Você está na página 1de 74

URM NA CLNICA MDICA. Farmacologia Clnica: Medicamentos e seu uso na Clnica Mdica.

Fortaleza-Cear-2013
I

Farmacologia Clnica: Medicamentos e seu uso na Clnica Mdica.


NCLEO DE EDUCAO CONTINUADA Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da Silva 1.a EDIO 2013
II

Epgrafe.
JURO... E, Prometo que, ao exercer a arte de curar, mostrar-me-ei sempre fiel aos preceitos da honestidade, da caridade e da cincia. Penetrando no interior dos lares, meus olhos sero cegos, minha lngua calar os segredos que me forem revelados, o que terei como preceito de honra. Nunca me servirei da profisso para corromper os costumes ou favorecer o crime. Se eu cumprir este juramento com fidelidade, goze eu, para sempre, a minha vida e a minha arte, com boa reputao entre os homens. Se o infringir ou dele afastar-me, suceda-me o contrrio. os mdicos recm formados escolhem um medicamento inadequado ou duvidoso em Documento da OMS. primum non nocere - Primum non nocere uma Latina frase que significa " em primeiro lugar, no causar dano . " A frase por vezes registadas como nocere nil primum . No-maleficncia , que derivada da mxima, um dos principais preceitos da tica mdica que todos os estudantes de medicina so ensinados na escola de medicina e um princpio fundamental para servios de emergncia mdica em todo o mundo. Outra maneira de afirmar que, "dado um problema existente, pode ser melhor no fazer alguma coisa, ou at mesmo para no fazer nada, do que correr o risco de causar mais mal do que bem." Ele lembra o mdico e outros profissionais de sade que deve considerar o possvel prejuzo que qualquer interveno poderia fazer. Ele invocado quando se debate o uso de uma interveno que acarreta um risco evidente de dano, mas a menos certa chance de benefcio. No-maleficncia frequentemente contrastado com seu corolrio, a beneficncia. Primum non nocere - Diz por
III

metade dos

casos.

isso que " primum non nocere "no , na verdade, a partir de Hipcrates, mas uma frase nas epidemias - "A origem do primum non nocere . " British Medical Journal respostas eletrnicas e comentrios, 1 de Setembro de 2013. Smith, C. M. (2005). "Origem e Usos da Primum non nocere - acima de tudo, no causar dano ". The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 45 (4): 371-377. doi : 10.1177/0091270004273680 . Cura te ipsum. "Cuide do seu prprio eu!" ou "Cure a sua auto" uma Latina liminar, pedindo mdicos para cuidar e curar-se primeiro, antes de lidar com os pacientes. Cura te ipsum ficou famoso na traduo latina da Bblia, a Vulgata O provrbio foi citado por Jesus... Mdico, cura-te a ti mesmo, como registrado no Evangelho de Lucas, captulo 04:23. Lucas Evangelista foi ele prprio um mdico.

IV

Dedicatria. A Jornalista Ray Rabelo, Professora fundadora do INESPEC merecedora de uma dedicao por parte deste autor, assim dedico na pessoa dela, a todos os membros da equipe tcnica cientifica e administrativa do Instituto de Ensino, Pesquisa, Extenso e Cultura, a presente obra. Agradecimentos especiais equipe do CURSO ALTERNATIVO, em Fortaleza, Cear, no Distrito de Parangaba. Agradecimentos aos amigos e alunos que frequentam ou frequentaram o EAD do INESPEC. Agradecimentos aos alunos virtuais do autor, no Curso de Laboratrio de Anlises Clnicas. Agradecimento aos alunos do autor no Curso de Auxiliar de Farmcia CURSO ALTERNATIVO-Fortaleza, Turmas I, II, III e IV e aos alunos do Curso de Auxiliar de Farmcia, turmas virtuais, 2012-2013. Agradecimentos especiais aos parceiros que garantem a transmisso da programao virtual da REDE INESPEC atravs dos links: 1. http://inespecmundial.listen2myradio.com 2. http://inespecmundial.listen2mymusic.com 3. http://inespecmundial.radiostream321.com 4. http://inespecmundial.listen2myshow.com 5. http://inespecmundial.radio12345.com 6. http://inespecmundial.radiostream123.com 7. http://radiowebinespec1.listen2myradio.com 8. http://radiowebinespec1.listen2mymusic.com 9. http://radiowebinespec1.radiostream321.com 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. http://radiowebinespec1.listen2myshow.com http://radiowebinespec1.radio12345.com http://radiowebinespec1.radiostream123.com http://rviredeceara.webnode.com http://radioonlineinespec.comunidades.net
V

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

http://inespecmundial.listen2myradio.com http://inespecmundial.listen2mymusic.com http://inespecmundial.radiostream321.com http://inespecmundial.listen2myshow.com http://inespecmundial.radio12345.com http://inespecmundial.radiostream123.com http://caeeinespec.listen2myradio.com http://caeeinespec.listen2mymusic.com http://caeeinespec.radiostream321.com http://caeeinespec.listen2myshow.com http://caeeinespec.radio12345.com http://caeeinespec.radiostream123.com

(...) A Rdio WEB INESPEC hoje se encontra em 99 pases, transmitindo o sinal da Rdio WEB INESPEC, e traduzindo s ideias do instituto para diversas culturas. Nos canais de rdio e televiso virtual, se torna hoje possvel, uma melhor qualidade de ensino via Web. Agradeo aos lderes da RWI nos seguintes pases: AFRICNER. AKAN. ALBANS. ALEMO. AMRICO. RABE. ARMNIO. AZERBAIJANO. BASCO. BEMBA. BENGALI. BIELO-RUSSO. BIHARI. BORK. BORK, BORK. BSNIO. BRETO. BLGARO. CAMBODJANO. CATALO. ETC. http://farmaciaead2013.blogspot.com.br/ Use a interface para escolher o idioma em que deseja visualizar a RDIO WEB INESPEC. Os Blogs e sites dos parceiros da RWI esto atualmente disponveis em vrios idiomas: Esse livro e-book estar autorizado e ser traduzido para o Francs, Alemo, Italiano, Ingls e Russo, considerando que temos parceiros nas naes que falam tais idiomas. Agradecimentos especiais a Editora FREE INESPEC que j editou do autor, as obras (ANEXO EXTRA - Lista dos livros j publicados pelo Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da Silva):

VI

1. CURSO DE FARMACOLOGIA VOLUME I - SILVA, Professor Csar Augusto AUXILIAR E DROGARIA Venncio DE da. CURSO

FORMAO: HOSPITALAR

FARMCIA -

COMERCIAL

EDUCAO CONTINUADA TOMO I 2012 Setembro - 1. Edio Fortaleza-Cear 2012 425 pginas. Editora Free Virtual. INESPEC. 2. CURSO DE FARMACOLOGIA VOLUME II - SILVA, Professor Csar Augusto AUXILIAR E DROGARIA Venncio DE da. CURSO

FORMAO: HOSPITALAR

FARMCIA -

COMERCIAL

EDUCAO CONTINUADA TOMO II 2013 Janeiro - 2. Edio revista, atualizada e aumentada Fortaleza-Cear 2013 841 pginas. Editora Free Virtual. INESPEC. 3. CURSO DE FARMACOLOGIA VOLUME II - SILVA, Professor Csar Augusto AUXILIAR E DROGARIA Venncio DE da. CURSO

FORMAO: HOSPITALAR

FARMCIA -

COMERCIAL

EDUCAO CONTINUADA TOMO II REEDIO ATUALIZADA 2013 Janeiro - 3. Edio revista, atualizada e aumentada Fortaleza-Cear 2013 841 pginas. Editora Free Virtual. INESPEC. 4. CURSO DE FARMACOLOGIA VOLUME III - SILVA, Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da. FORMAO EM

VII

AUXILIAR

DE

FARMCIA

HOSPITALAR

DROGARIAS VOLUME III TURMAS V, VI e VII 2013 Maio - 3. Edio revista, atualizada e aumentada Fortaleza-Cear 2013 272 pginas. Editora Free Virtual. INESPEC. 5. CURSO DE FARMACOLOGIA VOLUME III

SUNTOMO I - SILVA, Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da. FORMAO HOSPITALAR EM E AUXILIAR DROGARIAS DE

FARMCIA

VOLUME III TURMAS V, VI e VII 2013 Julho - 4. Edio revista, atualizada e aumentada Fortaleza-Cear 2013 1.079 pginas. Editora Free Virtual. INESPEC. 6. Imunologia e Bioqumica Aplicada - SILVA, Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da. FORMAO EM

AUXILIAR

DE LABORATRIO EM ANLISES

CLNICAS 2013 Fevereiro - 1. Edio FortalezaCear 2013 558. Editora Free Virtual. INESPEC. Por fim, meus sinceros agradecimentos a equipe docencial do Curso de Especializao em Farmacologia Clnica da Faculdade ATENEU - Fortaleza, em particular o Professor. Doutor Franscisco Fbio de Oliveira de Sousa, da disciplina FARMACODINMICA CLNICA - APLICAO PRTICA. Suas aulas na Turma VI foram inspiradoras para embriar este projeto de URM na CLNICA MDICA.

VIII

Da obra. Apresentao. Bem-vindo ao presente e-book, que se determina e auto afirma-se como: Farmacologia Clnica: Medicamentos e seu uso na Clnica Mdica. Esperamos dar uma contribuio terica para os alunos do 7 e 8 perodos dos Cursos de Medicina das Universidades que compoe o PROJETO OCW. A ideia nesse livro e abordar a FARMACOLOGIA: INTEGRANDO A TEORIA E A PRTICA DA PRESCRIO. Esperamos que o Projeto didtico possa vir a ser melhorado pelas universidades interessadas. Neste sentido, nosso objetivo disponibilizar dados para motivar o estudo de farmacologia voltado para a clnica mdica. Os livros do Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da Silva, aborda aspectos difusos dos medicamentos. Nos aspectos legais(legislativo), administrativo(autoregulamentao) e tcnco cientfico. Na

Faculdade ATENEU(Fortaleza, no Curso de Especializao em Farmacologia Clnica), estamos trabalhando a prtica da interao medicamentosa. Assim, aqui, agora, nasce mais um trabalho voltado para a dedicao ao estudo da Farmacologia Clnica. Como afirmado no nicio o presente e-book, se determina e auto afirma-se como: Farmacologia Clnica: Medicamentos e seu uso na Clnica Mdica. Destinado nessa primeira edio aos alunos do 7 e 8 perodos dos Cursos de Medicina. Assim, sugerimos o seguinte roteiro ( alm de outros que sero implementados em todo o livro): STIMO SEMESTRE DO CURSO DE MEDICINA; OITAVO SEMESTRE DO CURSO DE MEDICINA. STIMO SEMESTRE DO CURSO DE MEDICINA. Aulas - Neste seguimento disponibilizaremos as aulas-tericas para o curso para que sirvam como roteiro de estudo. Farmacologia Antibiticos. Programa Sugerido para o 7 perodo. Introduo Prescrio Racional de Antibiticos. Penicilinas.

