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Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRPStructures Structures

- Lecture: Dr. Ann Schumacher, ann.schumacher@empa.ch - Exercise: Dr. Andrin Herwig, andrin.herwig@empa.ch

References: Bank, L. Composites for Construction - Structural Design with FRP Materials, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006. (Chapters 12 - 15) Fiberline. Fiberline Design Manual, www.fiberline.dk, 2003. Clarke, JL. (Ed.) Structural Design of Polymer Composites - EUROCOMP Design Code and Handbook, E & FN Spon, 1996.

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Outline

Introduction
(Pros and cons of FRP / Examples)

Materials
(Manufacturing process / Materials / Durability)

Design Concept
(Concept / Basic assumptions / )

Bending Beam
(Timoshenko theory / Stresses / Deformations / Buckling )

Axial Members
(Serviceability and ultimate limit states)

Connections
(Bolted joints / Glued joints)
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Pros and cons

Pros
High specific strength:

Material
lmax =

CFRP 138.4 km

GFRP 27.8 km

Steel S500 6.4 km

max g

Good in-plane mechanical properties High fatigue and environmental resistance Adjustable mechanical properties Lightweight Quick assembly / erection Low maintenance Highly cost-effective (2-10 /kg)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Pros and cons

Cons
Lightweight Brittle High initial costs Low to moderate application temperature (-20 up to 80 C) Low fire resistance (sometimes with unhealthy gases)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Common profiles

Structural profiles
Most structural profiles produced in conventional profile shapes similar to
metallic materials

Similarity in geom. and properties, however no standard geom.,


mechanical and physical properties used by all manufacturers

Structural profiles

Non-structural profiles

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Footbridges

Pontresina bridge, Switzerland Span: 2 x 12.5 m Weight: 3.3 tons (installation by helicopter)
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case1830.asp

Fiberline Bridge in Kolding, DK Span: 40 m Cost: 0.5 mio CHF Only Fiberline standard profiles used
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case1837.asp

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Footbridges

Composite pedestrian bridge in Lleida, Spain Span: 38 m Width: 3.0 m


http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case2828.asp

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples (ASSET Profile)

Road bridges

West Mill Bridge, England Span: 10 m Width: 6.8 m Load capacity: 46 tons
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case3903.asp

Klipphausen Bridge, Germany Span: 6.8 m Width: 6.0 m Load capacity: 40 tons
http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case6314.asp

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Bridgedeck (Footbridges)
Wrenlos, Switzerland Loopersteg, Switzerland

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Buildings

Eyecatcher Building, Basel, Switzerland Height: 15 m Storeys: 5


http://www.fiberline.com/gb/casestories/case1835.asp

Project: Maagtechnic

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Laboratory bridge
Empa Laboratory Bridge, Switzerland Span: 19 m Width: 1.6 m Load capacity: 15 tons

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Noise barrier SBB

Gschenen, Switzerland Project: Maagtechnic

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Balconies

Switzerland Project: Maagtechnic


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Examples

Railings
Oensingen, Switzerland

Heineken brewery, Switzerland

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Introduction: Application

Applications where GFRP structures are competitive:


Significant corrosion and chemical resistance is required
(Food and chemical processing plants, cooling towers, offshore platforms )

Electromagnetic transparency or electrical insulation is required. Light-weight is cost essential


(fast deployment )

Prestige and demonstration objects


(e.g. Novartis Campus Entrance Building)

Photo: Prof. Th. Keller, EPFL

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Pultrusion process

Only pultruded GFRP profiles will be considered in this lecture

Pultrusion line

Production of profiles with constant cross-section along the length High quality Continuous longitudinal fiber bundles and filament mats

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Components

Pultruded profiles contain three primary components:


reinforcement Matrix
polyester epoxy phenol

Supplementary
constituents
polymerisation agents fillers additives

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Shapes of pultruded profiles Available Profiles on Stock:

Length up to 12 m!

