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BLOWER BALANCE FOR SMALL ASPECT RATIO

SUMMARY: The equipment has been designed as an experimental unit to study the Co-efficient of Lift and Co-efficient of Drag for different aspect ratios of the model. The test rig essentially consists of axial blower handling the air as the medium of flow and is driven by AC Motor. The test rig has provisions for varying the parameters, viz., speed, in turn flow and head. The specially designed AC electric drive facilities the accurate calculations of input horsepower to blower. Aspect ratio = b2/s ; b = breadth of the model, s = Area of the model(Span)

SPECIFICATIONS:

1.BLOWER TYPE : a) Axial with circular duct for (Delivery & Suction) b) Operated at 60Hz.

2.MOTOR

: AC Motor with thyristor speed controller (AC Drive)

3.DRIVE

: AC. type

4.ELECTRICAL INPUT TO THE CONSOLE

: Single ph, 220 V, AC supply with Neutral and and Earth

PROCEDURE:1. Keep the model in testing area 2. Set the model to required angle up to 15() 3. Switch on the console 4. Switch on the blower motor and rotate the speed regulator knob to full speed 5. Note down the lift, drag & air velocity for zero angle of attack 6. Repeat the experiment for different angle of attack Note: 1.During the adjustment of angle the direction of Angle is Positive towards top and Negative towards down. 2. The Experiment is conducted using suction flow. TABULAR COLUMN Model Lift in Kg Drag in Kg Air Angle velocity of In attack m/sec Coefficient Coefficient of Lift of Drag CL CD

DIAGRAM

(+) b

(-)

FORMULAE USED: L Coefficient of Lift CL = ----------------()V2S

Coefficient of Drag CD = ---------------()V2S

Where, b = breadth of the model = Density of air =1.1kg/m3 S = Area of the model (Span) V = Velocity of air m/sec D = Drag force in Kg L = Lift force in Kg

TABLE OF READINGS AND CALCULATION:


BLOWER BALANCE Velocity = 8 m/s Angle of attack 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 Co-efficient of Lift CL 0.5934343 0.5555556 0.4040404 0.3030303 0.1262626 -0.1136364 -0.2146465 -0.3345960 -0.5366162 0.0173933 0.1043599 0.0927644 0.1739332 0.3246753 -0.3478664 -0.4986085 -0.6087662 -0.7479128 Co-efficient of Drag CD 0.340909 0.315657 0.195707 0.145202 0.069444 0.075758 0.119949 0.176768 0.296717 0.075371 0.023191 0.046382 0.098562 0.185529 0.121753 0.197124 0.324675 0.429035

Model

SYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL

SYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL

Lift 0.94 0.88 0.64 0.48 0.2 0.18 0.34 0.53 0.85 0.03 0.18 0.16 0.3 0.56 -0.6 0.86 1.05 1.29

Drag 0.54 0.5 0.31 0.23 0.11 0.12 0.19 0.28 0.47 0.13 0.04 0.08 0.17 0.32 0.21 0.34 0.56 0.74

Span 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.049 0.049 0.049 0.049 0.049 0.049 0.049 0.049 0.049

SAMPLE CALCULATION: L Coefficient of Lift CL = ----------------1/2V2S 0.94 = -------------------------------------- = 0.593 0.5 1.1 (8)2 0.49 x 0.1 L = Lift force in Kg D = Drag force in Kg

V = Velocity of air m/sec S = Span of the model=b x C b = breadth of the model

C = Chord of the aerofoil = Density of air = 1.1kg/m3 D Coefficient of Drag CD = -----------1/2V2S


0.54 = -------------------------------------------2 0.5 1.1 (8) 0.490.1 GRAPHS: = 0.340

HELE-SHAW APPARATUS Hele-Shaw flow is produced by forcing a liquid through a thin gap between parallel plates. An example of Hele-Shaw flow is provided in Fig. for flow over an inclined plate. Streak lines are generated by introducing dye at evenly spaced points upstream of the field of view. Since the flow is steady, the streak lines are coincident with streamlines. The fluid is water and the acrylic plates are 1.0mm apart. Assumptions: 1. The flow is steady. 2. The flow is incompressible. 3. The flow model two-dimensional potential flow in the xy-plane.

Analysis: When equally spaced streamlines of a stream function spread away from each other, it indicates that the flow speed has decreased in that regain likewise, if the streamlines come closer together, the flow speed has increased in that region. In Fig. we infer that the flow far upstream of the plate is straight and uniform, since the streamlines are equally spaced. The fluid decelerates as it approaches the underside of the plate, especially near the stagnation point, as indicated by the wide gap between streamlines. The flow accelerates rapidly to very high speeds around the sharp corners of the plates indicated by the tightly spaced streamlines. Potential flow theory: This theory gives the definition of stream lines as lines which shows the direction of the flow of fluid at any particular moment. A flow entirely free from vortices or vorticity of any kind is said to be irrotational or potential flow. The principle of superposition is also defined on the basis of this theorem. The stream function for a flow defined by superimposing two other flows upon one another is sum of stream function of the two components of the flow. This is known as principle of superposition. The basic equation of potential flow theory is as follows. 2 2 + y2 x2 Where is the stream function.

VOLUME FLOW RATE DEDUCTED FROM STREAMLINES

Water is sucked through a narrow slot on the bottom wall of a water channel. The water in the channel flows from left to right at uniform velocity ,the slot is perpendicular to the xy-plane, and runs along the zaxis across the entire channel, which is w = 2.0m wide. The flow is thus approximately turn two-dimensional in the xy-plane. Several streamlines of the flow rate plotted and labeled in Fig. The thick streamline in Fig. is called the dividing streamline because it divides the flow into two parts. Namely, all the water below this dividing streamline gets sucked into the slot, while all the water above

the dividing streamline continues on its way downstream. For the given set of streamlines, we are to determine the volume flow rate through the slot and estimate the fluid speed at a point.