IX

Cefalosporinas. Carbapenmicos e Monobactmicos. Glicopeptdeos. Sulfas e Trimetoprima. Nitrofurantona e Fosfomicina. Quinolonas. Tetraciclinas. Macroldeos. Anaerobicidas. Aminoglicosdeos. Cloranfenicol. PRTICA: MACROLDEOS ESTUDO DIRIGIDO. 1. Mecanismo de ao dessa classe. 2. Mecanismos de resistncia. 3. Os principais representantes desta classe. 4. Espectro de ao da classe. 5. Diferena entre os 3 principais representantes desta classe. 6. Comentando os usos clnicos. 7. Uso da Eritromicina na tuberculose. 8. Diferenas em relao a farmacocintica entre os 3 principais representantes desta classe. 9. Macroldeo em paciente com insuficincia renal. 10. Uso dos macroldeos usados para meningite. Justifica dialtica.
X

11. Os efeitos colaterais dos macroldeo. 12. Os principais efeitos colaterais. 13. Interao medicamentosa dessa classe. PRTICA: TETRACICLINAS ESTUDO DIRIGIDO 1. Classificao das tetraciclinas. 2. Principais diferenas entre as tetraciclinas. 3. Mecanismo de ao. 4. Espectro de ao. 5. Farmacocintica. 6. Usos clnicos. 7. Efeitos adversos. 8. Espectro de ao, TERIA e PRTICA das tetraciclinas. 9. Espectro de ao TERICO: aquele espectro que o antibitico inicialmente cobria, mas que no cobre mais, pelo surgimento de resistncia ADQUIRIDA. 10. As bactrias com resistncia natural NUNCA e o espectro de ao deste antibitico. 11. Mecanismo de ao das tetraciclinas. 12. Principais mecanismos de resistncia s tetraciclinas. 13. Grupo de bactrias que apresentam crescente resistncia adquirida. 14. Aspectos da farmacocintica das tetraciclinas. 15. Principais usos clnicos das tetraciclinas. 16. Descrio de alguns dos principais efeitos adversos e contra-indicaes ao uso das tetraciclinas. 17. Principais interaes medicamentosas das tetraciclinas. OITAVO SEMESTRE DO CURSO DE MEDICINA.

XI

Aulas - Neste seguimento disponibilizaremos as aulas-tericas para o curso para que sirvam como roteiro de estudo. Aspectos ticos da Prescrio. Prescrio racional utilizando o modelo dos Antidiabticos orais. Insulinas. Casos Clnicos antidiabticos orais. Exerccio de Prescrio. Agentes Hipolipemiantes. Exerccios. Casos Clnicos. Farmacologia da Obesidade. Farmacologia da Tireide tpicos bsicos. Farmacologia dos AINES e analgsicos. Casos Clnicos. Farmacologia dos Anticoagulantes, Anti-agregantes e fibrinolticos. Farmacologia dos Glicocorticides. Casos Clnicos. Farmacologia da Gota. Exerccio de prescrio. Hipertenso Arterial Sistmica. PRM. Casos Clnicos. Antiarritmicos. Farmacologia do Aparelho Digestivo I. Antidiarreicos e anticonstipantes. Casos Clnicos. Farmacologia do Aparelho Digestivo II. Farmacologia da doena cidapptica. Antiemticos. Casos Clnicos. Anti-histamnicos e anti-vertiginosos. Farmacologia do Aparelho Respiratrio: anti-tussgenos e Antigripais. Farmacologia do Aparelho Respiratrio: asma. Casos Clnicos. Antidiabticos orais e Insulinas.

XII

Dislipidemia. Modelo - Exerccio de Prescrio Racional de Medicamentos. Antidiabticos orais. Obesidade. AINEs. Glicocorticides. Opiides. Opiides. Gota. Antiagregantes e Anticoagulantes. Antiagregantes e Anticoagulantes. Antidiarreicos e Anticonstipantes. Antiemticos. Antihistamnicos. Antihipertensivos. Asma e DPOC. Asma e DPOC 2 1.11 MB Inibidores H2 e IBPs. Tosse e Antigripais. Tratamento da Doena cido-Pptica.

XIII

Tratamento da asma - Frmacos de segunda linha. Alm das ementas relatadas, o Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da Silva traz no corpo do e-book os tpicos: Casos Clnicos/ Exerccios FARMACOLOGIA CLNICA. Exerccio de Insulinas. Exerccio de Obesidade. Exerccio de Glicocorticides. Estudo Dirigido sobre AINE. Exerccio de Analgsicos e AINE's. Caso clnico da disciplina de Antibiticos. Casos Clnicos de Anti-Hipertensivos. Essa base de formao terica se processa atravs de informaes cientficas e atualizadas, dando aos profissionais, no presente, e aos futuros mdicos oportunidades de reviso e fixao de aprendizagens sobre os fenmenos que classificam a compreenso da atividade farmacocintica e farmacodinmica em suas vrias dimenses. Esse LIVRO E-BOOK para os alunos do projeto universidade virtual OCW, onde o autor escreve e publica material didtico para os alunos dos cursos de farmcia, biologia, psicologia e disciplinas do Curso de Medicina das Universidade que adotam o sistema OCW. O Consrcio Open Course Ware uma colaborao de instituies de ensino superior e organizaes associadas de todo o mundo, criando um corpo amplo e profundo de contedo educacional aberto utilizando um modelo compartilhado. A Open Course Ware (OCW) uma publicao digital gratuito e de cdigo aberto por parte de vrias faculdades de alta qualidade e de nvel universitrio, contm materiais educativos. Estes materiais so organizados atravs de cursos, e muitas vezes incluem Planejamento de Materiais e ferramentas de avaliao, bem como contedo temtico. Open Course Ware est livre e abertamente licenciado, acessvel a qualquer pessoa, a qualquer hora atravs da internet.
XIV

O PRESENTE E-BOOK FAR PARTE DE NOVO TIPO DE CERTIFICAO PARA ALUNOS NA ERA DIGITAL. O livro do autor ficar disponvel para a Open Course Ware Consortium, Foundation e Excelsior College para oferecer certificao e crdito da faculdade para cursos on-line em parceria com OpenStudy. Essa posio se estabelece a partir da notcia publicada em Palo Alto, CA, 14 de novembro, 2012, onde ficou acertado que os alunos que estudam em cursos abertos oferecidos pelas instituies integrantes do Consrcio Open Course Ware, atravs das instituies e autores parceiros, agora tm a oportunidade de ganhar certificados de participao e de crdito universitrio. Membros OCW Consortium, da Universidade de Notre Dame, UC Irvine e TU Delft, vo oferecer o primeiro conjunto de cursos. Openstudy oferece aos alunos a oportunidade de se qualificarem de forma virtual, e na prtica oferece aos parceiros a avaliao baseada em competncias documentadas, perfis comportamentais e anlises sociais. ", disse Preetha Ram, CEO da OpenStudy. O autor se sente feliz por trabalhar com esses inovadores na educao que percebem o potencial de cursos on-line abertos e que esto focados em ajudar no s os grandes empreendedores, mas tambm alunos em situao de risco. Para os estudantes universitrios o curso da OCW serve a um duplo propsito de melhorar o seu desempenho em um curso universitrio e cria um portfolio para o primeiro emprego. Pesquise para mais informaes. As pessoas podem se inscrever para os cursos em www.openstudy.com. Necessrio dominar alguma lngua estrangeira. O livro do autor ora apresentado, ser usado por milhes de alunos em diversos pases, em cursos abertos, cursos on-line que atrai alunos de todos os cantos do mundo para estudar contedo gratuito. Os parceiros da OpenStudy esto ampliando o valor da experincia do curso aberto, oferecendo Certificado de Participao alm de relatrios sobre as competncias adquiridas atravs do estudo de materiais do curso, mas tambm relatrios sobre habilidades importantes para os empregadores: trabalho em equipe, resoluo de problemas e engajamento. Juntos, esta documentao ir demonstrar a empregabilidade dos alunos, abordando questes que confrontam os empregadores - como determinar se um candidato tem tanto o conhecimento da rea de contedo e habilidades interpessoais para ser bem sucedido. O livro rotulado, portanto, como sendo Farmacologia Clnica: Medicamentos e seu uso na Clnica Mdica, 1. Edio. Alm dos aspectos farmocinticos e farmacodinmicos
XV

descrevemos aspectos jurdicos administrativos e legislativos, para que o profissional possa se destacar na compreenso dos aspectos que perpassam o aspecto cientfico. Aos leitores, data vnia no estranhe, pois o presente livro destinado a quem deseja se destacar no conhecimento fulcrado na metodologia cientfica, TENHAM CERTEZA QUE O AUTOR objetiva dar um respeitvel nvel ao Curso, com objetivo, alm de possibilitar uma formao mais profunda, contribuir para preparar mdicos que possam intervir dentro da viso: que, ao exercer a arte de curar, mostrar-me-ei sempre fiel aos preceitos da honestidade, da caridade e da cincia. Fortaleza, Novembro de 2013. Boa sorte. Professor Csar Augusto Venncio da SILVA. Docente de Farmcia Aplicada e especializando em Farmacologia Clnica pela Faculdade ATENEU. Fortaleza-Cear. 2013. Matrcula 0100.120.102201775

XVI

Conhecendo o Projeto OCW. Em 2012, o autor ingressou atrves do INESPEC na Plataforma OCW destinado a publicar para o mundo acadmico. J so vrias obras acadmicas, entre Neurocincia e Farmacologia (Lista no final do livro, e-book). Assim, sinto-me a vontade para declarar em pblico a importncia mundial deste projeto para a sociedade e para o autor (que em todos os seus livros publicados na rede virtual j foi lido aproximadamente por mais de 150.000 leitores em lngua espanhola, inglesa, entre outras). OpenCourseWare, tambm identificado com a sigla OCW, um termo aplicado aos contedos, gerados pelas universidades, e compartilhado livremente para todos pela internet. O movimento OCW foi liderado pelo prprio MIT em outubro de 2002 pelo lanamento do MIT OpenCourseWare. A partir deste movimento do MIT, vrias outras universidades comearam a criar os seus prprios projetos OCW. Hoje j existem mais de 200 universidades do mundo trabalhando neste novo conceito de liberar o conhecimento gerado na academia para todos. Uma perfeita socializao do conhecimento disponibilizando-o tanto para professores, alunos e autodidatas do mundo todo. De acordo com o OCW Consorcium solicita que alguns requisitos sejam seguidos, tais como: No pode ter fins comerciais; Deve incluir uma referncia instituio que o publica originalmente e, caso seja procedente, o nome do autor do material; O material resultante do uso do OCW deve ser livre para utilizao por terceiros e ficar sujeito a estes mesmos requisitos. No Brasil a FGV a primeira Instituio de Ensino brasileira a apresentar um projeto OCW. O autor (SILVA, Csar Augusto Venncio. CURSO FARMACOLOGIA Volume III 1a Edio 2013) em seu site

http://farmaciaead2013.blogspot.com.br/ mantm um link destinado ao acesso ao portal Veduca(Para cursos de extenso em Farmcia e Medicina) e j rene mais de 5 mil videoaulas disponibilizadas por 16 instituies de ensino por no Projeto

OpenCourseWare, organizadas em 21 assuntos. O contedo est sendo legendado em portugus.

