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INSERT STUDENT I.D.

NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

AUGUST 1999

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1999 Ministry of Education

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 10 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. The time allotted for this examination is two hours.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

1. Which of the following organelles is correctly matched with its product? A. B. C. D. nucleolus DNA mitochondria ATP Golgi apparatus lipid smooth endoplasmic reticulum protein

2. Which of the following organelles breaks down dead cells? A. B. C. D. nucleus lysosome Golgi apparatus rough endoplasmic reticulum

OVER -1-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 3 and 4.

3. The structure labelled X is composed mostly of A. B. C. D. glycogen and protein. nucleic acid and glycogen. protein and phospholipids. nucleic acid and phospholipids.

4. One function of the structure labelled Y is to A. B. C. D. replicate DNA. control cell division. digest food molecules. produce digestive enzymes.

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5. A substance which helps maintain a constant pH in a solution is a(n) A. B. C. D. salt. acid. base. buffer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 6. H H N H C H H2O 6. The diagram illustrates a step in the A. B. C. D. hydrolysis of a protein. synthesis of an enzyme. production of nucleic acid. conversion of glucose molecules to starch. ________________________________________________ C O OH H N H H C H C O OH

7. The building blocks or monomers that make up carbohydrates are A. B. C. D. nucleotides. amino acids. monosaccharides. fatty acids and glycerol.

8. Compared to saturated fats, unsaturated fats contain less A. B. C. D. oxygen. glycerol. hydrogen. fatty acids.

OVER -3-

9. The number of adenine bases in a DNA molecule equals the number of thymine bases because A. B. C. D. DNA contains equal numbers of all four bases. thymine always follows adenine on each DNA strand. DNA is made of alternating adenine and thymine bases. adenine on one strand bonds to thymine on the other strand.

10. The product of transcription is A. B. C. D. DNA. protein. mRNA. a ribosome.

11. Which of the following molecules is a building block or monomer of RNA? A. H C OH CH2 OH C H OH C H H C OH CH3 (CH 2 ) 16 O H C OH B. CH3 (CH 2 ) 16 CH3 (CH 2 ) 16 O C O C O C O CH 2 O CH O CH 2

C.

O C OH

D. P

N N

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Use the following chart to answer question 12.


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA, and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamic acid UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

12. A strand of DNA has the following bases: C A C G G C C If the adenine base was deleted, which amino acids would be coded for? A. B. C. D. valine, proline glycine, alanine proline, arginine glycine, arginine ________________________________________________

13. The process by which new blood vessels supply a growing tumour is A. B. C. D. metastasis. promotion. malignancy. vascularization.

OVER -5-

14. Which of the following is capable of changing a proto-oncogene into an oncogene? A. B. C. D. virus antibody bacterium lymphocyte

15. An experiment was carried out to study the carcinogenic effects of certain chemicals on mice. Similar amounts of these chemicals were applied to their skins over a 6-month period. The results are shown below.

CHEMICAL X 18% developed skin tumours

CHEMICAL Y 0% developed skin tumours

CHEMICALS X AND Y 84% developed skin tumours

CONTROL (NO TREATMENT) 1% developed skin tumours

Given the results, which of the following statements is correct? A. B. C. D. Chemical Y is a promoter. Chemical X can act only as a promoter. Chemical Y can act only as an initiator. Neither X nor Y is an initiator or a promoter.

16. Molecules in the cell membrane that function as receptors are A. B. C. D. proteins. glycerol. cholesterol. phospholipids.

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Use the following diagrams to answer question 17. Initial


Cl glucose Na + Na + ein Cl rot p protein glu cos e
sta O H2 h rc

Two hours later


Cl glucose Na +
O H2 sta h rc

Cl

Na +

h rc

protein
sta h rc

t pro
O H2

ein

O H2

17. The diagrams illustrate that the membrane selects according to the A. B. C. D. size of the molecules. temperature of the solution. concentration of the molecules. electronic charge of the molecules.

18. The diagram shows a white blood cell ingesting a bacterium. The bacterium enters the white blood cell by A. B. C. D. diffusion. pinocytosis. phagocytosis. active transport.

sta

glucose

Selectively Permeable Membrane

Selectively Permeable Membrane

Use the following diagram to answer question 18.

OVER -7-

19. Enzymes function to increase the rate of a metabolic reaction by A. B. C. D. denaturing the substrate. adding energy to the reaction. decreasing the energy of activation. increasing the concentration of the reactants.

Use the following graphs to answer question 20.


