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(Al add Al Fil bainal mn wal Kufr)

THE DIVIDING LINE (DIVISION OF


DISTINCTION) BETWEEN DISBELIEF
AND FAITH

by


ABDUR-RAMAN ABDUL-KHLIQ



From the Translator (Arabic to Malaysian)
Problems of takfr (to charge with disbelief) is an issue that is often discussed,
less clearly understood, and has been a reason for causing misunderstandings within
the Islmic community.
Within the Islmic ummah, there are those who all too easily charge another
person with disbelief even when essentially that person is still considered Muslim.
There are also those who put forth the opinion that we are not allowed to condemn
(punish) someone who is a disbeliever even though that person is actually a
disbeliever and apostate from the religion of Islm and in addition has formed groups
that inculcate the issue of takfr in order to disorientate and confuse the Islmic
ummah so that they maintain hatred, enmity, and stay away from specific groups.
This is carried out because of the specific objectives for a specific group or
individual. There are also within the Islmic ummah, those who have committed acts
of disbelief that have removed them from the religion of Islm and yet when they
have been informed of the nature of their actions they do not want to accept it. Within
the Islmic ummah there is also ignorance concerning the difference between the
disbelief of an individual and the disbelief of of a certain institution, current of
thought, or ideology. All of these form problems freely found within the Islmic
community.
This book, The Dividing Line (Division of Distinction) between Disbelief and
Faith constitutes one scientific explanation of the above problems. This book
discusses the meanings of Faith, Disbelief, Disbeliever, Hypocrite, and others. It also
explains when a person is deemed to be out from the religion of Islm, and in fact
explains a lesser and lower form of disbelief than the disbelief of apostasy and
hypocrisy lesser and lower than intrinsic hypocrisy.
I hope this book is able to help the Islmic ummah in their efforts to
understand the problems between disbelief and faith, in particular the dut (callers
to Islm) and the Islmic youth who are eager to continue the struggle of Muammad
.
In fact, this publication of Pustaka Salam is the second printing for this book,
with the first publication being from Penerbitan Al-Ikhlas in 1981. This second
printing is made after performing the correction of many errors found in the first
edition, especially within the very confusing footnotes.
I am grateful to Allh who has made the printing of this book easy and thanks
to Pustaka Salam for their cooperation in the publishing of this book.
I pray that Allh blesses all our efforts, from the editors, translators, printers,
and readers of this book. It is from Allh that we seek guidance and it is from Allh
that we seek refuge.

Alias Othman
Islamic Academy
University of Malaya
7
th
March 1985













From the Translator (Malaysian to English)
This book is an important treatise on a subject that oftentimes is indistinct and
blurred. It is most important, especially for a Muslim, to realize and be aware that in
order for him to practice Islm correctly, he must maintain, implement and adhere
to this Dividing Line between Disbelief and Faith. It is thus, for that reason that I
have also referred to it, in its title, as, Division of Distinction, in a bid to emphasize
the definitive separation of one from the other.
Whilst translating from Malaysian to English I also often referred to the
treatise in its original Arabic, just in case there were some points that required finer
illustration.
The method of transliteration used in this translation is as follows:

a
b
t
th gh
j f
q
kh k
d l
dh m
r n
z h
s w
sh y



Short vowels (above or below consonant):

a

i u

Long vowels (following consonant):

() ()
() ()

Diphthongs (following consonant):

ay aw (also au)
Finally, the interpretation of the meanings of the Noble Qurn is that of
Shakir.

Khalid S.
Perth, Australia
16
th
October 2013


CONTENTS

1. IMN AND ITS ESSENCE..1


2. IMN, MAU AND THEIR SHARAT
(object and requirements)...12

3. MATTERS THAT INVALIDATE IMN....32
4. HOW IMN MAY BE LOST..38
(i) Wisdom opposed to its Requisites42
(ii) To judge with other than the Laws
of Allh..52
(iii) To ridicule a Muslim because of his
Islm and to be hostile towards him
because he holds steadfastly to his
his religion56
(iv) To work together with and help the
Enemies of Islm.....62
(v) To consent to the spread of evil.....67

5. THE ESSENCE OF DISBELIEF...72

6. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS THAT ARE FALSE79

7. MATTERS THAT DO NOT REMOVE A
MUMIN FROM THE BOUNDS OF ISLM87
8. INTERPRETATION OF THE WORD OF ALLH
AND PROVIDING ANOTHER MEANING THAN THAT
WHICH IS EVIDENT IN A WRONGFUL MANNER
AND IJTIHD (INDEPENDENT REASONING)..95
















INTRODUCTION
Before presenting the problems, the legality of which will be able to be
determined later, we must beforehand understand the meanings of the words Imn
and Kufr. After that, we will also determine the methodology for being able to
differentiate between kufr and imn as seen together. This is so done, because the
act of kufr can be carried out in words or deeds, by those who we are not yet
permitted to charge with kufr.
With the help of Allh the reader will be able to receive complete explanations
as well as proofs in relation to this matter.
















Page | 1

IMN AND ITS ESSENCE

In order to understand where the mentioned word is in Al Qurn and As
Sunnah, we must firstly understand the meaning of that word according to the
terminology of the Arabic language, and then we can look at how the word is applied
within the Sharah in various places that differ one from the other. Generally the
public, at a certain time and place, except within the times that the Sharah was
revealed, are not allowed to used as a reason for laying down specific laws regarding
those words.
The word imn is one word that should not be interpreted except according to
the interpretation permitted by Allh and His Messenger . With an interpretation
such as that, the Sharah meaning of the word imn will be determinable.
When we observe the manner in which the word imn is used within Al
Qurn, we will find that it is used around two basic meanings:
1. Imn in the sense of allowing/permitting (certification/ratification) -
(At-Tasq)
2. Imn in the sense of the commitment to action/deeds.

Dalil (evidential proofs)
Amongst the dalil that show the use of imn in the first meaning is in the
words of Ibrhm when he asked Allh to show him how it was that Allh had
the power to give life to the dead. Allh decrees:
_! l _.. _! _l, _>.l _.L,l _,l __
He (Allh) said: Do you not believe? He [Ibrhm (Abraham)]
said: Yes (I believe), but to be stronger in Faith
1


1
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 260.
Page | 2

And secondly. The decree of Allh in the telling of the narrative of Ysufs
brothers who returned home with their story at night and carried with them
Ysufs bloodstained clothing:
!. . _.., !.l l !. _,... _
But you will never believe us even when we speak the truth.
2

That is, you will not allow our story of the wolf having eaten Ysuf, and
thirdly, similarly the decree of Allh which tells the narrative of Firaun (Pharaoh)
at the time he drowned and believed that he would be destroyed:
.., .. .l| | _ .., ., `., _,,`.| !. _.
_,.l`..l _
I believe that L ilha illa (Huwa): (none has the Right to be
worshipped but) He, in whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am
one of the Muslims (those who submit to Allhs Will).
3

One thing is clear, that the word imn is a passing deed ( - transitive)
by means of arf al jarr (a letter that functions by taking kasra and modifying the
word immediately following it), namely the letter ba and lam; for instance I
say, I believe in Allh, His attributes and I submit to Him. And:

I believe in the Messenger who calls us to Allh. That is, I believe in the
announcement of Allh brought by the Messenger of Allh .

2
Srah Ysuf (12), ayh 17.
3
Srah Ynus (10), ayh 90.
Page | 3

Included within the sphere of belief in these announcements is the decree of
Allh:
!. . _.., !.l _
But you will never believe us
4

Also included is the decree of Allh:
!. _., _..l | `,: _. .. __
But none believed in Ms (Moses) except the offspring of his
people,..
5

That is, the announcements brought by Ms , that stated that the Ban
Isrl would leave Egypt, and also Allh would elevate their status and destroy
Firaun was not considered to be true except by the young and the children of the
Ban Isrl.
With this it is clear that the first part of the meaning of the word imn is to
allow the message of Allh and His Messenger .
The Messenger of Allh has already summarized this meaning within a
a adth at the time Jibrl asked him about imn, and he said:
)

(Al mn is) that you believe in Allh, His Angels, His Books, His
Messengers, the Day of Judgment and that you believe in qadar both
good and evil is from Allh.
6


4
Srah Ysuf (12), ayh 17.
5
Srah Ynus (10), ayh 83.
6
Narrated by Muslim.
Page | 4

The second part of the meaning of the word imn is an act or deed or the
commitment of an act or deed. An act or deed that is desired here is an act or deed
of imn, that is, those deeds or acts whose agent/doer/perpetrator is called a mumin
and a/any group which errs (goes astray) in this are referred to as those who have
desisted from being mumin.

Dalil (evidential proofs):
1. Amongst the yt of Al Qurn that demonstrate the use of the word imn with
the understanding of act or deed is the decree of Allh at the time of answering the
Muslims who asked: What is the outcome for our brothers who died whilst they
performed alt in a direction other than that of the kabah?
This matter eventuated after the relocation of the qiblat from Baitil Maqdis (in
Jerusalem) to the Kabah (in Makkah).

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And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the
bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer
of witness to you; and We did not make that which you would have to be the
qiblah but that We might distinguish him who follows the Messenger from
him who turns back upon his heels, and this was surely hard except for those
whom Allh has guided aright; and Allh was not going to make your faith
to be fruitless; most surely Allh is Affectionate, Merciful to the people.
7


7
Surah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 143.
Page | 5

The Ulam have stated that the word within this ayh means
your alt. By that, this ayh means: And Allh does not squander
(throw away/reject) your alt that you made berofe when the qiblat was towards
Baitul Maqdis, because it is Allh who commanded you to do such.
2. The adth from the Messenger of Allh stated below also demonstrates the
Use of the word with the meaning of act or deed:
The Messenger of Allh said:

.,-. :. ., .., : .... .:.. . ` < ` . .::.
_,L. _. ` ...
Imn is divided into over sixty branches; the highest of which is to
state and the least of which is to remove something
harmful from the path of a person.
8

Within this adth the Messenger of Allh has named all Islamic acts or deeds as
imn; starting from the shahdat up to the least of acts or deeds, that is to remove
something harmful from a busy thoroughfare.
Besides that, many yt from Al Qurn have brought together these
understandings when Allh describes the characteristics of those who are mumin.
Amongst them is the decree of Allh:
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Related by Ab Dwd and Nas and Ibn Mjah and narrated by Al Bukhr in several places.
Page | 6

The believers are only those who believe in Allh and His Messenger then
they doubt not and struggle hard with their wealth and their lives in the way
of Allh; they are the truthful ones.
9


By means of the above yt, the meaning of imn has been restricted from
both standpoints. By means of that, we are also able to state that imn is to confirm
(that which is authorized by) Allh and His Messenger without suspicion or doubt,
to perform jihd in the Way of Allh by means of wealth and soul and without any
further suspicion or doubt that jihd and other acts that are more inferior than jihd
are included within (that which is classified as) Islmic deeds, because jihd
constitutes the peak of Islmic deeds. Those people who abandon acts or deeds such
as alt, zakt and ajj for example, will not follow the act of carrying out jihd. And
the decree of Allh which states:

. .

.
..
they are the truthful ones.
is implying that there are those who perform the dawah of imn without proof. This
group of people are lying in their dawah claims, or they are unable to assimilate that
essence of imn with the true picture. They deem that imn is merely declamatory
by means of the lips alone. This ayh was revealed by Allh specifically for this
group of people.
Because of that ayhs revelation by means of the particular grammatical
stylization that indicates the demarcative qualification () (verily) then, and this
indicates that those who do not have the qualities explained by the ayh are not
included amongst the group of the muminn. Consider another ayh with the same
form as the above ayh. Allh decrees:

9
Surah Al ujrt (49), ayh 15.
Page | 7

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Those only are believers whose hearts become full of fear when Allh is
mentioned, and when His communications are recited to them they increase
them in faith, and in their Lord do they trust.
Those who keep up prayer and spend (benevolently) out of what We have
given them.
These are the believers in truth; they shall have from their Lord exalted
grades and forgiveness and an honorable sustenance.
10


It is clear here that the sense of fear and terror in the heart increases imn, i.e.,
is confirmed by the heart and in addition strengthens trust in Allh, all of which is a
feeling that can be felt by the heart of a mumin. This means that imn is not merely
an inert ratification within the heart, but that it constitutes a certain respondent
release. After the emergence of this respondent release then is born the fulfilment of
alt and zakat both of which are part of the acts of imn.
After that Allh also conveys His decree:

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These are the believers in truth; they shall have from their Lord exalted
grades and forgiveness and an honorable sustenance.
11


10
Surah Al Anfl (8), yt 2-4.
11
Surah Al Anfl (8), ayh 4.

Page | 8

This ayh was revealed with the grammatical stylization (uslb) of al-ari (limited
[to])
.

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.

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Those only are believers whose


Then Allh accompanies it also with His decree:

. .

These are the believers in truth;..


So that by that means Allh demonstrates that there is imn that is not right, not true;
imn that is invalid. When the time comes we would know that that invalid imn is
in the form of false claims without proof or it permits matters that are khurft
(mythical, fictitious superstition) and matters that are still waham (imagined,
illusion, delusion).
By these means we are able to understand that imn, such as that which is
contained within Al Qurn and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allh , possesses
two meanings:-
i. Permits/ratifies the khabar (communications, matters, notifications)
of Allh and that of the Messenger of Allh .
ii. Firmly committed to the obligatory commands already ordered by
Allh to those who willingly acknowledge the khabar of Allh.
At this point, we are centred upon a specific question; Are we permitted to
judge people who ratify (imn) within their hearts without the committance or
commitment of such by means of acts or deeds Do they believe (have imn)? In
other words, whether they are considered to be successful mumin by means of
testifying that there is no ilh except Allh within their hearts, yet they do not
carry out that which has been commanded by Allh and do not distance themselves
from that which has been prohibited by Allh.
The answer to this question will be, insh Allh be made clear by means of
the following explanation.
Page | 9

The dividing line or division of distinction between the aqdah (belief, creed,
confirmation, attestation) of the heart that is in obedience to and accepts the
commands of Allh, as well as carrying out that which is demanded by Allh of a
mumin is what constitutes the distinctive division that is able to help juxtapose
the division in order to understand this matter. In reality this division/distinction has
never existed and never occurred in the real world, because it is not reflected in the
intellect of a person who heras the decree of Allh that is addressed to him: O
My servant, indeed there will be the Day of Resurrection, and on that Day I will
mention all of your deeds, and if supposing you had done good I will enter you into
Paradise, and if supposing you had done evil I ill enter you into Hell. Then the
servant will answer: O my Lord, indeed I confirm all Your words, but I ask to be
excused from carrying out all of Your commands because I am lazy.
This matter has already been explained by Imm Ibnul Qayyim with the
words: It is unacceptable to the intellect the imn of a person who knows that alt
is obligatory and he hears the call of Allh every day within his life: Come to
alt, and he never responded once to that throughout his entire life.
I have already given an example of this fact to my friends by saying: My
brothers! What would be your opinion if it was the case that at the time we were
sitting there came a person who said to us that fire surrounds this place, and that if
the people present did not run quickly (from this place) then that fire would lick at
and destroy us. Would you think that a person who verifies what was said would
remain at this place or flee? Would it be accepted by the intellect that amongst us
would be a person who would say to that person (the one claiming that fire
surrounded the place): Brother, I have heard what you have said and understand
the warning you have given, but I will excuse myself from being able to leave this
place because I am lazy. If there was found amongst us a person who said that,
there would be no doubt that he was insane, or he was indeed denying the
information delivered to him. It is an impossible matter for a person of full
understanding (sane) and who acknowledges that above information to answer in
such a manner.
Faith in the heart and obedient compliance of the member parts; what I mean
by this is, compliance and immediate carrying out of matters that have been
commanded (to do so) constitute one issue that cannot be detached nor removed
Page | 10

from. Assuming imn was availably found in the heart, then the one who possessed
imn would immediately hasten to carry out good deeds and be obediently compliant
to commands. This constitutes clear proof (dall), that is indisputable anymore
except by those who imitate, those who blindly follow, people who deny or people
who are ignorant.
Nevertheless, there are still adth of the Messenger of Allh which can
be understood (to mean) that imn and vouchsafing the heart may be ensured for
someone to enter Paradise after having been in receipt of punishment, which no one
knows for how long except Allh. It can also be understood that those who possess
imn such as this will not be (dwell) permanently in Hell in the manner of the
permanent dwelling of the kfirn who have rejected Allh. Insh Allh I will
present these adth at the end of this paper.
What is important here is that we positively confirm that those who abandon
deeds rightfully deserve to enter Hell and certainly they are included amongst and
within that group of people who are in receipt of retribution; as for the matter of
eternity in Hell, it is in fact a second issue.
12
The publics misunderstanding of this
matter has had an enormous impact resulting in a number of groups being expelled
from imn to kufr without them realizing it.

12
Kufr, according to the terminology of Al Qurn and the Sunnah, sometimes means major disbelief (Al Kufr al
Akbar), that is, disbelief that expels a person from religion (Islm), and sometimes it carries the meaning of minor
disbelief (Al Kufr a-aghir), that is, disbelief that does not expel a person from religion (Islm). The matter of time
spent in Hell becomes the dividing line between the two kinds of kufr. The first kind of kufr leads to eternity in
Hell, whereas the second kind of kufr leads to the adverse promise (torture), but not to eternity in Hell. This does not
mean that minor disbelief has been alleviated or lessened, because if a person had reaped happiness in this world and
was immersed in Hell for a short while, then we asked him: Did you feel pleasure before this? He will answer: By
Allh I have never felt pleasure at all. The decree of Allh:

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O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones; over it are
angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are
commanded. (Surh At-Tarm (66), ayh 6).
- Al Jamaah Al Islmiyah, University of Kahirah.

Page | 11

Therefore, O my brothers in Islm, have dialogues amongst yourselves. Are
you really and truly mumin? Supposing brother, you did not fulfil that which has
already been declared obligatory (upon an individual) by Allh to correct a
brothers imn and a brother often asks of himself: Does the brother really
and truly have faith and believe in Paradise? If supposing a brother has faith and
believes in it, then why is the brother silent and does not demand it? Does the
brother really and truly believe and have faith in Hell? After that then, does the
brother really and truly have faith in Allh the One and Onlywhy does the
brother not endeavour and make efforts to search for and seek out His will? Why
does the brother not love Him? Why is the brother not obedient and compliant to
Him?
Know that the Messenger of Allh required that mankind utters those words
of imn without being compelled to follow it up with the (obedient) compliance to
uphold commands, (and by that means then) surely people (mankind) would hasten
to carry that out. However, the Messenger of Allh wanted (desired that) the
emergence of obedience bring about the carrying out of commands after
acknowledgement by the tongue. Because of that, the Messenger of Allh also
carried out a treaty with the Muhajirn so that they would sacrifice wealth and
perform hijrah and he made a binding treaty with both of those groups (Muhajirn
and Anr) in order to equally die in the Way of Allh. He did not promise them
anything except Paradise after they had carried out deeds and jihd.
After all of this, are there people with weak souls who still think that they will
be rewarded with Paradise if they merely utter the words of imn with their tongues
alone, without the encumbrance of ruk and sujud (bowing and prostration in alt),
without the spending of their wealth for the Way of Allh even so much as a cent,
without speaking truly before Allh. Do they think that Paradise is what is due to
them? farfar away! Imn is faith and commitment, verification of the truth and
deeds. Imn will not emerge without all of these.