XVII

UNESCO. Os livros do Professor Csar Augsto Venncio da Silva vai integrar a REDE de Recursos educacionais abertos (REA) como parte de um esforo da comunidade internacional impulsionado pela Internet para criar bens educacionais pertencentes humanidade. Uma definio atual de REA, feita em colaborao com a comunidade REA no Brasil foi adotada pela UNESCO/COL: "Os REA so materiais de ensino, aprendizado e pesquisa em qualquer suporte ou mdia que esto sob domnio pblico ou so licenciados de maneira aberta, permitindo que sejam acessados, utilizados, adaptados e redistribudos por terceiros. O uso de formatos tcnicos abertos facilita o acesso e reso potencial dos recursos. Os REA podem incluir cursos completos, partes de cursos, mdulos, guias para estudantes, anotaes, livros didticos, artigos de pesquisa, vdeos, instrumentos de avaliao, recursos interativos como simulaes e jogos de interpretao, bancos de dados, software, aplicativos (incluindo verses para dispositivos mveis) e qualquer outro recurso educacional de utilidade. O movimento REA no sinnimo de aprendizado on-line, EaD ou educao por meio de dispositivos mveis. Muitos REA mesmo que possam ser compartilhados por meio de formatos digitais tambm podem ser impressos." Inclusive o presente trabalho. No h uma nica definio sobre o que constitui um recurso educacional aberto. No entanto, definio mais recente e com participao de atores dos mais diversos pases e rea de estudo tem ajudado a construir uma definio mais robusta para o movimento. Em evento organizado pela UNESCO em Julho de 2012, a "Declarao REA de Paris" define REA como: "os materiais de ensino, aprendizagem e investigao em quaisquer suportes, digitais ou outros, que se situem no domnio pblico ou que tenham sido divulgados sob licena aberta que permite acesso, uso, adaptao e redistribuio gratuitas por terceiros, mediante nenhuma restrio ou poucas restries. O
XVIII

licenciamento aberto construdo no mbito da estrutura existente dos direitos de propriedade intelectual, tais como se encontram definidos por convenes internacionais pertinentes, e respeita a autoria da obra". A Fundao William e Flora Hewlett propem a seguinte definio para os REA: "REA so recursos para o ensino, a aprendizagem e a pesquisa que residem no domnio pblico ou foram publicados sob uma licena de propriedade intelectual que permite seu livre uso e remixagem por outros. Os REA incluem cursos completos, contedo para cursos, mdulos, livros, vdeos, testes, softwares e quaisquer outras ferramentas, materiais ou tcnicas usadas que suportem e permitam o acesso ao conhecimento." Um relatrio, o OLCOS Roadmap 2012, observa que no existe uma definio estabelecida para os REA e prefere identificar trs atributos fundamentais a serem seguidos: Que o acesso ao contedo aberto (includindo metadados) seja oferecido gratuitamente pelas instituies educacionais, provedores de contedo e usurios finais como professores, estudantes e alunos livres; Que o contedo seja licenciado de uma forma generosa para que possa ser reutilizado em atividades educacionais e livre de restries que o impeam de ser modificado, combinado e remixado. Conseqentemente, esse contedo dever ter um design ideal para fcil reuso dentro dos Standards e formatos livres que esto sendo empregados; Que os sistemas e ferramentas usados tenham o cdigo-fonte disponvel (i.e. software livre) e que sejam oferecidas Interfaces de Programao de Aplicativos (APIs abertas) e autorizaes para re-utilizar os servios Web bem como os recursos (ex.: RSS para contedo educacional). O universo REA contempla: Contedo: cursos completos, materiais de cursos, tpicos de um contedo, temas de aprendizagem, colees e peridicos, entre outros. Ferramentas: software para auxiliar a criao, entrega uso e melhoria do contedo de aprendizagem aberto, incluindo busca e organizao do contedo, sistema de gerenciamento de contedo e de aprendizagem, ferramentas de desenvolvimento de contedo, e comunidades de aprendizado online. Recursos para implementao: licenas de propriedade intelectual para promover a publicao aberta de materiais, estabelecerem princpios de design e localizao de contedo. Prticas: narrativas de uso, publicao, tcnicas, mtodos, processos, incentivos e distribuio. Diferentemente da educao aberta e da educao distncia (EaD), os REA so focados nos recursos em si e nas prticas associadas a estes.

XIX

OS PROJETOS OCW NO MUNDO hoje uma realidade acadmica. Assim, os direitos autorais para as instituies envolvidas j se encontra assegurada no presente e-book nas suas pginas finais. Podem se beneficiar das licenas publicadas nos livros do autor(*) as instituies: Estados Unidos

Frana

Reino Unido

Harvard Law School Berkman Center

Telecom Paris Ecole Polytechnique

The University

Open

Johns Hopkins School of Public Health

Canad

Techniques Avancees

Capilano College

Tufts University University of Michigan School of Information


Ponts et Chaussees Ecole des Mines de Paris

Vietnam

FETP OpenCourseWare

University Dame

of

Notre

Chimie Paris Physique-Chimie Agronomie Statistiques Economie et

India

Utah State University

Rai University Somaiya Vidyavihar

Eaux et Forets Arts et Metiers Japo ustria

China (CORE)

Peking University Tsinghua University Beijing University Jiaotong

Keio University Kyoto University Osaka University Tokyo Institute of Technology

Universitat Klagenfurt

frica do Sul

University of the Western Cape

Dalian

Univ.

of

Technology

University Tokyo

of

Central University

South

Waseda University

Xi'an University

Jiaotong

Central Radio & TV

XX

Univ.

Sichuan University Zhejiang University Beijing University Normal

Plus 146 more

AS RAZES DE SER DESSA PUBLICAO ACADMICA. CONCEITOS OPENCOURSEWARE E OCW SITE. O conceito OperCourseWare. OCW (OpenCourseWare) uma iniciativa editorial eletrnica em grande escala, que comeou em abril de 2001, baseada em Internet e fundada de forma conjunta pelo MIT (Instituto Tecnolgico de Massachusetts, na sigla em ingls) em colaborao com a Fundao William e Flora Hewlett e a Fundao Andrew W. Mellon. O seu objetivo inicial : 1. Proporcionar um acesso livre, simples e coerente aos materiais docentes para educadores do setor no lucrativo, estudantes e autodidatas do mundo todo. O sucesso obtido fez possvel o segundo objetivo: 2. Criar um movimento flexvel baseado num modelo eficiente que outras universidades possam imitar na hora de publicar os seus prprios materiais pedaggicos gerando sinergias e espaos de colaborao. O que um site OCW? Espao Web que contm materiais docentes para serem usados na formao superior. Estes matrias representam um conjunto de recursos (documentos, programas,

XXI

calendrios,...) utilizados no processo de ensino-aprendizado das matrias que so ministradas pelos professores. Eles so oferecidos livremente e so acessveis de forma universal pela rede. Sua difuso no se encontra limitada por questes relacionadas com a propriedade intelectual. Seu uso, sua reutilizao, sua adaptao e sua distribuio so permitidas com certas restries. O que no um site OCW? No ; um servio de educao a distncia e, por tanto, no autoriza nem abre a possibilidade de acessar, atravs dos contedos, aos professores - autores dos mesmos, nem d direito de reclamar qualquer crdito ou reconhecimento por parte da instituio. Um site OCW no vai dispor, por tanto, de foros ou correio ou outros meios de interao entre os professores e os alunos. Um site OCW n o vai dispor, por tanto, de foros ou correio ou outros meios de interao entre os professores e os alunos. Materiais depositados num site OCW. Apresentam-se dois nveis de reutilizao: a) Estruturados e em combinao, todos eles compem uma proposta de estudo no contexto de uma matria completa. Por isto, prope-se incorporar no somente documentos de estudos, mas tambm o conjunto de materiais que um professor ou um aluno utiliza para cursar a matria: Programa, Calendrio, Guia docente, proposta de atividades, etc; b) Isoladamente, a cada documento de estudo metadados so incorporados e se faz um pacote em "objeto de aprendizado", com o objetivo de fazer parte de outras "Bibliotecas Digitais", e serem reutilizados em outros contextos.
XXII

ALGUMAS RAZES QUE LEVAM AO INESPEC ATRAVS DA SUA EDITORA VIRTUAL, DECIDIR PELA INCORPORAO AO OCW. Vantagens e inconvenientes. De carter geral: Posicionamento Institucional frente a um fenmeno de impacto mundial. Alguns benefcios:

Avano do conhecimento ao liberar recursos didticos e estender os mecanismos de localizao.

Estimula a inovao e o aperfeioamento dos recursos docentes utilizados pelos professores.

Favorece a aproximao dos professores s TIC (tecnologias da informao e comunicao).

Oportunidade para abordar a "organizao" da propriedade intelectual e o reconhecimento da autoria.

Maior proteo da misso da Instituio.

Alguns inconvenientes: Obriga ao professor a revisar o seu material docente e a estrutur-lo conforme o OCW. Aumento de custo pelo suporte a professores e pela prestao de novos servios. Limitao do uso exclusivo e com fins comerciais do material docente. Possvel duplicidade na gesto de recursos ao atender dos cenrios diferentes. Novas formas de avaliar o valor do currculo e do material docente gerado.

O que traz consigo o fato de pertencer ao Consorcio OCW? Para que tenha benefcios deve-se valorizar: A integrao no Plano Estratgico.

XXIII

Sua flexibilidade e adaptabilidade dentro da Instituio. A partilha de ajudas, recursos, experincias, boas prticas. A ampliao da repercusso e a abrangncia dos trabalhos. As instituies que fazem parte do Consorcio reforam a imagem da prpria Instituio.

