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CHAPTER-4 DRILLING BITS

Drilling Bits
How well the bit drills depends on several factors, such as the condition of the bit, the weight applied to it, and the rate at which it is rotated. Also important for a bit performance is the effectiveness of the drilling fluid in clearing cuttings, produced by the bit away from the bottom. The aim of drilling is to i) make hole as fast as possible by selecting bits which produce good penetration rates, ii) run bits with a long working life to reduce trip time, iii) use bits which drill a full-size or full-gauge hole during the entire time they are on bottom. The choice of bit depends on several factors. One is the type of formation to be drilled, whether it is it hard, soft, medium hard or medium soft. A second factor is the cost of the bit. Getting the highest possible footage from the bit cuts down bit costs and minimizes the number of trips needed for bit changes. It should be stated, however, that continuing to use a bit that is still drilling but slowly is false economy. In the shallower part of the hole only one or two bits are needed before pipe is pulled for logging or running casing and often one bit is sufficient to make the hole in which the conductor is to be set. As formations near the surface are usually very soft, one bit may prove sufficient for several wells. But in the deeper part or the hole, several bits often have to be drilled before casing depth is reached. It is normal that the bit used to drill the cement left in the casing is also used to drill the formation, although in some instances a separate bit is run to drill the cement and thereafter changed for a more suitable one for the formation expected deeper down.

Formations vary a lot in hardness and abrasiveness and have a considerable effect on bit performance. If there were no difference in rock formations, one type of bit only would be needed which requires standard bit weight, rotary speed and pump pressure to drill at the maximum rate. Unfortunately, such a situation does not exist and several bits are required for the alternating layers of soft material, hard rocks and abrasive sections. Changing the bit every time as the formation changes is, however, impracticable. Therefore a compromise has to be made and a bit that performs reasonably well in all conditions is selected. The choice of bit for a well in a field where the formations are familiar is obviously easier than for a wildcat. Bits can generally be classified into two categories; i) roller bits and ii) drag bits. The following is a description of both.

Roller Cone Bits


The cutting elements of roller cone bits are arranged on conical structures that are attached to a bit body. Typically three cones are used and the teeth (cutters) may be tungsten carbide that is inserted into pre-drilled holes into the steel cone shell or steel teeth that are formed by milling directly on the cone shell as it is manufactured. The length, spacing, shape, and tooth material are tailored for drilling a particular rock.Insert types used as teeth on roller-cone bits. The IADC has developed a standard classification code that is used to classify bits made by different manufactures according to the rock hardness that they are designed to drill including the particular design features of the bit. Each roller bit cone contains a bearing and lubrication system. In some cases the drilling mud is used as the lubricant (open bearing) and in other cases a special lubricant is confined inside the case (sealed bearing). The apes bearing

system is used almost exclusively with roller bearings. The sealed bearing system may be used with either roller or journal bearings. The rock cutting process of the roller cone bit is either by gauging (digging and shoveling) in soft formation or by chiseling in hard formation. A hydraulic cuttings removal system is incorporated in each bit to remove the cuttings from around the teeth. Typically, a nozzle is placed between each cone to direct mud at the bottom of the hole and cutters. These nozzles are usually located at a height approximately equal to the top of the cone, but in some cases are extended towards the arms where the cutters contact the rock. The drilling fluid is pumped through the nozzles at relatively high velocity in order to remove the drilled cuttings. The three-cone rolling cutter bit is by far the most common bit type currently used in rotary drilling operations. This general bit type is available with a large variety of tooth design and bearing types and, thus, is suited for a wide variety of formation characteristics. The three cones rotate about their axis as the bit is rotated on bottom. The shape of the bit teeth also has a large effect on the drilling action- of a rolling cutter bit. Long, widely spaced, steel teeth are used for drilling soft formations. As the rock type gets harder, the tooth length and cone offset must be reduced to prevent tooth breakage; the drilling action of a bit with zero cone offset is essentially a crushing action. The smaller teeth also allow more room for the construction of stronger bearings. The metallurgy requirements of the bit teeth also depend on the formation characteristics. The two primary types used arc (1) milled tooth cutters and (2)