Graph 1 Graph 2

X
Amount of Product (mg) Amount of Product (mg)

15 Time (minutes)

30

15 Time (minutes)

30

20. Graph 1 represents the rate of reaction between lipase and its substrate. In graph 2, what occurred at time X that caused the change in the reaction? A. B. C. D. Fat was added. The pH was changed from 5 to 8. A competitive inhibitor was added. The temperature of the reaction was raised to 100 C .

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 21 and 22.

Y X

Z W

21. The structure labelled X releases a substance after the ingestion of A. B. C. D. fat. starch. protein. carbohydrate.

22. Digestion of peptides and absorption of their products occurs in which of the structures? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER -9-

23. The reaction shown below is catalyzed by secretions from which organs? protein + H 2 O peptides A. B. C. D. pancreas and liver liver and duodenum stomach and pancreas duodenum and stomach

24. Increasing the secretion of insulin would have which of the following effects? A. B. C. D. decreased blood sugar decreased metabolic rate increased protein synthesis increased digestion of carbohydrate

25. High levels of toxins in the blood may indicate a problem with the function of the A. B. C. D. liver. stomach. pancreas. small intestine.

Use the following characteristics to answer question 26. one-way valves thin elastic layer near skeletal muscle 26. The characteristics above describe which type of vessel? A. B. C. D. vein artery arteriole capillary

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Use the following diagram to answer question 27.

27. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. iliac vein. renal vein. subclavian vein. posterior vena cava.

OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 28.

X Y

28. Which letter indicates a portal vein? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

29. Oxygen is delivered to the heart muscle by the A. B. C. D. aorta. carotid artery. coronary artery. pulmonary artery.

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30. A persons blood pressure was measured at five blood vessels and plotted on the graph below.

Blood Pressure (mm of Hg)

Heart

Tissues

Heart

The reading taken at X would be at the A. B. C. D. renal artery. pulmonary vein. posterior vena cava. peritubular capillaries.

OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 31.

31. In the fetus, the function of the structure labelled X is to A. B. C. D. take blood to the lungs. ensure adequate blood flow to the brain. return blood from the placenta to the heart. direct some of the blood away from the lungs. ________________________________________________

32. Blood capillaries and lymph capillaries both A. B. C. D. filter bacteria. have one-way valves. contain red blood cells. have walls which are one-cell thick.

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Use the following information to answer question 33. transport gases maintain body temperature protect the body against blood loss produce hormones that stimulate metabolism carry digestive enzymes to the small intestine

33. How many of the above are functions of the blood? A. B. C. D. two three four five ________________________________________________

34. Which of the following correctly matches structure with function? A. B. C. D. platelets provide immunity plasma proteins carry oxygen red blood cells carry carbon dioxide white blood cells initiate blood clotting

OVER - 15 -

Use the following graph to answer question 35. Nutrient Use During Starvation
carbohydrates in cells stored fats plasma proteins

Quantity of Nutrients Stored in Body

4 Weeks of Starvation

35. The graph illustrates how the body consumes stored nutrients during a prolonged period of starvation. After eight weeks, A. B. C. D. blood pressure will increase. fluids will accumulate in tissues. glycogen production will increase. hemoglobin will not release oxygen.

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Use the following diagram to answer question 36.

Y X W

Z 36. Which area indicated in the diagram is the location of the AV node? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER - 17 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 37.

37. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. larynx. trachea. bronchus. diaphragm. ________________________________________________

38. Inhalation is caused by A. B. C. D. the diaphragm moving up and the ribs moving in. the diaphragm moving up and the ribs moving out. the diaphragm moving down and the ribs moving in. the diaphragm moving down and the ribs moving out.

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Use the following graph to answer question 39.

30

Average Breathing Rate (breaths per minute)

20

10

0 Time

39. Which of the following would cause the effect shown? A. B. C. D. increased oxygen in the blood increased numbers of red blood cells increased carbon dioxide in the blood decreased concentration of hydrogen ions ________________________________________________

40. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in external respiration occurs by A. B. C. D. osmosis. diffusion. active transport. facilitated diffusion.

41. Which of the following reactions occurs in a capillary of the leg? A. B. C. D. Hb + H + HHb HbCO2 Hb + CO 2 Hb + oxygen HbO2 H + + HCO3 H 2 CO3 OVER - 19 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 42 and 43. X Y

Z W

V 42. The structure labelled X is a(n) A. B. C. D. node. axon. synapse. dendrite.

43. If an impulse started at V, it would travel to A. B. C. D. W and X. W and Z. X and Z. Y and Z.

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64748

Use the following diagram to answer question 44.

