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Methods to approach elimination of noise, time response and nonlinearity in sensors

masoumeh asghari ghajari faculty of engineering,electronic department marinaasghari@yahoo.com

Abstract A review regarding the performance of the sensor noise elimination algorithms, indicates the existence of several adaptive noise reduction strategies. The famous one , Wiener filter, which is an optimum filter, belongs to this category and eliminates the noise, in the mean square error sense. A neural network based independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm is incorporated into the system to remove the sensor noise. The proposed intelligent controller, along with this ICA algorithm for sensor noise elimination, is used to handle plant exceptions, such as weak performance of controller owing to faulty sensor readings reduced life of actuators due to frequent false actuating signals to the control valve, to regulate the manipulated variable even when the process is at steady state. introduction The algorithms improved in this investigation are tested on a nonlinear process, since practical systems are not precisely linear. Also , when represented as linearised models around a nominal operating point, the real system characteristics may not be reflected due to variations in process parameters. A nonlinear multivariable interacting process, with parameters (process gain, process time constant), changing with respect to the process variable level, is considered for real time implementation and study. Even though the process is of the first order and simple, it has the desired severe nonlinearity. A deliberate feedback sensor fault is introduced in the sensor used for measuring the process variable level, at random time instants, for a considerably long duration, to test the consistency of the designed estimator. An artificial sensor noise introduced therefore the effectiveness of the independent component analysis (ICA) based sensor noise elimination algorithm is easily observed. Since the requisites for testing the algorithms were present in the chosen model the same was taken up for study.

Coordination model of Multiple sensor with sensor noise elimination scheme and feedback sensor validation network
The nonlinear plant with noise added to both the outflow and inflow measuring sensors according to Figure 1. The model of multiple sensor coordination provided for using in an interacting multivariable nonlinear system, to accommodate single sensor fault and noise in the measured states, that

may occur independently or simultaneously , is shown in Figure 2.. The two independent ICA networks are used to remove the noise present in the inflow and outflow sensors, while the neural network or fuzzy trained estimator takes care of the feedback sensor failure.

Figure1. Plant model with sensor noise added to outflow sensors and inflow

The focus of this work is to show the capability of the designed noise elimination algorithm, to eliminate the sensor noise and extract the correct value of the process . In this work, the sensor noise was created during each of the trial, by filtering noise samples initially drawn from a Gaussian distribution. Though the proposed algorithm is designed to remove noise without regard to a particular distribution, the noise was assumed to have evolved from a Gaussian distribution, since it is sensible owing to the central limit theorem . The distribution of the noise model is important since it is a representative of the physical source from where the noise originated .

Figure 2.model of multiple sensor coordination with the ICA network for sensor noise elimination. . Samples of the non-stationary signals inflow, outflow and level of sufficiently long duration was captured for study and many trials were performed.

Figure3. On-line acquired plots indicating the true outflow process value , ICA estimated value and process value with noise .

The proposed sensor noise elimination scheme was performed and tested for satisfactory performance on the real time plant. The true sensor readings were corrupted with Gaussian noise and indicated to the sensor noise elimination network. The estimated value is compared with the true value, by computing the mean square error deviation (MSE). From the obtained MSE value, it will be

concluded that the obtained values matches well with the true values of the measured states. particularly, the ability of the network to process the noisy level sensor readings and give a good estimate of the true value during the servo tracking response is significant.

2. Now we introduce another method to reduce time response and noise in sensor output. a low noise readout circuit using a high gain switched capacitor (SC) amplifier with reset noise canceling and response time acceleration techniques suitable for thermopile IR image sensors is proposed. The proposed interface circuit is effective for reducing the thermal noise of the sensor output while maintaining the response time. The noise performance of sensor systems depends greatly on the front-end sensor interface circuits. In particular, if a sensing element has a high output impedance, a thermal noise become a dominant component and it has to be reduced by a high-gain lowbandwidth low-noise amplifier. A thermopile infrared (IR) image sensors is such an example.

Fig.4 .

A high gain switched capacitor amplifier with offset canceling the advantage to cancel out all the noises component in the first reset power is defined as the sum of the noise power in the second reset in the amplification phase, hence the total input referred noise is simply Equation (1) when assuming that the load capacitances CLS and CLR

The proposed circuit gives phase . Then the total noise phase and the noise power expressed as shown in the have the same value CL.

(1)

The readout amplifier consists of a high-gain switched capacitor amplifier, two sample-and-hold circuits and an acceleration circuit. Referring to the timing diagram shown in Fig. 5 the readout circuit is working in two phases, a reset phase where the output signal is sampled through CLR and an amplification phase where the output signal is sampled through CLS.

Fig5: Timing diagram

The simulated results well agree with the theoretical one. The advantage of the proposed circuit is the canceling of the large noise component generated in the first reset phase and and time response then the total input . Conclusion The proposed sensor noise elimination algorithm can be incorporated with ease, into any of the existing process control loops, at no extra hardware costs . This permits the use of a commercially available low cost sensor, with the sensor noise elimination taken care by the proposed algorithm. The algorithm can be implemented easily using the unsupervised neural learning architecture. The algorithms are designed to remove the sensor noise in a manner ideally suited for a real time environment, where the sensor noise elimination process need to be performed independent of the ensemble statistics of the signal without regard to a particular class of signal model In part 2 new low-noise readout circuits for high output impedance sensors have been presented. By cancelling the dominant reset noise component, a very low thermal noise can be achieved. The response time acceleration techniques can reduce the settling time by more than 60% while the noise level is unchanged.

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