Analysis: By Fig., the volume flow rate per unit width between the bottom wall (wall = 0) and the dividing streamline (dividing = 1.0 m2/s) is V dividing - wall = (1.0-0)m2/s = 1.0m2/s w All of this flow must go through the slot. Since the channel is 2.0m wide, the total volume flow rate through the slot is V V = w = (1.0 m2/s) (2.0m) = 2.0 m3/s w To estimate the speed at point A, we measure the distance between the two streamlines that enclose point A. We find that streamline 1.8 is about 0.21 m away from streamline 1.6 in the vicinity of point A. The volume flow rate per unit width (into the page) between these two streamlines is equal to the difference in value of the stream function. We can thus estimate the speed at point A. V 1 V 1 1 VA = = (1.8-1.6) = (1.8-1.6)m2/s = 0.95 m/s w w 0.21 m Our estimate agrees very well with the known free-stream speed (1.0 m/s), indicating that the fluid in the vicinity of point A flows at nearly the same speed as the free-stream flow, but points slightly downward. The streamlines of Fig. were generated by superposition of a uniform stream and a line sink, assuming irrotational (potential) flow. We discuss such superposition.

Inlet valve

Drain valve

inlet valve ( ink)

Air out valve

Width of the test channel is 0.30 m Gap of the test channel is 4 mm = 0.4cm = 0.04 m Connect the inlet valve side to water source. Fix the aero foil (or any other) model. Fill the die liquid in the funnel. Keep air out valve, drain valve and inlet valve (ink) in closed position. By operating air out valve fill the gap test place with water. (Removal of 100 % air gap is not possible). Close the outlet valve. Airs out has to be made by opening the air out valve and then close the valve. Inlet and outlet valve are to be opened partially (by experience) to get proper flow pattern. Open inlet valve (ink) such a way the colors should start in the straight line form. If required adjust inlet and outlet valve. Observe thick line of 1 mm in upper side which has to be noted by operator. Any two stream light lines to be identified and note down the scale reading (the operation to be fast). Also observe the eddy formation. Collect 200 ml of water against time. Close inlet valve and open outlet fully to drain the water. Repeat the experiment for other models. After the experiment see that the die line & the passage of 4 mm to be cleaned by flushing the water. Clean water to be used to avoid clogging.

SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

INTRODUCTION : The information useful for solving aerodynamic problems of Aeronautical, Space , Automobile and Civil Engineering structures, are best obtained rapidly , economically and accurately by testing the scaled models, and sometimes actual structure in Wind Tunnels .The size, the speed and other environmental conditions of tunnel are determined by the actual users problems . Leaving the size and environmental to the actual users, the speed determines the type of the tunnel namely, subsonic ( low speed ),Nearsonic, Transonic, Super-sonic and Hyper-sonic. While the speeds of these tunnels are obviously named with reference to the sonic ( sound ) velocity , the low speed ( subsonic ) tunnel which is of our concern is below 300 mph. An alternative definition to the low speed tunnel would be the tunnel where the compressibility of Air is negligible .

SPECIFICATIONS : *
TYPE OF TUNNEL

Low speed, Open circuit, Suction type. 300 mm x 300 mm.


9:1

* *

TEST SECTION SIZE

CONTRACTION RATIO :

DRIVE

Axial Flow fan driven by AC Motor (10 Hp) with AC Drive for Speed Controlling AC. 3 ph, 440 V, 32 Amps Electrical supply with Neutral & Earth connection. Effuser, Diffuser : FRP Blower Frames & Supporting Frame: Mild Steel.

POWER REQUIREMENT :

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

SPECIAL FEATURES: * Tunnel does not need any civil work and easily transportable place of convenience. to any

EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES: * Study of Lift, Drag & Side Forces on Aerofoil Study of Drag on Bluff Bodies Study of Pressure Distribution : Symmetric, Cambered.

: Wedge, Flat Disc, Automobile models. : Symmetrical Aerofoil, Unsymmetrical Aerofoil, Smooth Cylinder : Aerofoil, Cylinder, Sphere & Hemisphere.

Study of Smoke Pattern

MAIN PARTS: Honeycomb inlet mesh screen, Effuser, Blower unit with AC motor and thyristor controller, Three component like Lift, Drag, Side force balances, Multi - tube manometer , Smoke generator constitute the complete tunnel . DESCRIPTION: A. INLET DUCT (Effuser): It is aerodynamically contoured section with contraction area ratio 9: 1. The inlet starts with dimension of 900mm x 900mm contoured to 300mm x 300mm. The axial and lateral turbulence are reduced and smooth flow of air entering the section is achieved by installing the Honey-combs and screens , for most effectiveness of the air inlet . The ratio of length to cell size of the Honey -comb is maintained as per the recommended standards . The wire mesh is also fixed to smoothen the flow , futher . This is particularly useful for obtaining laminar flow. The screen is made removable for possible cleaning. The duct is secured to the test section by flange. The provision is also made for easy removal of Effuser and diffuser for possible separation from the test section when required. It is also highly smoothened and painted. B.

TEST SECTION: The central portion of the test section sandwiched between the inlet duct ( Effuser ) and the diffuser using flange. It has 300mm x 300mm cross section (inside ) and 550mm length . Fixed with transparent window on either side which facilitates fixing and viewing of the models. This houses smoke chest fixing points.