Y 44. If molecule X causes depolarization at Y, what could X be? A. B. C. D. sodium ions calcium ions acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase ________________________________________________

45. Which of the following is a true statement about the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems? A. Sympathetic system causes increased rates of digestion while the parasympathetic system causes decreased rates of digestion. B. Sympathetic system causes decreased breathing rate while the parasympathetic system causes increased breathing rate. C. Sympathetic system causes constriction of the iris while the parasympathetic system causes dilation of the iris. D. Sympathetic system causes increased heart rate while the parasympathetic system decreases heart rate.

OVER - 21 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 46.

W Z

46. At which location would the greatest concentration of glucose be found? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

47. The inability to regulate the concentration of sodium ions in the blood could be due to improper functioning of the A. B. C. D. adrenal cortex, since it produces ADH. adrenal cortex, since it produces aldosterone. adrenal medulla, since it produces ADH. adrenal medulla, since it produces aldosterone.

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48. Increased secretion of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) will result in increased production of A. B. C. D. sperm. progesterone. seminal fluid. human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

49. The part of a sperm cell containing the greatest number of mitochondria is the A. B. C. D. head. flagellum. acrosome. mid-piece.

Use the following diagram to answer question 50. X

W Y

50. In which area does fertilization normally occur? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet. OVER - 23 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

Use the following diagram to answer question 1. CH2 OH C H C OH OH C H 1. a) Identify the molecule above. H C OH (1 mark) H O H C OH

b) What is the general term given to polymers formed from this molecule?

(1 mark)

c) List two biological functions of these polymers. i)

(2 marks)

ii)

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2. Using the table below, list three differences between RNA and DNA. (3 marks: 1 mark for each contrasting pair)

RNA

DNA

OVER - 25 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 3.


outside
Na+ Na+ Na+

inside

P
Na+ Na+

Na+

Na+ Na+

Na+

X
membrane

3. a) Identify the process shown in the diagram above.

(1 mark)

b) Give one example in which this process is used in the body.

(1 mark)

c) Describe the function of the molecule represented by

P:

(1 mark)

d) What is the function of molecule X?

(1 mark)

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Use the following diagrams to answer question 4. Y

2 glucose molecules
O

X 4. a) The diagrams illustrate a reaction that occurs in the small intestine. Give the specific name for each of the following. Molecule X: (1 mark)

Molecule Y:

(1 mark)

b) In a laboratory experiment, substance Y was added in increasing amounts until it eventually had no effect on the rate of the reaction. Explain why. (1 mark)

c) A solution containing lead ions was added to the reaction. How will the addition of this solution affect the reaction? Explain why. (2 marks)

OVER - 27 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

X Y

5. a) State two functions of structure Z. i)

(2 marks)

ii)

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b) For each of the following structures, list one enzyme it secretes and the substrate that the enzyme acts upon. (4 marks: 1 mark each for enzyme; 1 mark each for substrate) Structure X: Enzyme: Substrate: Structure Y: Enzyme: Substrate:

OVER - 29 -

6. Describe how the structure of each of the following aids in its function. Artery:

(3 marks)

Semi-lunar valve:

Capillary:

7. Identify three substances transported by hemoglobin in the blood and give the name of each form of hemoglobin. (3 marks: 1 2 mark each)

SUBSTANCE TRANSPORTED

FORM OF HEMOGLOBIN

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Use the following diagram to answer question 8. X Y

8. Describe, in correct order, the events that occur during the transmission of a nerve impulse from point X to point Y. (8 marks)

OVER - 31 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 9.

9. Identify the following structures and give a different function of each structure. (8 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Structure W: Name: Function:

Structure X: Name: Function:

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Structure Y: Name: Function:

Structure Z: Name: Function:

OVER - 33 -

10. a) Give two functions of each of the following hormones. Estrogen: i) (2 marks)

ii)

LH (luteinizing hormone): i)

(2 marks)

ii)

b) Describe two hormonal changes that occur in the mother as a result of implantation. (2 marks) i)

ii)

END OF EXAMINATION

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INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

BIOLOGY 12
August 1999
Course Code = BI

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Score for Question 1: 1. _____ (4)

Score for Question 8: 8. _____ (8)

BIOLOGY 12
August 1999
Course Code = BI Score for Question 3: 3. _____ (4) Score for Question 10: 10. _____ (6) Score for Question 2: 2. _____ (3) Score for Question 9: 9. _____ (8)

Score for Question 4: 4. _____ (5)

Score for Question 5: 5. _____ (6)

Score for Question 6: 6. _____ (3)

Score for Question 7: 7. _____ (3)

