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EDX Software Reference Manual Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems

EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile/Nomadic Systems Reference Manual Table of Contents

EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile/Nomadic Systems Reference Manual Table of Contents

Reference Manual Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Table of Contents
1. Introduction ...........................................................................NDM-MOB 1-1
1.1. What is the Mobile & Nomadic Systems Section of the Network Design Module? ... NDM-MOB1-1 1.2. NDM-MOB Manual Organization .....................................................................................NDM-MOB 1-2
1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.2.4. System Types ............................................................................................................................................. NDM-MOB 1-2 System Design ........................................................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 1-2 System Studies ........................................................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 1-3 Monte Carlo Analysis ............................................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 1-3

1.3. Installing the Network Design: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Module ..........................NDM-MOB 1-3 1.4. Starting a Mobile/Nomadic System Design ......................................................................NDM-MOB 1-3 1.5. Accessing the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Functions ......NDM-MOB 1-4

2. System Types and Setup ....................................................... NDM-MOB 2-1


2.1. System Types ..........................................................................................................................NDM-MOB 2-1 2.2. Setting the System Type/Service Area ...............................................................................NDM-MOB 2-2
2.2.1. 2.2.2. Cellular/PCS Channel Plan Template Files .......................................................................................... NDM-MOB 2-3 WiMAX/CDMA/iDEN Channel Plan Template Files ..................................................................... NDM-MOB 2-5

2.3. Other System Parameters .....................................................................................................NDM-MOB 2-5 2.4. CDMA System Parameters ...................................................................................................NDM-MOB 2-6

3. System Design ....................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-1


3.1. System Layout .........................................................................................................................NDM-MOB 3-1 3.1.1. Doing a System Layout ...................................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-2 3.2. Cell Site Parameters ...............................................................................................................NDM-MOB 3-4
3.2.1. 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.3.5.

Channels ..................................................................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-4

3.3. Traffic Loading .......................................................................................................................NDM-MOB 3-8


Traffic Data Source .................................................................................................................................. NDM-MOB 3-9 Circuit-Switched Traffic Density .......................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-10 Packet Switched Data ............................................................................................................................. NDM-MOB 3-12 Packet-Switched Traffic Definitions .................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-13 Doing a Traffic Loading Study ............................................................................................................. NDM-MOB 3-13 Frequency Planning Parameters ........................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-15 Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP) ................................................................................................ NDM-MOB 3-17

3.4. WiMAX/Cellular/PCS Frequency Planning .................................................................. NDM-MOB 3-14 3.5. Other Design Functions .................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-20
3.5.1. 3.5.2. 3.4.1. 3.4.2.

CDMA PN Offset Planning.................................................................................................................. NDM-MOB 3-21 Neighbor Lists ......................................................................................................................................... NDM-MOB 3-21

3.6. References ............................................................................................................................ NDM-MOB 3-23

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile/Nomadic Systems Reference Manual Table of Contents

4. Mobile/Nomadic System Studies ......................................... NDM-MOB 4-1


4.1 4.2 Selecting a Mobile/Nomadic System Study .......................................................................NDM-MOB 4-1 References ...............................................................................................................................NDM-MOB 4-5

5. CDMA Monte Carlo Analysis ................................................ NDM-MOB 5-1


5.1. Setting Up the Static Monte Carlo Analysis.......................................................................NDM-MOB 5-2 5.2. Running a Monte Carlo Analysis .........................................................................................NDM-MOB 5-3

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual - Introduction

NDM-MOB 1-1

1. Introduction
1.1. What is the Mobile & Nomadic Systems Section of the Network Design Module?
The Network Design Module is an optional EDX software module connected to EDX SignalPro. The Mobile & Nomadic Systems Section of the Network Design Module (NDMMOB) gives you the advanced, specialized system engineering capabilities needed to layout, design, re-configure, and optimize mobile and nomadic networks such as WiFi, cellular and PCS systems. The NDM-MOB contains special data entry dialog boxes in which you can specify all the details of your system and perform a number of studies to show how the system will perform under different parameter configurations. Each individual system configuration or scenario can be saved, along with its collection of system design maps, to allow rapid comparison and assessment of the relative merits of different configurations. This functionality is especially useful for modern adaptive systems where different system configurations with different loading requirements and channel plans may be employed throughout the day to optimize the system for current traffic distributions. The NDM-MOB is designed to do studies for AMPS, TACS, NAMPS, TDMA (IS136), GSM, CDMA(IS-95), iDEN, GPRS, EDGE, and 1XRTT CDMA systems. Separate parts of the Network Design Module exist for 3G UMTS/W-CDMA and 4G LTE and WiMAX systems. In performing its tasks, this module makes use of many basic signal level calculation techniques that are accessed through EDX SignalPro. A cell site sector (whether omni-directional or sectorized), is analogous to a transmitter site in EDX SignalPro. When you draw a cellular system study map, the program will extract terrain, calculate signal levels, and build a composite area study grid in the same way it does in the main program for a transmitter site (see Section 8.5 for the main Reference Manual). It will create .rad files for each cell sector just as it did for each transmitter site. It is helpful to review Section 8.5 for more background on this process. This module also relies on the database settings that are made in the main EDX SignalPro program. Setting up terrain, land use (clutter), traffic, and demographic databases that are used by the NDM-MOB is done on the Databases menu from the Main Map menu. You can also use the extensive mapping and drawing capabilities in EDX SignalPro to create very detailed and informative base maps for your cellular and PCS system studies. Detailed base maps are an important tool for determining where cell sites may be located, judging where system capacity may be insufficient (or underutilized), and gauging how your system needs to evolve to accommodate changing traffic patterns. Drawing maps of traffic (data rate or call density) is a fundamental part of what EDX SignalPros mapping capabilities can do (see Chapter 7 in the Reference Manual).
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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - Introduction

Because the NDM-MOB offers specialized add-on capabilities, it is important to be fluent with the basic operation and functions of EDX SignalPro before attempting to use this module.

1.2. NDM-MOB Manual Organization


This manual is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 is an introduction, with the following chapters dealing with different aspects of cellular and PCS systems design and analysis in that order.

1.2.1. System Types


Chapter 2 on system types provides information on setting basic parameters for your broadband, cellular, or PCS system, including system type (AMPS, GSM, CDMA etc.), the frequency range that the system is permitted to use, and system parameters which apply to the overall system instead of to individual cell sectors. This chapter also tells you how to setup the files that describe the system service and the channel plan templates that you will use as a basis for frequency assignments within your systems. The NDM-MOB actually lets you set the system type (technology) and operating parameters for up to 5 systems. These can all be analyzed at once if desired so that assessing the impact of overlay systems using different technologies can be done easily.

1.2.2. System Design


Chapter 3 covers system design. For new systems being deployed in un-served areas, or as overlays to existing earlier-generation systems, the system layout function gives you a good initial system geographical design. Once your nominal system layout is done, you can easily re-locate cells (sectors, base stations), add new cells, or delete cells as needed. This is the core information for most systems. You can specify site locations, power levels, directional antennas, channel assignments, and other site/sector information (including site photos) here. For each sector you can even specify sector-specific custom propagation models using a Hata-type equation, an EDX tuned model, or a multi-breakpoint slope-intercept type model. The pointslope model can be built automatically from measurement (drive-test) data. Chapter 3 also describes the functions for frequency or channel planning. Frequency planning can range from simple uniform channel assignments based on standard reuse strategies (N=4 or N=7, for example), to more sophisticated methods which take into account non-uniform traffic distributions and attempt to resolve cochannel and adjacent channel interference conflicts. Given the non-uniform service areas of individual cells or sectors, interference conflicts for real systems often arise which were not apparent with a standard frequency re-use plan based on uniform cell coverage. The automatic frequency planning functions offer you a means of automatically re-assigning channels to resolve interference conflicts and, if selected, simultaneously meet traffic loading objectives. This function makes use of advanced optimization algorithms to develop the best plan given the optimization objectives and calculation time that can be assigned to the effort.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual - Introduction

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1.2.3. System Studies


Chapter 4 describes the set of special systems area studies in addition to the basic areas studies available in EDX SignalPro. These studies include handoff analysis, C/(I+N) given the site channel assignments, first and second most likely server, several special CDMA studies, etc. Chapter 4 describes how to select, perform, and display maps of these studies. The specific equations used for calculating the results shown in these studies are also included here. As mentioned above, a collection of study maps can be developed for each of several system configurations within a project.

1.2.4. Monte Carlo Analysis


Chapter 5 describes Monte Carlo analysis for CDMA systems. CDMA systems are fundamentally dependent on system loading. System loading is the number, location and service requirements of the mobile units that are operating in the system. The most effective way to analyze system loading, and hence, system performance, is to use a Monte Carlo analysis in which the system is loaded with a randomly dispersed set of mobile units. For each distribution of mobiles, the mobiles power levels and servers are calculated, as they would be in a real system. As system loading increases, eventually new mobiles cannot be added to the system due to uplink interference from mobiles already in the system. The rate at which mobiles are being rejected is called the soft blocking rate a quality of service, or QoS, performance measure. When the system is loaded to this point, the system capacity has been reached. By running several such Monte Carlo simulation iterations, a statistically significant sample can be generated that generally characterizes system capacity and performance.

1.3. Installing the Network Design: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Module
The capabilities of this module are automatically installed when you install EDX SignalPro (with the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems) as described in Chapter 1 of the Reference Manual. There is no separate installation to be done. The module code is built into the program and the hardware key you receive contains the proper authorization codes to activate the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems. To verify that the module is properly installed, select Help/About on the EDX SignalPro main menu. It will indicate whether or not the module is installed.