Page | 12

Imn, Mau and their Shara

We already know that imn is tadq (belief, faith, confirmation, attestation)
accompanied by and with deeds. We also already know that tadq and deeds are two
matters that cannot be separated (cannot be detached form each other); when tadq
emerges then deeds emerge, and when tadq does not emerge then deeds also do not
emerge. Thus, what is it that is contained and encompassed within tadq? And what
is the message that must be justified (ratified) by the Muminn?
What is meant by tadq here is that which encompasses and includes all
unseen matters mentioned by Allh and the Messenger of Allh . Whoever
rejects and denies (any) part of that which has been related by Allh and His
Messenger , has faith that is meaningless. Insh Allh, I will explain this matter
when discussing those matters that invalidate imn. However, in order to classify or
categorize someone as included within that group of people who have imn, he
must hold to the belief and be convinced of a number of basic principles contained
within the words:

<

What are those basic principles?


a. He must hold the belief (creed of belief) that what has created this
universe and has command over all of its workings is Allh the One and
Only, living, all-powerful, and having perfect, unique attributes devoid of
deficiencies and stigmatizations. He must hold the belief that there is
nothing whatsoever in partnership with Allh in the creation of this
universe. Allh does not possess a wife nor children. Something other than
Allh is a servant of Allh who submits to the commands and protection
of Allh even if it be a king, messenger, jinn or something else.
b. He must hold the belief that Allh did not create this universe except with
a purpose and not in vain, because Allh is devoid of vanity and futility,
and in fact Allh created this universe for a purpose; that purpose was in
order for those people who are muminn to carry out submission and
Page | 13

obedience to Allh. The people who are disbelievers and do not not submit
to the commands of Allh and have no imn in Him are damned and are
disassociated from His Mercy.
c. He must hold the belief that it is the right of authority of Allh to organize
and initiate the laws of life for His creation because it is Allh who cerated
and made these things. The decree of Allh:

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Surely His is the creation and the command;
13

Because it is that the rightful authority for creation is only with and for
Allh, then the right to command is also under His authority. Thus, the
ordainment of laws in all their forms is the authoritative right of Allh, and
any criticism of the laws and regulations of Allh either in the form of
rejecting or invalidating them, is disbelief and the annulling of prior imn.
d. He must devote himself exclusively to Allh by means of the ibdt
prescribed by Allh. He only makes du ro Allh alone. He does not
carry out (any form of) mediation within his du because Allh is
extremely close, approves the demands of those hwo make du, accepts
the repentance of the person who seeks repentance and is compassionate
to the person who asks for forgiveness. Whoever makes a dead person into
a medium (intermediary) and asks of him (the dead person), and not to
Allh, then he has committed shirk, no matter how high the status of that
medium was.
e. He must confirm (acknowledge the existence of) the Day of Judgement,
Paradise, Hell and all information from the past or which will come
without referring that information to the evaluation of his intellect, so
much so that by means of that evaluation he makes a decision to accept
what has been accepted by his intellect and rejects that which was not
accepted by his intellect because this issue is the invalidation of imn.


13
Surah Al Arf (8), ayh 54.
Page | 14

This issue is deemed to invalidate imn on the basis that the role of the
intellect in the matter of imn is only limited to acknowledging the truth of a
messenger in the light of relating something received from Allh. So, we only
deliberate about his messengership and observe the information that has been
brought by a messenger, so that we know with certitude that that messenger is
applying the truth. Once we believe in and have faith in his truth we must accept
announcements about unseen issues that he brings without making reconciling
those announcements to the values of our intellects because the intellect is unable to
comprehend something except within an understanding of matters that can be visibly
witnessed; the intellect also rejects matters that are out of the ordinary. If we refer
these unseen matters to the intellect, where then is the logic in accordance with the
narrative we hear concerning A-ir al Mustaqm, which is finer than a strand of
hair, and sharper than a sword; nevertheless the muminn pass over it like lightning,
in a blink of the eye and as fast as a swift horse rides.
14
Where is the logic according

14
It is narrated in a number a adth, that on the Day of Judgement in the future those people who have imn
will cross A-ir al Mustaqm like lightning, like the blink of an eye and as swift as a horse.

"

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.
It is narrated on the authority of Muammad bin arq bin Khalfat An-Njal, from the adth of Muammad bin
Fuammad, from the adth of Ab Mlik Al Ashja, from Ab zim, from Ab Huraiah and Ab Mlik from
Riiyy, from udhaifah who said that the Messenger of Allh () said:
Allh, the Blessed and Exalted, would gather people. The believers would stand till the Paradise would be
brought near them. They would come to dam () and say: O our father, open for us the Paradise. He
would say: What turned you out from the Paradise was the sin of your father dam. I am not in a position
to do that; better go to my son Ibrhm (), the Friend of Allh. He (the Holy Prophet) said: He (Ibrhm
) would say: I am not in a position to do that. Verily I had been the Friend (of Allh) from beyond,
beyond; you better approach Moses () with whom Allh conversed. They would come to Moses (),
but he would say: I am not in a position to do that; you better go to Jesus, the Word of Allh and His Spirit.
Jesus () would say: I am not in a position to do that. So they would come to Muammad (). He would
then be permitted (to open the door of Paradise). Trustworthiness and kinship would be dispatched, and
Page | 15


these would stand on the right and left of the Path and the first of you would pass with (the swiftness) of
lightning. He (the narrator) said: I said, O you are far dearer to me than my father and my mother I which
thing is like the passing of lightning? He said: Have you not seen lightning, how it passes and then comes
back within the twinkling of an eye? Then (they would pass) like the passing of the wind, then like the
passing of a bird, and the hastening of persons would be according to their deeds, and your Messenger
would be standing on the Path saying: Save, O my Lord, save. (The people would go on passing) till the
deeds of the servants would be failing in strength, till a man would come who would find it hard to go along
(that Path) but crawlingly. He (the narrator) said: And on the sides of the Path hooks would be suspended
ready to catch anyone whom these would be required (to catch). There would be those who would somehow
or other succeed in traversing that Path and some would be piled up in Hell. By Him in Whose Hand is the
life of Ab Hurairah it would take one seventy years to fathom the depth of Hell. (Muslim 195).

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Page | 16


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And it was reported to me by Suwaid bin Sad, who reported from afu bin Maisarat, from Zaid bin Aslam, from
Ai bin Yasr, from Ab Sad Al Khudri:
Some people during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allh said: Messenger of Allh! Shall we see our
Lord on the Day of Resurrection? The Messenger of Allh said: Yes, and added: Do you feel any trouble
in seeing the sun at noon with no cloud over it, and do you feel trouble in seeing the moon (open) in the full
moonlit night with no cloud over it? They said: No, Messenger of Allh! He (the Holy Prophet) said: You
will not feel any trouble in seeing Allh on the Day of Resurrection any more than you do in seeing any
one of them. When the Day of Resurrection comes a Muadhdhin (a proclaimer) would proclaim: Let every
people follow what they used to worship. Then all who worshipped idols and stones besides Allh would
fall into the Fire, till only the righteous and the vicious and some of the people of the Book who worshipped
Allh are left. Then the Jews would be summoned, and it would be said to them: What did you worship?
They will say: We worshipped Uzair, son of Allh. It would be said to them: You tell a lie; Allh had never
had a spouse or a son. What do you want now? They would say: We feel thirsty, O our Lord! Quench our
thirst. They would be directed (to a certain direction) and asked: Why don't you go there to drink water?
Then they would be pushed towards the Fire (and they would find to their great dismay that) it was but a
mirage (and the raging flames of fire) would be consuming one another, and they would fall into the Fire.
Then the Christians would be summoned and it would be said to them: What did you worship? They would
say: We worshipped Al Mas, son of Allh. It would be said to them: You tell a lie; Allh did not take for
Himself either a spouse or a son. Then it would be said to them: What do you want? They would say: Thirsty
we are, O our Lord! Quench our thirst. They would be directed (to a certain direction) and asked: Why
don't you go there to get water? But they would be pushed and gathered together towards the Hell, which
was like a mirage to them, and the flames would consume one another. They would fall Into the Fire, till
no one is left except he who worshipped Allh, be he pious or sinful. The Lord of the Universe, Glorified
and Exalted, would come to them in a form recognizable to them and say; What are you looking for? Every
people follow that which they worshipped. They would say: Our Lord, we kept ourselves separate from the
people in the world, though we felt great need of them; we, however, did not associate ourselves with them.
He would say: I am your Lord. They would say: We take refuge with Allh from You and do not associate
anything with Allh. They would repeat it twice or thrice, till some of them would be about to return. It
would be said: Is there any sign between you and Him by which you will recognize Him? They would say:
Yes. and the things would be laid bare. Those who used to prostrate themselves before Allh of their own
accord would be permitted by Allh to prostrate themselves. But there would remain none who used to
prostrate out of fear (of people) and ostentation but Allah would make his back as one piece, and whenever
he would attempt to prostrate he would fall on his back. Then they would raise their heads and He would
assume the Form in which they had seen Him the first time and would say: I am your Lord. They would
say: You are our Lord. Then the bridge would be set up over the Hell and intercession would be allowed
and they will say: O God, keep safe, keep safe. It was asked: Messenger of Allh, what is this bridge? He
Page | 17

to the intellect about two men who are buried in one grave, who on the Day of
Judgement later, one of them will become an inhabitant of Paradise whilst the other
will become an inhabitant of Hell?
This is the basic principle of Islmic aqdah.
15
A person who contradicts any
part of these basic principles is considered not to have imn and this is encompassed

said: The void in which one is likely to slip. There would be hooks, tongs, spits like the thorn that is found
in Najd and is known as Sadn. The believers would then pass over within the twinkling of an eye, like
lightning, like wind, like a bird, like the finest horses and camels. Some will escape and be safe, some will
be lacerated and let go, and some will be pushed into the fire of Hell till the believers will find rescue from
the Fire. By One in Whose hand is my life, there will be none among you more eager to claim a right than
the believers on the Day of Resurrection for (saying their) brethren in the Fire who would say: O our Lord,
they were fasting along with us, and praying and performing pilgrimage. It will be said to them: Take out
those whom you recognize. Then their persons would be forbidden to the Fire; and they would take out a
large number of people who had been overtaken by Fire up to the middle of the shank or up to the knees.
They would then say: O our Lord I not one of those about whom Thou didst give us command remains in
it. He will then say: Go back and bring out those in whose hearts you find good of the weight of a dinar
Then they will take out a large number of people. Then they would say: O our Lord! we have not left anyone
about whom You commanded us. He will then say: Go back and bring out those in whose hearts you find
as much as half a dinar of good. Then they will take out a large number of people, and would say: O our
Lord! not one of those about whom Thou commanded us we have left in it. Then He would say: Go back
and in whose heart you find good to the weight of a particle bring him out. They would bring out a large
number of people, and would then say: O our Lord, now we have not left anyone in it (Hell) having any
good in him. Ab Sad Khudr said: If you don't testify me in this hadith, then recite if you like:" Surely
Allh wrongs not the weight of an atom; and if it is a good deed. He multiplies it and gives from Himself a
great reward" (Al-Qurn, Srah An-Nis [4], ayh 40). Then Allh, Exalted and Great, would say: The
angels have interceded, the messengers have interceded and the believers have interceded, and no one
remains (to grant pardon) but the Most Merciful of the mercifuls. He will then take a handful from Fire
and bring out from it people who never did any good and who had been turned into charcoal, and will cast
them into a river called the river of life, on the outskirts of Paradise. They will come out as a seed comes
cut from the silt carried by flood. You see it near the stone or near the tree. That which is exposed to the
sun is yellowish or greenish and which is under the shade is white. They said: Messenger of Allh! It seems
as if you had been tending a flock in the jungle. He (the Holy Prophet ) said: They will come forth like
pearls with seals on their necks. The inhabitants of Paradise would recognise them (and say): Those are
who have been set free by the Compassionate One. Who has admitted them into Paradise without any
(good) deed that they did or any good that they sent in advance Then He would say: Enter the Paradise;
whatever you see in it is yours. They would say: O Lord, Thou hast bestowed upon us (favours) which Thou
didst not bestow upon anyone else in the world. He would say: There is with Me (a favour) for you better
than this. They would say: O our Lord! Which thing is better than this? He would say: It is My pleasure. I
will never be angry with you after this. (Muslim 183).
15
A part of the basic principles of the aqdah of Islm is to have imn in all of the Messengers, without carrying out
differentiation between any of them. Likewise also to have imn in the Books that have been revealed by Allh to the
Messengers and to have imn in the angels, good and evil fortune. This is in line with the adth of the Messenger of
Allh which states:
Page | 18

within the shahdat , which is obligatory for each and every Muslim to
confirm.
By this we understand the contents of the first part of the understanding of
imn at-Tadq. After that we also ask what is contained within those deeds. Is it
obligatory to submit to all of the commands of Allh and the Messenger of Allh ?
And also what are those kinds that must be obeyed? In order to answer these
questions we will explain a number of matters:-
Submission in carrying out all acts of ibdt is divided into two sorts: the first
sort is conviction and the second sort is implementation. For example, there is
fighting in the Way of Allh.
First sort: From the aspect of conviction, it is firstly obligatory to be of the
conviction that fighting in the Way of Allh is an obligation upon each and every
Muslim. Once that has taken place then its implementation takes place when the time
to fight is obligatory upon each particular individual or particular jamah in
accordance with the conditions already mentioned within books of adth and fiqh;
because of that, the Messenger of Allh has said:

He who dies without having fought in the Cause of Allah or without having
thought of doing so, will die with one characteristic of hypocrisy in him.
16

Thinking within oneself about fighting is the aspect of conviction, in the
sense of preparing oneself to make battle with the proper preparation. Every
Muslim is obligated to believe (be of the conviction) that fighting in the Way
of Allh is obligatory upon every individual Muslim based on the decree of
Allh:

Imn is to believe in Allh, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last day and to believe in fortune
good or bad is from Allh. (Muslim).
16
Narrated by Muslim, Ab Dwd, An-Nas, and Amad.
Page | 19

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Fighting is enjoined on you, and it is an object of dislike to you; and it may
be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you
love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allh knows, while you do not know.
17

Such conviction of belief is not restricted to the matter of fighting in jihd, but
it encompasses all compulsory acts or deeds. It is obligatory for every Muslim to
have the conviction of belief that acts or deeds are obligatory; after that conviction,
then he fulfils them practically, assuming that there are no excuses or legally
acceptable emergencies that hinder him from doing so.
Denial of this aspect of conviction is disbelief and this is what has been called
by the Ulam as jud denial, rejection, disbelief, and wherein they have
ststed: Anyone who denies the obligation of ajj, he is a disbeliever, that is,
anyone who does not have imn that Allh has made ajj compulsory upon himself
when he has the capacity to perform it then he is a disbeliever.
Second sort: Meanwhile the second sort is implementation, that is to perform
those acts or deeds that have already been legislated.
The Ulam have already differentiated between abandoning or desisting
form the implementation (of an act or deed) because of laziness, miserliness and an
excuse or pretext that is Islmically unacceptable, such as abandoning fasting
because of laziness and not wanting to be distressed by hunger, abandoning ajj
because of laziness and abandoning fighting in the Way of Allh because of fear and
cowardicethey have differentiated the abandoning of these matters because of the
above reasons by means of their abandonment because of denial and recalcitrance.
They are of the opinion that the first group (the group that does not implement deeds
because of laziness, etc) are perpetrators of disobedience and the second group (the

17
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 216.
Page | 20

group that does not implement deeds because of denial) as disbelievers. Yet there is
a kind of worship that raises differences of opinion amongst the scholars; whether
the abandoning of that form of worship because of laziness is disbelief or not. The
form of worship referred to here is alat.
Some of the ahli adth primarily Imn Amad bin ambal are of the opinion
that abandoning alt because of laziness is disbelief, based on the distinguished
adth which states that the abandonment of alt because of laziness is disbelief, as
stated by the Messenger of Allh :

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The covenant between us and them is the alt, so whoever abandons it he
has committed disbelief.
18

Also the adth of the Messenger of Allh which says:

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Between a servant and unbelief there is the abandonment of alt.
19

Furthermore, the words of the ahli alt who say: we are not of the opinion
that the abandonment of an obligatory act or deed is disbelief except for the
abandonment of alt.
Another group of scholars are also of the opinion that the abandonment of
alt because of laziness or an excuse which is illegitimate - being on the basis that
there is no legitimate excuse for the abandonment of alt - is not held to be disbelief,
but rather is held to be disobedience. That is no difference between the abandonment
of obligatory alt and the abandonment of other obligatory acts or deeds.
This second group has already interpreted the adth held to by the first group
by means of stating that what is meant by alt in these adth is because of denial,
all that the disbelief meant within these adth is minor disbelief, disbelief that does

18
This adth narrated by Imm Amad and the ahli sunnah.
19
This adth narrated by Abus-Sunan and held to be a by Tirmidh.
Page | 21

not exile the person from the religion of Islm, but rather only disbelief by
disobedience.
There is a clear fact in this matter that we are unable to depict that the jamah
of the muminn would abandon alt. This is able to be understood by those who
truly understand the two sorts of the understanding of imn that we have already
discussed, wherein we already understand that imn is aqdah and acts or deeds and
I have already cited the words of Ibnul Qayyim in regard to this matter,
because how can we presume such a person has faith in and believes in Paradise and
Hell and hears warnings about disbelief and its punishment yet he still discontinues
to perform his obligations, which have already been required of him above merely
by reason of laziness. It is highly improbable, impossible, that it makes any sense to
us to classify them into the group of muminn.
Besides that there is a group of Ulam who are of the opinion that there is
no impediment to judge as disbelievers those who abandon alt, in accordance with
na that states such, yet they refuse to equate this group with absolute disbelief and
the rejection of taud. Besides that, this group is of the opinion that the group who
are disbelievers because of the abandonment of alt are entitled to be placed into
Hell, but they do not remain therein in the same manner as the permanent dwelling
(in Hell) of those absolute disbelievers.
On the whole, if the layman and the ignorant abandon alt and differ by only
having faith in the obligation of alt tried to examine their imn and corrected
themselves, they would understand that they do not possess imn even in the
slightest and they that they have been fooled by empty delusions, akin to the reverie
of the Jews and Christians who hope to enter Paradise merely by adhering to their
religions and they assume and suppose that the punishment of Allh will afflict them
but for a short time, merely a few days only. This is an extremely weak assumption
on their part. By Allh, how appropriate this is with the decree of Allh addressed
to the Jews. Allh decrees:

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Page | 22

And they say: Fire shall not touch us but for a few days. Say: Have you
received a promise from Allh, then Allh will not fail to perform His
promise, or do you speak against Allh what you do not know?
20

Due to this difference of opinion amongst the Ulam regarding their issue
over the abandonment of alt revolving around whether they will remain in Hell or
not. A Muslim who concludes that he will not remain in Hell as a reason to abandon
alt, is a Muslim who is subject to a common fallacy, because by merely entering
Hell, even briefly, the day of punishment spoken of lasts for 50,000 years and that
is already enough to make a Muslim avoid therefrom.
Perhaps the strongest dall in proving that the person who abandons alt is a
disbeliever and will dwell in Hell for a period of time known only to Allh alone, is
that which is not mentioned, the existence of retribution that is able to cleanse the
sin of abandoning salat on the Day of Reckoning in the Field of Mashar
(congregation of the dead), just as the existence of retribution like it for those who
abandon zakat and other practices.
As a general conclusion on this matter, it can be said that that acts or deeds
constitute an integral part of the demands of faith, because acts or deeds form a parts
of the understanding of faith itself and it is obligatory to believe that compulsory
acts or deeds are obligatory and that acts or deeds that are sunnah are sunnah and
also that acts or deeds that haram are arm, and so on.
After this conviction (once this conviction of belief has been established), then
those obligatory acts or deeds are done and implemented. Acts or deeds that are
arm are also distanced from and abandoned. The scholars of Islam are already of
the opinion and have stated that the abandonment of an act of deed that is obligatory
is not disbelief, except and unless it is the abandonment of alt. Imm Amad and
the scholars of the salaf who are of the same opinion as him state that the
abandonment of alt is disbelief that exiles one from the religion of Allh.
Once matters associated with obligatory acts or deeds are clear, then it will
also be clear as to those matters that are associated with acts or deeds that are haram.
With that, to be of the conviction that acts or deeds that are haram are haram is

20
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 80.
Page | 23

obligatory. Anyone who is of the conviction that alcohol, adultery, theft, and murder
are all is already a disbeliever, and likewise for all matters that have already been
deemed arm as in Al Qurn or the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allh . Anyone
who makes or pronounces as all anyone of those matters, or is of the opinion that
those matters are all for himself is undoubtedly already a disbeliever according
to the consensus of the Islamic scholars; there is no opinion that overturns that
amongst them.
There is no further doubt that acts or deeds that demand or insist upon making
something all that has been declared arm by Allh are acts disbelief which are
outside of the religion of Islm, because in essence those deeds fight against the
religion of Allh, and by disdainful of the laws, regulations and sharat of Allh.
This is the secret falseness of a person who makes that which is all from that which
is arm, because in essence those of his deeds are against the sharat of Allh. And
such opposition as that will not come about except from those who hold with disdain
all the regulations of Allh. Holding disdain against the regulations of Allh means
to sanction deficiencies and shortfalls towards Allh, something which confirms
deficiencies and shortfalls towards Allh and such are acts or deeds of disbelief.
Those who understand these basic principles will know why it is that Allh
cursed Ibls and removed him His mercy because Ibls stated:
.