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

JUNE 1999

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1999 Ministry of Education

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 11 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. The time allotted for this examination is two hours.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer. Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

1. The structure labelled X is a(n) A. B. C. D. vacuole. Golgi body. mitochondrion. endoplasmic reticulum. ________________________________________________

2. During the metamorphosis from tadpole to frog, which of the following organelles would cause the cells of the tail of a tadpole to be broken down and digested? A. B. C. D. ribosomes lysosomes Golgi bodies endoplasmic reticulum

3. Two functions of rough endoplasmic reticulum are to A. B. C. D. detoxify and transport drugs. modify and activate hormones. synthesize and transport enzymes. join with and hydrolyze food vacuoles. OVER -1-

4. In which of the following is the greatest amount of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) found? A. B. C. D. nucleus ribosome nucleolus nuclear envelope

5. If the pH of a solution changes from 2 to 5, then the solution has A. B. C. D. become a base. lost hydrogen ions. become more acidic. gained hydrogen ions.

6. The process that joins amino acids together to make enzymes is A. B. C. D. oxidation. hydrolysis. denaturation. dehydration synthesis.

7. Most of the cell membrane is made from A. B. C. D. steroids. proteins. phospholipids. polysaccharides.

Use the following diagram to answer question 8. H H C O N H C H O C N H H C H C O H N H C H O C N H H

C H

8. The molecule shown above is part of A. B. C. D. ATP. DNA. a steroid. an enzyme.

-2-

Use the following diagram to answer question 9.


O O O O
O CH2

O O

O O CH2

O
O

O
O
O CH2 O CH2

O
O

O O
O

O O

O O

O
O

9. The diagram shows a molecule that is found in the A. B. C. D. liver. blood. pancreas. gall bladder. ________________________________________________

10. How many double bonds are there between carbon atoms in a saturated fatty acid? A. B. C. D. 0 1 2 more than 2

11. Which of the following types of bonding occurs during complementary base pairing? A. B. C. D. ionic peptide covalent hydrogen

OVER -3-

12. A polypeptide found in the cytoplasm of a cell contains 12 amino acids. How many nucleotides would be required in the mRNA for this polypeptide to be translated? A. 4 B. 12 C. 24 D. 36

13. A biologist determined the surface area and volume of four cells: two flat cells with the same thickness and two spherical cells. Which of the four cells would have the greatest surface area to volume ratio? A. B. C. D. The small, flat cell with a volume of 5 microlitres. The small, spherical cell with a volume of 5 microlitres. The large, flat cell with a volume of 10 microlitres. The large, spherical cell with a volume of 10 microlitres.

14. An increase in thyroxin will have which of the following effects? A. B. C. D. increased CO 2 production increased glycogen production decreased rate of ATP production decreased rate of glucose metabolism

-4-

Use the following diagram to answer question 15.

X Y Z

15. Hydrolysis of peptide bonds found in food occurs in A. B. C. D. V and Z. W and Y. X and V. X and Z.

OVER -5-

Use the following graph to answer question 16.

Enzyme X

Enzyme Y

Enzyme Activity

5 pH

16. The graph shows the activity of two different enzymes in the digestive tract that have the same substrate. What is enzyme Y? A. B. C. D. pepsin trypsin amylase peptidase

Use the following information to answer question 17. colon pancreas gall bladder small intestine salivary glands

17. How many of the structures above produce enzymes that digest carbohydrates? A. B. C. D. two three four five

-6-

18. The chemical digestion of fats is a result of the release of secretions from the A. B. C. D. pancreas. gall bladder. small intestine. salivary glands.

Use the following diagram to answer question 19. Fat Fat droplets

19. Secretions from which of the following would have the effect shown in the diagram? A. B. C. D. liver mouth stomach large intestine ________________________________________________

20. Which of the following is not a function of the liver? A. B. C. D. production of urea synthesis of plasma proteins secretion of digestive enzymes regulation of blood glucose levels

OVER -7-

Use the following diagram to answer question 21.

21. The structure above is found lining the walls of the A. B. C. D. colon. stomach. esophagus. small intestine.

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 22.

Y X Z

22. Which letter indicates the carotid artery? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER -9-

Use the following information to answer question 23. BLOOD VESSEL S T U V PRESSURE (mm of mercury) less than 5 20 10 40 VELOCITY (cm/sec.) 15 80 2 100

23. Blood vessel U is a(n) A. B. C. D. vein. artery. venule. capillary.

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 24.

24. The blood vessel found in adults that contains oxygen levels similar to the blood vessel labelled X is the A. B. C. D. renal vein. pulmonary vein. pulmonary artery. hepatic portal vein.