1.4. Starting a Mobile/Nomadic System Design


The standard EDX SignalPro program stores information for a study in the project directory. This directory contains all the parameters and other information needed to completely reproduce a study map on your screen when you open a selected project. The project includes the specific parameters for each of your transmitter sites/sectors, or links, as well as information about the databases, propagation models, and base map features. Projects are explained in Chapter 3 of the Reference Manual.

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Revised: 2012/08/01

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - Introduction The material in this NDM-MOB manual is presented assuming you have already read the Users Guide and the Reference Manual that are included with your software. If you have not done so, please review these materials before moving on to the functions described in the following chapters.

1.5. Accessing the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Functions
If you have started a new project, or opened an existing one, the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems functions will be available to you. To access Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems, select the Network Design/Analysis item on the main EDX SignalPro menu, then select Mobile and Nomadic systems. A Sub-menu will appear showing the various elements provided by the module for this system type. Each element is explained in the following chapters of this module manual.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Types and Setup

NDM-MOB 2-1

2. System Types and Setup


2.1. System Types
The Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems (NDM-MOB) currently supports the following Cellular/PCS system types: 1. AMPS . The original FDMA cellular standard with 30 kHz analog FM
channels.

2. TACS. A United Kingdom derivative of AMPS using 25 kHz instead


of 30 kHz analog FM channels.

3. NAMPS. FDMA with 10 kHz analog FM channels - i.e. 3 channels


per AMPS channel slot.

4. TDMA (IS-136). A digital system with one carrier per AMPS channel
with 3 voice channels per carrier.

5. GSM. A European TDMA standard with 8 full rate, 16 half rate or 8


to16 AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) voice traffic channels per carrier.

6. CDMA (IS-95). A spread spectrum technology using 1.25 MHz


bandwidth multi-user Code Division Multiple Access carriers.

7. iDEN. This is a modulation and system type that is proprietary to


Motorola. It uses 16QAM to achieve 3 voice channels using 3 time slots in a 25 kHz channel.

8. CDPD. This is a 19.6 kbps data service that operates in standard 30


kHz TDMA (IS-136) channels.

9. GPRS. This is a packet-based network using the GSM (GMSK)


carriers with a 8 TDMA time slot arrangement. Unlike GSM, multiple time slots can be assigned to a mobile to increase data throughput.

10. EDGE. This also uses GSM technology with 8 to 16 TDMA time slot
arrangement, but the modulation type is 8PSK instead of GMSK so the data transmission rate is roughly 3 times greater than GPRS.

11. 1XRTT CDMA. This uses a 1.2288 MHz chip rate like standard
normal IS-95 CDMA, but data rates up to 144 kbps can be accommodated by lowering the processing gain to 8 instead of the typical 128 for IS-95 systems.

12. Custom (allows arbitrary settings for band edges, carrier spacing,
and number of voice channels per carrier).

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - System Types and Setup

2.2. Setting the System Type/Service Area


When you select System type/Service area from the Mobile and Nomadic systems menu, you will be presented with a dialog box in which you select the system type and the frequency band over which it is allowed to operate. The first entry on this dialog box lets you set the system name. You set the name, and specify the parameters, for up to five Cellular/PCS systems. Typically, these will use different technologies. The system name will appear on the Transmitter Site Details dialog box, so it is most helpful to choose a name that clearly identifies your system. See Chapter 9.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Types and Setup

NDM-MOB 2-3

In general, the upper and lower frequency band edges are specified by the administrative rules for the particular country of operation. Those values should be entered here after the system type is selected. The carrier frequency spacing is a fixed function of the system type and cannot be changed. Beneath the system type selections, you can select the frequency band. This actually allows you to set up any technology to operate in any frequency band, although such operation may not be authorized by local spectrum regulation authorities. For the selected frequency band, the program will show you the standard frequency band edges. When the group-based cellular/PCS frequency template is used, the lower band edge will be used along with the technology carrier spacing to determine the real operating frequencies for channels assigned to base stations. Depending on the system type and frequency band you select, the number of available channels is derived. For example, if a CDMA system with a single carrier was being added or overlaid on an existing AMPS system, you could indicate that only a single channel was in use by setting the frequency band limits accordingly. If the frequency band you require is not listed as standard band, you can select Custom and enter your own lower and upper frequency band edges. In this way, you can set up your system to utilize essentially any frequency band. In the next entry, you can set the channel plan template for your system. The channel plan templates are described in the following section.

Table NDM-MOB3-1 Channel Plan Template File Name Channel Plan amps7_a.cpt U.S. AMPS A group with N=7 amps7_b.cpt U.S. AMPS B group with N=7 dcs18_7.cpt PCS 1800 MHz with N=7 dcs19_7.cpt PCS 1900 MHz with N=7 gsm4.cpt European GSM with N=4 namps7_a.cpt U.S. NAMPS A group with N=7 namps7_b.cpt U.S. NAMPS B group with N=7 tdma7_a.cpt U.S. TDMA A group with N=7 tdma7_b.cpt U.S. TDMA B group with N=7

2.2.1. Cellular/PCS Channel Plan Template Files


The channel assignments are usually governed by a channel plan of some kind in which channels are grouped together to avoid co-channel and adjacent channel interference conflicts. EDX software comes equipped with a number of channel plan template files for the most widely used system types and frequency re-use strategies, as shown in Table NDM-MOB3-1. In each case the N= is the frequency re-use factor. Depending on the template file you have selected, the actual channel numbers available for assignment to a cell site will change.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - System Types and Setup The channel plan template files are simple ASCII format files that you can create and modify yourself to achieve whatever frequency layout you wish. The format of the channel plan template (.cpt) files is as follows:
n_reuse num_groups, num_ch_per_group, num_control_channels group_name(1), group_name(2) . . . . group_name(num_groups) chn(1,1), chn(1,2) . . . chn(1,num_groups) chn(2,1), chn(2,2) . . . chn(2,num_groups) . . . chn(num_channels_per_group,1),chn(1,2) . chn(num_ch_per_group,num_groups) cntrl_ch(1), cntrl_ch(2) . . .cntrl_ch(num_control_channels)

where:
n_reuse - reuse factor (4, 7 or 12) num_groups - number of channel groups (must be an integer multiple of n_reuse) num_ch_per_group - number of channels per channel group num_control_channels number of control channels (typically one per group) group_name a character string used to label the channel group (for example, 1A, 1B, 1C, 2A, 2B, etc.) This is for interface convenience, the program does not use this information. chn(n,m) the actual channel number for the group. Channel number 1 is assumed to be at the lower end of the frequency range you specified in the System Type dialog box (see Section 2.2 in this module manual). The actual follows: frequency in MHz is typically calculated as

f = f lower + n f spacing
where:

MHz

(2.1)

f is the channel frequency in MHz, n is the channel number in the .CPT file, and f spacing is the carrier
spacing (converted to MHz) set on the System Type dialog box. Although this formula is typical, for some system types like DCS1800 and DCS1900 the channel numbering is adjusted to match industry convention. These conversions are built into the .CPT files supplied with your software.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Types and Setup
cntrl_ch the control channel number for each group.

NDM-MOB 2-5

Although the format of the .cpt file may seem somewhat complicated, by inspecting the .cpt for a well-known system like AMPS (supplied with the software), the proper arrangement of numbers will become clear. The flexibility of the .cpt file format is especially valuable for non-cellular systems that still rely on channel groups and frequency re-use techniques. For such cases, the Custom system type can be selected with lower and upper frequency band edges, carrier spacing, and number of voice channels set as desired. The numbering in the .cpt file will then correspond to the channel arrangement within this system band as explained above. There is also a CPT file editor available in the Utilities > Create/Edit Channel Plan Template (.cpt) file menu With the system type and band edges set, you then click on one of the buttons which will display a dialog box for setting other general system parameters, as described below. If you want the band edge frequencies and carrier spacing set to the nominal standard for the given system type, click on the button labeled Set forward link
band edge to defaults.

The .CPT file gives you the flexibility to devise a channel plan for any system that employs frequency reuse techniques.

2.2.2. WiMAX/CDMA/iDEN Channel Plan Template Files


For iDEN, P25, TETRA and CDMA systems, there is no channel group organization as used for cellular and PCS systems. For these systems, a different format .CPT channel plan template file (type3) is use that can accommodate more generalized channel descriptions. This format is described in another section of this Reference Manual dealing with Network Design Module. Please see NDM Mobile/Nomadic, Chapter 3, System Design for more information.

2.3. Other System Parameters


Clicking on the Other System Parameters button will display a dialog box where a few general system parameters are set. A fundamental mechanism in mobile systems is the handoff (or handover). Simply stated, handoff allows the mobile user or mobile stations (MS) to maintain a continuous connection by handing off the call from one base station (BTS) to another within the system. As the MS travels throughout the system service area, the Base Station that provides the best signal to the MS (and/or receives the best signal from the MS) becomes the serving BTS. As the mobile moves around the network, the BTS may change resulting in a call handoff from the first BTS to the second. Handoff is accomplished by the cell base station (BTS) or mobile station (MS) monitoring the relative signal levels received at the BTS or the MS and making a decision as to which BTS is the best server given the mobiles location. One of the methods used for handover decision is to evaluate the signal levels from the base and determine if the signal is below the minimum useable threshold, and if a second

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Revised: 2012/08/01

NDM-MOB 2-6

EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - System Types and Setup BTS signal is above the handoff threshold. If so, the call is handed off to the second BTS. The two threshold levels for this handoff function are set on this dialog box. As explained in Chapter 4 of this module manual, study maps of handoff are created using these values.