The traversing mechanism is fixed on its top of the movement of total pressure probe .The holes provided for holding the models for different studies and for taping out the pressure probes . C. DIFFUSER:

The downstream portion of the tunnel is the diffuser .To the end of this is attached an axial flow fan . The diffuser starts with 300mm x 300mm square section at the test section end and enlarges to 900mm diameter round at the fan driven end . It is flanged and bolted to the test section. D. AXIAL FLOW FAN UNIT:

The fan unit is independent stand alone type and does not require any foundation . It is housed in rounded casing which is secured to the diffuser . The bladed rotor is connected to AC motor directly coupled. E. CONTROL CONSOLE:

The tunnel has two consoles, one for the air speed control ( AC motor Controller ) and the other for the indication of velocity head and forces . The console which houses tyhristor speed controller connected to AC motor by 3 ph, 440 V, AC supply . All safety precaution for excessive electrical loading are provided. F. ATTACHMENTS: (i)

STRAIN GAUGE BALANCE : This is housed beneath the test section portion. The models are mounted on the vertical mechanical member called String. The lift drag & side forces are measured using this unit.

MULTI BANK MANOMETER: This manometer is used for studying the pressure distribution across the various models. This unit is mounted to the right of the test section. INSTALLATION: The tunnel does not require any civil work whatsoever , and is completely self reacting stand alone type . Normally , the first time installation of the tunnel is done by our experienced engineers , unless it is required to be re-installed in another place . In the event of reinstallation, the assembly of the tunnel is to be done by following the description explained in earlier pages . While installing the tunnel, the following things are to be borne in mind. It is recommended to install the tunnel facing the inlet and the exhaust ( blower side ) of the tunnel towards the windows . This is to facilitate clear movement of air velocity at the test section and also pushing out the smoke during the flow visualization experiment using smoke generator . The electric power supply to the control panel should be according to the specification .

(ii)

PREPARATIONS & OPERATIONS: a) WIND TUNNEL BALANCE : The tunnel balance is three component type ( three forces ) designed using the electrical strain gauges to indicate separately on the digital indicator. The balance is intended for indicating the Lift , Drag, Side forces in case of aerofoils, and drag force only in case of bluff bodies,Viz., spherical, Hemi - spherical, Flat disc. These models are mounted on the string (Vertical square rod) situated exactly beneath the test section. The output from

the Lift, Drag, Side forces are connected to the respective multi - pin sockets provided at control panel.

b)

SMOKE GENERATOR:

The smoke generator unit is used for producing the dense white smoke , for the purpose of flow visualization across the models . Essentially , it consists of electrical cartridge heater , over head diesel bottle , sump bottle , air supply pipe from blower and smoke distributor . Keep the needle valve closed. Fill the over head bottle with diesel and check the level . Fix the smoke distributor at the starting portion of the test section . Connect the hose pipe of the distributor to the smoke generator. Connect the electrical supply of the cartridge heater .Fix the required model in the test section, cover the back side of the test section with the black cloth . Connect the air inlet to the smoke generator. Initially open the needle valve and allow the diesel to pass through the heater (Thus soaking the heater unit) to the sump bottle . Now switch ON the heater control unit and keep it at maximum . After the initial heating is done the smoke starts coming out of the smoke distributor. Now decrease the heating and balance the heating & the diesel drip in such a way that the continuous dense smoke starts coming out of the distributor . ( If more smoke has to be forced out of the distributor , the air inlet pipe of the smoke generator may be connected to air compressor unit , where higher forcing pressure is available ) . Switch ON the blower ,adjust the valve to get the uniform & visible smoke across the models . The unused diesel collected in the sump bottle may be put back to over head bottle .

After the experiment is over, close the needle valve , switch OFF the heater , controller , and allow the blower to run for sometime to drive out unused smoke . During the experiment check blockage of condensed oil in the smoke outlet pipe leading to the distributor and drain it to the sump bottle . c) MULTI TUBE MANOMETER: This is used for studying pressure distribution across various models, Viz., Aerofoil, cylinder, special purpose shapes . It contains 13 Nos. Of tubes mounted on board with adjustable inclination. Bottom of all tubes are interconnected and in turn to the balancing reservoir filled with coloured water . While the last tube is left open to atmosphere for reference , all other 12 tubes are connected at their top to pipe / tube bundles of the model. The required model is held in the test section between holes provided front and back side Perspex windows. The pressure tapings ( tube outlets ) are connected to the glass limbs of the respective Serial Number . The required degree of angle of inclination can be given to the tube bundle and angle measured with respect to the horizontal . d) VELOCITY INDICATOR, PITOT TUBE & TRAVERSE UNIT: The velocity of air at test section is measured as the

m/sec in digital manometer. The two plastic pipes from the indicator are to be connected to pitot tubes ( static and total heads ports ). Check that the total head port always faces the direction of flow . Otherwise the direction effect may cause error in air velocity reading .The traverse unit can be operated up and down the test section . It should show zero reading when the pitot tube head probe is in bottom most position of the test section . Otherwise adjust the pointer.

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS: All the components described under DESCRIPTION are readily integrated for conducting the various experiments . Follow the general instruction detailed below. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Connect the power card to the 400 V, 32 A,3ph, AC power supply with neutral and earth connection . Keep the speed controller knob at Min. Check all the switches of the controller are in OFF position before starting . Put-on the mains and observe the main indicator lights are ON at the bottom of the control panel . Now switch on the console and observe the console light in ON. Select particular experiment & fix the required model in the test section. Follow the instruction for PREPARATION & OPERATION of different attachments / accessories explained in earlier pages Observe that no tools or loose parts are left in the test section, and then close the transparent window.

7. . 8.

9.

Now increase the speed control knob slowly in the clock-wise direction and observe the AC Motor picking up the speed gradually. Observe the movement of manometer liquid in inclined manometer (velocity indicator) when liquid variation is low set the required value of air velocity by adjusting the knob on the AC drive. Take readings in the respective experiments detailed in later pages While stopping, gradually decrease the speed and then switch OFF the AC motor controller.

10.

11. 12.

TROUBLE SHOOTING:

1.

DC motor does not start: a) Main not ON. b) c) d) e) f) Console not ON. Controller not ON. Motor fuse blown off. Field fuses blown off. Mains fuse in your laboratory blown off.