. .


Shall I make obeisance to him whom You have created of dust?
21

Because of words such as this, the command of Allh has been belittled and the
wisdom of Allh has been opposed. Because of that, whomsoever states: What is
the issue with alcohol so much so that Allh declares it to be arm?; or he states
that adultery is only a natural act that has no connection with akhlq, religion, and
moralitywhoever says such then he is already a disbeliever in the same manner
as the disbelief of Ibls who is cursed and condemned by Allh.
This matter by itself will befall those who are commanded by Allh to carry
out acts or deeds that are obligatory, yet he answers: I cannot carry this out and I

21
Srah Al Isr (17), ayah 61.
Page | 24

will not submit; What is alt anyway? What is with zakt? In fact the disbelief of
Ibls is nearer to the disbelief of a person who abandons matters that are obligatory
than the person who carries out matters that are arm because Ibls and those people
who abandon matters that are obligatory as well as commanded, and not prohibited
from committing matters that are arm. Both the command addressed to Ibls and
the command addressed to the person who abandons obligatory matters are the same.
Thus, in the case of unwillingness and refusal towards obligatory matters, the action
of refusal is disbelief. Vice versa if the act or deed of carrying out matters that are
arm and making then all, those actions are disbelief. Al amdulillh, these
matters are not matters of conflict between the scholars of Islm.
Besides that, the scholars of Islm are not at odds with the statement that the
doer or agent of disobedience (vice) will not permanently remain in hell except in
regards to the killing of a Muslim. The ulam of the Muslims also do not pass the
judgement of disbelief upon that killer, but it is the opinion of those who state that
the killer remains in Hell as guided by the decree of Allh:
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And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his punishment is hell; he shall
abide in it, and Allh will send His wrath on him and curse him and prepare
for him a painful chastisement.
This opinion is also the opinion of some of the ulam of the salaf, while
some other ulam of the salaf also state that what is meant by permanent in this
ayh carries the meaning to dwell in hell for a long time after which the killer will
come out of Hell. This opinion is in order to coordinate (harmonize) this ayh with
other yt and adth that explain that whoever states (declares, testifies)
then that statement will bestow benefits within their lives.
Once we know that, then the conviction of belief is required for every Muslim
in matters of deeds the conviction of belief that I mean here is that which I have
already explained earlier, like the conviction of belief for the obligation of alt,
Page | 25

zakt, ajj and fighting in the Way of Allh, the conviction of belief that killing is
arm, except when justified, the conviction of belief that adultery is arm, theft
and drinking alcohol are arm. Etc., etc., etc.,..
Once we know that those who contradict or act counter to this conviction of
belief are not considered to be Muslim, we must also understand what that conviction
of belief is and what is its impact upon the soul.
The matter of alt for instance, the conviction of belief in relation to it means
that someone truly acknowledges that Allh has already made it obligatory upon
him to perform alt five times each day and night and he must not refuse or deny
it, and neither refuse it by means of his tongue or his heart. Supposing he did
not truly acknowledge that alt was obligatory or denied that alt was obligatory,
then this means he is a disbeliever. Al amdulillh this matter is not disputed
amongst the ulam of Islm.
Now let us try to understand what is the effect of this conviction of belief
towards the soul. If we present a Muslim as being one who knows that there is no
ilh except Allh, Muhammad is the messenger of Allh and that he is of the
conviction of belief that the performance of alt five times a day and night is
obligatory as well as hearing of the terrible recompense and terrifying threats against
those we neglect the performance of their alt, would not be conviction and hearing
of it give rise to feelings of submission and obedience? Certainly the answer we
would give would be yes. Whoever answered no would assuredly be wrong in
their answer.
Supposing at some time he was lazy or he was overcome by desires, would
not such an issue give rise to feelings of remorse and here within his heart? Would
not his heart tremble with fear if in the future he was grouped tobether with those
who are tortured, those who have already been promised punishment from Allh
because of abandoning alt? As an answer surely we would say yes. Supposing
his heart did not tremble with the feeling of the fear of being tortured, did not feel
at a loss or regretful, how would we be able to regard him as believing in Allh?
Supposing we accept his false shahdat, and he continues unwillingly to
carry out alt for the rest of his life until he meets with Allh who he believes
intry a person who is still alive and has never performed alt to try and correct
Page | 26

the imn of that dead person earlier, but he must be fearful of Allh at the time he
confirms imn to the person who has been judged to be a disbeliever by the
Messenger of Allh , a person who has already acknowledged that Allh will
punish him, whereas a healthy intellect has already acknowledged that that which
is toward Allh and total vice will never be united within the heart of any person.
This conviction of belief will also insh Allh be clear within matters of vice,
because the first matter that is obligatory upon a Muslim in matters that are evil is to
be of the conviction of belief that evil, viceful matters are arm. To be of the
conviction of belief that adultery is arm is obligatory. Whoever does not hold to
be true or believe in Allh in (regard to) matters that are evil, is arrogant and makes
matters all that have already been pronounced arm by Allh, and that means
that he is a disbeliever in a state of disbelief. This justification and belief will
produce a feeling of fear in approaching sin and carrying out evil.
Supposing lust, instinct and desire win, a Mumin will fall and carry out evil.
We do not say that he is already a disbeliever, but rather we say he is already
carrying out evil (disobedience, rebelliousness), but despite him not being a
disbeliever he has earned punishment and he has exposed (rendered liable)
himself to the wrath of Allh.
Supposing he truly has imn, he will feel regret and fear over his
excesses. Supposing he did not feel fear or pity and did not remember the
punishment of torture, then he truly is a disbeliever. It is impossible for your intellect
to be able to describe and represent a Mumin who consumes alcohol or commits
adultery or carries out evil because of the influence of circumstances and then after
those circumstances have elapsed and he returns to his true state of normalcy, but
not the least amount of fear emerges in his heart for Allh, has no regret for the
crimes he has committed and he is not fearful of being questioned in front of
Allh on the Day of Resurrectionbut rather he persist and continues unabated in
the carrying out of evil without regard for anything, heedless of accountability to the
commands of Allhfar, far away is he from belonging within that group of
people who have faith.
Allh has already identified man who is a disbeliever with the characteristic
of arrogance witin His decree:
Page | 27



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Nay! I swear by the day of resurrection.
Nay! I swear by the self-accusing soul.
Does man think that We shall not gather his bones?
Yea! We are able to make complete his very fingertips
Nay! man desires to give the lie to what is before him.
He asks: When is the day of resurrection?
22

Mankind who continues to carry out evil regardless of that, is mankind
who denies and rejects the Day of Resurrection, in the sense that he assumes and
considers that the Day of Resurrection will not occur. There is nothing that motivates
or prompts him to continue carrying out evil except his maintenance of falsehood
towards the existence of the Day of Resurrection. How is it possible for a person to
continue to carry out evil regardless of his being held at some point in time as
responsible for the crimes that he has already carried out?
Nevertheless, we still do not pass the judgement of disbelief upon the doer of
evil, and also not upon the person who perpetuates the carrying out of evil because
of feelings of compunction that we assume to be a condition to maintain him as a
Mumin since that can only be known by Allh, who knows the secrets of his heart;
but we only say to the doer of evil or who remains in a state of carrying those things
out: Supposing you have no regrets about what you have done and your heart is
not in the least bit moved or feels fearful of the crimes you have carried out, then
you rectify your imn; supposing you really and truly were of the belief that you
would feel terrified and fearful of the retribution of punishment that you would
receive. Supposing you really and truly were not of the belief then you would ignore

22
Srah Al Qiymah (75), yt 1-6.
Page | 28

those matters and you would not care whether you disputed the commands of Allh
or not.
What I have presented here is the content and demands of imn, therefore
implementation of acts or deeds is part of the requirements of imn. This opinion
forms the general opinion of the ahli salaf, whereas the group that states that: Imn
does not require/demand the implementation of acts or deeds and evil does not
destroy imn, is the group known as the Murjiah, a group that makes imn an
abstract in essence, having no reality and reflection in life, and there is no effect
upon the soul.
These words of theirs are truly wrong and invalid, because in essence the
separation between faith in Allh and obedience as well as submission towards His
commands, and the granting of His wisdom, is the separation between two matters
that are common to each other. This opinion of theirs is the same as the opinion of
those people who say Religion is only between man and Allh. By means of
these words they mean to separate religion with the reality of life and improvement
of the soul. These words are the same as the person who says, Religion is for Allh
and the state is for all (the rest). By means of these words they mean to disassociate
the structuring of the community from accordance with the requirements of Allh
and the creed of Islm. I declare that all of these words have the same objective, even
though the persons who say them have differing opinions in terms of their form and
presentation. Their goals disassociate and alienate the community and the lives of
mankind from the creed and requisites of Islm and this is a very dangerous matter.
Because of that the Dawin callers - to the Way of Allh must examine which
way they must follow and the aqdah they must hold to.
To end this section we must answer the question: Just which obligatory,
definitive acts or deeds are to be carried out in order to express and bring into
emergence imn and the reality of life?
In actual fact we are unable to determine which specific obligatory, definitive
acts or deeds are to be carried out in order to bring about the emergence of imn; we
also are unable to determine the amount that has already been tasked upon them,
because those obligatory acts or deeds themselves differ with one another according
to differences of environment, circumstances, specific personalities and sharat
Page | 29

emergencies. Can we force a Muslim who is living within a society of disbelievers
that is fighting Islm to express and advertise his Islm as well as perform and
discharge the teachings of Islm at a predetermined time, such that by his actions
he may well be expelled, isolated or restricted from furthering his studies.
23
Is
there dispensation for hiding the belief and religion given to those who are constantly
exposed to such intimidation provided to the person who lives within groups of
disbelievers who do not hold enmity towards Islm and do not prevent other
religions and beliefs to them?
The degree of acts or deeds that must be carried out in order to prove the imn
of a person can only be determined by the circumstances and society, is also able to
be determine laws made by a sincere Mumin, a Mumin who must be accepted by
Allh, as contained within the decree no Allh:

. .

.
.
.

, .
.
.

.
.

.
And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the
bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer
of witness to you;
24

The Messenger of Allh has explained that the shahdah of this Islmic
community is accepted by Allh, when at a time a corpse was being carried for
burial, and a Mumin is to make du for that corpse. The Messenger of Allh
said: It is obligatory, and then the abat asked: What is obligatory O Messenger
of Allh ? The Messenger of Allh said: Whilst the corpse is being carried
you make du upon it for its good, thus I say; it is obligatory, that is Paradise for
him, and likewise whilst the corpse is being carried and you make du for its

23
Learning is not included within the sharat that acts as a prompt for a Muslim to hide his Islm, ignore and suspend
Islmic teachings, especially in Communist nations which openly fight against Islm. In essence these nations are
more backward and lean towards science than European nations that provide freedom of belief for the fulfillment of
Islmic teachings. Because of that muslims still have the opportunity to gain knowledge in European nations if they
are compelled to learn abroad- - Al Jamaah Al Islmiyah, University of Kahirah.
24
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 143
Page | 30

evils, thus I say; it is obligatory, that is Hell for him, you are Allhs witnesses on
this earth.
25

This adth does not mean to punish disbelief or imn as the last penalty,
because the final assessment is only with Allh who knows all secrets, but rather this
adth is proof illustrating that external (apparent) acts or deeds in the ordinary
course of events exemplify inner belief, because the Messenger of Allh had
permitted punishment to be witnessed by the Muminn. Even so a gathering of
Muminn in any society is not permitted to apostatise someone who has never
performed the slightest of the teachings of Islm, excepting he states clearly that
he has not fulfilled those teachings because you are against the commands of Allh
and feel self-important, and even to apostatise a person who abandons alt who is
considered not to believe anyone who does not fulfil these within their time is
dependent upon proof presented to him and that proof is not considered complete
except after he knows the yt and adth related to those who abandon alt.
To conclude this issue, we are unable to determine the obligatory degree upon
those who have declared

and have judged to be disbelievers those who


have not performed those stipulations, because the differences in circumstances and
societies in our times are very clear, as I have already said. However, despite this,
there are still extant laws that are determined by sincere Muminn towards
themselves as well as others; these laws generally are accepted by Allh.
We must not pass any judgement upon someone who has not carried out
obligatory acts or deeds in accordance with the demands of

except that
he says clearly that he has abandoned those acts or deeds because of a reluctance
to submit to the commands of Allh and feelings of self-importance.
Nevertheless, there are still two qayah (pl. qayh matters) that must be
separated (kept apart):-
1. The first qayah is the essence of imn and disbelief.

25
Narrated by Bukhr, Muslim, Tirmidh, and others.
Page | 31

2. The second qayah is the implementation of those matters. What I mean
is, to pin the law of disbelief upon someone or any group or to pin the law
of imn upon someone or any group.
We are still discussing the first qayah, that is, explaining the essence of imn
and disbelief, whereas the second qayah possesses a number of conditions,
disciplines and backgrounds that I will present within the coming paragraphs. What
is important here is that we confirm (endorse) that the implementation of acts or
deeds is a part of the requisites of imn and determination of the degree of obligatory
acts or deeds should never happen, as I explained earlier above and this is not
impaired by putting acts or deeds as prerequisites for imn.















Page | 32

MATTERS THAT INVALIDATE IMN

Within the previous part we came to understand the contents of imn, that is,
to truly allow the authority of Allh within all information that comes to us about
Himself, His Attributes, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, His Qaah
(Judgement) and His Qadr (Fore-ordainment) and the Last Day. We have accepted
all of those matters as those explanations of Allh or His Messenger .
We have also come to understand the requisites of imn, that is, those acts or
deeds that encompass two aspects: obligatory acts or deeds that must be carried out
by the Muminn immediately and acts or deeds that are arm and that must be
avoided and kept away from by the Muminn.
One more matter that we must know about is: just where are the contents of
imn to be found and how is the essence of imn proven within the soul as well as
the implementation of the requisites of imn, namely acts or deeds. People who are
submissive and carry out the commands of Allh, they are those who are true in the
call to implement belief, whereas those who are negligent of and belittle the
commands of Allh, they are of the group that lie and deceive themselves.
Once this essence of imn is clear towards and with us, it is obligatory for us
to know that there are matters that invalidate that essence of imn, matters that may
revoke the root stems of imn, matters that may strip our armour of imn. It may be
that the essence of imn that we have already mentioned is already present within
someone, but all of a sudden he is out of the essence of imn and has entered into
the environs of disbelief, because he was doing a certain act or deed or his heart
was approached by another creed of belief. So, what are the actions and words that
make him withdraw from the essence of imn and enter into the environment of
disbelief?
In order to answer these questions, by means of detailing all of the creeds that
lead to disbelief, it would make this small treatise into a considerably greater book
than it should be. Therefore, I will only mention the basic principles regarding these
matters with the objective of explaining something that is right in a very dangerous
Page | 33

matter that we have been discussing and before answering these questions we must
understand this premise:-
Imn is a reality whose entirety cannot be disembodied. Imn is a complete
reality beneath which are many branches. Therefore, alienating and denying one
branch from the issues and matters of imn here means to deny other issues and
matters of imn. As proof of the veracity of this clear, well-known premise is the
decree of Allh:

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Yet you it is who slay your people and turn a party from among you out of
their homes, backing each other up against them unlawfully and exceeding
the limits; and if they should come to you, as captives you would ransom
them-- while their very turning out was unlawful for you. Do you then believe
in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? What then is the reward of
such among you as do this but disgrace in the life of this world, and on the
day of resurrection they shall be sent back to the most grievous chastisement,
and Allh is not at all heedless of what you do.
26

And the decree of Allh:

26
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 85.
Page | 34


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Surely those who disbelieve in Allh and His messengers and (those who)
desire to make a distinction between Allh and His messengers and say: We
believe in some and disbelieve in others, and desire to take a course between
(this and) that.
These it is that are truly unbelievers, and We have prepared for the
unbelievers a disgraceful chastisement.
27

These proofs clearly state that imn and submissive obedience must be
complete without the carrying out of shortfalls even in the slightest. While it is the
case that both these sets of yt are in relation to the Jews, the lesson that is obtained
from them based on its general pronouncement. There is no longer any doubt that
we will be condemned by Allh if we presumably carry out acts or deeds that are
accursed as carried out by whatever community. The above ayh in Srah Al
Baqarah is closely linked to acts or deeds, whilst those from Srah An-Nis are
related to the matter of belief.
Within the first ayh - Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 85 Allh condemns the
Jews of Madinah because of the divisions amongst themselves, and also because
some of them had carried out oaths of allegiance to the Aws (tribe), whilst some
others of them have made oaths of allegiance with the Khazraj(tribe). War often
broke out between these two groups whereby within these wars the group of Jews
who favoured the Aws would kill the group of Jews who favoured the Khazraj, and
so to the Jews who favoured the Khazraj would kill the Jews who favoured the Aws.
They helped each other in fighting and expelling any enemy groups that they
supported. Whenever the war subsided the leaders of the two groups were
assembled, and they accumulated the confiscated wealth, to redeem it for those who
had been captured and to treat those who had been injured within the war; then Allh

27
Srah An-Nis (4), yt 150-151.
Page | 35

revealed this within Al Qurn in order to inform of their situation. The decree of
Allh:

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And when We made a covenant with you: You shall not shed your blood and
you shall not turn your people out of your cities; then you gave a promise
while you witnessed.
Yet you it is who slay your people and turn a party from among you out of
their homes, backing each other up against them unlawfully and exceeding
the limits; and if they should come to you, as captives you would ransom
them-- while their very turning out was unlawful for you. Do you then believe
in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? What then is the re ward
of such among you as do this but disgrace in the life of this world, and on
the day of resurrection they shall be sent back to the most grievous
chastisement, and Allh is not at all heedless of what you do.
28