A second handoff method (Power Ratio) compares the signal levels from available base stations. The handoff region is the area where two or more signals are within the specified dB range of each other. As explained in Chapter 4, by separately setting the mobile receiver unit threshold, handoff maps using the ratio criteria can also show areas where there are no signals strong enough to provide service from any BTS. The final parameter on this dialog box sets the adjacent channel interference rejection by the mobile or base station. In calculating C/(I+N) ratios, adjacent channels used by nearby cells are taken into account in calculating overall interference power levels in the receiver. The value entered here is a function of the bandpass filter in the receiver and therefore depends on the selectivity specifications of the cellular equipment in use. When you have made the desired entries in this dialog box, click on OK and you will return to the first Define System and Service Area dialog box. Clicking on OK again will return you to main map view.

2.4. CDMA System Parameters


CDMA systems are more complicated to design because they adapt the number of channels, and the power assigned to those channels, at each cell sector as a function of call demand. To calculate useful system performance maps, several additional parameters are required. These parameters can be specified by clicking on the CDMA System Parameter button on the Define System and Service Area dialog box which will open a new dialog box in which to set these parameters. The current 2G CDMA systems being deployed follow the technical specifications in CDMA-2000 1xRTT and 1xEvDO, which was based on the IS-95 CDMA standard. To accommodate these systems, a fairly complete parameter list is included.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Types and Setup

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The parameters that you will most likely want to adjust for designing a CDMA system are listed below. To see how these parameters are actually used in producing CDMA system study maps, please refer to Chapter 4 in this module manual.

1. CDMA Chip rate. This is set to 1.2288 Mchips for IS-95 and 1XRTT
systems.

2. Forward and Reverse Link Voice Activation Factors. CDMA


systems can take advantage of pauses in human speech by not transmitting during these pauses, thus reducing the amount of interference (noise) caused to other users of the channel. The amount of reduction is determined by the voice activation factor; i.e., the portion of time (less than one) for which speech is occurring. The usual value used here is between 3/8, or 0.375, and .45.

3. Frequency Re-use Factor. This is a measure of the amount of


interference received from neighboring or adjacent cells that contribute noise to the desired uplink signal reception. A typical value used here is 30 to 45%.

4. Target Uplink Eb/No. Several studies for CDMA systems, including


Monte Carlo analysis, require a value for Eb/No (signal-tonoise+interference ratio). A typical value here is 7 dB, which yields a bit error rate (BER) that provides adequate voice service (after error correction).

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - System Types and Setup

5. Total channel codes available. This is set to 64 for IS-95 and


1XRTT.

6. Maximum Base Station ERP per TCE (Traffic Channel Element).


The overall power assigned to traffic channels for a given base station is utilized for the traffic channels that are currently active. For low load conditions (few active mobiles), the base station will divide power among those active channels, causing the power per TCE to rise. This factor sets a cap on how much power will be used for a TCE. A typical value here is 50%.

7. Percent Power in the Pilot Channel. The pilot channel in a CDMA


system is used to maintain synchronization and to make decisions about handoff (see Chapter 4). The amount of the total cell or sector power assigned to this channel is typically 20%.

8. Percent Power in the Traffic Channel. This is the total percentage


power assigned to all traffic channels, and thus divided among the traffic channels. This is typically set at 75%. Note that the actual power assigned to an individual traffic channel will vary depending on the number of active channels in the sector and automatic power control (APC).

9. Percent Power in the Sync and Paging Channels. The remaining


power from the cell or sector is allocated to the paging and sync channels. The sum of the percentages from the pilot, traffic, sync and paging channels must add up to 100%.

10. Handoff Initiate (add) and Drop Thresholds. Also called T_add
and T_drop. These are values of Ec/I0 that are used to determine which base stations or sectors are potential handoff candidates for a particular mobile (see Chapter 4). CDMA has the ability to perform soft handoff or make-before-break call switching in which a mobile is actually in communication with more than one base station at a time. The system in essence selects the best version of the received signal at any given time, resulting in a kind of macroscopic space diversity system. EDX SignalPro with the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems simultaneously assesses the pilot signals (Ec/I0) from the base stations or sectors and determines up to three which are handoff candidates- one of which is currently the server for this mobile (if indeed any service is provided). The CDMA handoff map described in Chapter 4 can display various combinations of these handoffs including hard handoff, soft handoff, softer handoff, soft+softer handoff, 3-way, 4-way, 5-way, 6-way soft handoff . See Chapter 4 for definitions.

11. Orthogonality Factor. For downlink Eb/No calculations, the degree


of interference from other downlink signals coming from the home sector depends on the amount of multipath that the signals experience. With no multipath, the rejection of other downlink signals is perfect because they use orthogonal codes. This corresponds to a orthogonality factor of 1.0. With multipath, the rejection is not perfect and the Eb/No ratio is degraded. Using an orthogonality factor less than 1.0 is an approximate way of modeling this effect.

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Revised: 2012/08/01

EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Types and Setup 12. Traffic Data Rate. Usually you will want to leave this at 9.6 kbps for
typical voice codecs used in IS-95. For special applications, you may want to select 1.2, 2.4, or 4.8 kbps.

NDM-MOB 2-9

13. Imperfect APC Factor. APC (Automatic Power Control) is an


essential part of any CDMA system. It allows the base station, or sector, to automatically adjust the power output of a mobile station so that all the mobiles which are currently in communication with that sector have the same received signal power at the base station. In this way no received mobile signal is a dominate noise component when trying to receive another mobile signal. However, the APC has a difficult task because it must adjust for the relative path loss differences for the propagation path from the base to the mobile, including both slow and fast fading effects. APC adjustments can be made up to 800 times a second, with a dynamic range of 70 dB or more. Because achieving this result perfectly is a challenge for current hardware, the CDMA parameter dialog box provides for entering a factor that can account for imperfect power control. The net effect of this factor is to raise the noise level on any traffic channel (reduce Eb/I0) and ultimately, the capacity of the system. See Chapter 4. A value of 1.0 indicates perfect APC.

14. PN PILOT_INC parameter. This parameter is used to set the


number of PN offset codes that are available in the system. The number of codes is equal to 512 divided by this parameter. The number of PN codes is relevant to the PN offset assignment process described later in this manual.

15. SRCH_WIN_A. This parameter is the width in chips of the search


window for pilot acquisition. It affects the possibility of PN offset interference from cell sites using the same PN offset code as the home cell site but delayed in time. A typical value is 16 chips.

16. Required C/I ratio for Pilot rejection. This value is also used for
assessing the possibility of pilot PN offset interference. When PN offset conflict study is done, or PN offset sequences assigned, the program uses this value along with the search window, predicted received C/I ratios and time delay due to cell site location from the mobile to determine whether there is a potential for PN offset conflicts.

Once you have made the desired selections on the CDMA parameter dialog box, click OK and the changes will be incorporated in your CDMA system studies. When you have made all your desired changes on the CDMA System Type dialog boxes, you are ready to move on to other system specifications, in particular, the base station or cell site details.

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Revised: 2012/08/01

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems - System Types and Setup

1996 - 2012, EDX Wireless - All rights reserved.

Revised: 2012/08/01

EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Design

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3. System Design
The system layout and design capabilities of the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems (NDM-MOB) are primarily used for new systems or overlays on existing systems. You can specify a very general service area definition (a line on a map), a nominal cell radius, a cell site template (with multiple sectors, if desired), and a traffic (required capacity) objective, to complete an entire system design with very little intervention by you. This process is described in this chapter. After the initial layout, you can adjust the location of your cell sites to achieve the coverage required and to accommodate the anticipated traffic. Finally, the frequency planning features described later in the chapter will help you finish your system design so that it includes complete cell site and assigned channels. The contents of this chapter are divided into four main sections:
1. 2. 3. 4. System layout Choosing cell site/sector parameters, including propagation models Calculating traffic loading on your cell site/sectors Choosing channels for your cell sites/sectors.

These topics are presented in the balance of this chapter.

3.1. System Layout


The NDM-MOB provides automatic system layout functions for cellular and PCS systems. Since an automatic layout of this type does not take into account the detailed restrictions on cell site locations imposed by zoning and other criteria, nor does it inherently consider terrain features and other features that affect propagation, the system designs using this function must be regarded as preliminary. Once you have the preliminary design, you can easily adjust the location of base stations using your mouse to comply with zoning restrictions and/or available collocation opportunities as well as calculate and display coverage, interference and capacity maps for the system to check if the service objectives are met. You can also apply directional antennas, sectorization, cell splitting, and other techniques to improve your preliminary system design. Modifying your cell site parameters to accomplish these design refinements is discussed in Section 3.2 of this chapter. To begin your system layout, select Automatic cell layout from the Mobile and Nomadic systems menu on the Network Design/Analysis menu. A dialog box will appear as shown on the next page.

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To do a preliminary system layout, you must first specify a service area boundary for your system, and a nominal cell (hexagon) radius. The layout or geographical arrangement of the cell site locations will be determined by these parameters only. The service area boundary definition is contained in a polygon data file. It is specified on the System Type and Service Area dialog box described in the Chapter 2. It essentially is a polygon file that can be in a MapInfo .mif or .bna format. You can create the boundary line file yourself using the drawing tools in EDX software (see Chapter 6 of the Reference Manual). Alternatively, you can use a predefined MapInfo .mif or .bna file that may describe a BTA or MTA boundary, for example. However you create or obtain this file, enter its name (or select it with the Browse capability) in the location indicated. The nominal cell radius may be difficult to judge without assessing traffic density data. A useful guide may be taken from an existing cellular system with similar traffic demands. Given no other information, a value of 2 to 3 km is a good average starting point for suburban service. Since this layout is preliminary, you will certainly have to adjust some cell site locations after the preliminary layout in any event. You must also choose from one of five transmitter site or base station templates. Depending on the type of system you are designing, you may want to use a simple single sector (omnidirectional) template, or a more common three-sector base station template. Details on preparing your base station templates are found in Chapter 9 of the main Reference Manual. All the cells that are laid out using this function will have configurations identical to the template you select. When the program lays out the cells, it uses a basic hexagon grid to determine their location. The extent of the grid is always sufficient to cover the entire service area inside the boundary you have specified. Having the hexagon grid displayed is often a helpful indication of which cells can be deleted from the initial layout. Check the box where indicated if you want the hexagon grid displayed.