CONSRCIO UNIVERSITRIO EM TORNO AO PROJETO OCW. Condies para participar do Projeto OCW. Ser uma instituio devidamente credenciada. Publicar os materiais docentes estruturados por matrias. O mnimo exigido de 10 matrias. Assumir o compromisso de desenvolver "propostas" e compartilhar "boas prticas" que promovam projetos "similares" em qualidade, estrutura, vocabulrio. Manter um OCW-site que cumpra com as condies estabelecidas: oferecer e publicar os materiais de forma gratuita e sem fins comerciais; os materiais devem estar "limpos" no que se refere a propriedade intelectual; publicar os materiais no OCW site implica autorizar o seu uso, reutilizao-adaptao, traduo e redistribuio para terceiros; O OCW site deve ser universalmente acessvel via Internet; Aderir ao Projeto. OS ASPECTOS JURDICOS. A LICENA CREATIVE COMMONS. Os materiais que estejam disponveis sejam publicados por uma instituio e faam parte de um OCW site devem estar sobe licena Creative Commons. Propriedade intelectual. Os materiais sobre licena Creative Commons so cedidos aos usurios para: Uso, reutilizao, traduo e adaptao a outros contextos. Os usurios se comprometem a: Utilizar os materiais sem fins comerciais; Reconhecer a instituio que publica originalmente os mesmos e se for o caso, o autor dos mesmos; O material resultante
XXIV

depois de usado deve ficar para livre utilizao por terceiros e est sujeito a estes mesmos requisitos. Outros aspectos jurdicos na relao entre o professor e a Universidade - OCW site: O autor cede os direitos de uso; O autor assume a propriedade intelectual ou respeita as condies de uso estabelecidas pelos proprietrios; A Universidade-OCW site assume a utilizao de acordo com os princpios de respeito ao autor e a sua obra. O GESTOR DE CONTEDOS. O projeto OCW oferece s instituies integrantes assistncia tcnica para a utilizao da plataforma de gesto e publicao das matrias que fazem parte do OCW site de cada Universidade. EduCommons, um projeto Open Source desenvolvido pelo The Center for Open and Sustainable Learning da Utah State University, especialmente para a criao de projetos OCW. As principais caractersticas do sistema gestor de contedos so: Processo claro e simples para a criao de categorias e cursos e para o incremento de materiais. Incorporao de meta-dados no processo de catalogao e nos formatos de armazenamento e de publicao. Possibilidade de estruturao flexvel de contedos. Completo suporte de edio em HTML. Possibilidades de incorporao de contedos atravs da importao de um arquivo comprimido.zip". Completa gesto de metadados e de exportao e importao atravs de formatos padronizados: Especificao baseada nos

padres IEEE 1484.12.1-2002 Learning Object

Metadata Standard (IEEE LOM) e ISSO 15836 Dublin Core Metadata (Dublin Core). Importao / exportao de cursos e materiais em pacotes IMS.
Possibilidade de acesso a contedos atravs de fontes RSS. Gesto completa de fluxo de trabalho atravs de roles e estados. Incorporao de mecanismos de gesto de propriedade intelectual e de licenas de utilizao. Facilidade de implementao e de personalizao; em concreto, a utilizao da imagem institucional de cada Universidade. Alm disso, se oferece um

XXV

conjunto de manuais de uso e de administrao, um pacote padro para a importao da planilha da matria e um suporte tcnico on-line.

Gestor de contenidos eduCommons.

OS ESCRITRIOS OCW NOS OCW SITES.MDICOS. A experincia mostra que os escritrios OCW so um suporte necessrio para as instituies interessadas em promover um OCW site. Os servios que o escritrio oferece so de vrios tipos: docentes, tcnicos, biblioteca e jurdicos. Funes associadas ao escritrio OCW:

1) Impulsionar a participao dos professores e proporcionar-lhes a informao, formao e assessoramento necessrios.

XXVI

2) Adaptar o modelo OCW s caractersticas da Universidade e concepo do projeto OCWUniversia. 3) Assessorar juridicamente a Universidade e aos professores e estabelecer um protocolo jurdico de participao que oferea garantias a todas as partes. 4) Colaborar na limpeza da propriedade

intelectual dos contedos, e no caso, procurar ou gerar recursos alternativos. 5) Vigiar a qualidade dos contedos e impulsionar sua melhora constante. 6) Proporcionar meios tcnicos para adaptar os contedos a sua difuso por Internet: uso do gestor de contedos, elaborao do material multimdia, gravao de vdeos... 7) Procurar solues eficientes que simplifiquem a incorporao de contedos educativos na rede em diferentes cenrios e com diferentes objetivos. 8) Manter o OCW site da Universidade. 9) Coordenar-se com outros OCW sites nacionais e estrangeiros. 10) Elaborar reportes e propor melhorias aos rgos de governo da Universidade.
XXVII

PROCEDIMENTOS PARA A ADESO AO PROJETO. A adeso ao Consorcio OCW (OCWC) consiste na assinatura, por parte da Universidade, de um Memorando de Cooperao mediante o qual se deixa clara a vontade de: Desenvolver o OCW site de Universidade, em que se publique um mnimo de 10 matrias sob os princpios do Consrcio; Colaborar e promover um projeto comum para oferecer aos usurios um ambiente similar e formar um espao comum entre todos os membros; O OCW Universia formado pelo conjunto de Universidades espanholas, portuguesas e da Amrica Latina que optaram por fazer sua adeso ao OCW e, por sua vez, se agrupar sob a afinidade cultural e geogrfica do espao Iberoamericano. De esta maneira, se consegue uma representao mais qualificada no Consorcio mundial. Para aderir ao OCWC e ao OCW Universia preencha e assine o Termo de Adeso e o formulrio de comunicao de dados de contato e envie-os ao seguinte endereo: Oficina OCW Universia Avda. da Cantabria s/n - Edif. Arrecife, planta 00 28660 Boadilla del Monte - Madrid. Espaa. Uma vez que a adeso seja recebida, voc receber uma senha de acesso a rea restringida onde encontrar informao e ajuda para por em andamento o seu projeto OCW. Para maiores informaes envie um e-mail diretamente a: ocw-

universia[at]upm[dot]es

XXVIII

UNIVERSIDADES ENVOLVIDAS NO PROJETO.

http://www.ocwconsortium.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Itemid=32

ESPANHA. ANDALUZIA. Universidade de Cdiz. Universidade de Granada. Universidade de Huelva. Universidade de Mlaga. Universidade de Sevilha. Universidade Internacional da Andaluzia. ARAGO. Universidade de Saragoa.
XXIX

ASTRIAS. Universidade de Oviedo. CANRIAS. Universidade de la Laguna. CANTBRIA. Universidade de Cantabria. CASTELA E LEO. IE Universidade. Universidade de Salamanca. Universidade de Valladolid. CASTELA LA-MANCHA. Universidade de Castela- La Mancha. CATALUNHA. Universidad Aberta de Catalunha. Universidade Autnoma de Barcelona. Universidade de Barcelona. Universidade de Girona. Universidade Politcnica de Catalunha.

XXX

Universidade Rovira i Virgili. COMUNIDADE DE MADRID. Fundao Universitria San Pablo CEU. UNED. Universidade Autnoma de Madrid. Universidade Carlos III. Universidade Politcnica de Madrid. Universidade Rei Juan Carlos. COMUNIDADE FORAL DE NAVARRA. Universidade de Navarra. COMUNIDADE VALENCIANA. Universidade de Alicante. Universidade de Valncia. Universidade Jaime I. Universidade Politcnica de Valncia. EXTREMADURA. Universidade da Extremadura. GALIZA.

XXXI

Universidade da Corunha. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Universidade de Vigo. ILHAS BALEARES. Universidade das Ilhas Baleares. MRCIA. Universidade de Mrcia. Universidade Politcnica de Cartagena. PAS BASCO. Universidade de Deusto. Universidade do Pas Basco. IBEROAMRICA. ARGENTINA. Universidade Argentina da Empresa. Universidade Nacional de Crdoba. Universidade Nacional de Tucumn. BRASIL. UEMS - Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul.
XXXII

UNIUBE - Universidade de Uberaba. Universidade Anhembi Morumbi. Universidade Braz Cubas. Universidade Catlica Dom Bosco. Universidade de Ribeiro Preto. Universidade de Sorocaba. Universidade de Taubat. Universidade do Grande ABC. Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Universidade Federal de Alagoas. Universidade Federal de Piaui. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. CHILE. Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de Valparaso. Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Chile. Universidade das Amricas. Universidade de Concepcin.

XXXIII

Universidade do Chile. COLMBIA. Universidade de Manizales. Universidade do Valle. Universidade Eafit. Universidade Icesi. Universidade Industrial de Santander. Universidade Nacional da Colmbia. Universidade San Buenaventura. MXICO. Instituto Tecnolgico de Monterrey. Universidade Autnoma do Estado do Mxico. Universidade Autnoma Metropolitana. Universidade de Colima. Universidade de Monterrey. Universidade do Caribe. PERU. Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Peru.

XXXIV

Universidade Catlica San Pablo de Arequipa. Universidade Catlica San Pablo de Arequipa. Universidade Nacional de Engenharia. Universidade Nacional do Callao. Universidade Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Universidade Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo. Universidade Peruana de Cincias Aplicadas. PORTO RICO. Recinto Universitrio de Mayagez (Universidade de Porto Rico). Universidade Interamericana. REPBLICA DOMINICANA. Instituto Tecnolgico das Amricas. URUGUAI. Universidade Catlica Uruguai. VENEZUELA. Universidade Central da Venezuela. Universidade de Carabobo. Universidade Fermn Toro.
XXXV

Universidade Metropolitana. Universidade Montevila. Universidade Nacional Experimental do Tchira. Universidade Rafael Belloso Chacn. PORTUGAL. Universidade de vora.

OUTROS CONSRCIOS A NVEL MUNDIAL. Na rea da Medicina podemos atraves do projeto OCW realizar: Biotica (OCW Universidade do Pas Basco). Curso bsico de Biotica para profissionais da sade.

XXXVI

Clnica Mdica (OCW Universidade da Cantbria): O mdulo (Perspectiva de situaes clnicas?), dentro da disciplina de Clnica Mdica, tem como objetivo que os estudantes adquiram competncias, ao nvel das

perspectivas de diagnstico e terapeutica, sobre um conjunto de problemas que so motivo frequente de consulta na prtica mdica. Esplancnologia Clnica (OCW da Universidade de Salamanca): Esta disciplina tem como objetivo aplicar, atravs de casos clnicos centrados na Enfermaria, critrios e protocolos de atuaes de um profissional de enfermaria perante situaes de emergncia que influenciem as cavidades craniana, torxica, abdominal e plvica e os seus contedos viscerais. Tem tambm como fim adquirir os conhecimentos bsicos sobre esplancnologia clnica e a sua importncia em Enfermaria. No final do livro as pginas apresentamos: Da licena Internacional de Uso do presente livro para as Universidades interessadas e envolvidas; Da apresentao do texto em Ingls; Da apresentao do texto em Espanhol; Da apresentao do texto em Alemo; Da apresentao do texto em Russo.