2.

Smoke does not appear out of distributor: a) Heater not ON. b) c) d) e) f) g) No diesel in overhead bottle. Diesel control valve closed. Heater burnt / damaged. Diesel supply too fast. Air velocity too high, the smoke gets diffused. The holes in diesel air pipes are blocked if so, take out the till it and clean.

3. a) b) c)

Digital Lift, Drag, Side forces and Yawing, Pitching, Rolling moments indicators not getting balanced and does not show proper reading: Multi-pin connector not properly connected to strain gauge balance. The model or model fixing tube is touching the tunnel wall. Calibration is to be done.

4. Pressure Distribution in multi-bank manometer bank is not indicated properly: a) The holes in models are blocked. If so, clean it with fine gauge S.S.wire supplied. b) The air velocity is too low. c) The angle of inclination of manometer bank is very high with respect to horizontal.

d)

The air is leaking through the connecting tubes at the model terminals or at some other point in the tube line.

EXPERIMENT CONDUCT:
A.

ON PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AEROFOIL & CYLINDER: 1. 2. 3. Fix the aerofoil in the test section. Set the require angle of attack using angle setter. Connect pressure tube bundle coming from the multi tube manometer to the steel tube extensions of the aerofoil model, follow the instruction mentioned under PREPARATION & OPERATION. Set the required inclination of the manometer angle. Now set the required velocity of air flow using AC motor controller knob, and now observe the displacement of manometer liquid in all tubes standing at different levels, and note down the readings.

4. 5.

B.

ON FORCE CHARACTERISTICS: (i) SPHERICAL, HEMI - SPHERICAL, DISC MODELS: 1. Fix the above models in the vertical sting & lock it. 2. 3. 4. 5. Set the force and moment indicators to zero. Fix the air velocity using the velocity indicator. Take down reading of all forces and moment. These models can be tested at different orientations & the results are compared.

C.

ON FLOW VISUALISATION:
1. 2. 3. Cover the back side of the test section with dark cloth. Switch ON the light. Follow the instructions under PREPARATION & OPERATION to set up the experiment for flow visualization.

4. 5. 6.

7.
8. 9.

Fix the required model in the test section, at required orientation. Now observe the smoke being forced out of the smoke distributor at the entry to the test section. Control the main flow of air in test section by controlling the AC motor speed, so that the smoke flow pattern to persist across the model. Higher velocities will defuse the smoke. Observe the flow pattern at different orientation of models. Check periodically that adequate amount of diesel oil is available in the over head bottle. Also check the unbumt diesel oil being collected in the sump bottle, and outlet smoke pipes and transfer it back to over head bottle. Never switch on the heater for long time without the diesel oil being supplied to the unit. After the experiment, switch off the heater, diesel supply and light and run the DC motor for sometime. This is just to exhaust out any smoke left in the tunnel.

10. 11.

THINGS TO REMEMBER: 1. 2. Do not clean transparent test section windows with petrol, kerosene or other chemical detergents just use soap water. Keep always the holes of the pressure distribution models closed with soft clean paper wrapped round with rubber band. This is very important because making holes on aerofoil is done by special process and not easily be cleaned or made. In case of faults beyond routine repair / understanding, please write to the manufacturer. Dont bring any fire near the smoke generator during flow visualization experiment.

3. 4.

TABLE OF READINGS ON AIRFOIL

VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL

(1) to (6) (7) to (12) Velocity (V) (Po P ) Cp(i) = Pressure co-efficient at different

Upper Surface Lower Surface

Cp(i)

Initial Manometer Reading (P13 P(i)) / 2 --------------------( Po P )

OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCATION (X/C)

ANGLE OF ATTACK in degrees 5 10 15 20 -5 -10 -15 -20

1(5)

2(15)

3(15)

4(15)

5(20)

6(20)

7(10)

8(20)

9(20)

10(15)

11(15)

12(15)

13(Static P)

TABLE OF READINGS ON AIRFOIL VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL

(1) to (6) (7) to (12) Velocity (V) (Po P ) Cp(i) = Pressure co-efficient at different

Upper Surface Lower Surface

Cp(i)

Initial Manometer Reading (P13 P(i)) / 2 --------------------( Po P )

OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCATION (X/C)

ANGLE OF ATTACK in degrees 5 10 15 20 -5 -10 -15 -20

1(5)

2(15)

3(15)

4(15)

5(20)

6(20)

7(10)

8(20)

9(20)

10(15)

11(15)

12(15)

13(Static P)

VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON CYLINDER MODEL


(7) to (12) Lower Surface

(1) to (6)

Upper Surface

At Air Velocity (V) Pi = (Pr - Pm) Ps = (Pi3) Cp = Cp = Pressure co-efficient

(Ps-Po) ----------------( 1/2rV2 )

------------------

2 Tunnel Dynamic Pressure of Water Po = Pr - P13

OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCATION

Smooth cylinder surface pressure Pm

1(5)

2(15)

3(15)

4(15)

5(20)

6(20)

7(10)

8(20)

9(20)

10(15)

11(15)

12(15)

13(Static P)

TABLE FOR LIFT, DRAG & SIDE FORCE READINGS ON SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL

At Velocity: Lift force Drag Force Side force

Model

Angle of Attack

Velocity

Chord (C) = 0.1 m

= 1.29 kg/m

Span (S) = 0.25m g= 9.81 m/sec2

A = S*C = 0.025 m2

D = Drag (Kgf) L = Lift (Kgf)

TABLE FOR LIFT, DRAG & SIDE FORCE READINGS ON UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL

At Velocity: Lift force Drag Force Side force

Model

Angle of Attack

Velocity

Chord (C) = 0.1 m

= 1.29 kg/m3

Span (S) = 0.25 m g= 9.81 m/sec2

Area (A) = S*C = 0.025 m2

D = Drag (Kgf) L = Lift (Kgf)