OVER - 11 -

25. A red blood cell is located in an artery in your right arm. How many capillary beds must this cell pass through before it is returned to the left ventricle? A. B. C. D. one two three four

26. The function of the nodes in the lymphatic system is to A. B. C. D. filter debris. produce platelets for clotting. break down worn-out red blood cells. help maintain a constant blood pressure.

27. What occurs when an antigen enters the body? A. B. C. D. There is increased platelet production. Red blood cells phagocytize the antigen. Antibodies change shape to fit the antigen. Specific antibodies are produced and released.

28. An irregular heartbeat where contraction of the atria does not always result in contraction of the ventricles, likely indicates a problem with the A. B. C. D. SA node. AV node. AV valve. semi-lunar valve.

29. An increase in which of the following would cause hypotension? A. B. C. D. heart rate cardiac output arteriole dilation reabsorption of water by the kidneys

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30. What happens during atrial diastole? A. B. C. D. Atria fill with blood. Semi-lunar valves close. Ventricles fill with blood. Atrioventricular valves open.

31. What is the correct sequence of structures through which an oxygen molecule passes from the nostrils to the alveolus? A. B. C. D. larynx, right bronchus, trachea, bronchioles right bronchus, larynx, bronchioles, trachea larynx, trachea, right bronchus, bronchioles trachea, larynx, bronchioles, right bronchus

32. Mucus is moved along the respiratory tract by A. B. C. D. cilia. flagella. peristalsis. active transport.

33. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the pH of the blood during internal respiration? A. B. C. D. running for ten minutes digestion of an acidic food taking in several deep breaths prolonged period of inactivity

34. Most of the carbon dioxide produced by tissues is carried back to the lungs as A. B. C. D. bicarbonate ions. reduced hemoglobin. carbaminohemoglobin. a gas dissolved in plasma.

OVER - 13 -

35. The part of a sensory neuron that transmits nerve impulses from a receptor to the cell body is the A. B. C. D. axon. synapse. dendrite. neurotransmitter.

Use the following diagram to answer question 36.

36. The molecules labelled X function to A. B. C. D. open sodium ion gates. speed up the transmission of impulses. provide an energy source for the resting potential. tell the brain the kind of stimulus that is being received. ________________________________________________

37. The parasympathetic nervous system A. B. C. D. controls the central nervous system. lowers blood pressure and promotes digestion. uses noradrenalin as the neurotransmitter at synapses. initiates the fight or flight response in times of stress.

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38. How does the hypothalamus increase the metabolic rate of cells in the body? A. B. C. D. It produces and releases thyroxin. It secretes a specific releasing hormone. It increases autonomic nerve stimulation. It causes cells to become permeable to blood glucose.

Use the following diagram to answer question 39.

39. Which of the following is not a function of the organ shown? A. B. C. D. to produce urea to excrete metabolic wastes to regulate the acidity of the blood to maintain a constant blood volume ________________________________________________

40. Filtrate enters the Bowmans capsule by A. B. C. D. active transport. tubular excretion. pressure filtration. selective reabsorption.

OVER - 15 -

41. Which of the following occurs in the distal tubule to return acidic blood back to a normal pH? A. B. C. D. Both sodium and hydrogen ions are excreted. Bicarbonate ions are excreted and hydrogen ions are reabsorbed. Ammonia and hydrogen ions are excreted and sodium ions are reabsorbed. Ammonia and hydrogen ions are reabsorbed and bicarbonate ions are excreted.

Use the following diagram to answer question 42.

X Y W Z

42. Which letter indicates the seminal vesicle? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

43. The duct that is used by both the reproductive and excretory systems in males is the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. renal pelvis. vas deferens.

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44. Testosterone is produced in the A. B. C. D. epididymis. interstitial cells. seminal vesicles. seminiferous tubules.

45. The part of the sperm that contains hydrolytic enzymes is the A. B. C. D. tail. nucleus. acrosome. mid-piece.

Use the following diagram to answer question 46. X

46. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. uterus. cervix. follicle. oviduct.

OVER - 17 -

47. The function of the endometrium is to A. B. C. D. carry the egg to the uterus. release an egg once a month. produce hormones for the uterine cycle. provide nourishment for the developing embryo.

48. A rise in blood levels of FSH at the beginning of the ovarian cycle causes A. B. C. D. menopause. the release of the egg. the maturation of the follicle. the breakdown of the endometrium.

49. Low levels of estrogen and progesterone in the blood will result in A. B. C. D. fertilization. no ovulation. menstruation. destruction of the corpus luteum.