tungsten carbide insert cutters. The milled tooth cutters arc manufactured by
milling the teeth out of a steel cone while the tungsten carbide insert bits arc manufactured by pressing a tungsten carbide cylinder into accurately machined holes in the cone. The milled tooth bits designed for soft formations usually are faced with a wear-resistant material, such as tungsten carbide, on one side of

the tooth. The milled tooth bits designed to drill harder formations are usually case hardened by special processing and heat treating the cutter during manufacturing. The tungsten carbide teeth designed for drilling soft formations are long and have a chisel-shaped end. Rolling cutter bits with the most advanced bearing assembly are the journal bearing bits In this type bit, the roller bearings are eliminated and the cone rotates in contact with the journal bearing pin. This type bearing has the advantage of greatly increasing the contact area through which the weight on the bit is transmitted to the cone.

Drag Bits
There are two general types of drag bits that are in common usage. The oldest is the natural diamond matrix bit in which industrial grade diamonds are set into a bit head that is manufactured by a powdered metallurgy technique. The size, shape, quantity, quality, and exposure of the diamonds are tailored to provide the best performance for a particular formation. Each bit is designed and manufactured for a particular job rather than being mass produced as roller cone bits are. The cuttings are removed by mud that flows through a series of water courses. The design of these water courses is aimed at forcing fluid around each individual diamond. The matrix diamond bit cuts rock by grinding and thus a primary function of the fluid is to conduct heat away from the diamonds. The other type of drag bit is the polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit that is constructed with cutters comprised of a man made diamond material. The cutters are generally much larger than natural diamonds and are designed to cut the rock by shearing, similar to metal machining. PDC bits have proven very successful in homogeneous and, soft to moderate strength formations. In formations where they are successful, they can drill two to three times faster then a roller cone bit and may have an equally long life.

Classification of Bits
A large variety of bits designs are available from several manufacturers. The IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors) approved a standard classification system for identifying similar bit types available from various manufacturers. The classification system adopted is the three digit code. The first digit in the bit classification scheme is called the bit series number. The letter D precedes the first digit if the bit is diamond or PDC drag bit. Series D1 through D2 are reserved for diamond bits and PDC bits in the soft, medium-soft, medium, medium-hard and hard formation categories, respectively. Series D7 through D9 are reserved for diamond core bits in the soft, medium and hard formation categories. Series 1,2 and 3 are reserved for milled tooth bits in the soft, medium and hard formation categories, respectively. Series 5, 6, 7 and 8 are for insert bits in the soft, medium, hard, and extremely hard formation categories, respectively. Series 4 is reserved for future use with special categories such as a universal bit. The second digit is called the type number. Type 0 is reserved for PDC drag bits. Types 1 through 4 designate a formation hardness sub classification from the softest to the hardest formation within each category. The feature numbers are interpreted differently, depending on the general type of bit being described. Feature numbers are defined for diamond and PDC drag bits, diamond and PDC drag-type core-cutting bits, and rolling cutter bits. Eight standard diamond and PDC drag bits features are 1, step-type profile, 2, long-taper profile, 3, short-taper profile, 4, nontaper profile, 5, downhole-motor type, 6, sidetrack type, 7, oil-base type, and 8, coreejector type. The remaining feature, 9, is reserved for special features selected by the bit manufacturer.