Special cross-sections can be designed and ordered


(several kilometres are necessary special tools have to be designed)
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Durability Various environmental and load conditions that affect durability of
(G)FRPs in terms of strength, stiffness, fiber/matrix interface integrity, cracking:

water/sea water chemical solutions prolonged freezing thermal cycling (freeze-thaw) elevated temperature exposure UV radiation creep and relaxation fatigue fire

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Durability Environmental reduction factor for different FRP systems and
exposure conditions
Exposure condition Interior exposure Fiber / resin type Carbon/epoxy Glass/epoxy Aramid/epoxy Exterior exposure
(bridges, piers parking garages)

Environ. reduction 0.95 0.75 0.85 0.85 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.50 0.70

Carbon/epoxy Glass/epoxy Aramid/epoxy Carbon/epoxy Glass/epoxy Aramid/epoxy

Agressive environ.
(chemical plants)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Durability GFRP is more susceptible to degradation than CFRP by the


following effects:

alkaline effects (caution when GFRP in contact with concrete!) acid effects salt effects fatigue UV radiation

Fire protection is a major (unsolved) issue for (G)FRP structural


elements and components

Smoke generation and toxicity must be considered

Strength of GFRP is affected by fatigue loading


(more than CFRP)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Manufacturers

GFRP profiles available on stock


In Europe two companies pultrude FRP-Profiles:

Fiberline Composites, Denmark


www.fiberline.com Fiberline Design Manual (www.fiberline.dk) helpful tool to design structures (material properties, geometries, connections, )

Top Glass, Italy


www.topglass.it

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Material: Manufacturers

GFRP profiles available on stock


In North America:

Strongwell, USA
www.strongwell.com

Creative Pultrusions, USA


www.creativepultrusions.com

Bedford Reinforced Plastics, USA


www.bedfordplastics.com

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions Definitions and directions

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Codes
Every manufacturer has its own profile design No European Design
Code is available! (only EN13706, about testing and notation)

There exists European guidelines: EUROCOMP 1996 Design Code


EUROCOMP 1996 Handbook

Fiberline Design Manual is based on Eurocomp 1996.


Design concept (according to Eurocodes and Swisscodes) Partial safety factors Measured material parameters Rules for bolted connections

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept

Concept of Limit State Design (According to Euro Codes and Swiss Codes) Ultimate limit stress
Ed Rd
Ed Rd Calculated stress (including load factors) SIA260 / 261 Rated value of the resistance capability where

Rd =

Rk
m

Rk the calculated resistance capability

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept Reduction coefficient


Coefficient Description Derivation of mat. properties Degree of postcuring Production process Operating temperature
Operating temperature C -20 ... +60 80
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

m = m,1 m,2 m,3 m,4


Max.

Min.

m
1.1 1.0

Fiberline 1.15 1.1 1.0

m,1 m,2 m,3 m,4

2.25 1.6 2.0

1.15

m,4
Short-term load 1.0 1.25 Long-term load 2.5 3.13
A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Fibre Composites, FS09

Design Concept

Serviceability limit states


Ed Cd
Ed the crucial action effect due to the load cases considered in the investigated dimensioning situation. Typically maximal deflection response of the structure. corresponding serviceability limit. SIA 261

Cd

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions Material Properties, stength values (Fiberline Profiles)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions Material Properties, stiffness values (Fiberline Profiles)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Design Concept: Basic Assumptions Typical data sheet of a profile (Fiberline I-Profile)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Bending Beam

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Bending Beam: Design of Calculate bending moments Md and shear forces Qd acting on the profile,
using the partial coefficient (SIA 260 / 261)

Ultimate limit state


Bending:

Md,y,max f b,0 Md, z,max + max = m Wy W z

Shear:

Qd,y,max f max = Ak,y m


Ak relevant shear area

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Design of Serviceability limit state


Deflection limit: wmax < 1 L

typically selected between 200 and 400 given by SIA 261 or the building owner

wmax calculated including shear deformations

Vibrations
Light-weighted and soft structures are susceptible to vibrations (traffic, wind, the movement of people )!!

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Timoshenko Theory Pultruded profiles have a low shear modulus shear deformation
must be taken into account!

Several bending theories have been published for beams:


Euler-Bernoulli theory (1702) Timoshenko theory (1968) Higher order beam theory

A simply supported beam with a symmetric cross-section is discussed

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Timoshenko Theory

Cross-sections plane and perpendicular 1 degree of freedom w

Cross-sections plane but NOT perpendicular 2 degrees of freedom w and

Cross-sections do NOT remain plane 3+ degrees of freedom w, and

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Kinematic relationships

ux = y w( x),x u y = w( x)

ux = y ( x) u y = w( x)

x = ux = y w( x),xx
x u y u x + =0 2 xy = y x

x = ux = y ( x),x

x u y u x + = ( x) + w( x),x 2 xy = y x

Hooks law

x = E0 x and xy = G 2 xy
M z = y x dydz = w,xx E0 Iz
QS

M z = y x dydz = ,x E0Iz Qy = dydz = ( w,x ) GA


QS
Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

QS

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Equilibrium
In a first approximation, the deflections are calculated by direct integration of: Equilibrium on an infinitesimal beam element:

w,xx = M ( x) E0 Iz

q( x) = Q,x = ( w,xx ,x ) GA

M ,x Q = ,xx E0Iz + ( w,x ) GA = 0


Coupled second order differential equation

Solution for the simply supported beam (distributed load)


