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In atomic physics, the Bohr model, introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, depicts the atom as small, positively charged nucleus surrounded byelectrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleussimilar in structure to the solar system, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity. After the cubic model (1902), the plum-pudding model (1904), the Saturnian model (1904), and the Rutherford model (1911) came theRutherfordBohr model or just Bohr model for short (1913). The improvement to the Rutherford model is mostly a quantum physical interpretation of it. The Bohr model has been superseded, but the quantum theory remains sound. The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. While the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally, it did not gain a theoretical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced. Not only did the Bohr model explain the reason for the structure of the Rydberg formula, it also provided a justification for its empirical results in terms of fundamental physical constants. The Bohr model is a relatively primitive model of the hydrogen atom, compared to the valence shell atom. As a theory, it can be derived as a first-order approximation of the hydrogen atom using the broader and much more accurate quantum mechanics, and thus may be considered to be anobsolete scientific theory. However, because of its simplicity, and its correct results for selected systems (see below for application), the Bohr model is still commonly taught to introduce students to quantum mechanics, before moving on to the more accurate, but more complex, valence shell atom. A related model was originally proposed by Arthur Erich Haas in 1910, but was rejected. The quantum theory of the period betweenPlanck's discovery of the quantum (1900) and the advent of a full-blown quantum mechanics (1925) is often referred to as the old quantum theory.

This is to certify that Master Naman Gupta, student of class 11 B2 studying in R.K.V.M has prepared the INVESTIGATION PROJECT REPORT ON topic- BOHRS ATOMIC MODEL under my direct supervision and guidance.

Signature Maam (Mrs. S.Sathe)

I am very thankful to everyone who all supported me, for i have completed my project effectively and moreover on time. I am equally grateful to my teacher[Mrs. S.Sathe].She gave me moral support and guided me in different matters regarding the topic. She had been very kind and patient while suggesting me the outlines of this project and correcting my doubts also. I thank her for her overall supports. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding me from time to time in making this project .despite of their busy schedules ,they gave me different ideas in making this project unique. Thanking you Naman Gupta XI B2

Niels Bohr was one of the foremost scientists of modern physics, best known for his substantial contributions to quantum theory and his Nobel Prize-winning research on the structure of atoms. Born in Copenhagen in 1885 to well-educated parents, Bohr became interested in physics at a young age. He studied the subject throughout his undergraduate and graduate years and earned a doctorate in physics in 1911 from Copenhagen University. The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. While the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally, it did not gain a theoretical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced. Not only did the Bohr model explain the reason for the structure of the Rydberg formula, it also provided a justification for its empirical results in terms of fundamental physical constants.

In the early 20th century, experiments by Ernest Rutherford established that atoms consisted of a diffuse cloud of negatively chargedelectrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus.[2] Given this experimental data, Rutherford naturally considered a planetary-model atom, the Rutherford model of 1911

electrons orbiting a solar nucleus however, said planetary-model atom has a technical difficulty.


In 1913 Bohr proposed his quantized shell model of the atom to explain how electrons can have stable orbits around the nucleus. The motion of the electrons in the Rutherford model was unstable because, according to classical mechanics and electromagnetic theory, any charged particle moving on a curved path emits electromagnetic radiation; thus, the electrons would lose energy and spiral into the nucleus. To remedy the stability problem, Bohr modified the Rutherford model by requiring that the electrons move in orbits of fixed size and energy. The energy of an electron depends on the size of the orbit and is lower for smaller orbits. Radiation can occur only when the electron jumps from one orbit to another. The atom will be completely stable in the state with the smallest orbit, since there is no orbit of lower energy into which the electron can jump. Electrons can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another, absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency determined by the energy difference of the levels according to the Planck relation:

where h is Planck's constant. The frequency of the radiation emitted at an orbit of period T is as it would be in classical mechanics; it is the reciprocal of the classical orbit period:

Acc. To the classical physics an electron in an orbit around a atomic nucleas should emit electromagnetic radiation (photons) continuously , because. it is continually accelerating in a curved path. The resulting loss of energy implies that the

electron should spiral into the nucleus in a very short time (i.e. atoms cannot exist)

SOME MAJOR POINTS1. Like Einstein's theory of the Photoelectric effect, Bohr's formula assumes that during a quantum jump a discrete amount of energy is radiated. However, unlike Einstein, Bohr stuck to the classical Maxwell theory of the electromagnetic field. Quantization of the electromagnetic field was explained by the discreteness of the atomic energy levels; Bohr did not believe in the existence of photons. 2. According to the Maxwell theory the frequency of classical radiation is equal to the rotation frequency rot of the electron in its orbit, with harmonics at integer multiples of this frequency. This result is obtained from the Bohr model for jumps between energy levels En and Enk when k is much smaller than n. These jumps reproduce the frequency of the k-th harmonic of orbit n. For sufficiently large values of n (so-called Rydberg states), the two orbits involved in the emission process have nearly the same rotation frequency, so that the classical orbital frequency is not ambiguous. But for small n (or large k), the radiation frequency has no unambiguous classical interpretation Bohr's condition, that the angular momentum is an integer multiple of was later reinterpreted in 1924 by de Broglie as a standing wavecondition: the electron is described by a wave and a whole number of wavelengths must fit along the circumference of the electron's orbit:

Substituting de Broglie's wavelength of h/p reproduces Bohr's rule. In 1913, however, Bohr justified his rule by appealing to the correspondence principle, without providing any sort of wave interpretation. In 1913, the wave behavior of matter particles such as the electron (i.e., matter waves) was not suspected. In 1925 a new kind of mechanics was proposed, quantum mechanics, in which Bohr's model of electrons traveling in quantized orbits was extended into a more accurate

model of electron motion. The new theory was proposed by Werner Heisenberg. Another form of the same theory, wave mechanics, was discovered by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrdinger independently, and by different reasoning. Schrdinger employed de Broglie's matter waves, but sought wave solutions of a threedimensional wave equation describing electrons that were constrained to move about the nucleus of a hydrogen-like atom, by being trapped by the potential of the positive nuclear charge.

