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Transculturation (according to Chasteen see Colonial Crucible) - WHOEuropean, African, indigenous peoples - WHATformation of new cultures from the

e interactions - WHERELatin America; mainly cities (followed different patterns in rural areas because of isolation, more prominent in cities) - WHENmajor time during 1600 1810 (ongoing process) - WHYindigenous people migrating to urban areas, influence of Catholic Church, hegemony (cultural influence followed power relations) - SIGNIFICANCECreation of new cultures, leading to independence Bourbon Reforms - WHOSpain/colonies - WHATSpain trying to regain control of colonies with political/economic reforms involving commercial policy and taxation, religion, administrative, and military institutions - WHERESpanish colonies - WHENlate 18th/early 19th century (late 1700s, early 1800s) - WHYSpain felt they were losing control of colonies, did not want creoles to be in as much power) - SIGNIFICANCEDestroyed political stability, eventually was one contributing factor to wars of independence (pushed revolutionary process forward in Latin America) Miguel Garcia (Blanchard) - WHOblack slave in Buenos Aires who worked in the military in fight for independence against the Spanish royalist army in exchange for freedom - WHATslaves were offered freedom and wages in exchange for fighting in the military, but it was a really slippery slope, family was not free, changed institution of slavery but did not get rid of it - WHEREBuenos Aires - WHEN1808-1816 - WHYconstant difficulties in recruiting men because of the brutal conditions, needed to recruit slaves - SIGNIFICANCEEven though it did not get rid of slavery, it severely weakened it and resulted in a stronger slave population, probably eventually helping lead to the independence and abolishment of slavery. Manifest Destiny - WHOUS and Latin America, president Monroe, Mexico lost most land to US - WHATGod guided to possess whole continent - WHERECaribbean basin (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines) - WHEN19th century (two phases 1830s-50s, second phase at early 20th century) - WHYUS protecting own interests, but also support for Latin America - SIGNIFICANCECreation of US Empire, warning Europe to stay out, neutral position towards war for independence recognizing Latin American independence Export Boom - WHOaffected workers, people who were importing goods, etc. - WHATexport of natural resources (primary goods) - WHEREbasically everywhere in Latin America

WHEN1850s 1920s WHYpart of liberal oligarchic order (free trade, social/economic inequalities reinforced oligarchic order), influx of foreigners, higher US/European demand, technological advances Cost: exposed economies to violent economic shocks, inequality, economies less self sufficient SIGNIFICANCEMany people blame export economies on modern day problems, dependency theory

Coffee - WHOslaves, cheap labor, whole world (coffee becoming something everyone could drink, not a drink for the rich) - WHATexport and production of coffee - WHEREBrazil (quantity), Costa Rica (quality) both were successful - WHENearly 1900s - WHYmajor part of export boom/export economies - SIGNIFICANCEThose who worked on haciendas who owned own land began to become a part of larger estates that made an abundance of coffee Liberal Oligarchic State - WHOpower with the elite few - WHATPolitical closing, but stability, economic growth and modernization, more social polarization, powerful, free markets, separation of church and state, popular sovereignty, admiration for US and Eurpoean ideas about modernity and science - WHEREall of Latin America - WHENLate 19th Century after independence (unfinished struggles surrounding citizenship, rights, freedom, nationhood) - WHYStruggle of decolonialization - SIGNIFICANCEunfinished struggles resulting after independence, contradictory situations Porfiriato - WHOPorfico Diaz - WHATPresident/Dictator, aristocratic republic, about 30 years of growth, modernization (railroads), economic growth, Europe as inspiration, but repression in lower classes, wanted to get rid of indigenous influence(press censorship) - WHEREMexico - WHEN1876-1910 - WHYwell loved leader who became power hungry and too one track minded - SIGNIFICANCEcontinuing repression of lower classes led to Mexican Revolution