50. Which of the following, if present in urine samples, would indicate pregnancy? A. B. C. D. estrogen progesterone luteinizing hormone (LH) human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

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PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. a) Define recombinant DNA.

(1 mark)

b) Describe two uses for recombinant DNA. i)

(2 marks)

ii)

OVER - 19 -

2. Give the purpose of each of the following steps in the process of protein synthesis. a) Ribosome moving along a mRNA: (1 mark)

b) Adenine bonding to thymine:

(1 mark)

c) An amino acid bonding to a specific tRNA:

(1 mark)

d) Forming of peptide bonds:

(1 mark)

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Use the following diagrams to answer question 3.

Tissue Sample A
Top View

Tissue Sample B
Top View

Side View

Side View

3. a) The diagrams above were made from samples of epithelial cells taken from healthy tissue and cancerous tissue. Which tissue sample is from the cancerous tissue? (1 mark)

b) Give two reasons for your answer in a) above. i)

(2 marks)

ii)

OVER - 21 -

4. An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration of molecules in the cytoplasm of potato cells. The following steps were taken: 1. Five different sugar solutions were added to five numbered test tubes as shown in the data table below. 2. Five potato discs (cut from the same potato) were weighed and one disc was added to each test tube. 3. After 24 hours, the potato discs were removed, blotted dry, and weighed again. CONCENTRATION OF SUGAR SOLUTION
(%)

TEST TUBE 1 2 3 4 5

INITIAL POTATO MASS


(grams)

FINAL POTATO MASS


(grams)

CHANGE IN MASS (%) 20 10 +6 + 15 + 20

30.0 20.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 (distilled water only)

5.0 4.8 5.2 4.7 5.1

4.0 4.3 5.5 5.4 6.1

a) Name and describe the process that allowed the potato cells to gain and lose mass when placed in the sugar solutions. (2 marks: 1 mark for name; 1 mark for description) Name of Process: Description of Process:

b) Explain the change in mass of the potato disc in test tube 1.

(2 marks)

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c) Draw a graph that compares the concentration of sugar solution (%) to the change in mass (%) of the potato discs. Label the x-axis as the concentration of sugar solution (%). (2 marks)

d) Use your graph to determine the concentration of sugar solution (%) that would be isotonic to the cytoplasm of the potato cells. (1 mark)

OVER - 23 -

5. An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of temperature on an enzyme isolated from the small intestine. Data was collected and graphed as shown below.
30

25

20 Activity Rate for Enzyme (amount of product) (mg/min)

15

10

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Temperature ( C)

Explain why the following temperatures change the activity rate of the enzyme. 0 C to 35 C : (1 mark)

37 C :

(1 mark)

45 C to 55 C :

(2 marks)

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6. The following substances were isolated from organs found in the digestive system. Name the organ in which each substance was produced and give one function of the substance. (4 marks) ORGAN WHERE PRODUCED

SUBSTANCE

FUNCTION

pepsin

nuclease

OVER - 25 -

7. a) Describe one function of each of the following. Red blood cells:

(3 marks)

White blood cells:

Platelets:

b) Where are red blood cells produced?

(1 mark)

- 26 -

8. Describe the interaction of the lungs, pleural membranes, ribs, and diaphragm during inhalation. (4 marks)

OVER - 27 -

9. Explain how an action potential is generated in a neuron.

(4 marks)

- 28 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 10.

Y Z

10. Identify structures X, Y and Z and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Structure X: Name: Function:

Structure Y: Name: Function:

Structure Z: Name: Function:

OVER - 29 -

11. a) Using the following diagram, label the parts of a nephron in the blanks provided. (3 marks: 1 2 mark each)

b) Identify one hormone that responds to a decrease in blood volume and explain how this hormone functions to return blood volume to normal levels. (4 marks: 1 mark for name; 3 marks for explanation) Name: Explanation:

END OF EXAMINATION

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

BIOLOGY 12
June 1999
Course Code = BI

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Score for Question 1: 1. _____ (3)

Score for Question 8: 8. _____ (4)

BIOLOGY 12
June 1999
Course Code = BI Score for Question 3: 3. _____ (3) Score for Question 10: 10. _____ (6) Score for Question 2: 2. _____ (4) Score for Question 9: 9. _____ (4)

Score for Question 4: 4. _____ (7)

Score for Question 11: 11. _____ (7)

Score for Question 5: 5. _____ (4)

Score for Question 6: 6. _____ (4)

Score for Question 7: 7. _____ (4)

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

NOVEMBER 1999

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1999 Ministry of Education

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 12 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

4.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

1. Which organelle contains enzymes that digest old cells? A. B. C. D. nucleus ribosome lysosome Golgi body

Use the following diagram to answer question 2.