XXXVII

Contrato Jurdico de Cesso Virtual de Uso de Propriedade Intelectual. Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported. CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS LICENSE DOES NOT CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE

COMMONS MAKES NO WARRANTIES REGARDING THE INFORMATION PROVIDED, AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ITS USE. License THE WORK (AS DEFINED BELOW) IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS CREATIVE COMMONS PUBLIC LICENSE ("CCPL" OR "LICENSE"). THE WORK IS PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT AND/OR OTHER APPLICABLE LAW. ANY USE OF THE WORK OTHER THAN AS AUTHORIZED UNDER THIS LICENSE OR COPYRIGHT LAW IS PROHIBITED. BY EXERCISING ANY RIGHTS TO THE WORK PROVIDED HERE, YOU ACCEPT AND AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS LICENSE. TO THE EXTENT THIS LICENSE MAY BE CONSIDERED TO BE A CONTRACT, THE LICENSOR GRANTS YOU THE RIGHTS CONTAINED HERE IN CONSIDERATION CONDITIONS. 1. Definitions
a. "Adaptation" means a work based upon the Work, or upon the Work and other

OF

YOUR

ACCEPTANCE

OF

SUCH

TERMS

AND

pre-existing works, such as a translation, adaptation, derivative work, arrangement of music or other alterations of a literary or artistic work, or phonogram or performance and includes cinematographic adaptations or any other form in which the Work may be recast, transformed, or adapted including in any form recognizably derived from the original, except that a work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of
XXXVIII

this License. For the avoidance of doubt, where the Work is a musical work, CAPTULO
b. performance or phonogram, the synchronization of the Work in timed-relation

with a moving image ("synching") will be considered an Adaptation for the purpose of this License.
c. "Collection" means a collection of literary or artistic works, such as

encyclopedias and anthologies, or performances, phonograms or broadcasts, or other works or subject matter other than works listed in Section 1(f) below, which, by reason of the selection and arrangement of their contents, constitute intellectual creations, in which the Work is included in its entirety in unmodified form along with one or more other contributions, each constituting separate and independent works in themselves, which together are assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collection will not be considered an Adaptation (as defined below) for the purposes of this License.
d. "Creative Commons Compatible License" means a license that is listed at

http://creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses that has been approved by Creative Commons as being essentially equivalent to this License, including, at a minimum, because that license: (i) contains terms that have the same purpose, meaning and effect as the License Elements of this License; and, (ii) explicitly permits the relicensing of adaptations of works made available under that license under this License or a Creative Commons jurisdiction license with the same License Elements as this License.
e. "Distribute" means to make available to the public the original and copies of the

Work or Adaptation, as appropriate, through sale or other transfer of ownership.


f. "License Elements" means the following high-level license attributes as selected

by Licensor and indicated in the title of this License: Attribution, ShareAlike.


g. "Licensor" means the individual, individuals, entity or entities that offer(s) the

Work under the terms of this License.


h. "Original Author" means, in the case of a literary or artistic work, the individual,

individuals, entity or entities who created the Work or if no individual or entity can be identified, the publisher; and in addition (i) in the case of a performance the actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver, declaim, play in, interpret or otherwise perform literary or artistic works or
XXXIX

expressions of folklore; (ii) in the case of a phonogram the producer being the person or legal entity who first fixes the sounds of a performance or other sounds; and, (iii) in the case of broadcasts, the organization that transmits the broadcast.
i. "Work" means the literary and/or artistic work offered under the terms of this

License including without limitation any production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression including digital form, such as a book, pamphlet and other writing; a lecture, address, sermon or other work of the same nature; a dramatic or dramatico-musical work; a choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show; a musical composition with or without words; a cinematographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to cinematography; a work of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving or lithography; a photographic work to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography; a work of applied art; an illustration, map, plan, sketch or threedimensional work relative to geography, topography, architecture or science; a performance; a broadcast; a phonogram; a compilation of data to the extent it is protected as a copyrightable work; or a work performed by a variety or circus performer to the extent it is not otherwise considered a literary or artistic work.
j. "You" means an individual or entity exercising rights under this License who has

not previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the Work, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
k. "Publicly Perform" means to perform public recitations of the Work and to

communicate to the public those public recitations, by any means or process, including by wire or wireless means or public digital performances; to make available to the public Works in such a way that members of the public may access these Works from a place and at a place individually chosen by them; to perform the Work to the public by any means or process and the communication to the public of the performances of the Work, including by public digital performance; to broadcast and rebroadcast the Work by any means including signs, sounds or images.
l. "Reproduce" means to make copies of the Work by any means including without

limitation by sound or visual recordings and the right of fixation and


XL

reproducing fixations of the Work, including storage of a protected performance or phonogram in digital form or other electronic medium. 2. Fair Dealing Rights. Nothing in this License is intended to reduce, limit, or restrict any uses free from copyright or rights arising from limitations or exceptions that are provided for in connection with the copyright protection under copyright law or other applicable laws. 3. License Grant. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, perpetual (for the duration of the applicable copyright) license to exercise the rights in the Work as stated below: a. to Reproduce the Work, to incorporate the Work into one or more Collections, and to Reproduce the Work as incorporated in the Collections; b. to create and Reproduce Adaptations provided that any such Adaptation, including any translation in any medium, takes reasonable steps to clearly label, demarcate or otherwise identify that changes were made to the original Work. For example, a translation could be marked "The original work was translated from English to Spanish," or a modification could indicate "The original work has been modified."; c. to Distribute and Publicly Perform the Work including as incorporated in Collections; and, d. to Distribute and Publicly Perform Adaptations. e. For the avoidance of doubt:
i. Non-waivable Compulsory License Schemes. In those jurisdictions in which

the right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensor reserves the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License;
ii. Waivable Compulsory License Schemes. In those jurisdictions in which the

right to collect royalties through any statutory or compulsory licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensor waives the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License; and,

XLI

iii.

Voluntary License Schemes. The Licensor waives the right to collect

royalties, whether individually or, in the event that the Licensor is a member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing schemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the rights granted under this License. The above rights may be exercised in all media and formats whether now known or hereafter devised. The above rights include the right to make such modifications as are technically necessary to exercise the rights in other media and formats. Subject to Section 8(f), all rights not expressly granted by Licensor are hereby reserved. 4. Restrictions. The license granted in Section 3 above is expressly made subject to and limited by the following restrictions: a. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work only under the terms of this License. You must include a copy of, or the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) for, this License with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. You may not offer or impose any terms on the Work that restrict the terms of this License or the ability of the recipient of the Work to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. You may not sublicense the Work. You must keep intact all notices that refer to this License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work You Distribute or Publicly Perform. When You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Work that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Work from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the License. This Section 4(a) applies to the Work as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Work itself to be made subject to the terms of this License. If You create a Collection, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Collection any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested. If You create an Adaptation, upon notice from any Licensor You must, to the extent practicable, remove from the Adaptation any credit as required by Section 4(c), as requested. b. You may Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation only under the terms of: (i) this License; (ii) a later version of this License with the same License
XLII

Elements as this License; (iii) a Creative Commons jurisdiction license (either this or a later license version) that contains the same License Elements as this License (e.g., Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 US)); (iv) a Creative Commons Compatible License. If you license the Adaptation under one of the licenses mentioned in (iv), you must comply with the terms of that license. If you license the Adaptation under the terms of any of the licenses mentioned in (i), (ii) or (iii) (the "Applicable License"), you must comply with the terms of the Applicable License generally and the following provisions: (I) You must include a copy of, or the URI for, the Applicable License with every copy of each Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (II) You may not offer or impose any terms on the Adaptation that restrict the terms of the Applicable License or the ability of the recipient of the Adaptation to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License; (III) You must keep intact all notices that refer to the Applicable License and to the disclaimer of warranties with every copy of the Work as included in the Adaptation You Distribute or Publicly Perform; (IV) when You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Adaptation, You may not impose any effective technological measures on the Adaptation that restrict the ability of a recipient of the Adaptation from You to exercise the rights granted to that recipient under the terms of the Applicable License. This Section 4(b) applies to the Adaptation as incorporated in a Collection, but this does not require the Collection apart from the Adaptation itself to be made subject to the terms of the Applicable License. c. If You Distribute, or Publicly Perform the Work or any Adaptations or Collections, You must, unless a request has been made pursuant to Section 4(a), keep intact all copyright notices for the Work and provide, reasonable to the medium or means You are utilizing: (i) the name of the Original Author (or pseudonym, if applicable) if supplied, and/or if the Original Author and/or Licensor designate another party or parties (e.g., a sponsor institute, publishing entity, journal) for attribution ("Attribution Parties") in Licensor's copyright notice, terms of service or by other reasonable means, the name of such party or parties; (ii) the title of the Work if supplied; (iii) to the extent reasonably practicable, the URI, if any, that Licensor specifies to be associated with the Work, unless such URI does not refer to the copyright notice or licensing information for the Work; and (iv) , consistent with Ssection 3(b), in the case of
XLIII

an Adaptation, a credit identifying the use of the Work in the Adaptation (e.g., "French translation of the Work by Original Author," or "Screenplay based on original Work by Original Author"). The credit required by this Section 4(c) may be implemented in any reasonable manner; provided, however, that in the case of a Adaptation or Collection, at a minimum such credit will appear, if a credit for all contributing authors of the Adaptation or Collection appears, then as part of these credits and in a manner at least as prominent as the credits for the other contributing authors. For the avoidance of doubt, You may only use the credit required by this Section for the purpose of attribution in the manner set out above and, by exercising Your rights under this License, You may not implicitly or explicitly assert or imply any connection with, sponsorship or endorsement by the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties, as appropriate, of You or Your use of the Work, without the separate, express prior written permission of the Original Author, Licensor and/or Attribution Parties.
d. Except as otherwise agreed in writing by the Licensor or as may be otherwise

permitted by applicable law, if You Reproduce, Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work either by itself or as part of any Adaptations or Collections, You must not distort, mutilate, modify or take other derogatory action in relation to the Work which would be prejudicial to the Original Author's honor or reputation. Licensor agrees that in those jurisdictions (e.g. Japan), in which any exercise of the right granted in Section 3(b) of this License (the right to make Adaptations) would be deemed to be a distortion, mutilation, modification or other derogatory action prejudicial to the Original Author's honor and reputation, the Licensor will waive or not assert, as appropriate, this Section, to the fullest extent permitted by the applicable national law, to enable You to reasonably exercise Your right under Section 3(b) of this License (right to make Adaptations) but not otherwise. 5. Representations, Warranties and Disclaimer UNLESS OTHERWISE MUTUALLY AGREED TO BY THE PARTIES IN WRITING, LICENSOR OFFERS THE WORK AS-IS AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE WORK, EXPRESS, IMPLIED, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING,
XLIV

WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTIBILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, NONINFRINGEMENT, OR THE ABSENCE OF LATENT OR OTHER DEFECTS, ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OF ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT DISCOVERABLE. SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED

WARRANTIES, SO SUCH EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. 6. Limitation on Liability. EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL LICENSOR BE LIABLE TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE OR EXEMPLARY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS LICENSE OR THE USE OF THE WORK, EVEN IF LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 7. Termination a. This License and the rights granted hereunder will terminate automatically upon any breach by You of the terms of this License. Individuals or entities who have received Adaptations or Collections from You under this License, however, will not have their licenses terminated provided such individuals or entities remain in full compliance with those licenses. Sections 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 will survive any termination of this License.
b. Subject to the above terms and conditions, the license granted here is perpetual

(for the duration of the applicable copyright in the Work). Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release the Work under different license terms or to stop distributing the Work at any time; provided, however that any such election will not serve to withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as stated above. 8. Miscellaneous a. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform the Work or a Collection, the Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License.
XLV

b. Each time You Distribute or Publicly Perform an Adaptation, Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the original Work on the same terms and conditions as the license granted to You under this License. c. If any provision of this License is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this License, and without further action by the parties to this agreement, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable. d. No term or provision of this License shall be deemed waived and no breach consented to unless such waiver or consent shall be in writing and signed by the party to be charged with such waiver or consent. e. This License constitutes the entire agreement between the parties with respect to the Work licensed here. There are no understandings, agreements or representations with respect to the Work not specified here. Licensor shall not be bound by any additional provisions that may appear in any communication from You. This License may not be modified without the mutual written agreement of the Licensor and You. f. The rights granted under, and the subject matter referenced, in this License were drafted utilizing the terminology of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (as amended on September 28, 1979), the Rome Convention of 1961, the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996, the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty of 1996 and the Universal Copyright Convention (as revised on July 24, 1971). These rights and subject matter take effect in the relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are sought to be enforced according to the corresponding provisions of the implementation of those treaty provisions in the applicable national law. If the standard suite of rights granted under applicable copyright law includes additional rights not granted under this License, such additional rights are deemed to be included in the License; this License is not intended to restrict the license of any rights under applicable law.

XLVI

Creative Commons Notice Creative Commons is not a party to this License, and makes no warranty whatsoever in connection with the Work. Creative Commons will not be liable to You or any party on any legal theory for any damages whatsoever, including without limitation any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising in connection to this license. Notwithstanding the foregoing two (2) sentences, if Creative Commons has expressly identified itself as the Licensor hereunder, it shall have all rights and obligations of Licensor. Except for the limited purpose of indicating to the public that the Work is licensed under the CCPL, Creative Commons does not authorize the use by either party of the trademark "Creative Commons" or any related trademark or logo of Creative Commons without the prior written consent of Creative Commons. Any permitted use will be in compliance with Creative Commons' then-current trademark usage guidelines, as may be published on its website or otherwise made available upon request from time to time. For the avoidance of doubt, this trademark restriction does not form part of the License. Creative Commons may be contacted at http://creativecommons.org/. About The Licenses O que as nossas licenas fazem. As licenas e ferramentas Creative Commons de direito autoral estabelecem um equilbrio dentro do tradicional "todos os direitos reservados". Nossas ferramentas do a todos, de criadores individuais a grandes empresas e instituies, uma forma simples e padronizada para conceder permisses de direitos de autor ao seu trabalho criativo. A combinao de nossas ferramentas e nossos usurios um vasto e crescente "digital commons", um arcabouo de contedos que pode ser copiado, distribudo, editado, remixado e dar origem a novas obras, tudo dentro dos limites da lei de direitos autorais. Contornos e justificativas das licenas. Todas as licenas Creative Commons tm importantes caractersticas em comum. Cada licena ajuda criadores - ns os chamamos de licenciadores se eles usam nossas
XLVII

ferramentas - a manter seus direitos autorais e, ao mesmo tempo, permitir que outros copiem, distribuam e faam alguns usos da sua obra - pelo menos no comercialmente. Cada licena Creative Commons tambm garante aos licenciadores obter o crdito pelas suas obras. As licenas Creative Commons funcionam em todo o mundo e duram enquanto vigorarem os direitos autorais (porque elas so construdas com base nos direitos autorais). Estas caractersticas comuns servem como linha de base, no topo das quais licenciadores pode optar por conceder permisses adicionais quando decidirem como querem que a sua obra seja utilizada. A licenciante Creative Commons responde a algumas perguntas simples para escolher uma licena. Em primeiro lugar, "eu quero permitir o uso comercial ou no?", e, em seguida, "eu quero permitir trabalhos derivados ou no?". Se um licenciante decide permitir obras derivadas, ele tambm pode optar por exigir que qualquer pessoa que usa o trabalho os licenciados torne esse novo trabalho disponvel sob os termos da mesma licena. Chamamos essa ideia "Compartilha Igual", e um dos mecanismos que (se escolhido) ajuda os commons digitais a crescem ao longo do tempo. Compartilhamento pela mesma licena inspirado na GNU General Public License, usado por muitos projetos de software livre e open source. As Licenas.

Atribuio - CC BY . Essa licena. Para o uso internacional dos direitos autorais dessa obra. Esta licena permite que outros distribuam remixem, adaptem e construam sobre a sua obra, mesmo comercialmente, desde que lhe deem crdito pela criao original. Esta a licena mais aberta dentre as oferecidas. Recomendado para ampla divulgao e utilizao dos materiais licenciados.

XLVIII

URM IN MEDICAL CLINIC. Clinical Pharmacology: Drugs and their use in clinical practice. Fortaleza-Cear-2013 Clinical Pharmacology: Medicines and their use in clinical practice. CENTER FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION Professor Cesar Augusto Venancio da Silva 1st EDITION 2013 Above. INTEREST ... And I promise that by exercising the art of healing , show me will always loyal to the principles of honesty, charity and science . Penetrating inside the homes , my eyes are blind , my tongue I will silence the secrets are revealed , which will have as precept of honor . Never serve the profession to corrupt morals or encourage crime . If I fulfill this oath faithfully , I enjoy , forever , my life and my art , with good reputation among men . If the infringing or get away from him , succeed me otherwise . "The medical graduates choosing a drug inadequate or unreliable in half the cases ." WHO document ." Primum non nocere " - Primum non nocere is a Latin phrase that means " First , do no harm . " The phrase is sometimes recorded as primum nil nocere . Non- maleficence , which is derived from the maximum , is one of the main precepts of medical ethics that all medical students are taught in medical school and is a fundamental principle for emergency medical services worldwide . Another way of stating is that "given an existing problem , it may be better not to do something, or even to do nothing , than to risk causing more harm than good . " He reminds the physician and other health professionals should consider the possible harm that any intervention might do. It is invoked when debating the use of an intervention that carries an obvious risk of damage, but less certain chance of benefit. Non-maleficence is often contrasted with its corollary of beneficence. Primum non nocere - Tells why " primum non nocere
XLIX

" is not , in fact , from Hippocrates , but it is a phrase in epidemics - " The origin of primum non nocere . " British Medical Journal electronic responses and comments , 1 September 2013. Smith , C. M. (2005) . " Origin and Uses of Primum non nocere above all , do no harm ." The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 45 (4): 371-377 . doi : 10.1177/0091270004273680 . Cura te ipsum . " Take care of your own self ! " or "Heal your self " is a Latin injunction , urging physicians to care for and heal themselves first , before dealing with patients . Cura te ipsum became famous in the Latin translation of the Bible , the Vulgate . " The proverb was quoted by Jesus " ... " Physician, heal thyself " , as recorded in the Gospel of Luke, chapter 04:23 . Luke the Evangelist was himself a doctor. la 0100.120.102201775 The work. Presentation. Welcome to this e- book , which is determined and self asserts itself as : Clinical Pharmacology : Medicines and their use in clinical practice. We hope to give a theoretical contribution to the students of the 7th and 8th periods of Medical Courses Universities that composes DESIGN OCW . The idea in this book and address PHARMACOLOGY: INTEGRATING THEORY AND PRACTICE OF

PRESCRIPTION . We hope that the didactic design is likely to be improved by the universities concerned. In this sense, our goal is to provide data to motivate the study of pharmacology facing the medical clinic. The books of Professor Csar Augusto Venancio da Silva, addresses aspects of diffuse medicines. Legal issues ( legislative ) , administrative ( self-regulation ) and tcnco scientific . Faculty in the Athenaeum ( Fortaleza, Specialization in Clinical Pharmacology) , we are working practice of drug interaction . So, here now comes one more job oriented dedication to the study of Clinical Pharmacology. As stated at the beginning this eBook , is determined and self asserts itself as : Clinical Pharmacology : Medicines and their use in clinical practice. Intended for students in this first edition of the 7th and 8th periods of Medical Courses. Thus , we suggest the following script (and others that will be implemented throughout the book): SEVENTH SEMESTER OF MEDICAL EDUCATION ; EIGHTH SEMESTER OF MEDICAL EDUCATION .SEVENTH SEMESTER OF MEDICAL
L

EDUCATION. Classes - In this follow - theoretical classes make available for the course to serve as a roadmap study. Pharmacology - Antibiotics. Suggested program for the 7th time. Introduction to Rational Prescribing Antibiotics. Penicillins. Cephalosporins. Carbapenems and monobactams Glycopeptides Sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin Quinolones. Tetracyclines. Macrolides. Anaerobic flora. Aminoglycosides. . Chloramphenicol. . PRACTICE : MACROLIDES - DIRECTED STUDY. . 1. Mechanism of action of this class . 2 . Mechanisms of resistance . 3 . The main representatives of this class . 4 . Action spectrum of the class. 5 . Difference between the three main representatives of this class . 6 . Commenting on the clinical uses .