There are two standard feature numbers for diamond and PDC drag-type core-cutting bits. These bits are used to recover a length of formation sample cored from the central portion of the borehole. The two features are 1, conventional core-barrel type, and 2, face-discharge type. As in the previous case, feature 9 is reserved for special features selected by the bit manufacturer. There are eight standard feature numbers for rolling-cutter bits. The standard feature numbers are 1, standard rolling cutter bit (jet bit or regular), 2, T-shaped heel teeth for gauge protection, 3, extra insert teeth for gauge protection, 4, sealed roller bearings, 5, combination of 3 and 4, 6, sealed friction bearing, and 7, combination of 3 and 6. The remaining features, 8 and 9 were reserved for special features selected by the bit manufacturer. Feature 8 is often used to designate bits designed for directional drilling. Some of the main design features of the various rollingcutter bit types include some of the tooth design features of the various bit types and classes. As the class number increases, the cone offset, tooth height, and amount of tooth hardfacing decreases while the number of teeth and amount of tooth case hardening increases. An increase in bearing capacity is possible for the bits with a higher class number. This is possible shorter length of bit teeth at higher bit class numbers.

Example-1 IADC classification 124E refers to what kind of a bit?

Solution:
1 = Soft formation milled tooth ;2 = Soft to medium within group 4 = Sealed roller bearings ; E = Extended jets (nozzles)

Bit Selection
Bit selection is based on using the bit that provides the lowest cost per foot of hole drilled. This cost is expressed by the following cost-pet-foot equation; Drilling Cost Formula: The most common application of a drilling cost formula is in evaluating the efficiency of a bit run. A large fraction of the time required to complete a well is spent either drilling or making a trip to replace the bit. The total time required to drill a given depth, D, can be expressed as the sum of the total rotating time during the bit run, tb, the non-rotating time during the bit run, tc, and trip time tt. The drilling cost formula is; Cf = (Cb + Cr ( tb + tc + tt)] / D where; Cf is drilled cost per unit depth, Cb is the cost of bit, and Cr is the fixed operating cost of the rig per unit time independent of the alternatives being evaluated. Example-2. A recommended bit program is being prepared for a new well using bit performance records from nearby wells. Drilling performance records for three bits are shown for a thick limestone formation at 9,000 ft. Determine which bit gives the lowest drilling cost if the operating cost of the rig is $400/hr, the trip time is 7 hours, and connection time is 1 minute per connection. Assume that each of the bits was operated at near the minimum cost per foot attainable for that bit.

Bit

Bit Cost ($)

Rota. Time (hr)

Conn. Time (hr)

Penetration Rate (ft/hr)

A B C

800 4900 4500

14.8 57.7 95.8

0.1 0.4 0.5

13.8 12.6 10.2

Solution:
The cost per foot drilled for each bit type can be computed using above equation. For Bit A, the cost per foot is; Cf = (Cb + Cr ( tb + tc + tt)] / D Cf = (800 + 400 ( 14.8 + 0.1 + 7)] / 13.8 (14.8) = $ 46.81 / ft. For Bit B, the cost per foot is; Cf = (4900 + 400 ( 57.7 + 0.4 + 7)] / 12.6 (57.7) = $ 42.56 / ft. For Bit C, the cost per foot is; Cf = (4500 + 400 ( 95.8 + 0.5 + 7)] / 10.2 (95.8) = $ 46.89 / ft. The lowest drilling cost was obtained using Bit B. Drilling Cost Predictions: Drilling cost depends primarily on well location and well depth. The location of the well will govern the cost of preparing the well-site, moving the rig to the location, and the daily operating cost of the drilling operation. For example, an operator may find from experience that operating a rig on a given lease offshore Louisiana requires expenditures that will average about S30,000/day. Included in this daily operating cost are such things as rig rentals, crew boat rentals, work boat rentals, helicopter rentals, well monitoring services, crew housing, routine maintenance of drilling equipment,

drilling fluid treatment, rig supervision, etc. The depth of the well will govern the lithology that must be penetrated and, thus, the time required completing the well. Drilling costs tend to increase exponentially with depth. Thus, when curvefitting drilling cost data, it is often convenient to assume a relationship between cost, C, and depth, D, given by; C = a ebD where; the constants a and b depend primarily on the well location. When a more accurate drilling cost prediction is needed, a cost analysis based on a detailed well plan must be made. The cost of tangible well equipment (such as casing) and the cost of preparing the surface location usually can be predicted accurately. The cost per day of the drilling operations can be estimated from considerations of rig rental costs, other equipment rentals, transportation costs, rig