Electron energy levels

The Bohr model gives almost exact results only for a system where two charged points orbit each other at speeds much less than that of light. This not only includes one-electron systems such as the hydrogen atom, singly ionized helium, doubly ionized lithium, but it includes positronium and Rydberg states of any atom where one electron is far away from everything else. It can be used for K-line Xray transition calculations if other assumptions are added (see Moseley's law below). In high energy physics, it can be used to calculate the masses of heavy quark mesons. To calculate the orbits requires two assumptions:
Classical mechanics

The electron is held in a circular orbit by electrostatic attraction. The centripetal force is equal to the Coulomb force.

where me is the electron's mass, e is the charge of the electron, ke is Coulomb's constant and Z is the atom's atomic number. This equation determines the electron's speed at any radius:

It also determines the electron's total energy at any radius:

The total energy is negative and inversely proportional to r. This means that it takes energy to pull the orbiting electron away from the proton. For infinite values of r, the energy is zero, corresponding to a motionless

electron infinitely far from the proton. Quantum rule

The angular momentum L = mevr is an integer multiple of :

The energy of the n-th level for any atom is determined by the radius and quantum number:

Rydberg formula[edit source | editbeta]

The Rydberg formula, which was known empirically before Bohr's formula, is now in Bohr's theory seen as describing the energies of transitions or quantum jumps between one orbital energy level, and another. Bohr's formula gives the numerical value of the already-known and measured Rydberg's constant, but now in terms of more fundamental constants of nature, including the electron's charge and Planck's constant. When the electron gets moved from its original energy level to a higher one, it then jumps back each level till it comes to the original position, which results in a photon being emitted. Using the derived formula for the different energy levels of hydrogen one may determine the wavelengths of light that a hydrogen atom can emit. The energy of a photon emitted by a hydrogen atom is given by the difference of two hydrogen energy levels:

where nf is the final energy level, and ni is the initial energy level. Since the energy of a photon is

the wavelength of the photon given off is given by

This is known as the Rydberg formula, and the Rydberg constant R is

or in natural units. This formula was known in the nineteenth century to scientists studying spectroscopy, but there was no theoretical explanation for this form or a theoretical prediction for the value of R, until Bohr. In fact, Bohr's derivation of the Rydberg constant, as well as the concomitant agreement ofBohr's formula with experimentally observed spectral lines of the Lyman ( ), Balmer ( ), and Paschen ( ) series, and successful theoretical prediction of other lines not yet observed, was one reason that his model was immediately accepted.

Bohr's biggest contribution in his model was to introduce quantum principles to classical physics, but his model had a few limitations: Spectra of Large atoms: o The Bohr model could only successfully explain the hydrogen spectrum. o It could NOT accurately calculate the spectral lines of larger atoms. o The model only worked for hydrogen-like atoms That is, if the atom had only one electron. Relative Spectra Intensity o Bohr's model could not explain why the intensity of the spectra lines were NOT all equal. This suggests that some transitions are favoured more than others. The Zeeman effect o It was found that, when hydrogen gas was excited in a magnetic field, the produced emission spectrum was split. o Bohr's model could not account for this Solved by accounting for the existence of a tiny magnetic moment of each electron. Stationary states o Although Bohr stated that electrons were in stationary states, he could not explain why. The reason is covered later

You can be certain about the position or momentum of a subatomic particle but never both at the same time.

The more know about the momentum of a subatomic particle, the less you know about its position and vice versa

Canterville ghost, as the title suggests is a ghost story, byOscar Wilde. Very frequently we read horror literature which includes terrifying ghosts and follows a general format which begins with a dark setting followed by a slow insulation of fear and humans are frightened by the ghosts as they have an evident upper hand. But Canterville ghost was the first of its kind I've ever read where a ghost is intimidated by humans so much so that he confines himself to his chamber. On the surface the story presents an old manor house, Canterville Chase which is haunted by the ghost of Sir Simon Canterville who had died some three hundred years ago. The ghost considered himself to be horrendous until an American family arrives into the house. After the arrival of the Otis family, the ghosts tries to frighten them but they over and again mock his presence and efforts. As an example, on his first appearance when the ghost was dragging chains, he was offered Tammany Rising Sun Lubricator by Mr. Otis. Further on his one of the appearances, he was frightened out of his wits by another ghost, which he later realized was a prank played on him by the twin sons of Mr. Otis. The ghost was so exhausted by these encounters that he gave up on the Otis family and came to the conclusion that they did not deserve his efforts of scaring them. Still the ghost does his duty of appearing in the corridors, but he made sure that he did his task as silently as possible (so much so that he uses the lubricator that was earlier offered to him by Mr. Otis). The ghost makes one grand last attempt and yet again fails miserably at it. He becomes sad and dejected and confines himself to one the rooms at the back of the manor. Virginia, the only daughter in the house, was a warm-hearted person. When she sees the condition of the ghost she feels sympathetic to him and eventually leads him to his peaceful end. In my opinion, the book is easy to read and looks like any normal story but if observed, it is a story of contrasts. Wilde has presented his characters as comical figures as he satirizes their weaknesses. He has pitched two conflicting cultures, American and British in the book which makes it even more intresting. Every now and then, the British characters are shown believing in the existence of the ghost and faint at mere mention of his name, whereas the Americans entirely disregard his sheer presence in the house. The use of archaic words makes imagery of the plot even more lucid. On the whole, an abundant use of wit and humour make the book a good read.