3.1.1. Doing a System Layout


After you have entered the name of the service area boundary and the nominal cell radius, you are ready to have the system layout started. Click on the Start layout button. The dialog box will disappear and your map will be re-displayed with a set of cells whose composite radii completely cover the service area. This is your initial cell layout. You will also be in a special program mode that facilitates adding, deleting and moving cell sites. This is called the cell layout mode. This mode is indicated by the mouse cursor that has changed into a hexagon shape.

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In most cases, there will be cell sites along the periphery of the service area that are not needed. You can delete these by clicking the special hexagon mouse cursor in the cell. If you change your mind and want that cell back, you can click in the open area again and the cell will be put back. When you have finished adjusting the initial hexagon cell layout, click on the Create cell/PCS sites button and the program will remove the hexagon grid and show cell sites at the center of each hexagon. At this point you will also have exited the cell layout mode. Note that the cell sites that are created this way are identical to the transmitter site

New site button

Map screen during cell layout mode

template that is developed as described in Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual. You can make template sites that have directional antennas and sectors, if desired. As each cell is created, it will apply this template information and use the terrain database to find the cell site elevation. If you now want to move any of the sites, you can do so by holding down the Shift key and left-click on the cell site crosshairs to drag it to a new location.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design Later you can also add a cell site by using the New Site button on the toolbar. Click on it and drag it into position. As before, a new site added in this way will use one of the transmitter site templates you select at the time you add the site. With the geographical layout done, the next step in the process is to refine the locations and other parameters for your sites. This is discussed in the next section.

3.2. Cell Site Parameters


The core of any wireless RF communication system is the network of towers, transmitters, and antennas that convert information signals to radio signals that can be received and understood by the intended user or users. The many detailed parameters that describe this hardware for a PCS/cellular system are entered on the Transmitter/Base/Hub Site Details dialog box described in Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual. Please refer to this manual section for complete information. This chapter section will focus on those special functions associated with cell site specifications that are only available with the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems. These include:
1. Access to the channel plan dialog boxes where you can view, add, and delete channel groups or individual channel assignments for your sector. 2. Access to sector-specific propagation models that can be tuned to best fit a set of drive-test measurement data.

These topics are discussed below.

3.2.1. Channels
The Channels/Traffic button on the Transmitter/Base/Hub Site Details dialog box is used for specifying the channels in operation at the currently highlighted sector. The appearance and contents of this dialog box depend on the selected PCS/cellular system type (see Chapter 2 of this manual). The operation of the Channels dialog box for each system type is discussed below.

3.2.1.1. Channel Selection for TDMA(IS-136), and GSM


For , TDMA (IS-136) and GSM the Channel/Traffic dialog box lists all possible channels available to you. For a TDMA or GSM system, there is also an option to manually assign either a traffic channel (red) or control channel (blue)

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If you have just completed a system layout and/or frequency plan process, you will notice that the Channel/Traffic dialog box shows several channels highlighted in red. These red channel numbers were assigned to this sector using the automatic frequency planning procedures described in Section 3.3 of this chapter. Before you change any of them, you might want to first prepare a C/(I+N) ratio map as described in Chapter 4. This will show you areas where the predicted C/(I+N) ratio is below a given level, say 18 dB, using these channel assignments at each sector. This analysis will consider both co-channel and adjacent channel assignments. For areas where the C/(I+N) ratios are below the desired level, you can use the mouse to investigate these locations and determine the two strongest signals which are likely interfering (the sector IDs and signal levels are displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the screen). With the conflicting sectors identified, you can then return to the channel screen for the sectors and make adjustments to clear the interference. To make it easier to recognize the channel group assignment conflicts, you can choose to make the sector icons display colored bands that indicate the channel group in use at that sector. The color assignments for each channel group are made

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design as described in Section 3.3 of this chapter. You can select the icon displayed for sectors by accessing the Style button for the Transmitter/Base/Hub Sites layer in the Map Layers dialog box. On the Channel Plan dialog box, you can also lock-in the currently displayed channel assignments. If the channels on a sector are locked, it will prevent any changes being made to them by automatic frequency planning functions as described in Section 3.3. You will also see on the dialog box two entries for sector traffic. The predicted traffic is found by doing a traffic loading study as described in the next chapter. At the conclusion of the traffic loading study, this predicted circuit-switch traffic loading in milliErlangs is automatically filled in along with the required number of channels to achieve the objective QoS value given the average call length. This information can be used as a guideline for how many channels you will need assigned to this sector to handle the predicted traffic load. The measured traffic entry lets you record measured traffic milliErlangs from some external source you may have such as data from a switch. It is shown here for comparison purposes against the predicted traffic. It is not used in calculations. Beyond the normal frequency re-use plan, which is the starting point for a system design, some general guidelines can be employed in choosing frequency assignments drawn from Reference [1]: 1. Do not assign co-channel or adjacent channels at the same cell site. 2. Do not assign co-channels in adjacent cell sites. 3. Do not mix and match frequency assignment groups in a cell or
sector.

4. Avoid adjacent channel assignments in adjacent cell sites. 5. Maintain the proper channel spacing of 630 kHz (21 channels) in any
channel assignment on the same sector or cell site.

6. Maximize the distance between re-using cell sites. To add a channel, simply click on that channel and it will change color. To un-assign a channel shown in red (or blue), click on it and it will change to black. You can also add and remove whole subsets of channels by clicking on the subset label button at the top of the column. You will notice as you add and delete sub-sets and channels that the total channel count shown at the top of the screen will change. You can specify up to 200 channels in a given sector.
.

The Channel/Traffic dialog box also lets you set the digital color code (DCC) for IS-136 TDMA systems on the Channels dialog. The DCC assumes one of four states and should be assigned using the guidelines[1]: 1. Maximize the distance between reusing the same DCC. 2. Avoid using multiple DCCs at a cell site. For GSM systems, you can also set the BCC and NCC (which, combined, form the BSIC) in the Channel/Traffic dialog box. Since the BSIC is used to differentiate

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Design co-channel BCCH sectors, it is important to use unique BSIC (BCC+NCC) assignments on sectors that share the same BCCH carrier frequency assignment. Once you have set the channel assignments, DCCs or BSICs for your cell sectors, you are ready for the final step before calculating and displaying coverage, interference, and handoff maps. That step is to specify the propagation model you want to use for predicting path loss and hence, received signal strength. Selecting, or creating, a propagation model is discussed in Section 3.2.2 on the following page.

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3.2.1.2. CDMA Channels


As mentioned at the beginning of this section, if you have selected a GSM or CDMA system type, the Channels dialog box will be different with channel selections (for GSM) which are tailored to that technology. For CDMA (IS-95 or 1xRTT/1xEvDO) systems, these channels are only used to show available capacity on the sector. They are not used for C/I ratio studies since this analysis is not relevant to predicting the performance of CDMA systems where each of the cell sectors share the available CDMA carriers. However, because the system performance depends on the traffic channel load (which changes), in order to do studies, you must specify a particular loading for each sector. You set the traffic channel (channel element) loading on the CDMA Channels dialog box. Appropriate values range from 15 channels for light loading, to 30 for medium loading, to 45 or

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design higher for heavy loading. The channel loading for the CDMA sector can be automatically set by using traffic loading study as described in the next chapter. This study analyzes the traffic requirements in the service area of each sector and calculates the required number of traffic (voice) channels for a given QoS (Erlang B blocking rate). The channel loading for each sector (whether entered manually or automatically calculated) is used for CDMA static area studies such as uplink BER and Eb/No. (See Chapter 4 in this manual section). On the CDMA Channels dialog box, you can also set the power allocation for individual sectors if desired. Normally the CDMA parameters entered on the System Type/CDMA dialog box will govern how power is allocated at every cell sector (see Section 2.4 of this manual). However, you can modify these default, systemwide values to fine-tune your system. You can also adjust the handoff values, T_add and T_drop, and the traffic data rate. In addition, you can set the pilot PN offset index (1 to 512, usually). PN offset planning functions for CDMA systems are further discussed in Section 3.5.1. of this manual section.

3.3. Traffic Loading


Once you have established the geographical location of cell sites to provide adequate signal levels throughout your service area, the next step in designing a PCS, or cellular system is to assign channels to those sites. In most cases you will want to assign channels to meet some service objective for the system. The number of calls that people make or the amount of data transmitted on a cellular system is referred to as traffic. The objective of the system design is to meet the traffic demands. For traditional cellular telephone service this is defined as a switched circuit. Ideally, whenever someone attempts to make a call, that call is put through and maintained until one or both parties hang up. However, this implies that calls will always be connected when calls are attempted (never blocked) which for most systems is an unrealistically high service expectation. Therefore, as described below, cellular systems (like standard wire line telephone systems) are designed with a particular Grade of Service (GoS) objective in mind. For a given geographical cell base station layout, the assignment of channels to individual cells or sectors will be determined by the desired call blocking probability and the traffic requirements in each part of the service area.

