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# 1. (a) Your car has stalled and you need to push it.

You notice as the car gets going that you need less and less force to keep it going. Suppose that for the first 15 m your force decreased at a constant rate from 210N to 40 N. How much the work did you do on the car? Draw a force-displacement graph to represent the work done during this period. The work done is the area of the trapezoid under the solid line F,N 210 (1 M)

40

15

d(m)

## W = d(F1 + F2) = (15)(210 + 40) = 1.9 X 103 J

(b) A lever is an example of a machine that makes work easier. The earliest remaining writings regarding levers date from the 3rd century BC and were provided by Archimedes. There is a lot of impact of improving simple and compound machines on society and the environment. i. Describe the meaning of compound machines and explain the advantages of compound machines compound machines - combination of two or more simple machines and eg ( 2 M)

the advantages of compound machines -can do more complicated jobs than simple machines -they have a larger mechanical advantage than simple machines, so it takes less force to use them ( 2 M) ( Total =4 marks)

ii.

A boy exerts a force of 225 N on a lever to raise a 1.25 x 10 3 N rock a distance of 13 cm. If the efficiency of the lever is 88.7 %, how far did the boy move his end of the lever?

Efficiency = Wo/Wi x 100 % Frdr /Fede x 100 % de = Frdr(100)/ Fe (efficiency) = (1.25 x 103) (0.13) (100)/(225) (88.7%) = 0.81m

## ( 1M) ( 1M) ( 1M) ( 2M) ( 1M) (Total =6 marks)

2. (a)

You are given three mirrors of equal size. How will you identify them as convex, concave and plane mirror. Use illustration to explain your answer Bring each mirror one by one close to an object and observe the image formed in it. If the image is : 1) of the same size as that of the object and erect, the mirror is a plane mirror. 2) large and erect, it is a concave mirror. 3) highly diminished and erect, it is a convex mirror . (6 marks)

(b)

An object is placed 50 cm from a lens which produces a virtual image at a distance of 10 cm in front of the lens. Draw a diagram to show the formation of image and calculate the focal length of the lens Distance between the object and the lens = -50cm Distance between the image and the lens = -10cm Focal length = ?

The focal length of the lens is -12.5 cm and the negative sign indicates that the lens is concave.

(4 marks) (c) Daniel took three convex lenses with focal lengths 5cm, 10 cm and 30 cm respectively a box. If he wants to build telescope from these lenses, which lenses should he use. Use a ray diagram to explain how he could use the lenses to look at the far objects.

(Total = 10 marks)

3.

(a)

Explain the construction and working of an AC generator with the help of a neat diagram.

Principle When a straight conductor is moved rapidly in a magnetic field, then a current is induced in the conductor. It is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. (2marks) Construction

(2 marks) Working - As the armature rotates about an axis perpendicular to the magnetic field, it keeps on changing its relative orientation with respect to the field./ Diagram ( 1M) -Thus the flux keeps on changing continuously with time This change in magnetic flux induces an emf. / Diagram ( 1M) - If the outer terminals of the armature are connected to an external circuit, an electric current flows through it. -The deflection of the galvanometer needle indicates that an emf is induced. -The direction of the induced emf is reversed after every half rotation of the coil. (1 M) -Thus in one rotation of the coil, the current changes its direction twice in the coil. To understand how the direction of current changes go through the diagram given below.

(2M) -Such a current which changes its direction after equal intervals of time is called alternating current (AC). This device is called an AC generator. (1M)

(TOTAL = 10 MARKS)

(b)

A transformer is used on the 240V ac supply to deliver 3.0 current at 60 V to a heating coil. If 10 % of the energy taken from the supply is dissipated in the transformer itself, what is the current in the primary winding? State two ways to decrease the energy dissipated in the transformer. Is x Vs / IpVp x 100 % = 90 % Ip = Is x Vs/ Vp x 100/90 = 3 x 60 / 240 x 100/90 = 0.83 A ( 2M) ( 1M) ( 1M)

Two ways to decrease the energy dissipated in the transformer Use laminated cores to reduce eddy currents (1M) Use thick copper wires to make the coils ( 1M) (Total = 6 marks) (c) Electric power is transmitted from a power station to a town via transmission cables with a total resistance of 50 ohm. If the power station generates 8 MW of power, calculate the power loss in the cables if power transmitted at 80 kV. I = P/V = 8 x 10 6/ 80 x 10 3 = 100 A Power loss P = I2R = 100 x 100 x 50 W = 50 kW ( 2 M) ( 2 M) (4 marks) .