The second set of yt (Srah An-Nis (4), yt 150-151) also rejects the
stance of the Jews who verified the Prophethood of Ms and yet denied the

28
Srah Al Baqarah (2), yt 84-85.
Page | 36

Prophethood of Muammad and s , because they upheld the approach of
distinguishing between the Messengers of Allh.
Our aim is to set forth these proofs to make it clear that matters of imn are
matters that are comprehensive, that are unable to be disconnected therefrom. This
point will be made clearer when we bring forward examples of that which invalidates
imn.
We already now know that by means of denying one branch or one matter
from matters of belief means to deny belief in its entirety. As an example, anyone
who is of the belief that Allh is All-Wise and omniscient means that he has faith,
however, whenever he thinks that thereby he has accumulated (added to his
credit) a deed from amongst the deeds of Allh that does not possess wisdom or is
born of the ignorance of Allh, then this means that he is a disbeliever in the imn
that he used to hold. Likewise also, anyone who believes that Allh has the
attributes of being merciful and generous, this means that he has faith but
supposing he thinks that Allh punishes someone without the right to do so or that
Allh has mistreated someone who has fallen from his previously upheld faith, a
faith that acknowledged that Allh is merciful and generous. Whoever believes in a
Messenger and disbelieves in other Messengers then he disbelieves in all of the
Messengers, because the One who sent the Messengers was Allh , the One and
Only. An attitudinal stance of taaub (fanaticism, obdurate clinging) towards a
Messenger whilst presenting (promoting) him (the Messenger) and denying other
Messengers, means denial of Allh who sent all of the Messengers, and likewise also
to deny the existence of the angels means to reject Allh and whoever rejects Allh
is a disbeliever.
To make all those matters that are evil is also included amongst those
matters that invalidate imn, because these matters in fact deny the commands of
Allh; it is as if he states towards Allh: I do not acquiesce to Your judgement. I
do not recognize Your wisdom that has made these matters arm, since these
matters should and must be all. Acts or deeds such as these are the abandonment
of any previous imn, if supposing and presuming he had imn earlier.
The same applies to those who feel themselves to be higher in status, who are
disobedient of the commands of Allh. Their condition is such that they appear to
Page | 37

be saying: I will not obey and I will not carry out Your commands, because Your
commands do not make any sense and are immature. In essence that is the format
of disobedience already carried out by Ibls who has been cursed by Allh. Ibls
refused to submit to the commands of Allh because of pride and accusing Allh of
being unwise and immature. This act should no longer be regarded as evil alone, but
as the discrediting of the knowledge and wisdom of Allh and condemnation of
Allhs commands. Acts or deeds such as these invalidate imn and whatever good
deeds have previously been undertaken.
By means of this introduction I hope the issue will be clearer and
unambiguous when implementing these above methods some of whose branches I
will be tabling later insh Allh. By means of presenting these branches that
invalidate imn it does not mean that I have the objective of presenting all of those
branches without exception, but rather this presentation is only for the purpose of
providing examples in the implementation of the already above mentioned methods.
In particular I will present a problem that often occurs as a rift in our time as well as
a problem that is often of confusion between that which is right and that which is
invalid and I ask Allh to show me the way that is true.











Page | 38

HOW IMN MAY BE LOST

The reality of imn circulates around the belief and trust in Allh and the
perfection of those attributes. All issues and matters of imn are united in the
essential principal of belief towards Allh the Almighty, Allh who created all
things, merciful and generous, who possesses and controls everything, noble and all
powerful, Allh who creates beings because of great wisdom. Allh who has never
wronged, His essence is never the bearer of characteristics that are lacking such as
sleep, neglect, weakness or illness, Allh who watches over everything, nothing is
secret from Allh. Allh who creates and chooses what He wills, Allh who judges,
decides, commands and prohibits that which He wills. There is no power to prevent
and interfere with His laws and decisions.
Belief in the angels only constitutes a branch of faith in Allh, because the
angels form the army of Allh, and likewise also, belief in the Messengers
constitutes a branch of faith in Allh, because the messengers of the Messengers of
Allh were tasked to carry out the call towards Allh. Furthermore, the state of
believing in the Books of Allh, because these Books constitute the Sharah and
Word of Allh. Similarly, the state of believing in the Last Day, because the Last
Day is the day that Allh has created as the Day of Hearing all of His servants from
amongst mankind and the Jinn. To have faith in the Last Day is one branch of imn
towards Allh, and therefore denial of the Day of Judgement means disbelief
towards Allh. Qaah (Judgement) and His Qadr (Fore-ordainment) constitute the
deeds and endeavours of Allh, and therefore, to be counter to Qaah (Judgement)
and His Qadr (Fore-ordainment) is in direct opposition to imn. Further explanations
regarding opposition to the Qaah (Judgement) and Qadr (Fore-ordainment) of
Allh we will discuss in another place insh Allh.
With this a general picture concerning imn is clear to us. Imn is not
(composed of) constituents that are separate from each other, so that we may believe
and agree with some parts and reject some other parts that we do not agree with and
we remain still of the opinion that we are Muminnnomatters of imn are
unable to be disembodied (from the whole) and all of those matters are dereived
from a single source: that is to believe in and have faith towards Allh , the One
Page | 39

and Only Lord. Any departure from this principle, resistance to it, rebuttal of it, or
falsehood towards one matter or one legitimacy from amongst those matters of imn
is considered to be disbelief towards the principles of imn that originate from
and are deemed to be the failure of imn.
Take for example (a person or) people who reject or deny the punishment of
the grave for example, or reject or deny A-ir, as described in a adth,
smoother than a hair, and sharper than a sword and ir al Mustaqm is the bridge
that stretches over Hell, whereby Muslims are able to pass over that bridge thanks
to the acts or deeds that they had carried out, whilst the disbelievers will be raise on
the Day of Resurrection and try to pass over this bridge with their heads down.
Anybody who denies or refutes this reality is he who has rejected the
authority of Allh; the imn that he acknowledged before, and the authority of
Allh that he was able to see on this earth, no longer provides any benefit to him.
This was the case when one of the abat asked the Messenger of Allh : How
can a person be resurrected with his head down? (walking on their faces) The
Messenger of Allh answered by saying: Allh has allowed them (given them the
ability) to travel throughout this earth on their feet and will raise them in the afterlife
with their heads down (will make them walk on their faces).
29
The Messenger of
Allh returned this specific matter to the authority of Allh to whom the Muminn
in this world believe. Make this example the comparison towards all the falsehood
or as an answer towards all questions regarding imn.
Conditions such as these must also be clear within matters of sharat. Being
against any one of the teachings of Islam is in essence to be against Allh who has
created those teachings and one who is against these is a disbeliever.
In running between af and Marwah for example, if there is a person who
says: Yes! A woman once ran with her child between two hills from hill to hill
around Makkah, but what is our relationship with that act? Words such as those
are in essence against Allh who has already ordained that particular ibdah (act or
deed of worship) and it is most unfortunate to hear many Muslims who perform ajj

29
Narrated by Bukhr,, Muslim, Tirmidh, and Amad.
Page | 40

in these our times saying such as that, and even farther than that are those who are
against the act of awf (circumambulation of the kabah), kissing the ajaru-ul
aswad (black stone) and throwing pebbles at the jamra. There is no doubt that
opposition towards these acts of ibdt, in essence, deny and refute the wisdom and
knowledge of Allh and that is disbelief which expels a person from the religion of
Allh we ask Allh for protection from such.
The act of deriding the growing of beards, alt, ijb that is prescribed for
women, making fun of a masjid, the Kabah or a Messenger are all acts of disbelief
towards Allh. Ridiculing and opposing a command and prohibition of Allh as well
as those things that are attributed to Allh are acts of disbelief towards Allh and the
invalidation of imn.
What I mean by those things that are attributed to Allh is something that is
ascribed as being related to Allh such as the kabah, masjid and Al Qurn.
Ridiculing or deriding a Muslim because of his Islm is an act of disbelief
and these acts must not arise from a Muslim. Allh has already decreed about the
disbelievers who mocked the Muminn:

.

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.
.

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.
.

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Surely they who are guilty used to laugh at those who believe.
And when they passed by them, they winked at one another.
30

What is clear here is that Allh has honoured matters that are attributed to
Him. Ridiculing or deriding matters that have been venerated by Allh means to
ridicule or deride Allh who has rendered as glorious and noble those matters,
and it also means to ridicule or deride Allh who has ordained that to be His
Way. Included within this section are those acts or deeds of hostility towards a
Mumin because he adheres to and holds to the Deen of Islm, and to heckle
and carry out fitnah so that he defects from his Deen. These are acts of

30
Srah Al Muaffifn (83), yt 29-30.
Page | 41

disbelief and the implementation of restrictions upon the Way of Allh, because
according to that which is appropriate he must love and render charitable deeds
towards a mumin because of the strength of his faith. When someone is hostile
towards a Muslim, because he (the Muslim) holds firmly to the Deen and to
the Books of Allh and His Messenger , it means that that person is a
disbeliever and is resistant to the way of Allh. In other words, he has carried
out two crimes (sins); one of which is disbelief, because of hostility towards
Muslims for their holding firmly to the Deen and in essence he (the one who
does such) is an enemy to the Deen of Allh, and whoever holds enmity towards
the Deen of Allh holds hostility towards Allh and an enemy of Allh is a
disbeliever, whereas the Muminn are those who are near to and guarded by
Allh because Allh has decreed:

.
.

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.
.


Allah is the guardian of those who believe
31

To be hostile towards a Mumin for some other reason (other than that the
Mumin holds firmly to the Deen and to the Books of Allh and His Messenger )
is not considered to be disbelief. Whoever is an enemy of a Mumin because of some
worldly animosity or because of rank, is not considered to be a disbeliever but such
acts are considered to be acts of immorality or disobedience.
With this explanation, I hope that I have been able to give an illustrative
explanation of the real essence of imn in its entirety, and also I hope I have been
able to explain that imn as a whole will be invalidated whenever one of its
constituent parts is revoked. I make du to Allh that He keeps me and my dear
brother Muminn away from matters that invalidate their imn. We also make du
to Allh that He bestows His gifts upon us in our efforts to perfect our imn, so that
we meet Him in a state of imn that is complete and perfect.
Now is the time for us to explain those matters that invalidate imn in detail
and here I will mention matters that often occur and those matters that have become

31
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 257.
Page | 42

points of disagreement. We make du for the protection of Allah from these
matters.
Firstly: To Oppose the Wisdom of Sharah
At the time Allh created dam and placed him in Paradise, Allh
explained to him that Paradise was his place of residence. When dam disobeyed
Allh and Allh sent him down to earth, he (dam ) began to make his living on
earth. This life (on earth) is a test for dam and his issue (descendants). Those
who succeed this test will be rewarded with Paradise commensurate with their
success. Those who ignore the power bestowed upon them by Allh to face this test
and forget the honour Allh bestowed upon them, then Hell awaits them.
This test and trial is carried out in the form of commands and prohibitions. In
the interpretation of the decree of Allh:

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What! Did you then think that We had created you in vain and that you shall
not be returned to Us?
32

Within the interpretation of this ayh the salaf ulam state that in vain is
that you were neither commanded nor forbidden
These commands and prohibitions are both quantified and qualified as
Sharah, whether in terms of ibdt (acts of worship), mumalt (mutual relations)
and akhlq (moral behaviour). Because Allh created mankind with the purpose of
testing them with commands and prohibitions, it is therefore that the Sharah within
such a conception as this is a matter that is a must, a certainty and an obligation that
must not be contradicted. This is because within a conception such as this,
commands and prohibitions are rendered as the objective as to why mankind was
created and Allh Himself has already acted with authority in the affairs of that
endeavor. The decree of Allh:

32
Srah Al Muminn (23), ayh 115.
Page | 43

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Say: Surely I have manifest proof from my Lord and you call it a lie; I have
not with me that which you would hasten; the judgment is only Allhs; He
relates the truth and He is the best of deciders.
33


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Surely your Lord is Allh, Who created the heavens and the earth in six
periods of time, and He is firm in power; He throws the veil of night over the
day, which it pursues incessantly; and (He created) the sun and the moon
and the stars, made subservient by His command; surely His is the creation
and the command; blessed is Allh, the Lord of the worlds.
34

When Allh ordained laws for mankind by means of His Messengers, Allh
revealed them with the knowledge and wisdom that existed with Him, because Allh
is the All Knowing of everything that is able to bestow advantages and disadvantages
upon mankind.
By means of this introduction, we are able to understand that any opposition
towards the Sharah of Allh means opposition to Allh who created and revealed
it. This opposition is an act of disbelief towards Allh.
One matter that is known to be irrefutable is that the pronunciation of
demands the implementation that Allh alone has the right to create and rule.
Whoever acknowledges that Allh alone has the right to create yet does not
acknowledge that Allh has the right to rule and he states that mankind has the

33
Srah Al Anm (6), ayh 57.
34
Srah Al Arf (7), ayh 54.
Page | 44

right to create laws for their lives in accordance with whatever they think is good for
themselves (even if such is contrary to the laws of Allh), then he is a disbeliever
and associates something else withand alongside Allh, because the true meaning of
is: there is no-one who has the right to create, no-one who has the right to
be worshipped, no-one who has the right to have commands obeyed and no-one who
has the right to have laws carried out except Allh . General acknowledgement
towards the rights of Allh in the legislation of Sharah does not bestow or provide
any benefit besides the recognition that there is denial towards any other entity other
than the Sharah of Allh, because Allh does not possess the characteristics of
lacking or laziness. Allh decrees:
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And we do not descend but by the command of your Lord; to Him belongs
whatever is before us and whatever is behind us and whatever is between
these, and your Lord is not forgetful.
35

There is not the slightest act of Allh that is astray from (outside of) the path
of wisdom. With this as the starting point, the acts of rejecting or countering some
(any) of the Sharah of Allh means to reject and deny the acts of Allh in their
entirety and we know the judgement for these acts.
Matters and issues such as these took place in the past within the first Muslim
community, and thus Allh revealed the laws that forbade and clarified these issues.
These incidents took place at the time that Allh prohibited the Islamic community
from eating carrion (all animals that died without having been slaughtered), which
according to the usual habits of the Arabs was something that was eaten. Shain
took the opportunity to kindle doubt within the hearts of the Muslims so that as
Shain he was able to break down the emerging Muslim community. Shain
inspired them: Try asking Muammad (), who killed those dead animals? When
the question was submitted to the Prophet Muammad he replied: Allh detests
what the Mushrikn have said that, What you have killed by your hand, you say is

35
Srah Maryam (19), ayh 64.
Page | 45

all, the animal that you have slaughtered and you eat it; but what is killed by
Allh, you say is carrion, and arm and you do not eat it. Are you better and more
noble than Allh?
36

This small fitnah became rooted in the hearts of some of those with weak
imn, so Allh revealed an ayh that clarified this issue:

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And do not eat of that on which Allhs name has not been mentioned, and
that is most surely a transgression; and most surely the Shains suggest to

36

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(And eat not of that whereon Allah's name hath not been mentioned) [6:121]. The idolaters said: O
Muammad, tell us: 'When a sheep dies, who has killed it?' He said: 'Allh killed it!' They said: 'How is it
then that that which is killed by you and your Companions is lawful, that which is killed by a dog or bird
of prey is lawful but that which is killed by Allh is unlawful?' And so Allh, exalted is He, revealed this
verse. Said Ikrimah: When Allh, exalted is He, revealed the unlawfulness of the meat of carrion, the
Magians among the people of Persia wrote to the idolaters of Quraysh, who were their allies in the pre-
Islmic period and kept contact with each other, that Muammad and his Companions claim that they
follow the command of Allh but then say that what they slaughter is lawful and that which is slaughtered
by Allh is unlawful. This caused doubt in the minds of some Muslims, and so Allh, exalted is He, revealed
this verse.
Page | 46

their friends that they should contend with you; and if you obey them, you
shall most surely be polytheists.
37

Within this ayh it pronounces the act of obeying the Mushrikn in some parts
of the law as committing shirk towards Allh, because the act of obeying the
Mushrikn is to recognize some other legislation than that of Allhs and thereby
objecting to and denying the enactment of the Sharah of Allh. This matter is very
clear.
Today acts and deeds that tout doubtful matters as invented and developed by
the enemies of Islm are rampantly widespread amongst the Islmic community.
They believe in and spread doubt and criticism towards the Sharah of Allh, so
much so that there is not one law of the Sharah that is safe from such criticisms.
As clear examples of this are the issues of polygyny (where the husband has multiple
wives), alq (divorce), riqq (slavery), udd (corporal punishment) for the thief, and
the laws of qi (retribution) and udd for zin (adultery).
The touting and peddling of doubt and criticism in this manner without
understanding and realizing that such criticism is a very dangerous act for someone
who says (prescribes to) .
To be of the conviction that the Sharah, the ukum, and the udd already
prescribed as Sharah by Allh do not contain any wisdom is an act of disbelief
towards Allh .
My point here is that a person or people who disbelieve in and reject those
laws are more obvious and significant than those who reject the Sharah in its
entirety and are of the view that the Sharah of Allh is disproportionate with
regulations for the lives of mankind, and not in accordance with their progress and
material turmoil. Those who uphold and believe in such a manner are out of and
away from the path of Islm whether (it may have been that) before this they had
faith in Islm or not.
Furthermore, I hope for it to be known that the criticism and opposition
towards the Sharah is sometimes spread/propagated by a Muslim upon whom the

37
Srah Al Anm (6), ayh 121.
Page | 47

Sharah comes all of a sudden, and thus he is unable to see the wisdom implicitly
embodied within that Sharah. The criticism and opposition that arises in such a
situation would not remove a person from the path of Islm, except that he refused
to refer to and return to Allh after he had been given clarification about that
Sharah.
As an example of this issue is what happened to Saad bin Ubdah at the
time he heard the decree of Allh:

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And those who accuse free women then do not bring four witnesses, flog
them, (giving) eighty stripes, and do not admit any evidence from them ever;
and these it is that are the transgressors,
38

Upon hearing this ayh, he immediately asked the Messenger of Allh : is that
how it was revealed, O Messenger of Allh ()? The Messenger of Allh
answered by saying: O Anr, did you not hear what was said by your masters?
The Anr replied: O Messenger of Allh (), do not insult him because he is a
jealous man. By Allh, he never married except with a virgin and if he divorces a
woman there is no man amongst us brave enough to marry that woman her because
of his extreme jealousy. Saad then said: O Messenger of Allh (), indeed I
acknowledge this ayh is true and it is from Allh, but I feel surprised that when I
come upon a woman who has been nastily subjected to sex by a person but I do not
have the right to be angry about it or do something about it except until after I have
been able to bring forth four witnesses; by Allh in the time it takes to find four
witnesses he has already completed the fulfillment of his desires then Allh
revealed His decree:

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38
Srah An-Nr (24), ayh 4.
Page | 48

And (as for) those who accuse their wives and have no witnesses except
themselves, the evidence of one of these (should be taken) four times, bearing
Allh to witness that he is most surely of the truthful ones.
39

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39
Srah An-Nr (24), ayh 6.
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Page | 49


