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Week 9 6th May

International communication: the movement of messages across national boundaries between and among two or more networks and cultural systems (Mowlana 1986, 4) medium of content can shape communication (media studies) boundaries to seem real > psychological boundaries inclusiveness/exclusiveness concerns people, business, governments at global scale The founders of the field, Harold Lasswell and Daniel Lerner, were preoccupied with the 'dark side' of political propaganda and the 'light side' of the propagation of modernity respectively (Chitty, 2004: 42). Origins of study of IC: - Cold war (1950-1991): bipolarity- situation of strategic confrontation between west and east after WW2 (competing for dominance of world)---> two blocks competition for signing on new states as clients: ideological liberal (democratic- US) versus communists (USSR) Economic development aid direct investment trade investment into research and development in communication Old approach to flows: dependency approach of 1950's centre-periphery model UK was centre, surrounded by india,australia, canada etc (commonwealth) commonwealth was dependent on centre for protection Harrod Lasswell's flow chart: triangular structure (bottom to top) masses (peripherals) ---> intermediate influentials ---> influentials (centre) Manipulators of flows of: 1. symbols 2. goods and services 3. instruments of violence UNESCO studies of 1950's and 1960's focus on imbalances in news flows US promoted free flow UNESCO's McBride commision: free flow one way flow (periphery to centre, not the other way round) vertical flow market dominance

training disparities technological disparities each nation allowed to strengthen its own media--> less reliant on centre-periphery IPDC 1980's: UNESCO based department International program for development of communication supports training and infrastructural development for developing countries New ICT led economic growth in 1990's: - Asia becomes major producer and consumer of ICT Manuel Castell's network society free flow- information between each country New Approaches: Information society supported by rise of internet/technology information globally accessible less censorship--> free access not just mass-media, but smaller independent information has become most valuable factor of society- something of value and intrinsic to the substance of society (contrast to past societies where production of food, materials etc.) globalisation; CNN, BBC, Al-Jazeera, CCTV supported by rise of internet/technology Reversal of flows; eg: australian tv shows main consumer in UK Bollywood meeting Hollywood Debates on communication: Arjun Appandurai's 'scapes' Robert Roland's 'gloCalisation' (global/local) Robert McChesney's political economy of the global media Internation news agencies: Reuters, AFP, AP Role of new communcation technologies are we able to reverse this flow