2. The organelle labelled X A. B. C. D. makes ATP. synthesizes proteins. packages and modifies proteins. controls what enters and leaves the cell.

OVER -1-

Use the following diagram to answer question 3.

3. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. nucleolus. mitochondria. cell membrane. rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Use the following diagram to answer question 4.

4. Products of this organelle are needed for which of the following? A. B. C. D. capillary-tissue fluid exchange diffusion of oxygen into the lung capillaries re-establishment of the resting potential in a neuron movement of water into a cell across a semi-permeable membrane

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5. Which organelles are found in greater amounts in a cell that produces enzymes for the digestion of starches? A. B. C. D. Golgi bodies and nuclei lysosomes and smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

6. A glucose molecule contains A. B. C. D. six carbon atoms. two high-energy phosphates. three fatty acids and glycerol. a long chain of carbohydrate rings.

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.


Substance A

Substance D

Substance D

Substance C

7. The diagram above represents a series of reactions which occur in the body. If substance D was unavailable, which of the following would result? A. B. C. D. DNA could not be replicated. Proteins would not be produced. Carbohydrates could not be hydrolyzed. Fatty acids and glycerol would not join together to produce fats. OVER -3-

8. A characteristic of unsaturated fats is that they A. B. C. D. denature as they cool. are made up of glucose and fructose. are made up of amino acids and glycerol. have double bonds in their carbon chains.

9. The level of protein structure represented by the alpha-helix shape is A. B. C. D. primary. secondary. tertiary. quaternary.

Use the following diagram to answer question 10.


S P P S P S P S P S P S P S P S S P S P S P S S P S P S P S S S P S P P S S P P S S P S P S P P S S P S S P P S P S S P S P S

mRNA

10. Which process is shown above? A. B. C. D. translation elongation replication transcription

-4-

11. A change in the sequence of bases in a strand of DNA that occurs as a result of exposure to x-rays is an example of A. B. C. D. mutation. denaturation. transcription. protein synthesis.

12. A proto-oncogene is described as DNA that A. B. C. D. causes cancer. causes the vascularization of a tumour. can be mutated into cancer-causing DNA. directly causes uncontrolled cellular growth.

13. Carrier molecules that bring materials into cells are A. B. C. D. lipids. proteins. glycogen. phospholipids.

14. Which of the following moves material against a concentration gradient? A. B. C. D. osmosis diffusion active transport facilitated transport

15. The secretion of noradrenalin into the synaptic cleft occurs by which of the following processes? A. B. C. D. exocytosis pinocytosis endocytosis active transport

OVER -5-

Use the following diagrams to answer question 16.


Initial Conditions
Side A Side B Side A

After 10 minutes
Side B

Membrane permeable to small molecules

Membrane permeable to small molecules

16. Which of the following conditions would cause the change in the fluid levels as shown after 10 minutes? SOLUTION IN SIDE A distilled water 2% glucose 5% protein 2% salt SOLUTION IN SIDE B 5% salt 5% glucose 2% protein 2% salt

A. B. C. D.

Use the following diagrams to answer question 17.

17. The diagram above represents an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The substance labelled X is most likely a A. B. C. D. steroid. protein. vitamin. calcium ion ( Ca 2+ ).

-6-

18. A function of enzymes is to A. B. C. D. emulsify fats. carry information to nerves. catalyze chemical reactions. maintain constant blood pH.

19. What would occur if sodium bicarbonate ions were removed from pancreatic juice? A. B. C. D. Decreased amounts of bile would be released. Increased H 2 O absorption would occur in the colon. The cells lining the small intestine would be damaged. Digestion of nutrients in the small intestine would increase.

20. Which of the following describes peristalsis? A. B. C. D. the physical breakdown of fats production of vitamins by E. coli release of enzymes by the pancreas muscle contractions of the digestive tract

21. Trypsin functions best in which of the following conditions? A. B. C. D. basic acidic neutral low pH

OVER -7-

Use the following diagram to answer question 22.

22. The absorption of materials at structure X is temporarily impaired. What would occur during the time that structure X is not functioning properly? A. B. C. D. Absorption of fats would stop. The amount of glycogen produced in the liver would decrease. The pancreas would release more enzymes and bicarbonate ions. Pepsinogen would be secreted by the stomach in greater amounts. ________________________________________________

23. Which type of blood vessel has thick walls in order to withstand high pressure? A. B. C. D. vein artery arteriole capillary

24. The blood vessels that carry blood to and from the head are the A. B. C. D. iliac arteries and veins. subclavian arteries and veins. carotid arteries and jugular veins. anterior (superior) and posterior (inferior) vena cavae. -8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 25.