M ( x) =
w, xx =

1 1 qLx qx 2 , w(0) = 0 and w( L) = 0 2 2

w(0) = 0 and w( L) = 0 M (0) = 0 , x (0) = 0 and M ( L) = 0 , x ( L) = 0

1 1 1 2 qLx qx E 0 I z 2 2

Functions:
w( x) = A1 x 4 + A2 x 3 + A3 x 2 + A4 x + A5

w( x) =

qx ( L3 2 Lx 2 + x 3 ) 24 E 0 I z

( x) = B1 x3 + B2 x 2 + B3 x + B4

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


Put in , E I + ( w, ) GA = 0 and solve for the coefficients
xx 0 z x

B1 = 4 A1 , B3 = 2 A3 B2 = 3 A2

24 A1 E 0 I z GA 6A E I , B4 = 2 0 z A4 GA

Use the boundary conditions and the second differential eq. to calculate A1 A5:
2 2 qx ( L x ) qx ( L x ) ( L + Lx x ) w( x) = + 2 GA 24 E 0 I z

Deflection at midspan

5 qL4 L w = 2 384 E I z 0
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

5 qL4 + q L2 L w = 2 384 E I z 8 GA 0
Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory


General expression for the total beam deflection as a sum of the deflection
due to bending and shear:

f1 ( x) f 2 ( x) w( x) = + E0 I z GA
f1 ( wmax )
5 qL4 384 PL3 48 qL4 8 PL3 3

Beam Simply supported Uniformly distr. load (q) Concentrated load (P) Cantilever beam Uniformly distr. load (q) Concentrated load (P)

f1 ( wmax )
qL2 8 PL 4

x( wmax )
L 2 L 2

qL2 2

L L
A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

PL

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

Bending Beam: Euler vs. Timoshenko Theory Example: influence of the shear deformation
Profile: 300 x 150 mm I-beam Load: uniformly distributed

General rule of thumb: for GFRP beams with span/depth > 25, shear deformation can be ignored

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Bending Beam: Example

Choose an appropriate Profile for the following specifications


L qd,uls qd,ser wmax/L = = = = 3.0 m 13 kN/m 10 kN/m 1/300 wmax=0.01 m

1. Deflections and loading


5 qd ,ser L4 qd ,ser L2 + wmax = 384 E0I z 8 GA

qd ,uls L2 h max = 8 2 Iz

qd ,uls L 1 max = 2 Ak,y

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Bending Beam: Example 2. Find a profile with sufficient bending stiffness.


Shear deformations are neglected in a first step:

5 qd ,ser L4 = 1.054 106 Nm2 E0I z 384 wmax


from specification table: choose I 240x120x12 E I z =1.369 106 Nm2 0

3. Check the bending and shear stresses


qd ,uls L2 h max = = 35.8 MPa 8 2 Iz qd ,uls L 1 max = = 7.1 MPa 2 Ak,y
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

f b,0,d =185 MPa f ,d = 20 MPa

Fibre Composites, FS09

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Bending Beam: Example 4. Check deflection (including shear deformation)


wmax = 5 qd , ser L4 384 E0 I z
(7.7 mm)

qd , ser L2 8 GA
(1.6 mm)

= 9.3 10 3 m

wmax = 0.01 m

wmax =

5 qd , ser L4 384 E0 I z

qd , ser L2 8 GAweb

= 9.110 3 m

5. Remarks:
The design of GFRP-profiles is mostly driven by serviceability criteria. Start the design iteration procedure using the maximal deflection criterion.
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Stability problems Lateral-torsional buckling


Flange (compressive) displace laterally to the
transverse load direction.

Torsional stiffness is too low (especially for


open section profiles)

Theoretical calculations or design measures.


see e.g. L.P. Kollr 2003, Mechanics of composite structures.

Example:

Compressive flanges are kept in place by connection to the bridge deck.


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Bending Beam: Stability problems Local buckling of walls due to in-plane compression
Flange (compressive) displaces in the
direction of the transverse load.

Low bending stiffness perpendicular to the


pultrusion direction.

Weak fiber mats.

