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Comb Filter Effect

Compal AT- Audio/ Viction_wu

Agenda
What is Comb effect ? Explanation on Comb effect Where can we meet Comb effect ? Mic- Recording comb effect SPK- Playing music comb effect What it sounds like ? Comb effect calculate Thinking exercise

What is Comb effect ?


Definition:
The Comb effect or (Comb filter effect) is due to phase occurs when a signal is mixed with a delayed version of it self.

Why called Comb


The word Comb is raised from the comb shape like frequency filter.

Explanation of Comb effect A) Distance affects the Phase


Speed of Sound is approximately 1130 feet per second in air

Therefore if you have an 1130 Hz tone, it will complete one full cycle in one foot.

Explanation of Comb effect A) Distance affects the Phase


If the microphones are both the same distance from speaker, they would be In Phase and would add together. The resulting tone would be twice the level (6 db) of either tone

Similarly, if the second microphone was one foot further away from the speaker, the two sources would still be In Phase and would again add together.

If the second microphone was only 0.5 feet further away from the speaker than the first microphone, the two sources would now be Out of Phase. This would cause the tones to cancel.

Explanation of Comb effect B) Frequency affects the Phase


At 565 hz (1130 hz x 0.5) the tone will now complete a full cycle in two feet. As seen in the following example, the two tones now arrive Out of Phase and thus cancel. 565Hz

At 1695 hz (1130 hz x 1.5) the two tones also arrive Out of Phase and cancel.

1695Hz

However at 2260 hz (1130 hz x 2) the two tones arrive In Phase and thus add.

2260Hz

Explanation of Comb effect


This effect (Comb Filtering ) can be shown to repeat all the way up the frequency band. The following graph shows the resultant Gain verses frequency. Note that when the two signals are equal, if they are exactly in phase they add 6 db but if they are exactly out of phase, they totally cancel

Where can we meet Comb effect ? Mic- Recording comb effect

Where can we meet Comb effect ? Mic- Recording comb effect

Where can we meet Comb effect ? Mic- Recording comb effect

Where can we meet Comb effect ? SPK- Playing music comb effect
In real life the depth and width of the first cancellation dip varies depending on the level of the reflection, but in most cases it is well audible. This simple case deals with one mode only: the reflection from one wall behind the loudspeaker which usually generates a set of cancellation dips (comb filtering effect). Typically the first frequency response cancellation dip is 6...20 dB deep

Where can we meet Comb effect ? SPK- Playing music comb effect

Where can we meet Comb effect ? SPK- Playing music comb effect

Where can we meet Comb effect ? SPK- Playing music comb effect

What Comb effect sounds like ?


As demonstration movie

Comb effect calculate

Comb effect calculate

Summary
Both Mic and SPK will encounter comb effect. Comb effect will lead to changed of frequency response. Prevent/control time delay or reflection is the key point of solve it. Ideas to reduce the undesired effect of Comb Filtering Reduce the number of paths from the same audio source Fewer microphones Reduce possibility of reflections Reduce the relative amplitude of the additional paths Increase the difference in path lengths (thus the secondary path will have more attenuation) use absorbent material use directional qualities of the microphones

Thinking exercise

Thinking exercise

Thinking exercise

Thinking exercise

Thinking exercise

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