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(As for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves) [24:6]. Abu Uthman
Said ibn Muhammad al-Muadhdhin informed us that Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ali al-Hiri who said al-
Hasan ibn Sufyan who said Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah who said Yazid ibn Harun who said Abbad ibn
Mansurwho said Ikrimah who said Ibn Abbas who said: When the verse (And those who accuse
honourable women but bring not four witnesses) up to His words (They indeed are evil-doers) [24:4],
Sad ibn Ubadah, the master of the Helpers, said: Is this how it was revealed to you, O Messenger of
Allah? The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, responded: Do you not hear, O
Helpers, what your master is saying? They said: O Messenger of Allah, he is a very jealous man. By
Allah, he never married a woman who was not a virgin and no one amongst us ever dares to marry any
woman he divorces, because of his extreme jealousy. Sad then said: O Messenger of Allah, by Allah I
know it is the truth and that it is from Allah. But I was wondering: if I were to find a man on top of my wife,
I am not supposed to disturb or move him until I go and bring four witnesses. By Allah, by the time I go to
bring them, the man would have finished his business. Not a long time had passed after this incident when
Hilal ibn Umayyah found a man with his wife upon returning in the afternoon from his field. He saw with
his eyes and heard with his ears. He did not react and waited until the following morning and went to see
the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace. He said to him: O Messenger of Allah, I went
to my wife in the afternoon and found her with a man. I saw them with my own eyes and heard them with
my own ears. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, disliked what he heard and
was greatly distressed as a result. Ubadah ibn al-Samit said then: Now the Messenger of Allah, Allah
Page | 50

My purpose in mentioning this adth is to explain that a Muslim sometimes
asks for a more detailed explanation in the form of criticism towards the laws of
Allh. Situations such as these do not put him (the one asking) out of or removed
from Islm.
An event such as this was also carried out by Umar bin Al Khab at the
time of his reluctantance to accept the terms of the Treaty of udaibiyyah that had
been decided by the Messenger of Allh together with the Mushrikn wherein he
was of the opinion that that treaty deducted from and reduced the rights of the
Muslims yielding humiliation upon their religion. However, he later accepted that
which was commanded rather than something that he did not agreed upon. The peace
Treaty of udaibiyyah brought about the greatest opening in the history of Islm.

bless him and give him peace, will flog Hilal ibn Umayyah and his testimony will be void among the
Muslims. Hilal said: By Allah, I am hoping that Allah will make for me a way out of this. Then he said:
O Messenger of Allah, I can see that you are distressed because of what I have told you. But Allah knows
that I am saying the truth. By Allah, just as the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace,
was about to order his flogging, the revelation from heaven came to him. When the revelation came to him,
the prophetic Companions knew about it by the change in the complexion of his skin. They held back until
the revelation stopped. The following verse was revealed (As for those who accuse their wives but have no
witnesses except themselves) up to the end. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace,
was relieved. He said: Good news for you, O Hilal! Allah has put you at ease and made for you a way
out. Hilal exclaimed: That is what I was hoping for from my Lord . And the he mentioned the rest of the
narration. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad al-Faqih informed us that Muhammad ibn
Muhammad ibn Sinan al-Muqri said Ahmad ibn Ali al-Muthanna said Abu Khaythmahsaid Jarir said al-
Amash said Ibrahim said Alqamah said Abd Allah who said: We were in the mosque on Thursday night
when a man from the Helpers came in and said: A man finds his wife with another man [what can he do?].
If he speaks about it, you will flog him; if he kills the man, you will kill him; and if he keeps quiet, he will
suffer inwardly. By Allah, I will ask the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, about
this. The following morning he went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and
said: If a man finds his wife with another man [what can he do?]. If he speaks about it, you will flog him;
if he kills the man, you will kill him; and if he keeps quiet, he will suffer inside. O Allah, clarify the matter
for us, and he began making supplications. The verse of the public imprecation (lian) was revealed after
that (As for those who accuse their wives but have no witnesses except themselves). One of the people was
tried with this and so he came with his wife to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace,
for public imprecation. The man gave testimony by Allah four times that he was saying the truth, on the
fifth occasion he invoked Allahs curse on himself if he was lying. When his wife was about to contribute
her part of this public imprecation, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, asked her
not to, but she went ahead and did it. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, said:
The child she will give birth to will be black with curly hair. And, surely, she gave birth to a child who
was black and had curly hair. This was narrated by Muslim from Abu Khaythmah.
Page | 51

Another matter that is clear in this event is that initially Umar bin Al Khab
opposed the Messenger of Allh and Ab Bakr by voicing his disbelief and
criticism. The actions of Umar here did not put him outside of the bounds of
Islm.
In conclusion to this matter, it can be said that opposition to and criticism
towards of the Sharah of Allh is only considered to be out from the bounds of
Islm when that opposition and criticism has already become a conviction and
aqdah for those carrying out that opposition and criticism. By means of this aqdah
he (the one who upholds as conviction and aqdah opposition to and criticism of
Allhs laws) continues to accuse of imbalance within the Sharah of Allh.
There is no distinction between opposition to the wisdom of the Sharah of
Allh and opposition towards what has been legislated, prescribed and willed by
Allh to His Messenger . To oppose or criticize something that has already been
obligated by Allh upon the Messenger of Allh such as the requirement to have
more than four wives, to allocate 1/5 of the spoils (of war) to the Messenger of Allh
and other matters that have already been reserved for the Messenger of Allh
means to criticize the message brought by the Messenger of Allh and to accuse
of something regarding the choice of Allh for His Messenger. Making accusations
of something towards the choices of Allh is an act of disbelief towards Allh. The
most hurtful and sorrowful of hearts today are actions of Muslims who hurl
accusations and criticisms towards matters that have already been pronounced
obligatory by Allh towards His Messenger. Are they (those who undertake such)
still to be considered Muslim?
In summary, the position that must be held to by a Muslim in this matter is to
acquiesce and accept all of the Sharah of Allh. The slogan that he must hold to in
all circumstances is the decree of Allh:
..-. ..-..
We hear and we obey.
Even so, he is still allowed to study the wisdom hidden within the Sharah of
Allh, because by means of its appearance and clarity, the implied wisdom behind
Page | 52

the Sharah will increase strength of imn and reinforce his relationship with Allh
.
There is a great difference between those who study and seek the wisdom that
is hidden behind the Sharah of Allh with those who hurl criticism and carry out
mollification of the wisdom of Sharah. The character of a Muslim is to seek out
and study the wisdom of the Sharah of Allh towards His servants and Allh
Himself has already explained the greater part of the wisdom of His Sharah.
Conversely, the character of a person who disbelieves is to oppose, criticize and
ridicule the Sharah of Allh. The decree of Allh:

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Woe to every sinful liar,
Who hears the communications of Allh recited to him, then persists proudly
as though he had not heard them; so announce to him a painful punishment.
And when he comes to know of any of Our communications, he takes it for a
jest; these it is that shall have abasing chastisement.
41


Secondly: To Punish with other than the Laws of Allh
Allh has revealed legislation to His servants so that they hold fast to those
tenets. Allh did not give them the option to accept or reject it, but rather has made
that Sharah compulsory for them. Allh also relates that that is the purpose created
for them, and by means of that purpose their creation will not be in vain..and on
the basis of these matters, imn towards Allh demands that the commands and
prohibitions be implemented.

41
Srah Al Jthiyah (45), yt 7-9.
Page | 53

Because of that, bears the meaning that there is nothing to be
absolutely worshipped except Allh, there is no one with the right to create laws for
the lives of mankind except Allh..and if this is the understanding of imn, then
quite frankly I say that this imn will be invalidated with acts of self-heightening,
which do not want to submit to the commands of Allh; and flee from and are out of
the foundations of the wisdom of the Sharah of Allh, and ignore the laws of Allh
and judge by other laws. Allh has characterized these matters very clearly within
Al Qurn. The decree of Allh:

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and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are
the unbelievers.
42

This decree of Allh was revealed in part for the acts of the Jews who wanted
to leave aside the laws concerning stoning already mentioned with the Taurat
(Torah). This event occurred after they asked the Messenger of Allh about those
laws with and in the hope that the Messenger of Allh would judge with other
laws or laws that were less severe than the laws of stoning. By means of the
judgement of the Messenger of Allh they hoped to be able to escape from the
implementation of carrying out the laws of Allh. For that, Allh decreed:

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Surely We revealed the Taurat in which was guidance and light; with it the
prophets who submitted themselves (to Allh) judged (matters) for those who

42
Srah Al Midah (5), ayh 45.
Page | 54

were Jews, and the masters of Divine knowledge and the doctors, because
they were required to guard (part) of the Book of Allh, and they were
witnesses thereof; therefore fear not the people and fear Me, and do not take
a small price for My communications; and whoever did not judge by what
Allh revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers.
43

Now you are able to see that Allh ended this ayh with a law that is general.
Despite this ayh being in reference to the Jews, it is still inclusive of and embracive
of all communities that possess the message and Sharah.

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and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are
the unbelievers.
44

The word _

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meaning and _

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character, that is, those who do not judge by the laws of Allh.
Therein there was a famous and well-known question; whether they are
considered disbelievers when each one of them is judged and determined by means
of laws other than the laws of Allh? In order to answer this question, there are three
illustrations that we are able to see regarding this matter:-
Firstly: He judges by means of laws other than the laws of Allh and is of
the conviction that and of the belief that the law he implements and carries out is
better than the laws of Allh. Such a condition as this is disbelief according to the
consensus of the Islmic ulam. There is no opinion that disagrees with this
opinion.
Secondly: He judges by means of laws other than the laws of Allh and is of
the conviction that and of the belief that the laws that he carries out are equal to

43
Srah Al Midah (5), ayah 44.
44
Srah Al Midah (5), ayh 45.
Page | 55

the laws of Allh and that there is no difference between them both.
45
Such a
condition as this is disbelief according to the consensus of the Islmic ulam
because he is equating Allh with His creation as in the decree of Allh:
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yet those who disbelieve set up equals with their Lord.
46

Thirdly: He is of the conviction that and of the belief that the laws of Allh
are the best and those that are right. Every law that contradicts the laws of Allh is
invalid, but he judges by means of laws other than the laws of Allh because of
lust or corruption or because of some other promoted thing. According to Ibnu
Abbs he is included amongst a disbelief that is less than disbelief, that is,
disbelief that does not remove him from the religion of Islm and the jamat of
the Muslims.
By means of this, it is clear that such a person who judges and states that the
laws of Allh are the same as the laws they have created or the same as the laws
created by the disbelievers they follow. It is also clear that the judgement of such a
person is to characterize the laws of Allh as returning to the past, old-fashioned and
outdated.
There are still some important points that I would like to say on this matter,
so that it does not become vague. The point I mean is the ijtihd of the imams and
scholars undertaken in whatever time period. These ijtihd are not considered to be
the laws of Allh, but rather that which is said to be the laws of Allh is only the
na of Al Qurn and the adth of the Messenger of Allh . Aside from the na
of Al Qurn and the Sunnah it may still be considered to be open to one or other of

45
Within the tafsr of Al Imm Ibnu Kathr is mentioned the interpretation of the decree of Allh:
Ibnu Kathr has stated: Allh disavows those who are out from the basis of the laws of Allh, which contain all
goodness and forbiddance of evil, and (elect to) choose others that are in accordance with the opinions, lusts, and
solutions made by mankind without any basis from the Sharah of Allh in the manner of those ignorant people who
judge upon the basis of ignorance and error; like the tatr people who judge according to the political aspirations taken
from Jinks Khn who submitted to them a book called Al Ysiq, a book containing laws of disciplne from various
forms of Sharah including from the Jews, the Christians, and the Mulsims, as well as containing within it laws solely
dependent upon his opinions and desires. These laws appear to become a Sharah more prioritized than Al Qurn
and As-Sunnah. Whoever carries out such as this he is included amongst the group of disbelievers and he it is
obligatory to kill him unless he returns to the laws of Allh both in regard to small and large matters.
Tafsr Ibnu Kathr, part 2, page 67, Halabi printers Al Jamaah Islamiyah, University of Kahirah.
46
Srah Al Anm (6), ayh 1.
Page | 56

two matters; right or wrong, because such laws only constitute ijtihd and a person
who carries out ijtihd may be right or wrong, whereas the laws of Allh are never
wrong. Therefore, those who contradict the opinions of the ahlul fiqh are not deemed
to have contradicted or be out from the laws of Allh. Those who are deemed to have
contradicted or be out from the laws of Allh are those who contradict the clear na
from Al Qurn and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allh .
Thirdly: To Degrade a Muslim because of his Islm and to bear him enmity
because he Holds Steadfastly to his Deen
It may be that many people are remiss concerning this issue. They are
confident and of the conviction as I have mentioned before that to contradict any
one of the units of the Sharah of Islm is disbelief, yet to degrade a Muslim is not
an act of disbelief. This issue requires a detailed explanation:-
1. The act of degrading a Muslim may occur naturally (congenitally), a trait of
the akhlq of his behaviour, because of his actions or because of the way
he lives. All of these acts are acts of disobedience and not disbelief. Allh
decrees:
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O you who believe! let not (one) people laugh at (another) people perchance
they may be better than they, nor let women (laugh) at (other) women,
perchance they may be better than they; and do not find fault with your own
people nor call one another by nicknames; evil is a bad name after faith, and
whoever does not turn, these it is that are the unjust.
47


47
Srah Al ujurt (49), ayh 11.
Page | 57

Allh has already classified the actions contained within the above ayh as
being from (amongst those) acts that are fsiq - .., .-, ... ,.` _., that is,
the worst name to call someone is fsiq after having believed.
Nevertheless, it must be known that to ridicule or degrade a Muslim because
of the characteristics of natural occurrences of his efforts may lead to disbelief,
because of differences in skin colour, physical body shape, and language, all of
which are according to the will of Allh and form part of the signs of the authority
of Allh. Allh decrees:

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And one of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the
diversity of your tongues and colors; most surely there are signs in this for
the learned.
48

2. Sometimes it may be an act of ridiculing a Muslim because he is of the Deen
of Islm, and thuse his being derided is because he adheres steadfastly to
the Sharah of Islm or because he carries out acts of imn. Within
circumstances such as these, the act of ridiculing a Muslim means to ridicule
the Deen itself,
49
and this act is considered to be disbelief. Allh has already

48
Srah Ar-Rm (30), ayh 22.
49
Within the Battle of Tabk a man said: We have never seen anymore greedy people, biggest of liars and most
cowardly when we fought as our mentors, - he meant the companions. Those words arrived at the Messenger of Allh
and the man went to the Messenger of Allh to apologize and said: We were only joking around. Then Allh
revealed the decree:

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The hypocrites fear lest a chapter should be sent down to them telling them plainly of what is in their hearts.
Say: Go on mocking, surely Allh will bring forth what you fear.
And if you should question them, they would certainly say: We were only idly discoursing and sporting.
Say: Was it at Allh and His communications and His Messenger that you mocked?
Page | 58

explained that this is the characteristic and practice of a disbeliever towards
the Muminn. Allh decrees:

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Surely they who are guilty used to laugh at those who believe.
And when they passed by them, they winked at one another.
And when they returned to their own followers they returned exulting.
And when they saw them, they said: Most surely these are in error;
And they were not sent to be keepers over them.
50

These people who carry out such offences (acts of criminality) by means of
deriding and ridiculing a Muslim often make fun of the Muminn and ridicule them.
Whenever a Mumin is in front of them, they often hurl sarcasm towards him.
Despite this, these agents/doers/perpetrators of criminality return to their homes
feeling happy and carrying on as if they had not carried out criminality which they
will be called to account for in the Hereafter. It does not stop there but rather they
characterize and describe the Muminn as being astray. These acts of theirs are the
same as the agents of criminality in this age, which states that the Muminn have
forgotten their souls, have wasted their youth, do not want to live their lives and take
advantage of the passion that exists. Allh decrees:

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. .



Do not make excuses; you have denied indeed after you had believed; if We pardon a party of you, We will
chastise (another) party because they are guilty. (Srah At-Taubah (9), yt 64-66).
Ibnu Kathr, Part 2, page 367, Halabi printers, Al Jamaah Islamiyah, University of Kahirah.

50
Srah Al Muaffifn (83), yt 29-33.
Page | 59

And they were not sent to be keepers over them.
51

That is, we do not make the agents of criminality work to safeguard the deeds of the
Muminn and also do not make them to be keepers/watchdogs.
Having declared this matter, Allh brought forth an illustration of life in the
Hereafter wherein the Muminn receive a very noble life within Paradise, whilst
the agents of criminality will be struggling with their punishment within Hell. Allh
decrees:

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So today those who believe shall laugh at the unbelievers;
On thrones, they will look.
52

The above decree of Allh is as His decree in Srah Al Baqarah which states:

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The life of this world is made to seem fair to those who disbelieve, and they
mock those who believe, and those who guard (against evil) shall be above
them on the day of resurrection; and Allh gives means of subsistence to
whom he pleases without measure.
53

As a conclusion to this matter we are able to say that the act of ridiculing a
Muslim because of his Islm is an act of disbelief, because in essence this act is
the ridiculing of Islm itself and to ridicule Islm means to reproach Allh who has
ordained and revealed Islam whereas laws that denounce Allh are no longer strange
to us.
Similarly, the existence of laws that are hostile and carried out toward a
Mumin. To bear enmity to and be hostile (bear animosity) towards a Mumin
because of something concerning the endeavour and purpose of life is dependent

51
Srah Al Muaffifn (83), ayh 33.
52
Srah Al Muaffifn (83), yt 34-35.
53
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 212.
Page | 60

upon the rights and invalidities of the matter. If perhaps that matter is right then that
animosity does not result in anything, but if it is the case that that matter is invalid
then that animosity is a sin. Likewise also to be hostile towards a Mumin because
he holds steadfastly to religion and exercises the demands of Islm; then such
hostility is disbelief, because in essence such an act is to be hostile towards and
challenge Allh. It also means to carry out obstruction of and be resistive towards
the Way of Allh.
Most people care for and love someone when he (that person) is in sync with
their desires. Whenever he receives the guidance of Islm and holds steadfastly
towards the Way of Allh he will be in receipt of the hostility and anger of those
who have always been his best friends and companions. This matter is very
dangerous and we ask for Allhs protection from falling into such a matter. If that
hostility and anger draws near to the stage whereby it brings about slander towards
the Islm of someone who is a Muslim and carries out restrictions to the Way of
Allh, then such an act has already reached the stage of disbelief.
In this case Allh has already explained the characteristics of the disbeliever
by means of His decree:

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Alif Lam Ra. (This is) a Book which We have revealed to you that you may
bring forth men, by their Lords permission from utter darkness into light--
to the way of the Mighty, the Praised One,
(Of) Allh, Whose is whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth;
and woe to the unbelievers on account of the severe chastisement,
Page | 61

(To) those who love this worlds life more than the hereafter, and turn away
from Allhs path and desire to make it crooked; these are in a great error.
54

Within the above yt Allh has characterized the disbeliever by means of two
properties:
Firstly: They love (their love of) this world.
Secondly: They make barriers and put up obstacles in the Way of Allh as
well as holding to the desire for the Way of Allh to always be held to be crooked in
the eyes of those who submit to such, so that mankind will turn away from and
abandon that Way (the Way of Allh). Allh has already promised the deepest depths
of Hell for them as recompense for their evil actions. If that is the recompense that
will be received by this group, how then about the recompense that will be received
by those who implement barriers and obstacles in the Way of Allh by means of
outsourcing all of the machinery of government and strength of the community for
that purpose? You have already read the newspapers that are sourced from the lands
of the Arabian Peninsula that have broadcasted the following: A decision has been
declared in Istanbul which forbids women to go out into public wearing ijb like
following fashionable kr
55
and donkey carts.
Are there clearer depictions of placing obstacles in the Way of Allh than that
news? You are able to see what has been carried out by this evil news: following
fashionable kr and donkey carts. Even though yt such as those above have not
been mentioned in that declared decision, yet the taken decision itself is an act of
disbelief. However, the earlier press release was broadcast in such a manner so as to
satisfy the feelings of hatred and envy when the Deen of Allh is spread and besides
that to challenge Muslim women who bravely try to move around outside wearing
Islmic clothing.
Perpetuation of obstacles and hindrances in the Way of Allh in any form, is
disbelief towards Allh, because according to that which is obligatory a Muslim
must feel pleased whenever the Deen of Allh is spread/propagated and the Word of
Allh is held high. But this is not the case for the disbelievers.