supervision costs, and others. The time required to drill and complete the well is estimated on the basis of rig-up time, drilling time, trip lime, casing placement

time, formation evaluation and borehole survey time, completion time and trouble time. Trouble time includes time spent on hole problems such as stuck pipe, well control operations, formation fracture, etc. Major time expenditures always are
required for drilling and tripping operations. An estimate of drilling time can be based on historical penetration rate data from the area of interest. The penetration rate in a given formation varies inversely with both compressive strength and shear strength of the rock. Also, rock strength tends to increase with depth of burial because of the higher confining pressure caused by the weight of the overburden.

When major unconformities are not present in the sub-surface lithology, the penetration rate usually decreases exponentially with depth. Under these conditions, the penetration rate can be related to depth, D, by; dD / dt = K e-2.303a2D where K and a2 are constants. The drilling time, td, required to drill to a given depth can be obtained by separating variables and integrating. variables gives; K dt = e2.303a2D dD Integrating and solving for td yields; td = ( 1 / 2.303 a2 K ) (e2.303a2D 1) Example-3: The bit records for a well drilled in the South China Sea are shown in the following table. Make plots of depth vs. penetration rate and depth vs. Separating

rotating time for this area using semi-log paper. Also, predict drilling time in
this area.

Solution:
The plots obtained using the bit records are shown in the following figure. The constants K and a2 can be determined using the plot of depth vs.

penetration rate on semi-log paper. The value of 2.303 a2 is 2.303 divided by


the change in depth per log cycle. 2.303a2 = (2.303 / 6770) = 0.00034 The constant 2.303 is a convenient scaling factor since semi-log paper is based on common logarithms. The value of K is equal to the value of penetration rate at the surface. From depth vs. penetration rate plot, K = 280. Substitution of these values of a2 and K in above equation; td = 10.504 (e0.00034 D 1)

Bit Evaluation It is important to maintain careful written records of the performance of each bit for future references. Bits are worn by abrasion and shocks while drilling. The wear pattern is important, it should be inspected once the bit has been pulled and its grading should be recorded. Such records indicate the working life of the bit and aid the selection of the type of bit which may provide most efficient in a particular formation. The amount of wear on teeth, bearings andgauge is recorded according to a special coding system.

Wear on Teeth
Teeth wear is graded in eighths of the original tooth height. Using the letter T to denote teeth, T8 means that the teeth is completely worn out, and T3 means that 3/8 of the original height has been worn away. If the majority of the teeth in any row are broken, BT is added.

Bearing Wear
Grading a used bearing is the most difficult part of grading dull bits, because the condition of the bearings can be determined only by touch. Bearing wear is expressed in eighths of bearing life expended. Using the letter B to denote bearings, B8 means that the bearing is completely worn out, and B6 means that 6/8 of the estimated life has been used. For sealed bearing bits, the condition of the seal is a better means of grading the bearing life. For sealedbearings, only three codes are used; B3 means the seal is effective, B5 means the seal is questionable, and B8 means the seal failed.

Gauge Wear
This can be determined by using a ring gauge and ruler. There are two methods used to measure the wear. In the first and most popular, the ring gauge is pulled against the gauge points of two cones, and the space between the ring and third cone is measured. Usually, this measurement is used for the amount of wear. However, to be exact, the measurement should be multiplied by 2/3. In

the second method, the bit is centered in the gauge ring and the ruler is used to measure thedistance from the ring to the outermost cutting surface (gauge surface). This measurement must be multiplied by two to give the loss in diameter and, thus, the total amount of wear. Using the letter G for gauge, G0 means in gauge, and G5 means bit diameter is 0.625 in. under gauge.