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However, if the traffic is packet data such as for short messaging or internet web pages the packets are not permanently blocked but delayed in time before they can be sent. The number of channels required is determined by the total average data rate sent through each sector divided by the data capacity of the channels. Before we can assign channels, however, we must first determine the traffic load on each cell base station or sector. To calculate traffic loading on the sectors in your system, click on the Network Design -> Traffic Loading > (Circuit-Switched or Packet-Switched) menu item. This will display a dialog box where you can set the traffic distribution data source, set the details of circuit switch or packet-switched traffic loading for each traffic source, and select which transmitter group to calculate traffic loading for.

3.3.1. Traffic Data Source


There are four traffic data sources, or distributions, which can be selected:
1. Uniform Traffic Distribution. Uniform distribution in which the probability of traffic originating from a given place inside the cell system service boundary is assumed to be equal. 2. Traffic base on Land Use (Clutter) Database. If you select this traffic data source, the distribution of traffic will be weighted according to the land use or morphology category. Typical there will be more calls or data originating from urban areas than agricultural areas, for example. To use this option you must have specified a land use (clutter) database as described in Chapter 10 of the Reference Manual. 3. Traffic based on demographic database. If you select this option, the traffic will be weighted according to the population in a given region of your cell system service area. To use this option you must

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have specified a demographic database as described in Chapter 10 of the Reference Manual. 4. Traffic from traffic database. If you select this option, the traffic will be weighted according to actual traffic density valued in a traffic database in a given region of your cell system service area. The type of traffic to be calculated in the system is defined by the type of data stored in this database. If it is voice traffic the data will be expressed in milliErlangs. If it is packet data then the traffic will be in Kbps. To use this option you must have specified a traffic database as described in Chapter 10 of the Reference Manual.

The dialog boxes for entering circuit-switched and packet-traffic are described below.

3.3.2. Circuit-Switched Traffic Density


On the Circuit-Switched Traffic Density dialog box you can enter specific information about the traffic on your system. The first two entries are for average call duration type of blocking calculation and circuit blocking (call blocking) percentage which is the normally used Grade of Service metric for a circuit-switch communications system. For a CDMA system the Forward and Reverse link voice activity factor defines the relative amount the time voice data is present on these links. A value of 1.0 indicates voice data is present all the time. There are also entries where you can enter the number of calls per hour per square kilometer for:
a) uniform traffic distribution (square kilometers) b) demographic traffic distribution (1000 persons)

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Design c) for each of the land use (clutter) categories that are found in your
land use database.

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The traffic load in mErlangs is determined as follows. If the number of calls per hour and the call duration are known, the required traffic load in mErlangs can be found as:

A=

QT x 1000 mErlangs 60

(3.2)

where: Q is the number of call requests per hour and T is the average call duration in minutes. For example, with 200 calls per hour, and an average call duration of 2 minutes, the traffic load is 6,670 mErlangs. The number of radio channels needed to handle this traffic loading can be identified using the Erlang B or C formula described below.

3.3.2.1. Blocking Probability (Grade of Service)


The call blocking probability is a measure of the quality, or Grade of Service (GoS). It is the probability that a mobile user attempting to make a call will be denied access on the first attempt. A widely used value here is 2%. Smaller values (higher GoS) will require more voice traffic channels to accommodate the same number of users. Higher percentage values will require fewer voice traffic channels. The first and most common method of determining blocking probability in a trunked radio system is typically found using the Erlang B formula:

AC Pr[blocking ] = C C ! k = GOS A k =0 k !

(3.3)

Where C is the number of available trunked radio traffic channels and A is the total offered traffic load or more commonly, capacity at a given GoS. The Erlang B formula, also known as the blocked calls cleared formula, is not the only formula for determining the number of necessary radio channels, but it is by far the most commonly used. For reasons that wont be addressed here, it also provides a conservative estimate of capacity. A second method is where the blocked call is placed in a queue until a channel is available for it. This is the Erlang C formula, known as the blocked calls delayed formula.

Pr[delayed ] =

AC A C + C!(1 A C 1 A k ) C k = 0 k!

= GOS

(3.4)

This is used to calculate the probability of a call not having immediate access to a channel and therefore would be placed a queue and delayed.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design Regardless of the method chosen the program automatically determines the number of required channels for a given call duration and call blocking probability when you do a traffic loading study as described in the next section.

3.3.3. Packet Switched Data


In a 2.5G, 3G or 4G LTE or WiMAX system, data traffic is sent between the base and mobile by breaking it up into manageable small blocks called packets. The data transmitted or received by each user is stored in these packets and are transmitted on the same physical channel as packets from other users. As the number of users or the amount of data sent by each user increases the latency or time delay inherent in the data transmission goes up. This effectively reduces the maximum data rate or throughput of each user. For packet data the traffic loading study will not calculate the number of channels required in each sector but will report the average traffic rate and from this you can easily calculate the number of channels necessary to carry the calculated load. In order to calculate the total amount of average traffic to be carried by each sector, the mix of traffic to be carried is specified in the two PacketSwitched Traffic dialog boxes, one for WiMAX systems and the other for UMTS and LTE systems. On the Packet-Switched Traffic Density dialog box you can enter specific information about the traffic on your system. You will see a dialog box where you can name up to five different user types that will be serviced by your system. These names can be anything, but are best chosen to indicate the type. Typical examples are Residential, Mobile, Small Business, etc. For each user type you can specify the density of each of the four possible traffic density sources listed above. For example, if you want to plan your system to accommodate 17 mobiles/square km, enter a 17 in the first column after the row where you have listed Mobile. A similar approach is used to plan for a certain number of users per 1000 population. To set user density levels for different land use categories as defined in your land use database, click on the button as indicated alongside the user type.

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If you dont have specific information on the number of users in given areas, you can instead choose to entry a single data traffic load in kbps that represents average traffic for all user types that will be used in a sector service area. To do this, click on the radio button labeled Use single average traffic density for all service types. The appropriate data entry points will become active and you can then enter the desired values.

3.3.4. Packet-Switched Traffic Definitions


On the packet-switched density dialog box described above, you enter the names of up to five different user types that can be serviced by your system. For each of these five you specify the details of the data rate separately for both the uplink and downlink. This is done by clicking on the Packet-switched traffic definitions button on the Traffic Loading dialog box. This dialog box is used for WiMAX, LTE, Multipoint, 1G/2G/2.5G, and 3G systems. For 1G/2G/2.5G systems the only data used from this dialog is the maximum data rate entered for the uplink. This value should be set as follows:
1. The maximum data rate (the data rate at which packets are transmitted). Only the uplink data rate is used for 1G/2G/2.5G systems. 2. The required Eb/No for the service (this is usually a function of data rate, the speed of the mobile, and the type of propagation environment). Not used for 1G/2G/2.5G systems. 3. Where the service is real-time such as voice. If this box is not checked, it is assumed the service is non real-time data. Not used for 1G/2G/2.5G systems.

3.3.5. Doing a Traffic Loading Study


Before doing a traffic loading studies, there are several parameters that need to be set. The first chooses the transmitter group for which the traffic loading is to be calculated. (See Chapter 9 in the Reference Manual for information on Transmitter Groups). Typically you will be calculating traffic for all cell base station sectors in your system, but if desired, you can create sub-groups of sectors and just calculate traffic loading for them.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design The Signal Level Threshold is set in the RF Systems > Mobile/Remote Unit parameters for Mobile 1. On the Traffic Loading dialog box, you also have the option to have only a portion of the total calculated traffic load applied to your selected group or cell base stations or sectors. Normally this should be set to 100%. However, if you are designing an overlay system that is intended to handle only a portion of the overall traffic load, or you have a CDMA system in which the traffic load is shared among more than one CDMA carrier, you may want to set this to something less than 100%. With these parameters set, click on the Calculate average traffic load on each sector button. The program will proceed to calculate the service area of each sector (those areas where it is the most likely server). With the service areas known, it will use your selected traffic data source (uniform, land use, demographic, etc.) to determine the traffic load in the service area of each cell sector. Finally, it will translate the traffic load into the required number of radio traffic channels to achieve the specified Grade of Service (blocking percentage). A status window will be displayed as the program progresses through these calculations. When the calculations are finished, the results are written to a report called sector_traffic_loading.txt that can be found in the \reports folder of your project directory. You can use the Utilities\System reports feature to view this or any other report file. The traffic loading information is also automatically attached to the data for each cell sector so that it appears in the Predicted value of the sector traffic section of the Channels dialog box for each sector (see Section 3.2.1.1). The calculated number of radio traffic channels to achieve the specified GoS is also shown in this section of the Channels dialog box.

3.4. Cellular/PCS Frequency Planning


With the traffic load calculated for each cell base station or sector, it is now possible to assign the appropriate number of channels to each sector to handle this traffic. If you have a small system, or a simple system layout, assigning channels can be done manually as described in Section 3.2 using the guidelines provided there. Any channel plan, whether manually created or automatically created, can be studied in terms of potential interference as described in Chapter 4. If your system is large or complicated, the automatic frequency planning capabilities of the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems can be used. This process is described in the following sections.

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3.4.1. Frequency Planning Parameters


Several parameters are required to do a successful frequency plan. These are explained below:

3.4.1.1. C/I Ratio Objective


This parameter is only used for frequency planning options 2 and 3 below. In doing a frequency plan, the first step is to determine which sectors are geographically close enough (or close enough in radio propagation terms) to potentially cause interference to one another. The threshold of determining what constitutes

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design interference for this purpose is set here. For AMPS systems, 17 or 18 dB is typically used.

3.4.1.2. Percent Interference Acceptance


When a frequency plan is done, it cannot perfectly assign the channels so that all the interference conflicts are resolved and all the traffic is accommodated. This parameter tells the program that the maximum percentage of a sectors service area (i.e. the area where it is the strongest signal) which can be lost to interference is this percentage value. A typical value here is 5 or 10 %.