54
Srah Ibrhm (14), yt 1-3.
55
Vehicle for loading goods pulled by a horse or donkey.
Page | 62

Part of those acts that are the most incisively preventative towards the Way of
Allh is the ridiculing and derision of a Muslim because he holds steadfastly to the
teachings of Islm, and because those who newly come to know Islm may turn
(about face) in hostility if they are faced with mockery and sarcasm that is directed
towards them; and even more devastating than that is whenever those obstacles and
barriers arrive at the stage of the carrying out of fitnah by means of persecution so
that they defect from the aqdah that they hold to. Hell in its entirety is the
recompense for the perpetrators of criminality by means of tormenting Muslims, and
by carrying out fitnah so that they flee from the religion that they hold to and prevent
them from Allhs Way.
Whoever assumes or is of the opinion that such a group of people are not
disbelievers, then there is no doubt that he is ignorant, arrogant and stubborn; if
not, then what else can it be except disbelief? Is not the fitnah that is carried out
against the Muminn with the purpose of them abandoning their religion a form of
disbelief?
Fourthly: Working together with and assisting the Enemies of Islm
A single aqdah and Sharah obligates the Muminn to be together in a
single unity and brotherhood. The imn of a person who is a member of this
brotherhood is imperfect except and unless after he loves his brother in the same
manner as he loves himself. A single aqdah here means; Belief in Allh, the
Angels, the Books of Allh, His Messengers and the Day of Judgement.
A single Sharah also obligates unity and love, the repulsion of and distancing
from discord and strife in all its forms. From the standing in one line towards Allh
at the time of performing alt, to the removal of something that may cause harm
from the path of Muslims, we have found the embedded desire to create unity, and
convene friendship and fraternity. The least act in Islm is to remove and eliminate
something that may cause harm from the path of Muslims. Within this small act there
is the embodiment of love and adherence for a Muslim towards his brothers and
community. Likewise also zakat, fasting and ajj. By means of instilling a sense of
love for his brother Muslim, it binds them within one comprehensive
brotherhood and an amazing cohesion becomes the main purpose of these
prescribed acts of ibdah, besides the purpose of devotion towards Allh.
Page | 63

All efforts to divide and break apart this unity and brotherhood are acts of
criminality that sometimes may lead to disbelief and sometimes only to acts of
disobedience and sin, or wrongdoing that has no connection with aqdah. What I
mean here (by wrongdoing) is to legitimize disunity and strife. Indeed to legitimize
or justify discord amongst the Islmic community and to break them up is an act of
disbelief that expunges someone from the bounds of Islm. There is no disagreement
whatsoever amongst the opinions of the ulam in this matter.
Once you have a good understanding of this introduction then the way forward
for you to reaching what is lawful (attaining an understanding of what is right and
what is wrong), which will be mentioned later, will be much easier. So what is meant
by working together with and assisting the enemies of Islm?
The word `.. (Al Malh), which means to work together and help,
originates from the word .,` (Al Wilyah). Within Arabic, the word wilyah
encompasses the meanings of to help, support and assist, and so it is said:
< . :.. _ :.
So and so is the supporter of so and so, that is supports and assists him
Within Al Qurn Allh decrees:

.
.

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Allh is the guardian of those who believe
56

That is helps, supports and assists them. Those who are the auliy of Allh are those
people who help Allh in the manner mentioned within Allhs decree:
.

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O you who believe! If you help (the cause of) Allh, He will help you and
make firm your feet.
57


56
Srah Al Baqarah (2), ayh 257.
57
Srah Muammad (47), ayh 7.
Page | 64

By means of these meanings we are able to understand that to become an
enemy of Allh as a helper (.,) has the meaning of making them helpers,
supporters. You help them and they help you. You support them and they support
you. The prime principal of this matter is in the decree of Allh:
.

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O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they
are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend,
then surely he is one of them; surely Allh does not guide the unjust people.
58

This ayh is one clear na that it is forbidden to take the Jews and the
Christians as mutual friends and to help them, as auliy. A Muslim who does that
is judged as being part of (a helper of) the Jews and Christians. Besides that, Allh
has already named (defined) them as despots on the basis that they have already
misplaced their support, because according to that which is proper he must help
and support Allh, His Messenger and the Muminn. But instead he helps and
supports the enemies of Allh who consist of the Jews and the Christians or people
of the same ilk as them. Even so, this issue of misplaced support needs to be
described. This description will be divided into two parts:-
Firstly: According to the circumstances of the Jews and the Christians
themselves.
Secondly: According to the kind and form of the help and support itself.
Within the first part, we find that some of the Jews and the Christians or others
are hostile towards and against Allh, His Messenger and the Muminn. The
relationship that exists between the Islmic community and them is that of war and
hostility.
Allh has already revealed yt within Al Qurn that relate to groups such as
these. They were Jews who became loyal companions of Abdullh bin Ubai bin

58
Srah Al Midah (5), ayh 51.
Page | 65

Sall. The ayh mentioned above was revealed to this group when the Messenger of
Allh wanted to teach them regarding their treachery. Abdullh bin Ubai bin Sall
requested that the Messenger of Allh intercede for them, but the Messenger of
Allh had already been prevented from doing that. Concurrent with that event, the
ayh above was revealed regarding that issue.
By means of the revelation of this ayh, it is clear that malh or working
together and helping those people who fight against Islm is absolutely
impermissible, whether it is as part of a war that they are carrying out in the form of
aid that they give to the enemies of Islm or they themselves participate in that war.
All forms of help bestowed upon and towards the enemies of Ilsam, whether in the
form of love, help, support and aid are to be repulsed. Anyone who carries out such
acts, then he is out of the ranks of Islm and is included amongst the ranks of the
disbelievers.
The Jews and the Christians who are not hostile towards Islm, groups who
are neutral and are in receipt of protection within a nation that acts according to the
laws of Islm, or who dwell in non-Islmic nations and do not fight against the
Muslims, whether by means of their provision of aid to other people (who fight
against Islm) or they themselves do not participate in the war, then the Islmic
community must carry out some cooperation and help between and with them as
found within the decree of Allh:

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Allh does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against
you on account of (your) Deen (religion), and have not driven you forth from
your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely
Allh loves the doers of justice.
59

Respecting them, showing kindness and dealing justly with them, as
mentioned within this ayah, is different to the help, support and assistance prohibited
by Allh that may remove the perpetrator from the bounds of Islm and render the

59
Srah Al Mumtainah (60), ayh 8.
Page | 66

perpetrator as being together with the Jews and the Christians, as already made clear
by Allh. By these means (explanations) it is clear to us as to what form of help is
permissible and what form of help is forbidden by Allh.
The greatest of sins within this matter is the help bestowed by a Muslim to a
disbeliever in order to oppose his fellow Muslims. What I mean is that a Muslim
bestows help and support to a disbeliever with the purpose of being against other
Muslims. Such help is disbelief and removes its perpetrator from the bounds of Islm
and we ask Allh for His protection from such matters. How many of the
governments and leaders do we see who bestow help (their support) towards the
disbelievers, whose purpose is to be the enemies of Allh, so as to be able to maintain
their positions and seats of power? Know that, positions gained in this way are
positions that will be lost and they will suffer lingering remorse in the Hereafter.
To conclude this matter it can be understood that the Islmic community is
one. All forms of help must only be for the purposes of that unity, and likewise also
the whole heart, strength, the tongue and arms of the Muslims must be for the
purpose of this unity alone. It must absolutely not be given towards the enemies of
Allh. Whoever bestows help and support to the disbelievers the he is a disbeliever,
whether he wants to be or not.
See how Allh has already divided mankind into two bodies; there is no
third body. Allh decrees:

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(As for) those who disbelieve and turn away from Allhs way, He shall
render their works ineffective.
Page | 67

And (as for) those who believe and do good, and believe in what has been
revealed to Muammad, and it is the very truth from their Lord, He will
remove their evil from them and improve their condition.
That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, and have given them
their dowries, taking (them) in marriage, not fornicating nor taking them for
paramours in secret; and whoever denies faith, his work indeed is of no
account, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers.
60

After this division Allh follows up with His decree:

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So when you meet in battle those who disbelieve, then smite the necks until
when you have overcome them, then make (them) prisoners, and afterwards
either set them free as a favor or let them ransom (themselves) until the war
terminates. That (shall be so); and if Allh had pleased He would certainly
have exacted what is due from them, but that He may try some of you by
means of others; and (as for) those who are slain in the way of Allh, He will
by no means allow their deeds to perish.
61

The maintenance of the division between the Muslims and the disbelievers
who call to disbelief and fight against the Islamic community is obligatory and
binding upon those who call to Islm and the perpetuity of this treatise. If suppose
this division is not carried out within the ranks of the nation, then it must be carried
out within the levels of aqdah and its implementation. Without this division, Islm
will not exist in its true meaning.
Fifthly: Consenting to the Spread of that which is Forbidden
The Messenger of Allh has said:

60
Srah Muammad (47), yt 1-3.
61
Srah Muammad (47), ayh 4.
Page | 68

.-., .-. ,- .:. _. < s ` _,. .. _ . .:-, _. _. ..
.-., ` .. :, .- ,:.-, _. ,.- .,. ,. .., .::, .:..,
,. ....., ,:.:., _. _.. ,. ., ,:.:., _.. ., ` .. .-.,
_.. - .,- .., _. , _,. _.. ,. .,.:, ,:.:., _.
Never a Prophet had been sent before me by Allh to his people but he had,
among his people, (his) disciples and companions, who followed his ways
and obeyed his command. Then there came after them their successors who
proclaimed what they did not practice, and practiced what they were not
commanded to do. And (he) who strove against them with his hand is a
believer; he who strove against them with his heart is a believer; and he who
strove against them with his tongue is a believer; and beyond that there is
no grain of Faith.
62

This adth is evidence that proves that part of the demands of imn is to deny
acts of immorality (that which is forbidden) by means of the ways already mentioned
above; that is, by means of the hand (physically), then by means of the tongue
(speaking out against it) and finally, within the heart. Denying or refuting that which
is forbidden, by means of the hand, means to remove (eliminate) evil by (physical)
force, whilst to deny or refute that which is forbidden by the tongue, means to do so
by speaking out against the evil, and to deny or refute that which is forbidden by
means of the heart, means to feel hatred and opposition towards the perpetrator of
the evil himself. Denial or refutation of evil by (within) the heart is the lowest level
of hatred, wherein by means of this hatred the Muminn would not be faced with
persecution, and this is the lowest degree of imn.
It is understood from this adth that those who do not deny or refute that
which is forbidden and its perpetrators even when only in the heart, are no longer
considered to be Muminn, because the Messenger of Allh said:

62
Narrated by Muslim.
Page | 69

_,. , _. .., .,- -
and beyond that there is no faith even to the extent of a mustard seed.
63

This adth also is an evident na, clear and able to be understood, that a
person who possesses the imn less than the third level would not be released from
Hell, because there is no degree of imn lower than that third degree of imn. By
this means also, those who allow or permit the mass expansion of that which is
forbidden are disbelievers who have lost their imn, even if they think that they still
belong amongst those who are Muslim. Not to mention those who endorse and
compel that which is forbidden.
Supposing that today there is a flood of people who claim Islm (acknowledge
themselves as Muslims) but they are well pleased with and happily endorse seeing
half-naked women in the markets and in public, and furthermore endorse the free
mixing of men and women whilst in this half naked state, so that they are able to
enjoy that which is forbidden by Allh. Supposing their half-naked associations are
insulting to the Muslims who hold steadfastly to the teachings of Islm, ridiculing
them whilst accusing them of being old-fashioned, backward along with various
other accusations.
Supposing that flood of people try to divide and disunite the Islmic
community in attempts to ward off voices that call for the implementation of Allhs
laws, and that these efforts for division are born of the fear that the matters forbidden
by Allh that their souls desire and lust for will disappear. The liquor stores and bars
will be closed and with their disappearance all the cheap forms of pleasure associated
with them.
There is no further doubt here that this is the group that has opened its arms
to receive disbelief and feels tightness in their chests at submitting to Islm as the
religion to hold to, as the stalwart of the nation and as one clean society. To judge
(deem) these people to be Muslim is to uphold a conviction that is despotic and
ignorant, which only comes about from those people who do not know Islm and
what it comprises, and do not know what the goal of mankinds life is.

63
Narrated by Muslim.
Page | 70

Every Mumin must revise the scrutinization of their imn. He must see why
it is that he truly chose the religion of Islm as the manner of and goal of his life,
so that by those means he positions himself within the boundaries of the Islmic
community, loves their aqdah, yields to their Sharah, hates disbelief and
immorality within all of its forms that is his imn.
A adth with the same meaning as the above adth is that which has been
narrated from Ab Sad Al Khudr who said that he heard the Messenger of Allh
say:

. .

. .

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.,


Whosoever of you sees an evil, let him change it with his hand; and if he is
not able to do so, then [let him change it] with his tongue; and if he is not
able to do so, then with his heart and that is the weakest of faith.
64

What is meant by changing it with his heart and that is the weakest of
faith, is that there is no more imn after this stage, because that imn demands that
the Mumin love the Sharah of Allh, desires to rule by it and implement it. Imn
also demands that the Word of Allh be held as the highest in authority and that the
words of the disbelievers be the lowest. Should it be that the heart does not stir even
in the least upon seeing evil that is happening in front of it, does not in the least bit
feel hatred towards acts of evil and their perpetrators, then this means that the heart
has already acquiesced to evil. Acquiescence to evil means to acknowledge and be
in recognition of evil itself; this means the withdrawal from the religion of Allh and
to be against imn towards Allh. When that recognition towards evil is attached to
feelings of pleasure and love in accordance with and endorsing that evil, then it
means two acts of criminality are gathered together, that is, disbelief and the
implementation of obstacles in the Way of Allh; because feeling happy upon seeing
the prevalence of evil and wanting that which is invalid to control the situation will
only be born from feelings that desire the Word of Allh to be lower that the words
of the disbelievers and this is one of those matters that invalidate the imn that is

64
Narrated by Bukhr and Muslim.
Page | 71

obligatory upon a Mumin to practice in order to raise high the Word of Allh and
lower the words of the disbelievers.
These matters demand that every Muslim pays careful attention to and is
sincerely concerned in order that they are able to free their hearts from feelings of
loving something other than that which is from the Sharah of Allh and to free their
hearts from something that is contrary to the religion of Allh. Only Allh is the
source for seeking protection and refuge.
















Page | 72

THE ESSENCE OF DISBELIEF

The Difference between Kufr (disbelief) and Kfir (disbelievers)
Within the previous pages, we have been able to understand the essence of
imn and its demands, that is, acts that maintain imn. We have also already learnt
of matters that invalidate imn and abrogate it. The word disbelief has often been
repeated within this thesis. There can be no further doubt that we know that kufr
(disbelief) means out of and deviated from the bounds of imn. That in essence is
the meaning of kufr disbelief.
Technically the word kufr in Arabic means to cover and conceal. The
Arabs call the night kfir because it covers and hides things. The farmers also call it
kfir because it covers the seed (planted) in the ground. This is similar to the
understanding in the decree of Allh which states:

. .

.
.
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,-

.
.
.

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Know that this worlds life is only sport and play and gaiety and boasting
among yourselves, and a vying in the multiplication of wealth and children,
like the rain, whose causing the vegetation to grow, pleases the husbandmen
(farmers),
65

The word ..: in this ayh means farmer (husbandman). Those who are out
of the bounds of Islm are called kfir because they see the dalil of taud (the
evidence of the unity of imn and belief) and something that prompts them to believe
in Allh, yet they are still insistent upon falsehood and disbelief, as if they are unable
to see the dalil in front of themselves. Brothers, look at the decree of Allh about
Firaun, head of all the disbelievers on this earth who rejected imn and belief in

65
Srah Al add (57), ayh 20.
Page | 73

Allh because of his unwillingness and reluctance to do so, not because of ignorance.
Allh decreed to Firaun, by means of the tongue of the Prophet Ms :


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.
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He said: Truly you know that none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth
has sent down these as clear proof and most surely I believe you, O Firaun,
to be given over to perdition.
66

That is to say, you already know O Firaun that it is Allh who created the
heavens and the earth and it is also only Allh who revealed the miraculous dalil
that you see such as the staff (of the Prophet Ms ) and the hand (the hand of the
Prophet Ms was white) so that you and your people learn therefrom and that
you know that I am the Messenger of Allh. Likewise also, Allh has already let it
be known that the people of Firaun know the truth but they have rejected it and
defected from it. Allh decrees:

..

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L.'

,:

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_, .

And they denied them unjustly and proudly while their soul had been
convinced of them; consider, then how was the end of the mischief-makers.
67

That is, they are of the belief that all of the dalil submitted by Ms is
the truth and that which is right, yet they still oppose and are defiant towards it, are
arrogant and reject the truth despite their being completely aware of the situation.
Likewise also, Allh informs us about the Arab disbelievers who rejected the
Messenger of Allh . Allh decrees about them:


66
Srah Al Isr (17), ayh 102.
67
Srah An-Naml (27), ayh 14.
Page | 74

.
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We know indeed that what they say certainly grieves you, but surely they do
not call you a liar; but the unjust deny the communications of Allh.
68

All of this conveys the meaning that according to the Sharah, kufr is to
reject the truth after knowing about it. This means that people who reject the truth
because (for reasons) of ignorance, or carry out acts of kufr because of their
ignorance of them, even though the act was an Islmic act and are of the opinion that
they have carried out something that is not against and does not invalidate imn; then
such people are not considered to be kfir, except after ujjah (authoritative
evidence) has been submitted to them and by means of that ujjah they are able to
know what is right and yet they still reject it, in the manner already explained in the
definition of imn, its demands and what invalidates it.
Likewise also, a person is not considered to be kfir who declares the two
clauses of shahdah, then he carries out matters that invalidate imn because of
ignorance and not knowing that the matters that he has carried out are out from the
bounds of Islm. However, if he knows that the matters he has carried out puts
him out of the bounds of Islm, yet he is still reluctant (to withhold from them)
and desires them, then this means he is kfir. We seek the protection of Allh from
such things.
Some of the companions were carrying out matters that invalidated imn
because they did not know the laws regarding those matters. The Messenger of Allh
refuted their actions, but he did not consider them to be out of the bounds of Islm.
It was narrated by Miqdd bin Al Aswad that he once said to the Messenger of
Allh :
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68
Srah Al Anm (6), ayh 33.
Page | 75

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O Messenger of Allh ()! Supposing I was faced with a kfir and he
fought against me, and he managed to cut off one of my hands with his sword,
and then afterwards he hid behind a tree and said: I surrender myself to
Allh (that is, I embrace Islm). Would I be permitted to kill him after he
said that? The Messenger of Allh said: Do not kill him. If you kill him,
he will become like you before you kill him and you will become like him
before he uttered his credo which he has uttered now.
69

This adth means; if you kill him after he acknowledges himself as a
follower of Islm means you will have killed a Mumin and by the act of killing a
Mumin, you have become a disbeliever. That is why when Usmah bin Zaid
killed a man who had declared the words within a battle, the Messenger
of Allh censured him extremely harshly and repeated a number of times the
words: After he stated you still killed him? Until Usmah said:
Would that I had newly embraced Islm that day also,
70
that is, I had not embraced
Islm before this.
The cause of all these events was that Usmah did not know the laws
concerning the act he had carried out. The Islmic method understood here states
that any consideration of a wrongful act will not be carried out except after knowing
the laws concerning that act. Allh decrees:

69
Narrated by Bukhr, Muslim, Ab Dwd and Amad.
70
Besides of that I hope we are able to differentiate between those who know the truth and have learnt the true message
of Islam and those who accept Islm by means of teachers who are ignorant of religion and furnish fatw on all
matters without knowledge, and fight against good material and measures with the reason that these matters come
from the disbelievers. Essentially, they are implementing barriers to the Way of Allh. Those who learn Islm from
groups such as these capable of being forgiven when they refute the erroneous fatw of their teachers or they at times
refute the knowledge and intractability of their teachers. Their rejection may not be considered to be rejection of Islm
as revealed by Allh.
Page | 76

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It is not (attributable to) Allh that He should lead a people astray after He
has guided them; He even makes clear to them what they should guard
against; surely Allh knows all things.
71

That is, a Muslim is not considered to be deviant except after he knows the
truth, and then he denies the truth and is arrogant. This ayh was revealed in
accompaniment with the censure of Allh towards the Messenger of Allh and the
Muminn who beseeched Allh for the forgiveness of their dead relatives who died
in a state of shirk. Allh decrees:
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It is not (fit) for the Prophet and those who believe that they should ask
forgiveness for the polytheists, even though they should be near relatives,
after it has become clear to them that they are inmates of the flaming fire.
And Ibrhm asking forgiveness for his sire was only owing to a promise
which he had made to him; but when it became clear to him that he was an
enemy of Allh, he declared himself to be clear of him; most surely Ibrhm
was very tender-hearted forbearing.

