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CHAPTER 2
DIFFERENTIATION
2.1 Differentiation of hyperbolic functions
2.2 Differentiation of inverse trigonometric functions
2.3 Differentiation of inverse hyperbolic functions
*Recall: Methods of differentiation
-Chain rule
-Product differentiation
-Quotient differentiation
-Implicit differentiation
2
2.1 Differentiation of Hyperbolic Functions
Recall: Definition:
cosh
2
x -x
e e
x
+
=
sinh
2
x -x
e e
x

=
sinh
tanh
cosh
x -x
x -x
x e e
x
x e e

= =
+
1 cosh
coth
tanh sinh
x
x
x x
= =
1
cosech =
sinh
x
x
1
sech
cosh
x
x
=
3
Derivatives of hyperbolic functions
Example 2.1: Find the derivatives of
(a) sinh x (b) cosh x (c) tanh x
Solution:
(a)
|
|
.
|

=

2
sinh
x x
e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
x e e
x x
cosh ) (
2
1
= + =

(b)
|
|
.
|

+
=

2
cosh
x x
e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
x e e
x x
sinh ) (
2
1
= =

4
(c)
|
|
.
|

x x
x x
e e
e e
dx
d
x
dx
d
tanh
Using quotient diff:
, , , , , , , ,
, ,
2
x x
x x x x x x x x
e e
e e e e e e e e

+
+ +
=
, ,
, ,
, ,
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 4
2 2
|
|
.
|

+
=
+
=
+
+ + +
=

x x
x x
x x
x x x x
e e
e e
e e
e e e e
x
x
2
2
sech
cosh
1
=
|
|
.
|

=
Using the same methods, we can obtain the derivatives
of the other hyperbolic functions and these gives us the
standard derivatives.
5
Standard Derivatives
( ) y f x =
( )
dy
f x
dx
'
=
cosh x sinh x
sinh x cosh x
tanh x
2
sech x
sech x
sech x tanh x
cosech x
cosech x coth x
coth x
2
cosech x
6
Example 2.2:
1.Find the derivatives of the following functions:
a)
b)
c)
2. Find the derivatives of the following functions:
, ,
2
3 2
(a) cosh 3 (b) sinh(2 1)
(c) ( ) ( 1) sech (d) tanh(ln )
= =
= =
y x r t
g x x x y x
3.(Implicit differentiation)
Find
dy
dx
from the following expressions:
2
(a) sinh 4 cosh
(b) tanh( )
x y x y
y x y
= +
= +
7
2.2 Differentiation Involving Inverse Trigonometric
Functions
Recall: Definition of inverse trigonometric functions
Function Domain Range
1
sin x

1 1 x s s
2 2
y

s s
1
cos x

1 1 x s s
0 y s s
1
tan x

x < <
2 2
y

< <
1
sec x

1 x >
0
2 2
y y

s < < <
1
cot x

x s s
0 y < <
1
cosec x

1 x >
0 0
2 2
y y

< < < <
8
Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Standard Derivatives:
1.
2
1
1
1
) (sin
x
x
dx
d

2.
2
1
1
1
) (cos
x
x
dx
d

3.
2
1
1
1
) (tan
x
x
dx
d
+
=

4.
2
1
1
1
) (cot
x
x
dx
d
+

5.
1
1
) (sec
2
1

x x
x
dx
d
6.
1
1
) (csc
2
1

x x
x
dx
d
9
2.2.1 Derivatives of x y
1
sin

= . (proof)
Recall: y x x y sin sin
1
= =

for ] 1 , 1 [ e x and ] 2 , 2 [ e y .
Because the sine function is differentiable on
] 2 , 2 [ , the inverse function is also differentiable.
To find its derivative we proceed implicitly:
Given x y = sin . Differentiating w.r.t. x:
) ( ) (sin x
dx
d
y
dx
d
=
y dx
dy
dx
dy
y
cos
1
1 cos
=
=
Since
2 2

s s y , 0 cos > y , so
2 2
1
1
sin 1
1
cos
1
x y
y dx
dy

= =
10
Example 2.3:
1. Differentiate each of the following functions.
(a) x x f
1
tan ) (