3.4.1.3. Use Measured Interference matrix file


Frequency assignments are normally done using interference that is calculated using the propagation model for each interfering sector. However if you have switch or drive test data that can define the interference for each sector, this can used by choosing this option. The name and location of this file is entered in the Define System/Service Area window and selecting the Other System Parameters. The measured interference data entered into this file must follow the format described below:
siteid_serv(1), num_intrf(1) siteid_intrf(1), signal_level_ratio(1), std_dev(1) siteid_intrf(2), signal_level_ratio(1), std_dev(1) siteid_intrf(3), signal_level_ratio(1), std_dev(1) . . siteid_intrf(num_intrf),signal_level_ratio(num_intrf),std_de v(num_intrf) . . siteid_serv(num_serv), num_intrf(num_serv)

where:
siteid_serv the site ID of the serving sector enclosed in single quotes (ex, AAAA0001) num_intrf the number of interfering sectors listed for this serving sector siteid_intrf the site ID of an interfering sector enclosed in single quotes signal_level_ratio the mean measured signal level ratio in dB between the interfering sector and the serving sector std_dev the standard deviation in dB of the signal level ratios assuming a normal distribution num_serv the number of serving sectors with information in this file

3.4.1.4. Assign Control or Traffic channels


The type of channel to be assigned is chosen using this option. To assign control channels (TDMA[IS-136], GSM) select the Assign single control channel only to each sector. The program will choose control channels from the complete list of channels found in the channel plan template; there is no distinction made

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Design between control or traffic channel use in the template. To restrict the assignment of control channels to a subset of the entire channel plan, make up a channel plan template that has only the desired channels and use this for control channel planning. After the control channels have been assigned, the Assign traffic channels only (preserve control channel assignments) can be performed. This will protect any control channel assignments (the blue channel numbers in the transmitter channel plan grids) while assigning the traffic channels.

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3.4.1.5. Traffic Source


When using Level 2 planning as described below, the traffic source that determines system loading can be specified. For 1G/2G/2.5G system frequency planning only the Voice traffic (in milliErlangs) is considered. . Either predicted or measured traffic can be selected. These traffic figures are drawn from the appropriate entry found in each transmitter sectors Channel Grid window. The traffic value used for planning can be scaled up or down by entering a number other than 100% in the Percent of total traffic for planning box. When planning GSM, GPRS, or EDGE systems, virtual traffic channels can be assigned to physical BCCH frequencies. The Number of traffic channels carried on BCCH frequencies is used to define the number of traffic channels assigned to these frequencies. The desired Signal Level Threshold is set in the RF Systems > Mobile/Remote Unit parameters for the mobile/remote unit number/type that is selected for the AFP.

3.4.1.6. Deny Co/Adj channels at site


These two options allow you to restrict the assignment of adjacent channels and/or co-channels to sectors at the same base site. Typically co-channels are never assigned to different sectors at a site unless the channel re-use is one.

3.4.1.7. Minimum Channel Separation at Site


In some systems, even adjacent channels do not provide sufficient isolation between sectors. This value allows you to set the minimum channel spacing between channels assigned to sectors at the same base site. Zero is the default.

3.4.1.8. Assign Fixed Number of Channels


Normally the number of channels per sector is determined by the estimated traffic load at the sector. If this information is not available this option allows you assign a fixed number of channels at each sector.

3.4.2. Automatic Frequency Planning (AFP)


There are three methods of PCS/cellular automatic frequency planning (AFP) available in the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems. These three methods are discussed below.

3.4.2.1. Internal
When you select Internal, you will invoke EDXs method for AFP. This method provides for interference conflict resolution as well as balancing channels assigned to sectors to match traffic demand.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design When using Internal (or External), the first step the program performs is to calculate a sector compatibility matrix. This is done only inside the service area as defined by the service area boundary file entry on the Define System and Service Area dialog box. Inside this boundary, the program will calculate and define the service areas for each sector as those locations where that sector provides the strongest signal. Only those sectors whose signal exceeds the Required Service Threshold found in the selected Remote/Mobile Unit will be considered. Next it will look at the signal levels inside each sectors service area and determine those which are strong enough that the C/(I+N) ratio objective is violated (see Section 3.3.2.1). It will track all those areas where this ratio is violated for each sector and the sectors that cause the interference. It will then calculate the degree of interference each other sector causes by calculating the percent of interference locations as a function of the total service area for the victim sector. Finally, based on the service area of each sector, it will determine the traffic load from the areas served by that sector (see the options in Section 3.3) and, using the GoS, calculate the number of voice channels needed at that sector using the Erlang B formula or in the case of packet-switched traffic the number of channels based on data/channel The results of this processing are written to an ASCII data file called cellcmpx.dat. This is the basic data that the AFP optimization will use to do its work. The format of the cellcmpx.dat file is as follows:
EDX cell sector AFP compatibility matrix num_sectors cinr accept_intrf minutes_per_call blocking_prob siteid_serv serv_area calls traffic num_chan_req num_chan_assigned ky_lock nchan(1) nchan(2) nchan(3) . . . . . . . nchan(num_chan_assigned) siteid_intrf(1) prcnt_intrf(1) siteid_intrf(2) prcnt_intrf(2) siteid_intrf(3) prcnt_intrf(3) . . . siteid_intrf(num_sectors-1) prcnt_intrf(num_sectors-1)

where:
EDX . . . - header line to identify the file num_sectors the number of sector with information in this file cinr the objective C/(I+N) ratio accept_intrf the percent of interference which can be accepted in a sector service area minutes_per_call the average call duration in minutes Blocking_prob the percent blocking probability Siteid_serv the ID of the serving sector

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Serv_area the total area for this serving site square kilometers calls - the number of calls per hour for this sector traffic the required traffic load for this sector num_chan_req the number of channels accommodate the traffic given the GOS. num_chan_assigned the assigned to this sector. number of required to

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channels

currently

ky_lock this equals 1 if the channel lock checkbox is checked on the channel plan screen for this sector. These means the current assignments for this sector are to remain unchanged. nchan(1), nchan(2) . . . the channel numbers currently assigned to this sector. If the channel assignments on this sector are locked, then the AFP algorithm must preserve this channel assignment list and protect it from interference during the AFP process. siteid_intrf the ID of the interfering sector prcnt_intrf the percent of the total serving sector service area that is interfered with by this interfering sector. This number is a relative indication of degree of conflict between the serving sector and this interfering sector.

The above information is listed once in the cellcmpx.dat file for each sector in the system. With the information in this file, and the cell channel plan template showing the number of available channels, the EDX AFP algorithm is ready to do its work. Basically, it attempts to devise channel assignments for each sector so that the traffic demand is met while at the same time making channel assignments so that no same or adjacent channels are used between sectors that have conflicts. The basic technique it uses is called simulated annealing (SA), which is a combinatorial optimization process. Discussing of this technique can be found in references [2][4]. The technique in the EDX AFP most closely follows the approach in reference [4], even though the optimization objective in that paper is different. With simulating annealing (SA), there are several parameters that are used to control the process. Typical values are:
number of cooling levels = 300 cooling level step multiplier = 0.85 number of iterations at each cooling level = 900 co-channel cost weighting coefficient = 1.00 adjacent channel cost weighting coefficient = 0.01 interference cost weighting coefficient = 1.00 demand cost weighting coefficient = 1.00

You can adjust these parameters if desired for your particular optimization. Before doing so, however, it would be worthwhile to review references [3] and [4] to understand the significance of the parameters.

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Depending on the number of sectors, and the parameter settings, this process could take from several minutes to several hours to complete. When completed, the program will return with a message asking you to accept or reject the channel plan that has been produced by the AFP process. The channel assignment results will be contained in an ASCII data file called chanplan.tmp. If accepted, the chanplan.tmp file is read by EDX software and those channel assignments loaded into the channel plan dialog box data positions for each sector. From that point forward you are ready to begin coverage and interference studies with your new optimized channel assignment plan.

3.4.2.2. External
External basically gives you access to an external dynamic link library (DLL) which contains your own compiled and linked code for doing the AFP. Before calling this routine, the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems performs all the calculations to create the cellcmpx.dat file as described above. It then passes this file name and the other relevant file names to the external AFP routine. When this routine is completed, the channel assignment results are written to an ASCII file called chanplan.tmp from which the channel assignments are imported back into EDX SignalPro.

The details of how the parameters are passed to the external routine, and the required format for the resulting channel assignment file, are found in the comment statements in the sample ext_afp.for code included on the distribution CD. Appendix J also has for more information on using this and other external calculation DLLs with EDX SignalPro.

3.5. Other Design Functions


Depending on your system type, the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems includes two other design functions that you may find useful. The first is CDMA PN offset planning which is obviously relevant only to CDMA system such as IS-95 and 1XRTT. The second is a neighbor list calculation, an operation that is useful to all types of cellular systems. These functions are described below.

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3.5.1. CDMA PN Offset Planning


When you have a CDMA system, each sector is assigned a pilot PN offset code that is used for cell site pilot recognition. It is important to assign PN offset codes that do not interfere at the mobile unit, otherwise there could be pilot ambiguity and the call will fail to set up or be dropped. Whether or not interference occurs between PN offset codes depends on the assigned codes, the time delay between the arriving signals, the search window width, and whether the amplitude of the interference signal is sufficiently strong to cause interference. The latter two parameters (search window width and necessary C/I ratio) are set on the CDMA Parameters dialog box for the system. When the PN offset planning function operates, it will attempt to assign the PN offset codes to each sector starting with the first available code. It will analyze the potential for interference for both co-channel and adjacent-channel codes. If it finds no potential for interference, it will assign a code and move on to the next sector. If it finds potential interference, it will move on to the next available code and try the process again. It will keep trying until if finds a suitable PN offset assignment for each sector that does not conflict with the PN offset assignment. The actual engineering calculations used to determine whether there is potential interference are somewhat involved. The method used in the NDM-MOB is derived from the information in Reference [5]. Please consult this reference for further information. Depending on the system you are designing, you may also want to set some PN offset codes in reserve to provide for the future addition of microcell cells or other overlay systems. You can crate a list of such reserved codes in this dialog box. The program will avoid assigning any PN offset codes that are listed as reserve codes.