71
Srah At-Taubah (9), ayh 115.
Page | 77

It is not (attributable to) Allh that He should lead a people astray after He
has guided them; He even makes clear to them what they should guard
against; surely Allh knows all things.
72

At the end of these laws, Allh determined upon an immensely meaningful
method of Sharah; an action or recompense toward a wrongful act would only be
carried out after the perpetrator of that wrongful act knew that that act was wrong.
This is the mercy of Allh and His gift (upon us). Thanks be to Allh.
This is the same as that which happened to Usmah with matters that
frequently bring one towards shirk as referred to by a number of Muslims. One
matter that is well-known is that shirk invalidates imn, in the same manner as the
man who said to the Prophet :

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A man said, to the Prophet, Whatever Allh wills and you will. He said,
You have put an equal with Allh. It is what Allh alone wills.
73

The Messenger of Allh had pointed out and taught the true law to the
companion.
Similarly, as was once said by some Muslimah (Muslim women) in the
opening up and return to the city of Makkah. When the Messenger of Allh went
out together with them to a place by the name of Hawzan, they passed by a tree
where the Mushrikn hung their swords on the eve of battle with the belief that those
who did so would be victorious in battle (to come). The Muslim women who were
together with the Messenger of Allh said: O Messenger of Allh (), make us
hang our swords as those who have hung their swords. The Messenger of Allh
answered: Allhu Akbar! This way that you have mentioned, by the One in Whose
Hand my soul is, is just like what the children of Isrl asked Ms:
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72
Srah At-Taubah (9),yt 113-115.
73
Narrated by Amad.
Page | 78

Make for us a god as they have (their) gods. He said: Surely you are a
people acting ignorantly.
74

By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! You shall follow the ways of those
who were before you..
75

That is because victory is from Allh, so how can you expect victory to come
about by hanging swords in trees and consider this as a blessing and a victory?!
Indeed that is shirk!
The principal matter within this adth is that the Messenger of Allh did
not say to them, You are kfir; you have invalidated your Islm and so you must
renew your Islam. Quite simply, the Messenger of Allh explained to them that
such an action is an act of shirk, so that they are able to avoid it befalling them in the
future.
From these dalil and in many more dalil, we are able to understand that
we must differentiate between kufr and kfir, because kufr is actions, words and
matters that invalidate imn, and which can be inadvertently carried out by Muslims
because of ignorance. Under such conditions as these, they (those who carry them
out) cannot be deemed to be kfir. In fact, they must be informed that those actions
are acts of kufr, shirk or factors that invalidate imn, so that they are able to prevent
them in the future. Those who have imn and are obedient are those who steadfastly
hold to their imn. Conversely, whoever is arrogant and denies this is he who has
transferred from imn to kufr. We ask for Allhs protection from this.
Whilst it is that a kfir is a person who has already had all dalil concerning
imn explained to him, yet he still denies and is arrogant. He knows what is
right, but he deviates from these truths and rejects them. We ask for the protection
of Allh from such matters.




Srah Al Arf (7)
74
, ayh 138.
75
Narrated by Tirmidh and Amad.
Page | 79

CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS THAT ARE FALSE PRACTICES

Brothers, now I hope that you are able to resolve within your hearts the
essential image of a true Muslim. I hope you are already aware of the essential image
of the characteristics of a disbeliever. By means of these images you will be able to
pass judgement clearly and consciously.
Know brothers, that the cause that brings into being ignorance within the
Islmic community regarding the primary essence of Islmic aqdah is because of
widespread practices (general customs) that are erroneous and false. So, what is
meant by general customs/practices and why are they considered to be false?
Practices or general practices are something that is generally accepted as a
whole and they (those who implement and practice them) are already accustomed to
those matters. This familiarity is constantly subject to the thoughts, opinions,
knowledge and aqdah that govern society.
Our society is already governed by the common belief that states that those
who declare are Muslim. This aqdah and belief is essentially valid and
true, but you see changes and malpractices occur towards that aqdah.
a. Basically this aqdah means: belief in Allh the One and Only; Allh who
created the universe, who regulates all affairs; Allh who has the right to be
obeyed absolutely and with unwavering submission for towards Allh, out
from the camp of shirk and into the camp of those who have imn, whether in
terms of aqdah, Sharah, and the sensibility of love. By those means, the
submission of a Muslim is only for his religion, his aqdah, and his
fellow brothers in religion. There is no longer any doubt that the Islmic
community is not the same in the implementation of these demands of aqdah,
because there is amongst them those who are negligent in the implementation
of obedience or they commit wrongdoing and sin. Nevertheless, they still
maintain the basic aqdah mentioned earlier.
b. When this shining and clear aqdah begins to weaken and fade from the heart,
then there emerges within the Islmic community a generation that accepts
Page | 80

Islm as a legacy. This generation is named with Islmic names and they
speak Arabic, the language of Al Qurn. Their descendants are ascribed
Islmic names, but their understanding towards the words is weak
and dim (indistinct), and they do not understand the wording of those words
except for There is no ilah in truth except Allah or No truth exists except
Allah.
As a result of the broad spectrum of this legated Islm, there has begun to
arise amongst them acts of shirk in all (its varying) forms and expressions,
such as their worshipping of and requisitioning of something from graves, and
even to the worship of and requisition of something from trees and stones
Furthermore, there is the separation of the Sharah of Islm from within their
daily lives. Such as the implementation of the Sharah of disbelief within their
nations. Thus, there has also appeared amongst them groups who are sincerely
committed to the implementation of that Sharah of disbelief whilst at the
same time they characterize and treat the Sharah of Islm as ossified, old-
fashioned and impossible to be able to be carried out in this nuclear age of
rockets. What is strange is that they still utter words, still perform alt, pay
zakat, fast and perform ajj.
There are within these groups those who continue to ridicule and deride the
Muslims, especially towards those who give dawah, and there are amongst
them those who profess to be followers of Communism or Atheists; who fight
tooth and nail in order to bring the Sharah of Allh beneath the laws of
disbelief. After all of this they still consider that they are belong within the
realms of followers (of Islm).
c. The custom of lying that I mean here is by means of bestowing Islmic titles
to those who are only descendants of Muslims or who have been named with
Islmic names. This custom has become the primal cause in the facilitation of
the condemnation of Islm and the misrepresentation of the essence of
knowledge about real Muslims.
d. After that begins the evil ideology of shirk and this adorns their descendants
with the mask of Islm; so that by those means they still consider themselves
to be Muslims, and even amongst them are still those who possess sensitive
feelings towards Islm. By these means the Sharah and system of disbelief
is propagated in the name of Islm. Thus it is continued until mankind is of
Page | 81

the opinion that Islm is only a piece of clothing, a fashion accessory that is
whimsical, decorative, and disposableIslm is only a mixture formed from
the understandings of Communism, Socialism, Democracy and capitalism.
Hence the impression that Islm in itself and alone continues to lose and is
losing the features that explain that Islm is a system and the Sharah of
Allh. The purpose of mankind is only to understand and implement it.
e. They feel anxious when mankind gauges Islm in the scales, evaluating
things according to the values and balance of Islm. They are afraid that by
the use of these scales and values of Islm many of mankind who are not
qualified will be deemed to be Muslims. By those means they continue to hold
to false customs, in order to strengthen their laws and assertionsin fact they
have already wronged themselves, have carried out sins towards Islm, which
honoured them by means of their Islm. Knowing what is right and true and
following them, even if those who deny remain in denial, is better for
mankind than remaining in falsehood and being continuously in darkness.
f. In the time of the Messenger of Allh , false practices had become major
obstacles for the Arabs in their receipt of guidance and shelter beneath the
banner of Islm. They came to the Messenger of Allh with the full
conviction that they were believers in the religion of Allh, and that they were
the nation of people chosen by Allh to be the inhabitants and that the
occupancy of the universe and heavens was only for them.
All of these assumptions and beliefs of theirs were true should it be that they
adhered steadfastly to the valid and rightful religion, followed what was
required of them by their religion as followers of the Messenger of Allh ,
desisted from the evil matters and deviations that were made apparent to them
in the Book of Allh and their Sharah. However, they did not do that, but
they remained holding onto vanities, falsehood and rejection of the truth. By
those means they remained emotionally attached to disbelief. Their belief in
Paradise and the forgiveness of Allh was not even in the slightest of benefit
to them.
Todays situation is no different to the situation that occurred in the time of
the Messenger of Allh . Now you are able to see that that meaning has been
distorted within the lives of the Islmic community. They are already
committing shirk in the carrying out of ibdt and the bestowal of their
Page | 82

obedience, deriding the message of Islm and killing its din, carrying out
fitnah towards them in the same manner as that which was carried out by the
Jews towards their Prophets and din, and welcoming of all aspects of
disbelief. Even so, they feel shocked and angry when it is said that it is they
who carry out acts of disbelief and revoking of imn, or they would be
surprised when it is said that it is they who acknowledge that they require and
ensure that they carry out something other than what they have done.
g. The obligation of the din today is to strive to establish the true meaning of
, the meaning that connotes; belief in Allh and submissive
obedience towards His commands, recognition of His Sharah, rejection of
something worshipped besides Allh, whether in the form of idols or
governments that formulate their own laws which Allh has not permitted for
mankind.
Besides that, the words also demand that support be rounded up for
Islm and the Islmic community, whether in the form of words and deeds,
hatred of disbelief and disbelievers, with the heart, the tongue and the hands.
Denial of kufr in the heart is the weakest of imn. After that level, imn is no
longer considered to exist even so much as a mustard seed.
h. The obligations of the din today is to transform these lying words (those
words of falsehood), not to accuse Muslims of disbelief. Rather to call them
to the true meaning of .
In previous clauses we came to know the difference between kufr and kfir.
One is not considered to be kfir except the person who already knows the
truth but he still rejects it and supports falsehood.
i. Here we will focus upon the following question: In what form must we act
towards the general populace of the Muslims? Will we confront them with the
principle that the essence of imn in truth has already gone and is not known
anymore and that society in actual fact has become a society of rampant
ignorance? Or do we confront them on the basis that they are Muslims who
have inherited Islm and they have been subjected to the therapy of the
ignorant aqdah of disbelief and they do not realize it?
Page | 83

It is a fact that can no longer be disputed that we must judge the Islmic public
as Muslims, as long as they do not carry out matters that openly invalidate
imn. Whereas they know that those matters invalidate imn, but they are
simply still acting in vain. Facing them on the basis that they are Muslims and
Muminn is an obligation. They must understand the meaning of imn and
the limits of Islm. We must not judge them to already be out of the essence
of imn except whenever they carry out matters that invalidate imn after they
have understood the above ujjah and dalil of those invalidating matters.
76


76
As proof of these assertions, there is what we already know that Allh does not respond towards His servants except
after Allh having provided them with ujjah and dalil:-

a. The decree of Allh:

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(We sent) messengers as the givers of good news and as warners, so that people should not have a plea
against Allah after the (coming of) messengers; and Allh is Mighty, Wise. (Srah An-Nis (4), ayh 165).
b. The decree of Allh:

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And had We destroyed them with chastisement before this, they would certainly have said: O our Lord!
why didst Thou not send to us a messenger, for then we should have followed Thy communications before
that we met disgrace and shame. (Srah - (20), ayh 134).
c. The decree of Allh:


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And were it not that there should befall them a disaster for what their hands have sent before, then they
should say: Our Lord! why didst Thou not send to us a messenger so that we should have followed Thy
communications and been of the believers! (Srah Al Qaa (28), ayh 47).
d. The decree of Allh:

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O followers of the Book! indeed Our Messenger has come to you explaining to you after a cessation of the
(mission of the) messengers, lest you say: There came not to us a giver of good news or a warner, so indeed
Page | 84


there has come to you a giver of good news and a warner; and Allh has power over all things. (Srah Al
Midah (5), ayh 19).
e. The decree of Allh:

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And this is a Book We have revealed, blessed; therefore follow it and guard (against evil) that mercy may
be shown to you.
Lest you say that the Book was only revealed to two parties before us and We were truly unaware of what
they read.
Or lest you should say: If the Book had been revealed to us, we would certainly have been better guided
than they, so indeed there has come to you clear proof from your Lord, and guidance and mercy. Who then
is more unjust than he who rejects Allhs communications and turns away from them? We will reward
those who turn away from Our communications with an evil chastisement because they turned away. (Srah
Al Anm (6), yt 155-157).
f. The decree of Allh:

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Whoever goes aright, for his own soul does he go aright; and whoever goes astray, to its detriment only
does he go astray: nor can the bearer of a burden bear the burden of another, nor do We chastise until We
raise a messenger. (Srah Al Isr (17), ayh 15).

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They shall say: Yea! indeed there came to us a warner, but we rejected (him) and said: Allah has not
revealed anything, you are only in a great error. (Suarh Al Mulk (67), ayh 9).
g. The saying of the Messenger of Allh :
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Page | 85

The dalil that demonstrate the truth of the prescriptions that we have
mentioned are many.
Some of them are:
1. This community has already inherited the aqdah of taud and imn. This
aqdah of taud and imn are already inculcated within this community.
Malpractices and the spread of matters that are contrary to the jurisprudence
of imn are only carried out because of ignorance and laziness, carried out
because of the deceit of Shain upon the character of mankind who has
already confused their religion and indoctrinated the preconception that Islm
does not conflict with the ideology and aqdah of disbelief that they have
been inculcated into. Hence, many of them already embrace and profess to an
aqdah that is in error caused by their ignorance concerning the essential
reality of their religion. When they know the limits of religion, the demands
of aqdah and imn, there is no longer any doubt that most of them will
improve their aqdah and seek the forgiveness of Allh.
2. The ujjah that is able to differentiate between right and wrong in the majority
of problems with aqdah is unable to provide limitations between the group
that is in a full state of consciousness and the group who achieve salvation.
This is because most of the misguided ulam have played a role in
propagating falsehood, distorting the message of Islm, facilitating the
judicature of imn, recognizing disbelief within Islmic nations, depicting
those with imn and righteousness by means of the impression that they are
out of the teachings of Islm and imn.

There is none having a greater sense of Ghira than Allh, and because of that Allh He has forbidden the
doing of evil actions, both visible and invisible, and nothing is loved by Allah more than the praise of His
Ownself, and no one likes to accept excuses more than Allh Himself and it is because of this that He sent
Prophets, missionaries and warners. (Agrred Upon).
The dalil concerning these matters are many, so we have named but a few.





Page | 86

3. Once the system of disbelief is able to control the Islmic system, there no
longer exists the difference between that which is able to place the devotees
of taud and imn within one line, but rather their situations are mixed. How
then are we able to implant specific laws on them in such circumstances?
4. Basically those who are followers of the relgion of Islm are considered to be
Muslim. Those who are of sound thinking would not object to this policy.
Because of that it is arm assuredly to judge them as being out of the
bounds of Islm except until after they have pronounced with their tongues or
proven by their actions, speech or deeds that they are not Muslim.
















Page | 87

MATTERS THAT DO NOT REMOVE A MUMIN
FROM THE BOUNDS OF ISLM

Within previous chapters we have learnt that there are immoral matters that
do not remove a Muslim from the bounds of imn, as long as he does not pronounce
those immoral matters to be all.
What is meant by pronounce those immoral matters to be all is: to call to
and maintain immorality and not to be fearful of the recompense of punishment. The
acts of theft, alcohol consumption and others are included within those matters of
immorality that are often carried out by a Mumin and Muslim when he is weak
and neglectful. However, these do not remove him from imn. The dalil from Al
Qurn and the Sunnah in relation to these matters are already known to us. The most
famous amongst these dalil is the adth narrated by Ab Dharr who said:

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I came to the Prophet while he was wearing white clothes and sleeping.
Then I went back to him again after he had got up from his sleep. He said,
Nobody says: None has the right to be worshipped but Allh and then
later on he dies while believing in that, except that he will enter Paradise..
I said, Even if he had committed illegal sexual intercourse and theft? He
said. Even if he had committed illegal sexual intercourse and theft. I said,
Even if he had committed illegal sexual intercourse and theft? He said.
Page | 88

Even if he had committed illegal sexual intercourse and theft. I said, Even
it he had committed illegal sexual intercourse and theft? He said, Even if
he had committed illegal sexual intercourse and theft, in spite of the Ab
Dharrs dislike. Abu Abdullah said, This is at the time of death or before
it if one repents and regrets and says None has the right to be worshipped
but Allh. He will be forgiven his sins.
77

This adth is clear ujjah regarding these matters. There is no one from
amongst the Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jamah who differs with this opinion over this
matter. Some of them have further enlightened this adth, so that they consider that
even sustained implementation of immorality without feeling fear of recompense
and without feeling discouraged of the punishment of Allh does not invalidate
imn. Alamdulillh, I have already outlined this matter in previous chapters.
The Khawrij and Mutazilah groups possess opinions that are separate on
this matter. They consider that such immorality invalidates all the legitimate acts of
a Mumin. If he dies without having sought repentance, then he would remain in
Hell. This opinion is far beyond the boundaries (of Islm).
This adth narrated by Ab Dharr does not contradict the adth narrated
by Ab Hurairah wherein the Messenger of Allh said:

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.

