nationalists seize the

Yugoslav port of Fiume Italian politicians are angered that Versailles does not fulfill all the Allied promises
mutilated victory

Italian nationalists and veterans

begin to form groups of violent thugs called fascists Closing of war industries caused massive unemployment Violent clashes between nationalist veterans and socialist workers

Chinese are angered by the

refusal of the West to return Shantung from Japan Anti-foreign protests on May 4th lead to the May 4th Movement expression of Chinese nationalism 1922: Chinese Communist Party established Growing anger and resentment toward the West and Japan


The Lost Generation

Large proportion of men age 18-

40 are killed or physically disabled Many men carry psychological scars for years Huge deficit of men leaves many women unmarried and depresses the birth rate Medical and disability costs are a huge burden on society End of war production causes huge spike in unemployment High taxes are necessary to pay off war debts

Many lose sense of patriotism Rise in pacifism Growth in cynicism and

nihilism idea that life is meaningless, random and cruel Art and literature mock war, politics and focus on suffering Many turn to radical political ideologies such as socialism and nationalism Many lose faith in idea of human goodness, societal progress, and beauty Many lose faith in Christianity