3.5.2. Neighbor Lists


Neighbors in a cell system are other cell base stations or sectors that have signals of sufficient strength in the service area of another cell base station or sector where

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Design they are candidates for call handoff. Normally neighbor lists are part of the information that is stored at the cell site and, depending on the cell technology type, are downloaded to the mobile unit to facilitate handoff from the currently serving base station to another base station.

The neighbor list calculation in the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems is intended as a simple means of determining which sectors are neighbors, and thereby, handoff candidates. In the dialog box set the minimum percent area of the primary server that needs to be covered by another server in order for the other server to be considered a neighbor. You can optionally include the 2nd and 3rd best servers in the list and not include co-channel neighbors (same channel or frequency). Select the transmitter group for which you want the neighbor list study done. There is also a selection as to how to select and rank sectors for determination of them as a server or neighbor. Power Received ranks them based on power at the Remote unit whereas C/(I+N) Best Channel looks for the best possible C/(I+N) of a server using one of its assigned channel plan channels (this option is intended for systems other than WCDMA/UMTS). The signal thresholds at which a server can be considered a neighbor is set by the user selected Remote/Mobile Unit Required Server Threshold or Required Service C/(I+N). When these parameters have been set, click on the Calculate neighbor lists for all sectors button and the calculation process will begin. Fundamentally, the program assesses the service area of each sector by looking for study grid points that are above the Signal Level Threshold as set in the RF Systems > Mobile/Remote Unit parameters for mobile 1. The analysis grid points within this service area determine which other cell sites are the second and third (if selected) best servers within the

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual System Design service area of the primary server. These are considered to be the neighbor cell base stations or sectors to which handoffs are likely. There is also an option in this dialog box to copy the predicted list of neighbor cells directly into each sectors actual neighbor list in the selected group. When the analysis is complete, the neighbor list is applied to the information for each cell base station or sector. It can be viewed by selecting the Neighbor List button on the Transmitter Details dialog box as described in Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual. A report is also available under Utilities -> System Reports.

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3.6. References
[1] Clint Smith and Curt Gervalis. Cellular System Design and Optimization. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1996. Chapter 4. [2] E. Aarts and J. Korst. Simulated Annealing and Boltzmann Machines. New York: john Wiley & Sons, 1989. [3] M. Duque-Anton, D. Kunz, and B. Ruber. Channel assignment for cellular radio using simulated annealing, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. VT-42, no. 1, pp 14-21, Feb. 1993. [4] H.R. Anderson and J.P. McGeehan, Optimizing microcell base station locations using simulating annealing techniques, Proceedings of the 44th Vehicular Technology Society Conference, Stockholm, June 1994, pp. 858-862. [5] Samuel C. Yang. CDMA RF System Engineering. Boston: Artech House Publishers, 1998, pp. 165-174.

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4. Mobile/Nomadic System Studies


EDX software offers many Basic Area Study methods that can be used to find system performance information for your set of transmitters/sectors. These studies are listed in Table 8-2 of the Reference Manual, with a detailed discussion of the calculations given in Appendix F. Many of these study types are directly useful to your design, such as received power (base-to-mobile and mobile-to-base), most likely server, and others. To understand and use these studies, review Chapter 8 of the main Reference Manual and Appendix F. While the Basic Area Study types available in EDX software are useful for a wide variety of wireless communication systems ranging from broadcast to paging, WiMAX, LTE, PCS and cellular system design requires additional specialized studies. The Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems (NDM-MOB) augments EDX softwares Basic Area Study types with several specialized GSM and CDMA studies. Maps showing C/I ratio considering co-channel and adjacent channel assignments, handoff areas, adaptive modulation areas, several CDMA system study types (forward link E b / N 0 , reverse link BER, etc.), and even the number of available traffic channels are easily displayed on your map with the NDM-MOB. The first part of this chapter describes how to select these special study types. The second part of the chapter provides detailed calculations with equations for the information shown by each of the specialized maps.

4.1

Selecting a Mobile/Nomadic System Study

To do a system study, select the Studies > Area Studies item from the menu as shown in Chapter 1 in this section menu. A dialog box will appear which is the Area Study Manager dialog box for the current Map View. The studies you have already selected (whether Basic Area Studies or specialized Mobile/Nomadic Areas Studies) will be shown here. To add a new Mobile/Nomadic study, click on the Add Study button. A new dialog box will be displayed where you can set the details of the study you want to do. The first entry is the most important the study type. Table CC4-1 shows the currently available study types in the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Studies

The other study and display parameters that you enter on this dialog box are explained in detail in Chapter 8 of the main Reference Manual. Before starting an Area Study you must first specify the parameters of the cell sectors that will be involved in the study and set those sectors to Active. Refer to Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual for information on setting cell sector parameters. You may also want to arrange the cell sites into groups so they can be studied independently or together. Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual discusses how to create and edit transmitter groups. You also need to specify the parameters of your mobile unit on the Remote/Mobile Unit dialog box as described on Chapter 9.3 for the Reference Manual. The mobile power (ERP) is especially important for accurate studies of uplink performance. Finally, you must also specify the general parameters of your PCS or cellular system described earlier in Chapter 2.

See Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual for more information on setting the cell sector parameters.

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Table CP4-1 Specialized Mobile/Nomadic System Studies


No. 101 102 103 104 105 108 109 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 30 Study Type C/(I+N) using channel plan 2nd best server Handoff regions for non-CDMA systems CDMA best server based on pilot Ec/Io CDMA best server based on traffic Eb/Nt CDMA handoff regions - hard, soft, softer, soft+softer, 3-way soft, 4-way, 5-way, 6-way CDMA reverse link BER Strongest CDMA Pilot Ec/Io CDMA forward link Eb/No Number of CDMA pilots above T_add Number of CDMA mobiles supported for target Eb/No CDMA pilot PN offset conflicts CDMA reverse link Eb/No CDMA reverse link ERP to achieve target Eb/No GSM worst case channel RXQUAL GSM Frame Erasure Rate (FER) 1XRTT CDMA maximum data rate GSM RXLEVEL GSM control channel (BCCH) RXQUAL GSM traffic channel (TCH) RXQUAL GSM AMR code rate GPRS (CS-2) Block Error Rate (BLER) GPRS(CS-2) maximum mobile data rate EDGE(MCS-7) maximum mobile data rate 1XRTT CDMA maximum data rate Blocking rate with predicted sector voice traffic Blocking rate with measured sector voice traffic CDMA (IS-95) forward link Frame Error Rate (FER) CDMA (IS-95) reverse link Frame Error Rate (FER) CDMA reverse link ERP to achieve target Eb/No based on traffic Worst channel C/(I+N) for multiple-channel systems

After selecting the study and map display types, click on Set Signal/Color Levels where you can enter the number of ranges or levels. You can enter from 2 to 15 ranges or levels. Next move to the box below and enter the study level and colors associated with those levels. For composite grid plots you must also select a grid symbol type for each range. The solid (filled) rectangle is most commonly used, but several other types are available with varying densities. Using these different symbol types can help produce an effective grid plot on monochrome printers. Because the values entered for grid and 3D plots are actually ranges, the last range value is automatically set to be everything lower than the second to last level.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems System Studies

For color gradient and composite contours, the range labels change to level labels. Each level value and color is independently specified. The grid symbols do not apply to these plots. For best or most likely server studies, there is no specific level information so colors and symbols are initially and automatically assigned to cell sectors by the program. These colors are then displayed at those study area locations where that cell sector provides the strongest signal. Once you have displayed a most likely server map, you can adjust the colors and symbols associated with individual sectors to eliminate color conflicts with neighboring cell sectors. These color/symbol adjustments are done for each sector on the Transmitter/Base/Hub Sites Details dialog box as described in Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual. Below the display type selection, you will see places to select the Primary and Secondary transmitter groups. Transmitter groups are created and used as described in Chapter 9. For all Area Studies except one, only the Primary group is relevant. The drop down list here will show you all the transmitter groups that have been defined. You may select any of those listed. The Secondary group selection is only used for the C/I ratio - group 1 TXs to group 2 TXs study.
Appendix F describes the study types in detail

The next selection in the Area Studies dialog box is whether you want to use the radial line or direct to grid calculation method. Normally, the radial line method is your best choice, but for some circumstances you may want to use the direct-to-grid method. More information on making this selection can be found in Appendix F. Another piece of information that is entered in the Area Studies dialog box is the display signal threshold. This quantity is used in assessing whether the signal received at the mobile or remote unit from the base is above or below the threshold. By selecting an appropriate value here, you can suppress display of any C/(I+N) or MLS information where the received signal level is below the entered threshold value. In this way, you can logically AND the display area study results with a service threshold. See Appendix F to understand exactly how this value is used in calculating and displaying a study.
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The Area Studies dialog box also provides a number of other selections that control the line widths for various areas study displays where lines are involved. For most C/(I+N) calculations, you will also see a set or radio buttons that give you the option of choosing which quantities are used in the denominator. For some types of analysis, it is helpful to see C/I only or C/N only to get a view of the extent to which interference or noise alone is affecting the received signal. After you have set all the parameters in the Area Studies box, select OK. Then click on the Area Study button on the toolbar. Before actually displaying the study, the program performs a series of steps to calculate the signal level for the active transmitters involved. The first step is to extract terrain elevations around the cell sector as specified for that cell sector (see Chapter 8 of the Reference Manual). The next step is to calculate signal levels where the terrain elevations were found. The final step is to take the signal levels for each transmitter and combine them in such a way as to produce the study results that youve selected. As it performs each of these steps the program will display an appropriate status message. The significant results at each step are saved in files that are stored in predefined subdirectories so they can be re-used later if they are applicable. Terrain extraction files are stored in subdirectory TRN and have file names id.trn where ID is the transmitter eight-character identification code. Similarly, the signal level results are stored in subdirectory SDY and have files names id.rad. The final displayed study results for grid and contour studies are stored in a file called an .mxx grid file that can is stored in the \MXX folder in your project directory. This file is recalculated whenever you start a study. When the study results are finally displayed, the program will return to the normal
Main Map display with your current Map View. All the additional spatial and other

Area study button

Only active sectors in Active groups are use in the study.

map data you have selected will also be displayed along with your area study information. The formulas or equations used to construct the Area Study types found in this module are set forth in Appendix F of this manual.
Appendix F describes the study types in detail.