LI

7 . Use of Erythromycin in tuberculosis . 8 . Differences compared the pharmacokinetics between the three main representatives of this class . 9 . Macrolide in patients with renal insufficiency . 10 . Use of macrolides used for meningitis. Justifies dialectic. 11 . Side effects of macrolides. 12 . The major side effects . 13 . Drug interaction that class . PRACTICE : TETRACYCLINE - DIRECTED STUDY 1. Classification of tetracyclines . 2 . Main differences between the tetracyclines . 3 . Mechanism of action . 4 . Action spectrum . 5 . Pharmacokinetics . 6 . Clinical uses . 7 . Adverse effects . 8 . Spectrum of action , theory and practice of tetracyclines . 9 . THEORETICAL action spectrum : the spectrum antibiotic that initially covered , but does not cover more , the emergence of acquired resistance . 10 . Natural resistance to bacteria and NEVER spectrum of action of this antibiotic . 11 . Mechanism of action of tetracyclines . 12 . Main mechanisms of resistance to tetracyclines . 13 . Group of bacteria that have acquired resistance increasing . 14 . Aspects of the pharmacokinetics of tetracyclines .
LII

15 . Main clinical uses of tetracyclines . 16 . Description of some of the major side effects and contraindications to the use of tetracyclines . 17 . Main drug interactions tetracycline . EIGHTH SEMESTER OF MEDICAL EDUCATION . Classes - In this follow - theoretical classes make available for the course to serve as a roadmap study . Ethical Aspects of Prescription . Rational prescribing using the model of oral antidiabetics . Insulins . Clinical Cases oral antidiabetics . Exercise Prescription . Lipid-lowering agents . Exercises . Clinical Cases . Pharmacology of Obesity . Pharmacology Thyroid - basic topics . Pharmacology of NSAIDs and analgesics . Clinical Cases . Pharmacology of Anticoagulants , Anti - fibrinolytic and aggregating . Pharmacology of glucocorticoids . Clinical Cases . Pharmacology of Gout . Exercise prescription . Hypertension . PRM . Clinical Cases . Antiarrhythmics . Gastrointestinal Pharmacology I. Antidiarrheal and anticonstipantes . Clinical Cases . Pharmacology Digestive System II . Pharmacology cidapptica disease . Antiemetics. Clinical Cases . Antihistamines and anti - vertigo . Pharmacology of the Respiratory System : Anti - tussgenos and flu remedies .
LIII

Pharmacology of the Respiratory : asthma. Clinical Cases . Oral agents and insulins . Dyslipidemia . Model - Rational Exercise Prescription Medicines . Oral antidiabetics . Obesity . NSAIDs . Glucocorticoids . Opioids . Opioids . Drop . Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents . Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents . Antidiarrheal and Anticonstipantes . Antiemetics. Antihistamines . Antihypertensives . Asthma and COPD . Asthma and COPD 1:11 2 MB H2-receptor antagonists and PPIs . Cough and cold medicine . Treatment of Acid - Peptic Disease . Treatment of asthma - second-line drugs .
LIV

In addition to the reported menus , Professor Csar Augusto Venancio da Silva brings the body of the e- book topics : Clinical Cases / Exercises - CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY . Exercise insulins. Exercise Obesity. Exercise glucocorticoids . Directed Study about NSAID. Exercise Analgesics and NSAIDs. If the clinical course of antibiotics. Clinical Cases Antihypertensive Agents. This theoretical base is processed through scientific information and updated , giving professionals , present , and future medical opportunities for revision and fixation of learning about phenomena that classify the understanding of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic activity in its various dimensions. This E- BOOK BOOK - is for students to design virtual university OCW , where the author writes and publishes educational material for students of pharmacy, biology, psychology and disciplines of the Medical School of the University to adopt the system OCW . The Open Course Ware Consortium is a collaboration of higher education institutions and associated organizations from around the world creating a broad and deep body of open educational content using a shared model . The Open Course Ware (OCW ) is a digital publishing free and open source by various colleges and high quality university-level educational materials contains . These materials are organized through courses , and often include planning materials and evaluation tools as well as thematic content . Open Course Ware is free and openly licensed , accessible to anyone , anytime through internet. THIS E -BOOK WILL PART OF A NEW TYPE OF CERTIFICATION FOR STUDENTS IN THE DIGITAL AGE .

LV

The author's book will be available for the Open Course Ware Consortium , Foundation and Excelsior College to offer certification and college credit for online courses in partnership with OpenStudy . This position is established from the news published in " Palo Alto , CA , November 14, 2012 , where it was agreed that students who study in open courses offered by institutions of the Open Course Ware Consortium , through partner institutions and authors , now have the opportunity to earn participation certificates and college credit . Members OCW Consortium , University of Notre Dame , UC Irvine and TU Delft , will provide the first set of courses . OpenStudy offers students the opportunity to qualify in virtual form , and practice provides partners with the evaluation based on documented competencies , behavioral profiles and social analyzes . "Said Preetha Ram , CEO OpenStudy . The author is happy to work with these innovators in education to realize the potential of online courses that are open and focused on helping entrepreneurs not only large , but also students who are risk. For college students the course of OCW serves a dual purpose of improving its performance in a college course and creates a portfolio for the first job . Search for more information . People can sign up for courses in www.openstudy.com . Necessary to master a foreign language . The author's book presented here , will be used by millions of students in different countries, open courses , online courses that attracts students from all over the world to study free content . OpenStudy partners are extending the value of the experience of the course opened , offering Certificate of Participation in addition to reports on the skills acquired through the study of the course materials , but also reports on important skills to employers : teamwork, problem solving and engagement . Together , this documentation will demonstrate the employability of students , addressing issues that confront employers - how to determine if a candidate has both the knowledge of the content area and interpersonal skills to be successful . The book is labeled , so as Clinical Pharmacology : Medicines and their use in the Medical Clinic , 1st . Edition . Besides the aspects farmocinticos and pharmacodynamic describe legal administrative and legislative aspects , so that the professional can make breakthroughs in understanding the aspects that underlie the scientific aspect .

LVI

Readers , dates permission do not be surprised , because this book is intended for those who want to excel in the knowledge fulcrado in scientific methodology , ARE SURE THAT THE AUTHOR aims to provide a respectable level to the course , in order , in addition to providing a deeper formation , help prepare physicians who may be involved in the vision : " that by exercising the art of healing , to show I will always loyal to the principles of honesty, charity and science . " Fortaleza , November 2013. Good luck. Professor Cesar Augusto Venancio da SILVA . Professor of Applied Pharmacy and specializing in Clinical Pharmacology Faculty Athenaeum. Fortaleza - Cear. In 2013. FILE 0100.120.102201775

LVII

Knowing the OCW project . In 2012, the plaintiff through INESPEC Platform OCW intended to publish to the academic world. There are already several scholarly works , between Neuroscience and Pharmacology ( list at the end of the book , e-book ) . Thus , I feel the urge to declare in public the global importance of this project for society and for the author (who in all his books published in the virtual one has read about for more than 150,000 readers in Spanish, English , among others). OpenCourseWare also identified with the acronym OCW , is a term applied to the contents generated by universities and shared freely all over the internet . The movement was led by the OCW MIT in October 2002 by the launch of MIT OpenCourseWare . From this movement of MIT , several other universities have started creating their own designs OCW . Today there are more than 200 universities in the world working on this new concept of releasing the knowledge generated in academia for everyone. A perfect socialization of knowledge making it available both for teachers , students and self-learners around the world. According to the OCW Consortium requests that certain requirements are followed , such as : You can not have commercial purposes , must contain a reference to the institution that publishes original and, where appropriate, the name of the author of the material , the material resulting from use OCW should be free for others to use and be subject to these same requirements . FGV in Brazil is the first educational institution in Brazil to present a project OCW . The author (Silva , Csar Augusto Venancio . PHARMACOLOGY COURSE - Volume III 1st Edition - 2013 ) on your website http://farmaciaead2013.blogspot.com.br/ maintain a link for access to the portal Veduca ( For courses in pharmacy and Medicine ) and now includes over 5000 video lessons available for 16 educational institutions by the OpenCourseWare project , organized in 21 subjects . The content is subtitled in Portuguese. UNESCO. The books of Professor Csar Augsto Venancio da Silva will join the NETWORK of open educational resources ( OER ) as part of an effort by the international community to create Internet -driven educational goods belonging to humanity . A current definition of REA , made in collaboration with the OER community in Brazil was adopted by UNESCO / COL : " The OER are teaching materials , learning and research in any form
LVIII

or media that are in the public domain or are licensed openly , allowing them to be accessed, used , adapted and redistributed by others . use of technical formats facilitates open access and potential reuse of resources. the REA may include full courses , parts of courses , modules , guides for students , notes , textbooks , research articles , videos , assessment tools , interactive features such as simulations and role-playing games , databases , software , applications ( including mobile versions ) and any other educational resource utility . OER movement is not synonymous with learning on online , distance learning or education through mobile devices . REA Many - even that can be shared via digital formats - can also be printed . " Including the present work . There is no single definition of what constitutes an open educational resource . However , newer definition and participation of actors from different countries and study area has helped to build a more robust definition for movement . In an event organized by UNESCO in July 2012 , the " Paris OER Declaration " REA defines as: " teaching materials , learning and research in any media , digital or otherwise , which is situated within the public domain or have been released under open license that allows access, use , adaptation and free redistribution by third parties , by any restriction or few restrictions . the open licensing is built within the existing structure of intellectual property rights , such as those defined by international conventions , and respects authorship of the work . " The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation propose the following definition for OER : " REA are resources for teaching , learning and research that reside in the public domain or has been published under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and remixing by others. OER include full courses , course content , modules , books , videos , tests , software and any other tools , materials or techniques used to support and enable access to knowledge . " A report, OLCOS Roadmap 2012 , notes that there is no established definition for OER and prefers to identify three key attributes to be followed : What access to open content (INCLUDING metadata ) is provided free by educational institutions , content providers and users end as teachers , students and students free; what content is licensed in a generous so it can be reused in educational activities and free of restrictions that prevent you from being modified , combined and remixed. Consequently , this content will have a design ideal for easy reuse within the Free Standards and formats being employed ; What systems and tools used have the source code available ( ie free software ) and are offered Application Programming Interfaces ( open APIs ) and authorizations to re - use Web services as well as resources ( eg for educational content RSS ) . The universe includes REA :
LIX

Content: full courses , course materials , threads of content , learning topics , collections and journals , among others . Tools: Software to support the creation , delivery, use and improvement of open learning content including searching and organization of content , content management system and learning tools, content development , and online learning communities . Resources for implementation: intellectual property licenses to promote open publishing of materials, design principles and establish content localization. Practices: narratives of use, publishing, techniques, methods, processes, incentives and distribution . Unlike open education and distance education ( DE ), OER resources are focused on themselves and the practices associated with these. PROJECTS WORLDWIDE OCW is now an academic reality. Thus, the copyright for the institutions involved is already assured in this eBook in its final pages . Can benefit from the licenses issued in the author's books ( * ) institutions: United States France United Kingdom Harvard Law School Berkman Center Johns Hopkins School of Public Health Tufts University University of Michigan School of Information University of Notre Dame Utah State University Telecom Paris Ecole Polytechnique Techniques Avance'es Ponts et Chausse'es Ecole des Mines de Paris Chimie Paris Physique- Chimie Agronomie
LX

Economie et Statistiques Eaux et Forets Arts et Me'tiers The Open University Canada Capilano College Vietnam FETP OpenCourseWare India Rai University Somaiya Vidyavihar China ( CORE ) Japan Austria Peking University Tsinghua University Beijing Jiaotong University Dalian Univ . of Technology Central South University Xi'an Jiaotong University Central Radio & TV Univ . Sichuan University Zhejiang University Beijing Normal University Plus more 146 Keio University Kyoto University
LXI

Osaka University Tokyo Institute of Technology University of Tokyo Waseda University Universitat Klagenfurt South Africa University of the Western Cape REASONS TO BE THIS ACADEMIC PUBLISHING . CONCEPTS OpenCourseWare and OCW site. The concept OperCourseWare. OCW (OpenCourseWare) initiative is a large-scale electronic publishing, which began in April 2001 , based on internet and founded jointly by MIT ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology , its acronym in English ) in collaboration with the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Foundation and the Andrew W. Mellon . Your initial goal is : 1. Providing free access , simple and consistent teaching materials for educators of the nonprofit sector , students and self-learners around the world. The success made possible the second objective : 2 . Create a flexible movement based on an efficient model that other universities may emulate when publishing their own teaching materials generating synergies and opportunities for collaboration . What is an OCW site ? Web space containing teaching materials for use in higher education . These materials represent a set of resources ( documents , programs , calendars , ... ) used in the teaching - learning of the subjects that are taught by teachers . They are offered freely and are universally accessible over the network . Its diffusion is not limited by issues related to intellectual property.