Degree of Tooth Dullness Tooth Dullness T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Bearing Conditions B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 Tooth height 1/8 gone Tooth height 1/4 gone Tooth height 3/8 gone Tooth height 1/ 2 gone Tooth height 5/8 gone Tooth height 3/4 gone Tooth height 7/8 gone Tooth height all gone

Bearing life used : 1/8 Bearing life used : 1/4 (tight) Bearing life used : 3/8 Bearing life used : 1/2 (medium) Bearing life used : 5/8 Bearing life used : 3/4 (loose) Bearing life used : 7/8 Bearing life used : all gone

BT : broken teeth; I = in gauge; 0 = out of gauge

Example-3: T2-B4-I; (Teeth 1/4 gone, bearing medium, bit in gauge) Example-4: T6 BT B6- 0 1/2 (teeth 3/4 gone, broken teeth, bearing loose, bit out of gage of 1/2 inch) Example-5: T5 BT B2- 0 5/8 (teeth 5/8 gone, broken teeth, bearing tight, bit out of gage of 5/8 inch)

Drill-off Tests The drill-off test is performed in order to ascertain combination of weight on bit (WOB) and rotary speed to maximise penetration rate (PR). Drilloff tests should be done: 1- at the start of the bit run, 2- on encountering a new formation, 3- if a reduction in rate of penetration (ROP) occurs.

Drill-off Test Procedure 1- Maintain a constant rpm. Select a WOB (near to maximum allowable). 2- Record the time to drill off a weight increment (5000 lb) 3- Record length of pipe drilled during step-2. 4- From step 2-3, the drill rate in ft/hr may be found. 5- Repeat step 2 and 3 at least four times. The last test should be at the same value as the first test. This will determine if the formation has changed or not. 6- Select the bit weight which produced the faster ROP. Maintain this WOB constant and repeat the above procedure for varying RPM values.

Example-6: Find the optimum WOB and RPM values with the given Drill-off test data.

Solution:
Bit Weight (lbs) 50000 45000 Time (sec) 59 62 Footage (ft) 0.50 0.50 Drill Rate (ft/hr)

30.5 29.0

40000

68

0.60
0.48 0.45 0.50

31.8
23.4 20.8 30.0

35000 74 30000 78 50000 60 Drill Rate = (Footage x 3600) / Time RPM 100 90

Time to Drill -1/2 ft(sec) 70 65

Drill Rate (ft/hr)

25.7 27.7

80
70 60 100

60
64 69 72

30.0
23.1 26.1 25.0

Drill Rate = (Footage x 3600) / Time Optimum WOB = 40000 lbs Optimum RPM = 80 rpm Factors Affecting Tooth Wear One purpose for evaluating the condition of dull bit is to provide insight about the selection of a more suitable time interval of bit use. If the dull bit evaluation indicates that the bit was pulled green, expensive rig time may have been wasted on unnecessary trip time. However, if the time interval of bit use is increased too much, the bit may break apart leaving junk in the hole. This will require an additional trip to fish the junk from the hole or may reduce greatly the efficiency of the next bit if an attempt is made to drill past the junk. Thus,

knowledge of the instantaneous rate of bit wear is needed to determine how much the time interval of bit use can be increased safely. Since drilling practices are not always the same for the new and old bit runs, knowledge of how the various drilling parameters affect the instantaneous rate of bit wear also is needed. The rate of tooth wear depends primarily on: formation abrasiveness, tooth geometry, bit weight, rotary speed, and cleaning and cooling action of the drilling fluid. Tooth Wear Equation A composite tooth wear equation can be obtained by combining the relations approximating the effect of tooth geometry, bit weight and rotary speed on the rate of tooth wear. Thus the instantaneous rate of tooth wear is given: dh / dt = 1 / H (N / 60)H1 {[(W/db)m 4] / [(W/db)m (W/db)]} [(1 + H2 / 2) / (1 + H2 h)] where; h = fractional tooth height that has been worn away, t = time, hours ,W = bit weight, 1000 lbf units, N = rotary speed, H = formation abrasiveness constant, hours H1, H2 and (W/db)m = constants the

Table 3-3 Recommended values of H1, H2 and (W/db)m are given in the following table for the various rolling-cutter bit classes. Bit Class 1-1 to 1-2 1-3 to 1-4 2-1 to 2-2 2-3 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 H1 1.90 1.84 1.80 1.76 1.70 1.65 1.60 1.50 H2 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 (W/db)m 7.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