STUDY OF FORCES ON BLUFF BODIES

At Air Velocity: Projected Dimension in m CD 0.12 113 X 10-4 Projected Area in m2

Model

Drag

Circular Disc

Sphere

0.1

7.85 X 10-3

Hemispherical Bowl

0.1

7.85 X 10-3

C D = FA / FT = (Actual measurement of force) / (Theoretical measurement of force)

FORMULAE USED: 1) PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER AN AEROFOIL: P13 P(i)/(2)1/2 CP(i)= --------------------(PO P) Where, P13 = Ps = static pressure in cm From manometer (13th point) P(i) = Pressure at each point in cm (Po P) = initial manometer reading in cm Draw graph of Pressure in mm of water Vs Pressure tapping points location distance 2) CO-EFFICIENT OF LIFT (CL) AND CO-EFFICIENT OF DRAG (CD) OF MODELS FORCE, FT = AV 2g
2

x Cos 9.81

where, A is projected area of aerofoil is the air density = 1.29 kg/m3 g is acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/sec2 v is velocity of air in m/sec

is angle of inclination on aerofoil


FA = -------FT Actual measurement of force ---------------------------------------Theoretical measurement of force

CS, CL, CD

Draw graph of CL, CD Vs Angle of attack

3) VELOCITY OF AIR AT SECTION,V : V = (2 x g x (hw/1000) x (w/ a 1))1/2 = (2 x 9.81 x (hw/1000) x (1000/ 1.29 1))1/2 = 4.22 (hw) 1/2 Where, w = 1000 kg/m3 a = 1.29 kg/m3 g = 9.81 m/s2 hw= U tube manometer reading in mm

X Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

X/C 0.05 0.2 0.35 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.35 0.2 0.05

X Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Distance b/w Points 5 20 35 50 70 90 -90 -70 -50 -35 -20 -5

VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OVER THE TEST SECTION


Distance Frequency travelled in mm 0 50 100 50 150 200 250 295 0 50 100 150 200 250 295 Velocity (from meter ) 42.6 55.6 64.5 64.5 64.1 58.5 56.5 27 32.4 40.5 40.5 40 38.4 35

30

CHART OF FREQUENCY AND VELOCITY


Distance travelled Frequency Velocity

150

10.88 20.18 30.08 40 50

5.9 11.8 18.5 25.3 32.9

Table of Readings
VALUES OF AIRFOIL
(1) to (6) (7) to (12) Velocity (V) (Po P ) -

PRESSURE

CO-EFFICIENT

ON

SYMMETRICAL

Upper Surface Lower Surface 64.1 m/s dynamic head from velocity indicator (Velocity head) = 23.07

28

(P13 P(i)) / 2 Cp(i) --------------------different X/C location. ( Po P )


OBSERVATION TABLE:

Cp(i) = Pressure co-efficient at

LOCA TION

ANGLE OF ATTACK in degrees (SYMETRICAL MODEL) Air Velocity =64.1 m/s Cp(i) -0.279 -0.208 -0.190 -0.147 -0.046 0.071 0.101 0.021 0.006 -0.034 -0.123 -0.129 0 42.8 40.5 39.9 38.5 35.2 31.4 30.4 33 33.5 34.8 37.7 37.9 33.7 Cp(i) -0.628 -0.337 -0.267 -0.199 -0.064 0.067 0.083 0.046 0.052 0.049 0.012 0.107 5 53 43.5 41.2 39 34.6 30.3 29.8 31 30.8 30.9 32.1 29 32.5 Cp(i) -1.16 -0.50 -0.36 -0.25 -0.07 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.38 10 68.5 46.8 42.5 38.6 33 27.8 27.5 27 25.8 24.6 23.8 18.2 30.6 Cp(i) -1.56 -0.59 -0.39 -0.22 -0.01 0.08 0.07 0.12 0.18 0.24 0.29 0.48 15 80.8 49 42.7 37.2 30.3 27.2 27.5 26 23.9 22 20.3 14.1 29.9 Cp(i) -0.19 -0.17 -0.20 -0.19 -0.19 -0.17 -0.07 0.05 0.15 0.22 0.29 0.48 20 38.2 37.7 38.6 38.4 38.3 37.5 34.5 30.4 27.1 24.8 22.5 16.4 32.1 Cp(i) 0.21 0.05 -0.02 -0.05 0.00 0.04 0.09 -0.02 -0.07 -0.17 -0.34 -0.57 -5 23.5 28.9 31.2 32 30.5 29.1 27.5 31.2 32.8 36.1 41.6 49.1 30.5 Cp(i) 0.40 0.17 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.05 -0.08 -0.13 -0.26 -0.46 -0.89

1(5) 2(15) 3(15) 4(15) 5(20) 6(20) 7(10) 8(20) 9(20) 10(15) 11(15) 12(15) 13

29

30

VALUES OF AIRFOIL
(1) to (6) (7) to (12) Velocity (V) (Po P ) -

PRESSURE

CO-EFFICIENT

ON

SYMMETRICAL

Upper Surface Lower Surface 40.0 m/s dynamic head from velocity indicator (Velocity head) = 8.98 (P13 P(i)) / 2 Cp(i) --------------------Cp(i) = Pressure co-efficient at different X/C location. ( Po P ) ANGLE OF ATTACK in degrees (SYMETRICAL MODEL) Air Velocity = 40.0 m/s

OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCAT ION

31

1(5) 2(15) 3(15) 4(15) 5(20) 6(20) 7(10) 8(20) 9(20) 10(15) 11(15) 12(15) 13

Cp(i) -0.102 -0.087 -0.118 -0.095 -0.024 0.071 0.102 0.016 0.008 -0.039 -0.158 -0.213