=
(b) ) 1 ( sin ) (
1
t t g =

(c)
x
e x h
2 1
sec ) (

=
2. Find the derivative of:
(a)
4 2 1
) (tan x y

=
(b) ) 4 ln(sin ) (
1
x x f

=
3. Find the derivative of
1 2
tan (tan(3 1)) y t

= .
4. Find the derivative
dx
dy
if
(a) y x y x + =
2 1
tan
(b) y xy
1 1
cos
2
) ( sin

= +

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Summary
If u is a differentiable function of x, then
1.
dx
du
u
u
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (sin

2.
dx
du
u
u
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (cos

3.
dx
du
u
u
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (tan
+
=

4.
dx
du
u
u
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (cot
+

5.
dx
du
u u
u
dx
d
1
1
) (sec
2
1

6.
dx
du
u u
u
dx
d
1
1
) (csc
2
1

12
2.3 Derivatives of Inverse hyperbolic Functions
Recall: Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
Function Domain Range
1
sinh y x

=
) , ( ) , (
1
cosh y x

= ) , 1 [ ) , 0 [
1
tanh y x

= (1, 1)
) , (
x y
1
coth

=
) , 1 ( ) 1 , ( ) , 0 ( ) 0 , (
y = sech
1
x
(0, 1]
) , 0 [
y = cosech
1
x
) , 0 ( ) 0 , ( ) , 0 ( ) 0 , (
Function Logarithmic form
1
sinh y x

=
, ,
2
ln 1 x x + +
1
cosh y x

=
, ,
2
ln 1 x x +
1
tanh y x

=
1 1
ln ; 1
2 1
x
x
x
+
|
<
|

\ .
13
2.3.1 Proof: (
2
1
1
1
) (sinh
x
x
dx
d
+
=

)
Recall:
1
sinh y x

= sinh x y =
To find its derivative we proceed implicitly:
Given y x sinh = . Differentiating w.r.t. x:
) (sinh ) ( y
dx
d
x
dx
d
=
y dx
dy
dx
dy
y
cosh
1
cosh 1
=
=
Since < < y , 0 cosh > y , so using the identity
2 2
cosh sinh 1 y y = :
2 2
1
1
sin 1
1
cosh
1
x y
y dx
dy
+
=
+
= =
2
1
1
1
) (sinh
x
x
dx
d
+
=

14
Other ways to obtain the derivatives are:
(a)
1
sinh y x

= sinh x y = then
2
y y
e e
x

=
. Hence, find
dy
dx
.
(b)
1
sinh y x

= =
, ,
2
ln 1 x x + + .
Hence, find
dy
dx
.
15
Standard Derivatives
Function, y
Derivatives,
dy
dx
1
sinh x

2
1
1 x +
1
cosh x

2
1
; 1
1
x
x
>

1
tanh x

2
1
; 1
1
x
x
<

1
coth x

2
1
; 1
1
x
x
>

1
sech x

2
1
; 0 1
1
x
x x
< <

cosech
1
x
2
1
; 0
1
x
x x
=
+
16
Generalised Form
( );
( )
y f u
u g x
=
=
dy dy du
dx du dx
=
1
sinh u

2
1
1
du
dx
u +
1
cosh u

2
1
; 1
1
du
u
dx
u
>

1
tanh u

2
1
; 1
1
du
u
u dx
<

1
coth u

2
1
; 1
1
du
u
u dx
>

1
sech u

2
1
; 0 1
1
du
u
dx
u u
< <

cosech
1
u
2
1
; 0
1
du
u
dx
u u
=
+
17
Example 2.4: Find the derivatives of
(a) ) 3 1 ( sinh
1
x y =

(b)
|
.
|

=

x
y
1
cosh
1
(c) x e y
x 1
sech

=
(d)
1
sinh (tan3 ) y x

=
(e)
1 2
tanh
( )
1 sec
t
f t
t

(f)
u y
1
coth

=
(g)
1
cos 4 cosh 4 y x x

=
(h)
3 1
sinh 0 y xy