.
No one who commits Zin is a believer at the moment when he is committing
Zin; no one who steals is a believe at the moment when he is stealing; no
one who drinks wine is a believer at the moment when he is drinking it;
78

This adth explains the denial of imn at the time of carrying out immoral
acts alone. What is meant by denial of imn is the cessation of the essence of imn
from the heart at the time of carrying out those immoral acts. Those who know the

77
Narrated by Bukhr.
78
Narrated by Ibn Mjah.
Page | 89

issues of imn as discussed in earlier chapters will know the meaning of the cessation
of the essence of imn at the time of carrying out acts of immorality.
Imn means fear of Allh the Almighty One, who watches over all affairs,
who authorizes the punishment of those who carry out evil. This is a part of the
essence of imn. Do you ever think that a person will carry out adultery (for
example), whilst he knows that Allh is watching over and in command of him?
He also knows that Allh will respond with punishment for those acts and he will
meet with Allh on the Day of Judgement. Do you think he will continue
uninterruptedly to carry out those dirty acts? If he had imn at the time he carried
out those accursed deeds surely the blood that flows in his hair will freeze, and he
will immediately wake up and not carry out those deeds because of the fear and
terror of Allh, but his obstinate actions are a testimony that the essence of imn
disappears from and is lost from the heart.
When he has finished carrying out those evil acts and he is aware and
conscious, he will feel regret and fear. That is in truth imn; but if he does not
realize and repent, does not feel fear, then imn no longer exists in his heart,
whether before carrying out those deeds or at the time of carrying them out or after
carrying them out. Anyone who acknowledges the existence of imn for a person
who does not feel regret and does not feel fear of Allh upon committing such acts
means that he is ignorant and avows the invalidity.
Nevertheless, there are still a number of matters that must be elaborated upon
and explained, because many people are mistakenly disposed to laws in those
matters as the consequence of their reflections that are not so clear. The matters that
I mean are:
1. To utter words of disbelief when forced to do so does not remove a Muslim
from the bounds of his religion and does not remove a Mumin from his
imn. As proof of this matter there is the decree of Allh:
Page | 90

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He who disbelieves in Allh after his having believed, not he who is
compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens
(his) breast to disbelief-- on these is the wrath of Allh, and they shall have
a grievous chastisement.
This is because they love this worlds life more than the hereafter, and
because Allh does not guide the unbelieving people.
79

These yt were revealed in connection with a matter that happened to
Ammr bin Ysir wherein he was forced to say something to the disbelievers in
accordance with their wishes after his mother Sumaiyah
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was tied between two
camels. Then Ab Jaal an enemy of Allh accused her of embracing Islm
because she wanted a man. Then he stabbed her repeatedly below her belly (in her
gentital area) until Sumaiyah
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died. After that, her husband also died as a result of
the torture carried out against him.
The Messenger of Allh gave relief to Ammr when he came to the
Messenger of Allh crying because he had uttered words of blasphemy, of
disbelief. The Messenger of Allh removed his grief by saying, If they try that
again then repeat what you already have done (narrated by Ibn Jarr and others).
That is, if they wanted to re-torture you again then say what you said before. Then
Allh revealed these yt to extend this waiver until the Day of Judgement.
Those who are knowledgeable would not differ with the opinion that says to
patiently bear torture and not to utter words of disbelief is better than saying them,
and with that he is freed from torture or death. It may be that some people think it
is better, in some instances, to express disbelief by means of saying whatever is

79
Srah An-Nal (16), yt 106-107.
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necessary (to safeguard oneself/ones own interests - malaat al-dawah) whatever
they say, rather than proclaiming or displaying Islm, but in reality there is no
interest greater than the patience of the exponents of dawah in incurring torture and
dying for the sake of Allh. Their tongues are not defiled by words of disbelief. It
may be that with the martyrdom of a person or of a number of proponents of dawah
will as a result of not uttering words of disbelief have a greater impact in the struggle
for dawah than the long time survival of many who utter words of disbelief and
bestow upon the agents of tyranny the opportuinity to carry out whatever they want.
Thus, healthy determination and conviction must maintain that saying the
expression of words of disbelief is only one form of dispensation from Allh. It
does not overstep the bounds of license to say that such acts are specific, prudent
and outstrip conditions.
Nonetheless, this must be a distinction from uttering the forced uttering of
words of disbelief in order to conceal the reality of imn. Concealing imn in some
circumstances may be considered wise and politically correct to do so.
This matter has already been carried out by the abat at Makkah. Within a
a adth narrated by Muslim, Ibnu Mjah and Imm Amad from udhaifah
who said that the Messenger of Allh said:

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Count for me all those who have uttered (the word of) Islm. We said: O
Messenger of Allh, do you fear for us when we number between six and
seven hundred? The Messenger of Allh () said: You do not know,
perhaps you will be tested.
This incident happened in Makkah.
The act of concealing the teachings of Islm carried out by Muslims at this
level was not considered cowardly nor a concessionary dispensation that may be said
Page | 92

if there is no better way, but in fact it was a stratagem that had to be carried out for
the purpose of asserting and upholding Islm and upholding its presence.
Sometimes the situation of the Muslims has been determined that to conceal
their aqdah and imn is better than declaring it. There is a great deal of difference
between concealing imn and uttering words of disbelief, therefore the conditional
reasons for this should be known, and it should be determined by a legalistic view
that is safe and built upon firm upheld ijtihd, and not because of cowardice and fear
of declaring the aqdah of Islm and its Sharah.
Concealing imn is not considered wise and obligatory if only to save oneself
from undesirable matters, but it is considered wise and obligatory in order to
accomplish greater benefit to the Muslim community. This was carried out by
Muammad bin Muslimah by order of the Prophet when he was sent to kill
Kab bin Al Ashraf.
80
Likewise also it was carried out by Nam bin Masd during
the Battle of Khandaq.
81

1. Besides that, there must also be the distinction between being forced to utter
words of disbelief with being forced to carrying out acts that hurt others. There

80
Kab bin Al Ashraf was a Jew, and he was a person who most liked to hurt the Messenger of Allh by composing
love poems about the wives of the companions, making accusations against the purity of their honour within many of
his poems. In the Battle of Badr he went to Makkah and gathered together the Mushrikn in order to oppose the
Messenger of Allh . He forgot and betrayed the agreement he had made with the Messenger of Allh . When he
returned to madinah the Messenger of Allh sent a group of foot soldiers lead by Muammad bin Muslimah to kill
him. The Messenger of Allh had given them permission to say something that would mislead Kab. They also
made it understood to Kab that they were bored being companions of the Messenger of Allh and complained to
him of the meanness and misery of being with the Messenger of Allh and they asked him to sell them food; they
pawned their weapons to him so that he believed in them and went out together with him far from any place of safety
and they killed him.
81
Nam bin Masd was a man from Affan who embraced Islm when the Muslims surrounded Madinah during the
Battle of Khandaq. The Messenger of Allh asked him to mislead the disbelievers as far as he was able and said to
him: War is deception. Nam was to go meet with the Ban Quraizah who had undertaken a treaty with the Mushrikn
and betrayed their treaty with the Messenger of Allh . Nam would have them understand that the Mushrikn would
fight against the Muslims if they felt they had an opportunity to defeat the Muslims, and if not they would return to
their nations and abandon the Ban Quraizah to face the Muslims alone. He advised them not to fight together with
the Quraish Mushrikn except after the Quraish had wagered on them. Then Nam went to meet with the Quraish and
said to them that the Ban Quraizah had already regretted the betrayal that they had carried out of their agreement with
the Messenger of Allh and they had made an agreement with the Messenger of Allh agreeing to take the wealth
of the hostages from amongst you that were delivered to the Messenger of Allh . After that they would help
Muammad fight against you. If they came asking for ransom of the hostages do not submit it to them. When this
alarming situation of the Quraish Mushrikn occurred whereby they asked that the Jews (Ban Quraizah) attack the
Muslims together with them and the Jews asked for the ransom of the hostages from the Quraish group, the Quraish
Mushrikn refused to give it. With that the two groups clawed each other whilst Allh sent down windy storms and
His army of angels upon the Mushrikn. This furious storm uprooted all of their tents and Allh sent terror into their
hearts, and they returned home in a state of dismay.
Page | 93

are no circumstances that compel anyone to be allowed to kill another Muslim,
because the life of the Muslim who is forced to kill his brother is essentially
no more imporatant than the life of the Muslim to be killed. Because of that,
the ulam have stated that anyone who is forced by disbelievers or tyrants
to kill a Muslim, and if he does not then he will be killed, he must not do
it, because he is not considered to be of more importance than his brother
who will be killed in order to save himself.
Imm Ibnu Qayyim has said within (his book) Al Fawid that anyone
who is forced to have the act of sodomy carried out upon himself and if he does
not submit to this he will be killed, then he is not permitted to allow the act of
sodomy to be committed upon himself. There is no further doubt that the
situation/circumstances are the same as if a person is forced to carry out sodomy
upon another person.
As for those people who are forced to say something loathsome about their
own Muslim brothers, denigrate or judge them as disbelievers is a matter that may
still be discussed. The sound a opinion in this matter necessitates those acts
Only Allh knows the true law, because the Messenger of Allh once gave
permission to Muammad bin Muslimah to allege something about the Messenger
of Allh , something that brought benefit to the Muslims. If Allh required that a
Muslim under duress say something about a flaw of the Messenger of Allh , then
why is it not required to deal with the shame of a Mumin under duress, whilst it is
the case that the rank of the Mumin is lower than the rank of the Messenger of Allh
? One matter that needs to be remembered is that a Muslim under duress who
carries out something towards his brother Muslim must apologize to his brother
for that act.
To sum up this issue, we are able to say that uttering words of disbelief in a
state of fitnah is as a permission (a concession) from Allh, but patience through
suffering or death because of torture is better than uttering words of disbelief. To kill
a Muslim or sully his honour because of being forced to do so is not permissible at
all, whereas snubbing him or saying that he is a disbeliever is permissible provided
that he reconciles with and apologizes to him when he is able to do so.
In relation to that is the decree of Allh:
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He who disbelieves in Allh after his having believed, not he who is
compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens
(his) breast to disbelief-- on these is the wrath of Allh, and they shall have
a grievous chastisement.
82

We must bear in mind that within a state of emergency and compulsion, a
Muslim must feel hatred towards disbelief and the disbelievers. He must also know
that the words of disbelief he utters whilst compelled to do so are only a temporary
measure and merely concessionary. When the compulsion and disaster he is faced
with are gone then the concession also no longer exists. This means, that to use fitnah
and disaster as a continuing excuse, to comply with and submit to the fitnah and
disaster, into becoming the last straw in the struggle and safeguarding of all efforts,
is an act of disbelief towards Allh and invalidates all forms of jihd and the efforst
of the Muminn. For that reason, Allh has informed of the condition of those who
undertake such actions in His decree:

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And among men is he who says: We believe in Allh; but when he is
persecuted in (the way of) Allh he thinks the persecution of men to be as the
chastisement of Allh; and if there come assistance from your Lord, they
would most certainly say: Surely we were with you. What! is not Allh the
best knower of what is in the breasts of mankind.
83


82
Srah An-Nal (16), ayh 106.
83
Srah Al Ankabt (29), ayh 10.
Page | 95

Allh describes the group that is weak in regards to fitnah and disaster, and
continues to lay down their arms and surrenders towards falsehood as well as
considers that fitnah as preventing them from Islm and imn; in the same manner
as the Muminn consider that the punishment of Allh in the Hereafter prevents
them from disbelief and carrying out tyranny on the earthAllh has already
described this group by means of their hypocrisy, because the Muminn who
sincerely struggle in order to obtain victory, this group of hypocrites also are those
who are racing to be able to get the sincere Muminn and say: we were with
you Whereas Allh knows who are actually together with the Muminn.
Because of that Allh concludes this ayh with His decree:

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What! is not Allh the best knower of what is in the breasts of mankind.
And most certainly Allh will know those who believe and most certainly He
will know the hypocrites.
84

Consequently a Muslim must always go along with and be together with Allh
and the auliy of Allh whether in good or bad times, in matters that are favoured
or hated. If these trials can be overcome under certain conditions, he must
implement the commands of Allh and pursue dawah if he has the opportunity to
do so. Allh will achieve victory in all of His dealings, but most people do not know,
and there is no effort and there is no strength except with the help of Allh.






84
Srah Al Ankabt (29), yt 10-11.
Page | 96

INTERPRETATION OF THE WORD OF ALLH AND PROVIDING
ANOTHER MEANING THAN THAT WHICH IS EVIDENT IN A
WRONGFUL MANNER AND IJTIHD (INDEPENDENT REASONING)
Amongst the reasons that prompted a group from amongst the Muslims to
accuse their brothers in Islm of disbelief, were the acts of interpreting the Word
of Allh and bestowing upon it another meaning than the apparent understanding by
means that were wrongful or by means of ijtihd. In actual fact, this matter is very
complicated and dangerous, because this matter is more in relation to the heart than
to matters that are evident and apparent, because these acts of interpretation may be
carried out by a person who intentionally carries out wrongful interpretations for
purposes that are evil and destructive, describing what is true as something false.
Such acts are disbelief and we ask the help of Allh in protecting us from such.
Similarly, this act of interpreting the Word of Allh may be carried out by a
mujtahid (one who interprets) who has not yet experienced the true meaning of the
Word of Allh; he continues to make interpretations and provide meanings other
than the evident meanings. There is no one able to differentiate between these two
groups except Allh who knows the unseen matters and sees all the secrets of the
heart.
Therefore, the judgement of a person who gives a fatw or opinion that is
contrary to the Word of Allh by means of it not being examined is deemed to be
hurried and not sanctioned, but rather, what must be carried out under such
circumstances is to deeply study and clarify the purpose of the person who gives the
fatw or opinion. Furthermore, to try to find out the final objective of that act and
give ujjah to him if we are capable of doing so. Our general discussion here needs
to be described in more detail:-
a. Each and every person who speaks assuredly possesses a purpose for wanting
to do so. In order to achieve this purpose he will use all the forms and styles
of language available to him. Sometimes he is unable to construe language
(in such a manner as to be able) to achieve his goal, and he utters something
that has a meaning different to that which he desires, not the meaning he
intended. It is a great mistake if we interpret the words of someone according
to the apparent meaning of that which he has said, not according to what
Page | 97

he meant from those words. Therefore, we must not interpret the words of
someone except after we know the meaning that he wanted to impart. After
knowing this meaning then we can come up with an assumption as to what
the meaning is that he intended from those words. Conditions such as these
are not only restricted to the words of mankind, but rather these conditions
must also be appled to the Word of Allh and of His Messenger .
b. Once we know the meaning and intent of the person who is speaking, then
we examine the goals and objectives of those meanings. It may be that the
implied meaning within those words is right and true, but the goal intended
to be achieved by the person who speaks is false and invalid. Brothers do
not forget these valuable words that, To tell the truth for other than what it
was intended for. How many words are right and true yet the person who
says them uses them for evil purposes and the propagation of fitnah. This is
not the place for us to exemplify all the detailed examples and clarifications.
c. Whenever the meaning and purpose of those words is already determined,
then the way to be followed will also be bright and clear. The obligation of a
Muslim after seeing the deviation is to submit and purt forward ujjah, if he
is capable of doing so. Assuming they still reject the truth after knowing it,
are arrogant and defiant in a state of full consciousness, then this means they
are out of the bounds of Islm and we ask for Allhs help from such.
Overall, this issue is full of danger because according to the ordinary course
of events these matters induce a person to make accusations against the intentions of
a person, whereas making accusations against intentions is a matter that is very
dangerous, should it be that those accusations were not on the basis of foundations
that are clear and founded. Accusations that are made in a doubtful manner and based
on apparent matters, besides keeping track of errors must not in the least bring about
a Muslim accusing another Muslim of disbelief. There is no other way for this kind
of matter apart from the submission of and evidence of ujjah, seeking the
forgiveness of Allh in the describing of mistakes by means of not rushing to judge
as disbelief and bring about wild accusations. The final command is only with Allh,
Lord of the lamn who knows the intentions of and secrets of the heart.
Page | 98

The matter of interpreting the Word of Allh and giving a meaning other than
that which is apparent is to open the greatest of doors for the disadvantage of the
Muslims. Therefore, we must be vigilant regarding these matters.
Here I present a number of matters that can motivate a person to make
interpreations towards the Word of Allh:-
1. Within the structure of Arabic much use is made of imagery in the form of
rhetoric and illustration by means of the use of representation, simile, allegory
and metonymy, besides the use of various forms of metaphor. This has helped
to carry out differing opinions and differing ideas, not only limited to practical
matters of legitimacy but also in the carrying out of matters having
connections with the aqdah (doctrinal matters) of imn. This does not mean
that there is a loophole in the structure of Arabic itself, but that other
languages are also so, and it may even be said that Arabic is richer and of
more use in the blossoming of the meaning of something. In fact this is not a
deficiency in the Arabic language itself, but rather it constitutes one of its
specific features, even more so if in relation to the underlying issues that I
discussed earlier. What I mean is that we must interpret the words of a person
according to the meaning that that person intends, and not according to the
apparent meaning of the words he has uttered.
2. The enemies of Islm and groups which follow the whims of a king are using
these cinditions and are working hard to destroy and pervert Islm from within
by means of proclaiming that that is the content and meaning meant by the
utterances of Sharah. They pervert the meaning of the yt of Al Qurn and
the adth by means of the evel understandings that they desire to achieve.
3. After that there emerges the group that interprets the Word of Allh by means
of definitions that are not the intention of Allh and His Messenger , whether
it be in general or specifically. By these means there also emerges
interpretations that are far removed from the true meanings. All of this occurs
under the guise of Islm.
Separation from these conditions is a mutual obligation in order to suppress
and prevent the carrying out of wrongful interpretations and in order to return to the
understanding of Islm in a simple and easy form, based on the rules of the Arabic
language whilst always holding to the apparent meaning of any utterance. That is
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except if there are dalil that indicate with certitude that the person who has said
that does not intend the apparent meaning of those words, but he rather intends
another meaning.
As a whole, the tsituation of a person who carries out wrongful interpretation
with an evl purpose and desires to carry out destruction and the person who carries
out interpretation honestly and truly can be distinguished by intelligent criticization.
Thus, in such a situation we must not rush to pass the judgement of disbelief upon
those who carry out interpretation based on something that is apparent from that
interpretation, even more so if we are able to know the meaning from objectives that
are not for the purpose of perverting Islm and not to prioritize that which is false
over that which is true. That is why the early scholars did not judge as disbelievers
the Mutazilah and the Ashariyyah who carried out interpretations, because their
objectives were only to maintain Islm and struggle against the Zindaq and the
Philosophers, although the ulam of the salaf had declared that the book that bore
the name Al Islm, which discusses questions of aqdah as a result of the writings
of the Ashariyyah, be considered false and it is obligatory to burn it as well as not
be handed down as a legacy. The opinion of Imm Shfi on this matter is
very clear, and likewise also the opinion of Imm Amad bin ambal .
The firm stand taken by the ulam of adth in this matter must be our stnce
today, where in these times more and more groups are emerging who make
interpretations that are in error and claim to be defending Islm and the Muslim
community.
Referral of all matters to the Book of Allh and the sunnah of His Messenger
, holding steadfastly to the apparent menaing of any utterance based on the strcture
of the Arabic language, to declare as arm interpretations when there are no
available dalil to show that Allh and His Messenger do not demand those
meanings to be interpreted. It is obligatory for all of those matters to be steadfastly
held to and well understood. Similarly, the implementation of various forms of
interpretation must be clearly known and understood so that the Muminn are able
to clearly know something that must be carried out. Apart from that, the act of
accusing of disbelief must be avoided, except after there exists dalil and proof that
is no longer undisputable.
Page | 100

Wal-amdulillhir-Rabbil lamn
Brothers/Sisters
After you have read this book, loan it to someone else in the hope that
whatever benefit may be obtained formt his book is extended further.