0 20 19.8 20.2 19.9 19 17.8 17.4 18.5 18.6 19.2 20.7 21.4 18.7

Cp(i) -0.551 -0.284 -0.236 -0.181 -0.047 0.071 0.102 0.063 0.079 0.079 0.039 0.047

5 25.5 22.1 21.5 20.8 19.1 17.6 17.2 17.7 17.5 17.5 18 17.9 18.5

Cp(i) -1.11 -0.50 -0.40 -0.28 -0.11 0.04 0.07 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.34

10 31.4 23.7 22.4 20.8 18.7 16.8 16.4 16.5 16 15.5 15.2 13 17.3

Cp(i) -1.29 -0.49 -0.35 -0.19 0.00 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.20 0.26 0.32 0.50

15 34.2 24 22.3 20.2 17.8 16.5 16.5 16.2 15.3 14.5 13.8 11.5 17.8

Cp(i) -0.18 -0.16 -0.17 -0.17 -0.18 -0.17 -0.11 0.00 0.12 0.20 0.25 0.45

20 20.3 20 20.1 20.1 20.3 20.1 19.4 18 16.5 15.5 14.8 12.3 18

Cp(i) 0.24 0.08 0.01 -0.02 0.03 0.06 0.07 -0.03 -0.06 -0.15 -0.31 -0.51

-5 14.5 16.6 17.5 17.9 17.2 16.9 16.7 18 18.3 19.5 21.5 24.1 17.6

Cp(i) 0.42 0.20 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.04 -0.06 -0.12 -0.23 -0.50 -0.79

1 1 1 1

1 2 2

32

VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL


(1) to (6) (7) to (12) Velocity (V) (Po P ) Upper Surface Lower Surface 64.1 m/s Dynamic head from velocity indicator (Velocity head) = 23.07 (P13 P(i)) / 2 Cp(i) --------------------Cp(i) = Pressure co-efficient at different X/C location. ( Po P ) -

OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCAT ION

ANGLE OF ATTACK in degrees (UNSYMETRICAL MODEL) Air Velocity = 64.1 m/s Cp(i) 0.601 -0.113 -0.319 -0.221 -0.138 0.009 0.162 0.135 0.141 0.101 -0.061 -0.748 0 13.2 36.5 43.2 40 37.3 32.5 27.5 28.4 28.2 29.5 34.8 57.2 32.8 Cp(i) 0.215 -0.389 -0.475 -0.346 -0.202 0.003 0.144 0.147 0.184 0.175 0.083 -0.276 5 24.5 44.2 47 42.8 38.1 31.4 26.8 26.7 25.5 25.8 28.8 40.5 31.5 Cp(i) -0.18 -0.61 -0.58 -0.41 -0.20 0.05 0.15 0.19 0.25 0.26 0.22 0.12 10 36.5 50.5 49.3 43.8 37 29 25.5 24.3 22.5 22 23.4 26.5 30.5 Cp(i) -0.63 -0.79 -0.67 -0.42 -0.16 0.08 0.16 0.21 0.29 0.32 0.32 0.38 15 50.3 55.7 51.5 43.5 34.9 27.3 24.7 22.8 20.5 19.3 19.5 17.3 29.8 Cp(i) -1.08 -0.93 -0.66 -0.32 -0.04 -0.02 0.12 0.21 0.31 0.35 0.36 0.52 20 64.1 59.3 50.5 39.3 30.4 29.8 25.2 22 19 17.5 17.3 12 29 Cp(i) 0.63 0.02 -0.21 -0.20 -0.17 -0.08 0.06 -0.07 -0.12 -0.16 -0.20 -0.18 -5 11.5 31.4 38.8 38.5 37.4 34.5 30 34.4 36 37.2 38.5 38 32 Cp(i) 0.55 0.04 -0.18 -0.20 -0.20 -0.16 -0.13 -0.15 -0.10 -0.08 -0.11 -0.10

1(5) 2(15) 3(15) 4(15) 5(20) 6(20) 7(10) 8(20) 9(20) 10(15) 11(15) 12(15) 13

-1 12 29 36 36 37 35 34 35 33 33 34 33

30

33

VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL


(1) to (6) (7) to (12) Velocity (V) (Po P ) Upper Surface Lower Surface 64.1 m/s Dynamic head from velocity indicator (Velocity head) = 8.98 (P13 P(i)) / 2 Cp(i) --------------------Cp(i) = Pressure co-efficient at different X/C location. ( Po P ) -

OBSERVATION TABLE: LOCA TION

ANGLE OF ATTACK in degrees (UNSYMETRICAL MODEL) Air Velocity = 40.0 m/s Cp(i) 0.496 -0.110 0 12 19.7 Cp(i) 0.260 -0.331 5 14.8 22.3 Cp(i) -0.13 -0.55 10 19.5 24.8 Cp(i) -0.60 -0.76 15 25.1 27.1 Cp(i) -1.03 -0.88 20 30.4 28.5 Cp(i) 0.59 0.04 -5 10.5 17.5 Cp(i) 0.57 0.06

1(5) 2(15)

1 1

34

3(15) 4(15) 5(20) 6(20) 7(10) 8(20) 9(20) 10(15) 11(15) 12(15) 13

-0.299 -0.244 -0.165 -0.016 0.142 0.039 0.142 0.102 -0.118 -0.473

22.1 21.4 20.4 18.5 16.5 17.8 16.5 17 19.8 24.3 18.3

-0.433 -0.307 -0.189 0.008 0.142 0.158 0.189 0.181 0.079 -0.221

23.6 22 20.5 18 16.3 16.1 15.7 15.8 17.1 20.9 18.1

-0.54 -0.38 -0.18 0.04 0.09 0.19 0.25 0.26 0.21 0.13

24.7 22.6 20.1 17.3 16.6 15.4 14.6 14.5 15.1 16.1 17.8

-0.63 -0.39 -0.16 0.08 0.17 0.22 0.28 0.32 0.32 0.40

25.5 22.4 19.5 16.5 15.4 14.7 14 13.4 13.5 12.4 17.5

-0.67 -0.38 -0.04 0.06 0.14 0.24 0.31 0.36 0.39 0.51

25.8 22.1 17.8 16.6 15.5 14.3 13.4 12.7 12.4 10.8 17.3

-0.20 -0.17 -0.16 -0.08 -0.01 -0.10 -0.09 -0.09 -0.14 -0.13

20.5 20.1 20 19 18.1 19.3 19.2 19.2 19.8 19.6 18

-0.09 -0.13 -0.15 -0.10 -0.12 -0.13 -0.16 -0.06 -0.10 -0.10

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

35

VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON CYLINDER MODEL (SMOOTH SURFACE)