The tooth wear rate formula given above has been normalised so that the abrasiveness constant, H, is numerically equal to the time in hours required to completely dull the bit teeth of the given bit type when operated at a constant bit weight of 40000 lbf/inch and a constant rotary speed of 60 rpm. The average formation abrasiveness encountered during a bit runs can be evaluated using the above equation and the final tooth wear, hf, observed after pulling the bit. If we define the tooth wear parameter, J2, J2 = {[(W/db)m (W/db)] / [(W/db)m 4 ]} x (60 / N)H1 x [1 / (1 + H2 /2)] and the abrasiveness constant, H, gives; H = tb / [J2 (hf + H2 Hf2 / 2)]

Example-7: An 8.5 inch Class 1-3-1 bit drilled from depth of 8179 to 8404 ft in 10.5 hours. The average bit weight and rotary speed was 45000 lbf and 90 rpm, respectively. When the bit was pulled, it was graded as T5-B4-I. Compute the average formation abrasiveness for this depth interval. Also, estimate the time required dulling the teeth completely using the same bit weight and rotary speed.

Solution:
From the above table, H1 = 1.84 and H2 = 6 and (W/db)m = 8.0 J2 = {[(W/db)m (W/db)] / [(W/db)m 4 ]} x (60 / N)H1 x [1 / (1 + H2 /2)] J2 = {[8 (45 / 8.5)] / (8 4)} (60 / 90)1.84 [1 / [1 + (6/2)]] = 0.08 Solving for the abrasiveness constant using a final fractional tooth dullness of 5/8 (T5-0.625-) gives; H = tb / [J2 (hf + H2 Hf2 / 2)] H = 10.5 / [0.080 (0.625+ 6 (0.6252)/ 2)] = 73 hours The time required to dull the teeth completely ( hf = 1.0); tb = {J2 (H) [hf+ H2 (hf)2 / 2]} tb = {0.08 (73.0) [1+ 6 (1)2 / 2]}= 23.4 hours

Bearing Wear Equation A bearing wear formula frequently used to estimate baring life is given by: db / dt = 1 / H (N / 60)B1 (W / 4 db)B2 where: b = fractional bearing life that has been consumed, t = time, hours, N = rotary speed, rpm, W = bit weight, 1000 lbf, db = bit diameter, inch, B1,B2 = bearing wear exponent, H = bearing constant Table 3-4 Recommended values of bearing wear exponents are given below
Bearing Type Non sealed Non sealed Non sealed Non sealed Non sealed Sealed roller bearings Sealed journal bearings Drilling Fluid Type Barite mud Sulfide mud Water Clay/water mud Oil-base mud B1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.70 1.60 B2 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 0.85 1.00

Bearing constant, , is numerically equal to the life of bearings if the bit is operated at 40000 lbf and 60 rpm. If we define a bearing wear parameter,J3, J3 = (60 / N)B1 (4 db / W)B2 The time required to dull the bearing completely ( bf = 1.0); tb = J3 (B) bf and, bearing constant is equal to; B = tb / J3 bf Example-8: Compute the bearing constant for a 7.875 inch, Class 6-1-6 (sealed journal bearings) bit that was graded T5-B6-I after drilling 64 hours at 30000 lbf and 70 rpm.