Local buckling of walls due to in-plane shear Web crushing and web buckling in transverse direction
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Axial Members

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Axial Members: Tension Ultimate limit state under axial tension Nd


Nd f t,0 A m

Serviceability limit state


x = N L
E0 A

Remark: The critical aspect of axial members in tension are neither the serviceability
nor the ultimate limit state. Critical is the load transfer to the GFRP profile!

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Axial Members: Compression Ultimate limit state under axial compression Nd


Nd Fc 1+ Fc NEuler A f c,0

FC = m

maximal compressive load

2 E0 I NEuler = 2 m,E Lk

Euler load

Lk Buckling length for columns

m,E coefficient for Youngs modulus = 1.3


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Axial Members: Compression The influence of shear deformation should be considered, but in the most
cases, the influence will be small (less than 5%).

Local buckling should be considered for short columns. For more information on the various buckling modes and effects
see L.P. Kollr 2003, Mechanics of composite structures

Global buckling
Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Local buckling
Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Introduction

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Introduction
(from Eurocomp Design Code 1996)

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints Bolts = Stress concentration in the profile and the bolt. It is necessary to ensure that the bolts and the profile
can withstand this concentrated local stress compression.

It is necessary to ensure that the region surrounding


a group of bolts will not be torn out of the profile.

Basic failure modes


in bolted shear connections:

bolt shear failure


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints The design procedure is comparable to the one for steel connections, but
since there exist no standard GFRP material each manufacturer has its own design rules for bolted joints.

IMPORTANT REMARKS:
The direction of pultrusion and the direction of the force is RELEVANT!!!
(anisotropic material)

Use stainless or galvanised steel Do not cut threads in the composite material! Use screws with shafts

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations) Calculation of load bearing capacity of bolts
Shear in longitudinal direction (0) Shear in transverse direction (90) Tensile force

Minimum distances

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations) Joint capacity tables, available for shear and tension

Shear in longitudinal direction 0

Shear in transverse direction 90

PB,d = d t 150 MPa m (=1.3)


Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

PB,d = d t 70 MPa m (=1.3)


Fibre Composites, FS09 A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations) Bolted connection in shear: e.g. shear in longitudinal direction

mPBolt dt720 MPa

mPBolt dt240 MPa

mPBolt dt240 MPa

mPBolt dt150 MPa

mPBolt dt240 MPa

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bolted joints (Fiberline recommendations)


Bolted connections in tension Static conditions
Bolt: Tearing of bolt in threaded cross-section

Pd m

As f yk

Laminate: Shear fracture at rim of washer

t f Pd 2 d
m

Geometry and strength:


d As t 2d fyk f ... ... ... ... Diameter of the bolt Stress area of the bolt Thickness of laminate Diameter of washer Tensile strength of bolt Shear strength of laminate

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bonded joints


Using an adhesive agent for joining profiles can have advantages:
Easy to use / easy to make aesthetic joints Typically more rigid than bolted joints Glued joints subjected to dynamic loads are good

But be careful
Adhesive agents have properties that depend on time, temperature, humidity Failure in glued joints takes place suddenly (brittle behaviour) The load-bearing capacity is not proportional to the area which is glued

The design of bonded joints may be based on:


Analytical models for plate-to-plate connections (see Eurocomp 1996 Design Code) Design guidelines supplemented by testing Finite element analysis

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bonded joints


A bonded joint has the following three primary failure modes:
adhesive failure cohesive failure of adhesive cohesive failure of adherend

The design of any bonded joint shall satisfy the following conditions:

allowable shear stress in the adhesive is not exceeded. allowable tensile (peel) stress in the adhesive is not exceeded. allowable through-thickness tensile stress of the adhesive is not exceeded. allowable in-plane shear stress of the adherend should not be exceeded.

The calculation of the stresses has to be done very carefully! Often


calculations are supplemented by testing.

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Bonded joints


Different types of bonded joint configurations

Research on bonded joints for structural


applications

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

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Connections: Other joints


Brackets for assembly (Fiberline)

Custom pultruded connections

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009

GFRP: Some final remarks


Perpendicular to the direction of pultrusion, the material is WEAK and SOFT!
avoid such loadings if possible

In order to use pultruded GFRP-profiles economically, the design must be done


in a clever way! e.g.: for bridges, the railings should be used as part of the load-bearing structure

GFRP structures are very light vibration problems may occur

Design of FRP-Profiles and All-FRP-Structures

Fibre Composites, FS09

A. Schumacher / 14.10.2009