(1) to (6) Upper Surface 64.1m/s Cp = (7) to (12) Lower Surface

At Air Velocity (V) Pi = (Pr - Pm) Pressure co-efficient Ps = (Pi3)


------------------

(Ps-Po) ----------------( 1/2rV2 )

Cp =

2 Tunnel dynamic Pressure in cm of Water Po = Pr - P13 Reference Pressure Pr = 10


OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCATION P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Smooth Cylinder Surface Pm 29.8 30.5 34 35.2 16.4 7.9 20.8 36.5 32.5 31.9 33.8 33.5 27.5

Pressure Pi in cm -19.8 -20.5 -24 -25.2 -6.4 2.1 -10.8 -26.5 -22.5 -21.9 -23.8 -23.5

Pressure Ps in cm -17.127 -17.7325 -20.76 -21.798 -5.536 1.8165 -9.342 -22.9225 -19.4625 -18.9435 -20.587 -20.3275

Ps-Po 0.373 -27.7325 -30.76 -31.798 -15.536 -8.1835 -19.342 -32.9225 -29.4625 -28.9435 -30.587 -30.3275

Cp 0.0001 -0.0105 -0.0116 -0.0120 -0.0059 -0.0031 -0.0073 -0.0124 -0.0111 -0.0109 -0.0115 -0.0114

VALUES OF PRESSURE CO-EFFICIENT ON CYLINDER MODEL (SMOOTH SURFACE)


(1) to (6) Upper Surface 40.0 m/s Cp = (7) to (12) Lower Surface

At Air Velocity (V) Pi = (Pr - Pm) Pressure co-efficient Ps = (Pi3)


------------------

(Ps-Po) ----------------( 1/2rV2 )

Cp =

2 Tunnel dynamic Pressure in cm of Water Po = Pr - P13 36

Reference Pressure Pr = 10
OBSERVATION TABLE:

LOCATION P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Smooth Cylinder Surface Pm 19 18.5 18.2 18.4 12.5 9.4 14 20.3 18.9 18.5 19.7 19.9 16.5

Pressure Pi in cm -9 -8.5 -8.2 -8.4 -2.5 0.6 -4 -10.3 -8.9 -8.5 -9.7 -9.9

Pressure Ps in cm -7.785 -7.3525 -7.093 -7.266 -2.1625 0.519 -3.46 -8.9095 -7.6985 -7.3525 -8.3905 -8.5635

Ps-Po -1.285 -17.3525 -17.093 -17.266 -12.1625 -9.481 -13.46 -18.9095 -17.6985 -17.3525 -18.3905 -18.5635

Cp -0.0012 -0.0168 -0.0166 -0.0167 -0.0118 -0.0092 -0.0130 -0.0183 -0.0171 -0.0168 -0.0178 -0.0180

37

38

TABLE FOR LIFT, DRAG SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL


Model Angle of Attack 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 5 10 15 20 Velocity COS 1 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939 64.1 64.1 64.1 64.1 64.1 64.1 64.1 64.1 64.1

SIDE

FORCE

READINGS

ON

Lift Force (FA) Kg 0.19 -1.12 -2.17 -3.29 -3.1 2.38 4.1 4.76 2.99

Drag Force Kg 0.52 0.7 0.85 1.12 1.91 0.52 0.56 0.62 1.69

Side Force Kg -0.02 -0.01 -0.01 -0.04 -0.07 -0.1 -0.19 -0.23 -0.16

A= S*C S=0.295m C=0.1m 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950

FT inKg 7.969 7.938 7.842 7.691 7.483 7.938 7.842 7.691 7.483

SYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL

TABLE FOR LIFT, DRAG SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL


Model Angle of Attack 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 5 10 15 20

SIDE

FORCE

READINGS

ON

COS 1 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939

Drag Velocity Lift Force Side Force A= S*C Kg S=0.295m (FA) Kg Force Kg C=0.1m 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 0.03 -0.6 -0.81 -1.25 -1.18 0.79 1.27 1.79 1.04 0.12 0.28 0.32 0.5 0.71 0.16 0.2 0.24 0.63 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 -0.02 -0.05 -0.03 -0.06 -0.07 -0.09 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950 0.02950

FT in Kg

SYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL

3.103 3.091 3.054 2.995 2.914 3.091 3.054 2.995 2.914

GRAPH OF LIFT, DRAG SIDE FORCE FOR SYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL AT V= 64.1

39

GRAPH OF LIFT, DRAG SIDE FORCE FOR SYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL AT V= 40.0

40

TABLE FOR LIFT, DRAG UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL


Angle of Model Attack 0 UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL -5 -10 -15 -20 5 10 15 COS 1 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939 0.996 0.984 0.965

SIDE

FORCE

READINGS

ON
FT in Kg CL

Lift Drag Side A= S*C Force Velocity Force Force S=0.295m (FA) Kg Kg C=0.1m Kg 64.1 3.02 0.5 -0.08 0.02950 64.1 0.38 0.88 -0.08 0.02950 64.1 -1.02 1.28 -0.07 0.02950 64.1 -1.32 1.63 -0.07 0.02950 64.1 -1.55 1.84 -0.09 0.02950 64.1 3.87 0.56 -0.18 0.02950 64.1 4.28 0.58 -0.22 0.02950 64.1 5.02 0.6 -0.3 0.02950 41