LXII

Its use , reuse , adaptation and distribution are allowed with certain restrictions . What is not an OCW site ? There is , a service of distance education and, therefore , authorize or opens the possibility of access through the content , teachers - the same authors , nor entitle to claim any credit or recognition by the institution. A OCW site will not have , therefore, the forums or mail or other means of interaction between teachers and students . A Not Made the OCW site will have , therefore, the forums or mail or other means of interaction between teachers and students . Materials uploaded to a site OCW . We present two levels of reuse: a) Structured and in combination , they all make a proposal for a study in the context of a full story . Therefore , it is proposed to incorporate not only documents of studies , but also the set of materials that a teacher or a student uses to study the matter : Program , Calendar , teaching guide , proposed activities , etc. ; b ) Individually, each study document meta- data are incorporated and becomes a package on " learning object " , in order to be part of other " digital libraries" and to be reused in other contexts . REASONS LEADING TO THE EDITOR INESPEC THROUGH YOUR VIRTUAL BY MERGER TO DECIDE OCW . Advantages and disadvantages . General character : Institutional Positioning to a world-wide phenomenon . Some benefits : Advanced knowledge by offering educational resources and extend localization mechanisms . Stimulates innovation and improvement of teaching resources used by teachers .

LXIII

It favors the approach of teachers to ICT ( information and communication ) . Opportunity to address the "organization " of the intellectual property and author recognition . Increased protection of the mission of the institution . Some drawbacks: Forces the teacher to revise their teaching material and structure it as OCW . Increased cost of supporting teachers and providing new services . Limitation of exclusive and commercial use of teaching material . Possible duplication in resource management to meet the different scenarios . New ways to assess the value of the curriculum and teaching material generated . What brings the fact of belonging to the OCW Consortium ? To give you benefits should be valued : Integration in the Strategic Plan . Its flexibility and adaptability within the institution . The sharing of support , resources , experiences, good practices . Expanding the scope and impact of the work . Institutions that are part of the Consortium reinforce the image of the institution itself . AROUND THE UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM PROJECT OCW . Conditions to participate in the OCW project . Being an institution duly accredited . Publish materials for teachers structured materials . The minimum required is 10 subjects . Make a commitment to develop " proposals " and share " best practices " that promote projects " similar " in quality , structure , vocabulary.
LXIV

Keep an OCW - site that meets the conditions : offer and publish the material free of charge and non-commercial use , the materials must be " clean " with regard to intellectual property; publish materials on the OCW site implies authorize your use , reuse , adaptation , translation and redistribution to third parties; OCW site should be universally accessible via the Internet ; Join the Project. THE LEGAL ASPECTS. A CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE . The materials that are available are published by an institution and part of an OCW site should be up Creative Commons license . Intellectual property. The materials on Creative Commons license is granted to users to : use , reuse , translation and adaptation to other contexts . Users undertake to : Use materials with no commercial purposes; recognize the institution that originally published the same and if so , the author thereof; The resulting material after use should be free for use by third parties and is subject to these same requirements . Other legal aspects of the relationship between the teacher and the University - OCW site : The author gives the rights to use , the author takes the intellectual property or satisfy the conditions of use established by the owners ; University - OCW site assumes use in accordance with the principles of respect for the author and his work . The MANAGER OF CONTENTS. The OCW project provides technical assistance to member institutions for the use of the platform for the management and publication of materials that are part of the OCW site of each university. EduCommons , an Open Source project developed by The Center for Open and Sustainable Learning at Utah State University , especially for the creation of OCW projects . The main features of the content management system are clear and simple process for creating categories and courses and materials to increase . Incorporating meta- data in the process of cataloging and storage formats and publishing . Possibility of flexible
LXV

structuring content . Full support for HTML editing . Possibilities " of incorporating content by importing an archive ." Zip . " Complete management of meta - data and import and export through standardized formats : Specification 1484.12.1-2002 based on the IEEE Learning Object Metadata Standard ( IEEE LOM ) and ISO 15836 Metadata Dublin Core ( Dublin Core ) . Import / export of courses and materials in IMS packages . Possibility of access to content via RSS feeds . comprehensive management workflow through roles and states . Incorporation of mechanisms intellectual property management and licensing of use . Ease of implementation and customization , in the concrete , the use of the institutional image of each University . Additionally , it offers a set of manuals for use and management , a standard package to import worksheet of matter and technical support online . Manager contenidos - eduCommons . OCW offices on OCW SITES.MDICOS . Experience shows that the OCW Offices necessary support for institutions interested in developing an OCW site . The services that the firm provides are of various types : teachers , technicians , library and legal . Office functions associated with OCW : 1 ) To promote the participation of teachers and provide them with information, training and advice required . 2 ) adapt the model to the characteristics of OCW University and project design OCW Universia . 3 ) To provide legal advice to the University and teachers and establish a legal participation protocol which ensures all parties . 4 ) to assist in cleaning the intellectual property of the contents, and where necessary, find or create alternative resources . 5) To ensure the quality of content and encourage continuous improvement . 6 ) Provide technical means to adapt the content to their Internet broadcast : use content management system , development of multimedia material , video recording ...

LXVI

7 ) Find effective solutions that simplify the incorporation of educational content on the network in different scenarios and with different goals. 8 ) Keep the OCW University website . 9 ) Coordinate with other OCW sites at home and abroad . 10 ) Prepare reports and propose improvements to the governing bodies of the University . PROCEDURES FOR JOINING THE PROJECT . Joining the OCW Consortium ( OCWC ) is the signature by the University , a Memorandum of Cooperation under which it makes clear the will : Develop the University OCW site , which is published a minimum of 10 subjects under principles of the Consortium ; Collaborate and promote a common project to offer users a similar environment and form a common ground between all members ; OCW Universia is formed by all the Universities in Spain, Portugal and Latin America who have chosen to make their adherence to OCW and , in turn , be grouped under the cultural affinity and geographical Ibero - American. In this way , a representation can be more qualified in Consorcio world . To join the OCW Universia OCWC and complete and sign the Instrument of Accession and the communication form of contact and send them to the following address : Workshop OCW Universia Avda. of Cantabria s / n - Bldg. Arrecife , plant 00 28660 Boadilla del Monte - Madrid . Espaa . Once the membership is received , you will receive a password to access the restricted area where you can find information and help with your project underway OCW . For more information send an email directly to: ocw - universia [ at] upm [ dot] es

LXVII

UNIVERSITIES INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT . http://www.ocwconsortium.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Ite mid=32 SPAIN . ANDALUSIA . University of Cadiz . University of Granada . University of Huelva . University of Mlaga . University of Seville . International University of Andalusia . ARAGON . University of Zaragoza . ASTURIA . University of Oviedo . CANARY . University of la Laguna . Cantabria . University of Cantabria . CASTILE AND LION . IE University . University of Salamanca . University of Valladolid .

LXVIII

CASTILLA - LA MANCHA . University of Castilla - La Mancha . CATALONIA . Open University of Catalonia . Autonomous University of Barcelona. University of Barcelona. University of Girona . Polytechnic University of Catalonia . University Rovira i Virgili . MADRID . Fundacin Universitaria San Pablo CEU . UNED . Autonomous University of Madrid . University Carlos III . Polytechnic University of Madrid . King Juan Carlos University . COMMUNITY OF NAVARRA . University of Navarra . VALENCIA COMMUNITY . University of Alicante . University of Valencia . University Jaime I. Polytechnic University of Valencia .
LXIX

EXTREMADURA . University of Extremadura . GALICIA . University of Corunna . University of Santiago de Compostela . University of Vigo . Balearic Islands. University of the Balearic Islands . MURCIA . University of Murcia . Polytechnic University of Cartagena . BASQUE COUNTRY . University of Deusto . University of the Basque Country . IBEROAMERICA . ARGENTINA . University of Argentina Company . National University of Cordoba . National University of Tucumn . BRAZIL . UEMS - State University of Mato Grosso do Sul UNIUBE - University of Uberaba . Universidade Anhembi Morumbi .
LXX

University Braz Cubas . Dom Bosco Catholic University . University of Ribeiro Preto. University of Sorocaba . University of Taubat . Universidade do Grande ABC . State University of Campinas . Federal University of Alagoas . Federal University of Piaui . Federal University of Santa Catarina . Federal Rural University of Pernambuco . CHILE . Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaso . Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. University of the Americas . University of Concepcin . University of Chile . COLOMBIA . University of Manizales . University of Valle . University Eafit . Icesi University . Industrial University of Santander .
LXXI

National University of Colombia . Universidad San Buenaventura . MEXICO . Technological Institute of Monterrey . Autonomous University of the State of Mexico . Autonomous Metropolitan University . University of Colima . University of Monterrey . Caribbean University . PERU . Pontifical Catholic University of Peru . San Pablo Catholic University of Arequipa . San Pablo Catholic University of Arequipa . National University of Engineering . National University of Callao . Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos . Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo . Peruvian University of Applied Sciences . PORTO RICO . Recinto Universitario de Mayagez ( University of Puerto Rico ) . Inter American University . DOMINICAN REPUBLIC . Technological Institute of the Americas .
LXXII

URUGUAY . Catholic University of Uruguay. VENEZUELA . Central University of Venezuela . University of Carabobo . University Fermn Toro . Metropolitan University. University Montevila . National Experimental University of Tchira . Universidad Rafael Belloso Chacin . PORTUGAL . University of vora .

LXXIII

OTHER GLOBAL CONSORTIUM. In the field of medicine can accomplish through OCW Project : Bioethics ( OCW University of the Basque Country ) . Basic course in Bioethics for health professionals . Clinical Medicine ( OCW University of Cantabria ) : Module ( Perspective of clinical situations ? ) , Within the discipline of Clinical Medicine , aims that students acquire skills , the level of diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on a set of problems that are frequent reason for consultation in medical practice . Splanchnology Clinic ( OCW University of Salamanca ) : This course aims to apply through clinical cases centered Infirmary , criteria and protocols performances by a professional emergency ward before that influence the cavities cranial , thoracic , abdominal and pelvic and their gut contents . Also they order to acquire the basic knowledge about splanchnology clinic and its importance in Nursing . At the end of the book pages... present: The International License Use this book to universities interested and involved; From the presentation of the text in English , The presentation of the text in Spanish; From the presentation of the text in German ; From the presentation of the text in Russian.

LXXIV