Solution:
From the above table, B1 = 1.6 and B2 = 1.0 J3 = (60 / N)B1 (4 db / W)B2 J3 = (60 / 70)1.6 (4 (7.875) / 30)1.0 = 0.82 For the bearing constant of B6 ( bf = 6/8), B = tb / J3 bf = [64 / 0.82 (0.75)] = 104 hours

Penetration Rate Equations Penetration rate equations for rolling cutter bits have been proposed by various authors. The approach usually taken is to assume that the effects of bit weight, rotary speed, tooth wear, etc., on penetration rate arc all independent of one another and that the composite effect can be computed using an equation of the form: R = (f1) (f2) (f3) (f4)..(fn) where, f1, f2, f3, f4 , etc, represent the functional relations between penetration rate and various drilling variables. The functional relations chosen usually are based on trends observed in either laboratory or field studies. Some authors have chosen to define the functional relation graphically, while others have used curve-fitting techniques to obtain empirical mathematical expressions. Some relatively simple mathematical equations have been used that model only two or three of the drilling variables. Perhaps the most complete mathematical drilling model that has been used for rolling cutter bits is the model proposed by Bourgoyne and Young. They proposed using eight functions to model the effect of most of the drilling variables. The Bourgoyne-Young drilling model can be defined by the above with the following functional relations. f1 = e f2 = e f3 = e f4 = e
2.303a 2.303a 2.303a 2.303a 1 2 3 4 (10000 D) D0.69 (gp 9.0) D (gp c)

D = true vertical depth- ft gp = pore pressure gradient, lbm/gal c = equivalent circulating density, lbm/gal h = fractional tooth dullness

f5 = {[(W/db) (W/db)t] / (4 - (W/db)t)]}a5 f6 = ( N / 60) f7 = e


a h 7 a 8 a 6

Fj = hydraulic impact force beneath the bit, lbf (W/db)t = threshold bit weight per inch a1 to a8 = constants

f8 = (Fj / 1000)

Example-9: A 9.875-in. milled tooth bit operated at 40,000 lbf/in, and 80 rpm is drilling in a shale formation at a depth or 12,000 ft at u penetration rate of 15 ft/hr. The formation pore pressure gradient is equivalent to a 12.0 lbm/gal mud and the equivalent mud density on bottom is 12.5 lbm/gal. The computed jet impact force beneath the bit is 1,200 lbf and the computed fractional tooth wear is 0.3. Compute the apparent formation drillability, f1, using a threshold bit weight of zero and the following values of a1 through a8. a2 0.00007 a3 a4 0.000005 0.00003 a5 1.0 a6 0.5 a7 0.5 a8 0.5

Solution:
-The multiplier f2 accounts for the normal decrease in penetration rate with depth from a reference depth of 10000 ft. f2 = e f2 = e
2.303a2 (10000 D)

2.303 (0.00007) (10000 12000)

= 0.724

-The multiplier f3 accounts for the increase in penetration rate due to undercompaction. f3 = e
2.303a 3 D 0.69 (gp 9.0)

f3 = e

2.303 (0.000005)

120000.69 (12 9.0) = 1.023

-The multiplier f4 accounts for the change in penetration rate with overbalance assuming a reference overbalance of zero. f4 = e
2.303a 4 D (gp c) 12000 (12 12.5)

f4 = e

2.303 (0.00003)

= 0.6606

-The multiplier f5 accounts for the change in penetration rate with bit weight assuming a reference bit weight of 4000 lbf/inch. f5 = {[(W/db) (W/db)t] / (4 - (W/db)t)]}a5 f5 = {[(40 / 9.875] / 4]
1.0

= 1.013

-The multiplier f6 accounts for the change in penetration rate with rotary speed assuming a reference rotary speed of 60 rpm. f6 = ( N / 60) a6 f6 = ( 80 / 60)
0.5

= 1.155

-The multiplier f7 accounts for the change in penetration rate with tooth dullness assuming a zero tooth wear as a reference. f7 = e a7h f7 = e
-0.5 (0.3)

= 0.861

-The multiplier f8 accounts for the change in penetration rate with jet impact force using an impact force of 1000 lbf as a reference. f8 = (Fj / 1000) a8 f8 = (1200 / 1000)
0.5

= 1.095

Substituting the values of f2 to f8 into penetration rate equation and solving for formation drillability yields; R = (f1) (f2) (f3) (f4)..(fn) 15 = f1 (0.724) (1.023) (0.6606) (1.013) (1.155) (0.861) (1.095) f1 = 15 / 0.54 =

f1 = 27.8 ft/hr