7.969 7.938 7.842 7.691 7.483 7.938 7.842 7.691

0.379 0.048 -0.130 -0.172 -0.207 0.488 0.546 0.653

20

0.939

64.1

6.16

0.72

-0.39

0.02950

7.483

0.823

TABLE FOR LIFT, DRAG UNSYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL


Angle of Model Attack 0 -5 -10 -15 UNSYMMETRICAL -20 AIRFOIL 5 10 15 20 COS 1 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939 0.996 0.984 0.965 0.939

SIDE

FORCE

READINGS

ON
FT in Kg CL

Lift Drag Side A= S*C Force Velocity Force Force S=0.295m (FA) Kg Kg C=0.1m Kg 40 1.23 0.22 -0.04 0.02950 40 0.14 0.32 -0.03 0.02950 40 -0.4 0.46 -0.02 0.02950 40 -0.49 0.55 -0.03 0.02950 40 -0.49 0.58 -0.04 0.02950 40 1.56 0.21 -0.07 0.02950 40 1.71 0.22 -0.09 0.02950 40 1.98 0.24 -0.21 0.02950 40 2.33 0.28 -0.16 0.02950

3.103 3.091 3.054 2.995 2.914 3.091 3.054 2.995 2.914

0.396 0.045 -0.131 -0.164 -0.168 0.505 0.560 0.661 0.800

GRAPH OF LIFT, DRAG SIDE FORCE FOR UNSYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL AT V= 64.1

42

GRAPH OF LIFT, DRAG SIDE FORCE FOR UNSYMMETRICAL AEROFOIL AT V= 40.0

43

TYPICAL DRAG STUDIES ON BLUFF BODIES AND AUTOMOBILES


At Velocity V=64.1 Projected Drag Projected Ft Cd dimension Force Area in mm 2.09 120 0.0113 3.05271 0.68464 0.74 100 0.0078 2.10718 0.35118 2.05 0.52 0.91 100 0.0078 2.10718 0.97286

Model Circular disc Sphere Hemispherical Bowl Car 1 Car 2

44

Model Circular disc Sphere Hemispherical Bowl Car 1 Car 2

At Velocity V=40 Projected Drag Projected dimension Ft Force Area in mm 0.78 0.37 0.74 0.19 0.36 120 100 100

Cd

0.0113 1.18875 0.65615 0.0078 0.82055 0.45092 0.0078 0.82055 0.90183

AXIAL FLOW FAN HONEY COMB MESH SCREEN

AIR INLET

EFFUSER

DIFFUSER

OUTLET

ANY ONE AT A TIME

SMOKE DISTRIBUTION

FLOW VISUALIZATION STUDY(OPTIONAL) - CYLINDER - FLAT DISC - AIRFOIL OR - AUTOMOBILE VEHICLE MODEL OR - OPTIONAL MODELS

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION STUDY - AIRFOIL OR - CYLINDER OR - OPTIONAL MODELS

FORCE STUDY - AIRFOIL SYMMETRICAL UN SYMMETRICAL - AUTOMOBILE VEHICAL MODEL - BLUFF BODIES - OPTIONAL MODELS

3 ph. AC SUPPLY

TEST SECTION

PITOT TUBE

STATIC PRE.
3 FORCES TUNNEL BALANCE

3R

SMOKE GEN.

SMOKE

MULTI BANK MANOMETER

AIR SUPPLY FROM BLOWER

FIG . 1 LOW SPEED WIND TUNNEL SCHEMATIC OF INSTRUMENTATION AND EXPERIM

45

FLOW VISUALIZATION USING WATER CHANNEL AIM: To visualize the flow using water flow channel by using two dimensional object. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Water flow channel, two dimensional surfaces model. DESCRIPTION: The water flow channel is a device which is used to visualize the two dimensional flow over an object. The channel consist of a test section proceeded by a contraction passage. The contraction passage increases the test section speed; the corner vanes in the return circuit provide a smooth entry of water into contraction. The entire setup is arranged in a shallow rectangular tank filled with water to a required level. The flow in the test section is established by means of two sets of rotating flow Blades wheel in opposite directions. The water is re-circulated so that the system works continuously. A HP DC motor through a belt pulley drive arrangement which drives the blade wheel at a lower speed. The speed of the stream is kept low to avoid turbulence and ripple formation on the water surface. PROCEDURE: Two-dimensional models are kept in test section and the flow pattern around these models is made visible by placing silver threads. The water channel is well suited for the study of real flow visualization is used to study the effects of the shape of the model on the flow pattern, when kept in a stream line flow. The following models are used for flow visualization. a) Square and triangle b) Airfoil. 1. Laminar flow of water in a channel is in flow condition.
46

2. For above condition operate the variable drive in clockwise direction. 3. Observe the condition of flow should be laminar. 4. In the middle flow path keep the model (Aerofoil, Square, and Triangle) one at a time. 5. The silver threads are placed (called as aluminum powder) in the path of water flow and model. The silver threads travels in the direction of flow and passes through the model closely observe the pattern formed around the model. It can be photographed. 6. The equipment is made of stainless steel tray in which contract partitions are made for flow path. 7. The flow path length 6. 8. Width of the channel is two side ways 6. 9. Width of the channel in centre 9. 10. Curved blade at entry and on the other end is made for smooth flow. 11. The curved blades can be removable type on the other end for different conditions. 12. A common shaft is connected to the turbine wheel blades. 13. The shaft is connected by belt to DC variable motor. 14. The RPM of the motor can be red in digital meter. 15. Once the experiment is completed drain the water. 16. The water height in the channel should not be more than 2 in height from base floor.

47

48