4.2

References

[1] V.G. Garg and J.E. Wilkes. Wireless and Personal Communications Systems. PrenticeHall PTR: Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1996. Page 42-45. [2] Samuel C. Yang. CDMA RF System Engineering. Boston: Artech House Publishers, 1998, pp. 165-174. [3] Thomas Nielsen, Jeroen Wigard. Performance Enhancements in a Frequency Hopping GSM Network: Kluwer Academic Publishers. April, 2000.

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5. CDMA Monte Carlo Analysis


The performance of cellular systems is primarily a function of two things:
1) The basic service area of the system as determined by minimum receive signals for both uplink and downlink, and 2) The system loading how many users are attempting to access the system at a given time

A well-designed cellular system that is extracting the maximum capacity from the infrastructure will be interference-limited. Because of this, the issue of system loading becomes the critical one. Unfortunately, how the system is loaded is a function of where the mobile units are and what service level they require. Although it is possible to use statistical probabilities for where a mobile is more likely to be, it is not possible to know specifically where any particular mobiles will be located at any given time this is inherently random. However, to accurately access cellular system performance, especially CDMA system performance, some way of estimate or assuming specific mobile locations must be used. One approach that is commonly used to deal with this problem is the so-called Monte Carlo method so-named for the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. A Monte Carlo analysis essentially is an educated guess at where the mobiles are, like guessing the outcome in gambling. By making multiple guesses, and assessing the outcome (system performance) after each guess, you can gain an understanding for the actual operation of the system under a variety of loading conditions. In the same way, if you did not know that a die had six sides, you could figure this out by simply rolling the die a number of times and noting that (eventually) every side comes up approximately 1/6th of the time. To achieve an accurate profile of system performance, a Monte Carlo analysis on a cellular system also has to run a number of times to produce a result that is a statistically significant representation of the system performance. The Monte Carlo analysis is also a satisfying approach in that it closely mimics the actual operation of the cellular system. As a mobile user attempts to make a call from anywhere in the service area, the analysis will calculate the best server for that mobile, analyze interference, adjust mobile power levels, etc., just as the real system does. If the system is unable to connect the mobile, it will report it as blocked and move on to the next randomly positioned mobile and try again. When the rate of blocking exceeds a given design level, the system is considered to have reached its capacity limit. Although the Monte Carlo approach could be applied to any cellular or PCS system, in general it is only used for CDMA systems since he capacity and service range of such systems is directly affected by the loading. The following sections of this chapter describe the operation of the Monte Carlo analysis in the Network Design Module: Mobile & Nomadic Systems.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems CDMA Monte Carlo

5.1. Setting Up the Static Monte Carlo Analysis


To start the Monte Carlo analysis, select Static Monte Carlo simulation from the 1G/2G/2.5G Cellular/PCS menu. This will bring up a dialog box where you can set a few basic parameters that control how the analysis is done. At the top of the dialog box you can enter the number of iterations. For each iteration, the program will start loading the system one mobile at a time until the simulation stopping point is reached. This can be either a fixed number of mobiles added, or more typically, the point where enough mobiles have been loaded in the system that the soft blocking target rate is achieved. When all the mobiles have been added that can be added, the end of one iteration has been reached. When you set the number of iterations, you are telling the program how many such system-loading trials you want to do. Technically, the number of iterations should be chosen so that sufficient trials have been completed and the summary of the results are statistically significant. Informally, this will depend on how much the results vary from one iteration to another. By observing these variations in the Monte Carlo reports, you can get a sense of how many iterations provide you with enough information to know the average loading your system is capable of. A typical value to start with is 10 to 20 iterations. Of course, the study calculation time will be a direct function of how many iterations you select, and how complicated your system is (how many base stations).

See Chapter 9 of the Reference Manual for more information on setting the cell sector parameters.

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems Reference Manual CDMA Monte Carlo The next set of items on the dialog box let you select the method for terminating each iteration. As mentioned above, usually a system loading trial or iteration is terminated when the soft blocking rate on adding new mobiles exceeds a given percentage typically 2%. You can also select a given disconnect rate or average sector loading percentage as the termination threshold. Alternately, you can force the system to load a fixed number of mobiles and then observe the resulting blocking rates in the Monte Carlo analysis reports for each iteration. The next entry lets you select which transmitter group will be used in the analysis. Usually you will want all your base stations in the trial, but for special circumstances, you may want to do loading analysis on just a subset of your base stations. One important note if you do this: since the random placement of mobiles will be everywhere inside the system service boundary, you will usually want to adjust this service boundary so that it just encompasses the reasonable service area of the subset of base stations in your selected group. If you use a much larger service area description, the Monte Carlo analysis will attempt to add mobiles that are far away from your subset of base stations and cannot possibly be served. The soft blocking rate will quickly be reached and the analysis results will be pessimistically biased. The next entry lets you choose the distribution of mobile types you want to use. In EDX SignalPro you can specify the parameters of up to five different mobile units. The entry on the Monte Carlo dialog box gives you the option of using one or more mobile units, and selecting what percentage of the total mobiles will be represented for each type. When the simulation is running, it will use the specific characteristics you have set for the mobiles including noise figure and transmit power levels. The final entry lets you select a seed number for the random number generator than is used to place the mobile locations. By using the same seed number every time, you can exactly repeat an analysis (iteration) if you choose to do so. Of course, when running multiple iterations in sequence, the starting mobile seed on only the first iteration is controlled by this seed value. Before you begin your analysis, it is important that you check that your base station parameters are set the way you want them. The static Monte Carlo analysis will use the system base stations exactly as you have specified them. If they are incorrect, the result analysis will also be incorrect. In particular, make sure that your have set the mobile maximum and minimum ERP for the mobile on the Receiver/Remote /Mobile Unit dialog box on the RF Systems menu. This power range is critical to the analysis since it sets the power control range available on the mobile unit. A minimum power range of 40dB is required for a successful study.

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5.2. Running a Monte Carlo Analysis


Once you have set all your Monte Carlo analysis parameters the way you want them, your CDMA system parameters are correctly set, and your base station and mobile parameters are the way you want them, you are ready to start the analysis. Click the Start simulation button. The program will first analyze downlink and uplink signal levels using standard area study methods as described Chapter 8 of the Reference Manual. With these values established, the program will start to place mobiles using your selected traffic distribution. A status box will be displayed that shows the iteration number and the number of mobiles that have been added. When it reaches

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems CDMA Monte Carlo the termination point for the iteration, it stops that iteration and goes on until all the iterations youve requested are completed. At the conclusion of each iteration, the program writes two files: one is a report file (.txt) file located in the Reports folder of your project directory that summarizes the results and outcome for that iteration. The name of this file is 2g_ carlo_mc_xxx.txt, where XXX stands for the iteration number. There will be one file produced for each iteration. You can view the contents of the file by selecting System reports on the 1G/2G/2.5G Cellular/PCS menu, scrolling down to the desired report file and double clicking on the name. The file will be open and displayed in WordPad where you can edit, print or rename the file. Note that these iteration files are temporary files - they will be over-written the next time you do a Monte Carlo analysis. If you want to preserve the results from any iteration, save or copy the file to another name. At the end of each iteration the program also creates a MapInfo format MIF file (and companion MID file) that shows the final location of the mobiles when the iteration ended. These mobile locations can be displayed on your map as diamond symbols by using EDX softwares geographic file display feature as described in Chapter 7 in the Reference Manual. When displayed, the mobile distribution map becomes another map layer that is display relative to all the other map layers. Displaying the mobile locations on your map for a given iteration can provide useful inside as to why a particular iteration may have produced skewed results. At the end of all the iterations, the program produces a summary file called 2g_cdma_monte_carlo_summary.txt that can also be found in the \Reports folder of your project directory. This file contains the final results for each iteration as well as an average value for all the iterations. This average value is an indication of the average system performance and number of mobiles that your system can support given the infrastructure (base stations) locations, system parameters, and assumed traffic distribution.

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Figure NDM-MOB5-1 - Monte Carlo mobile placement with uniform traffic distribution

Figure NDM-MOB5-2 - Monte Carlo mobile placement with demographic traffic distribution

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EDX Wireless NDM: Mobile & Nomadic Systems CDMA Monte Carlo

Figure NDM-MOB5-3 Example of part of the report produced of system performance for each iteration.

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