25. The structure above would carry A. B. C. D. deoxygenated blood from the legs to the heart. deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. oxygenated blood toward and away from the glomerulus. deoxygenated blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. ________________________________________________

26. Which of the following would occur as a result of the oval opening in the heart remaining open after birth? A. B. C. D. Blood pressure in the lungs would increase. Impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node would stop. Blood in the right atrium would mix with blood in the left atrium. A greater amount of blood would flow into the pulmonary system.

27. Which of the following is a function of red blood cells? A. B. C. D. clot blood carry oxygen fight infection regulate osmotic pressure

OVER -9-

Use the following diagrams to answer question 28.

28. Which of the following would result if the cells above were functioning properly? A. B. C. D. Blood clotting would occur. Less oxygen would be carried in the blood. Disease-causing bacteria could be engulfed. Fluids would remain in the tissues, causing swelling. ________________________________________________

29. Which chamber of the heart pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta? A. B. C. D. left atrium right atrium left ventricle right ventricle

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 30.

30. The structure labelled X is a A. B. C. D. trachea. bronchus. bronchiole. diaphragm. ________________________________________________

31. Where does oxygen diffuse into the blood? A. B. C. D. alveoli trachea bronchioles pleural membranes

32. An increase in the rate of contractions of the diaphragm and rib muscles would indicate A. B. C. D. decreased hydrogen ion concentration. decreased reduced hemoglobin in the blood. increased concentration of bicarbonate ion in the blood. increased concentration of oxyhemoglobin in the blood. OVER - 11 -

33. Blood entering the systemic circulation carries high concentrations of A. B. C. D. oxyhemoglobin. bicarbonate ions. reduced hemoglobin. carbaminohemoglobin.

Use the following diagram to answer question 34.

34. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. axon. dendrite. cell body. myelin sheath.

Use the following diagram to answer question 35.

35. The structure above carries impulses A. B. C. D. from a receptor. to a muscle or a gland. away from the central nervous system. solely within the central nervous system.

- 12 -

36. Which of the following is a characteristic of a resting potential? A. B. C. D. secretion of calcium ions neurotransmitters move into the axon depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane a net negative charge on the inside of the axon

Use the following diagram to answer question 37.

37. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. cerebrum. cerebellum. hypothalamus. corpus callosum.

OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 38.

X 38. If a neuron is severed at point X, A. B. C. D. sensory impulses still reach the brain. increased amounts of neurotransmitters are secreted. a message is sent to the sensory receptors, inhibiting them. another interneuron moves into place to complete the reflex arc.

Use the following diagram to answer question 39. X

39. If the structure above is part of a reflex arc, the part labelled X would receive messages directly from A. B. C. D. a receptor. an interneuron. a motor neuron. a muscle or gland.

- 14 -

40. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. B. C. D. rate of heartbeat contraction of skeletal muscles increased blood flow to muscle tissue movement of food through the intestines

41. The part of the brain responsible for muscle coordination is the A. B. C. D. cerebellum. hypothalamus. corpus callosum. medulla oblongata.

42. Which structure carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body? A. B. C. D. ureter urethra renal pelvis collecting duct

43. Which substance is found in the glomerulus, Bowmans capsule and efferent arteriole but is not normally found in the collecting duct? A. B. C. D. urea glucose penicillin sodium ions

44. Blood is brought to the glomerulus by the A. B. C. D. renal vein. afferent arteriole. efferent arteriole. peritubular capillaries.

45. The source of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is the A. B. C. D. thyroid. adrenal cortex. anterior pituitary. posterior pituitary. OVER - 15 -

46. Storage and maturation of sperm occurs in the A. B. C. D. epididymis. corpus luteum. seminal vesicle. Cowpers gland.

47. When sperm is ejaculated, it comes into contact with or passes near each of the following structures. Which sequence correctly describes the passage of sperm out of the body? A. B. C. D. seminiferous tubules prostate vas deferens urethra seminiferous tubules vas deferens urethra prostate seminiferous tubules vas deferens prostate urethra prostate seminiferous tubules vas deferens urethra

Use the following diagram to answer questions 48 and 49.

W
Time

48. The diagram above represents the stages of a developing follicle. What other event takes place during the time period from W to X? A. B. C. D. The endometrium breaks down. The uterine lining rebuilds and thickens. The anterior pituitary secretes decreasing amounts of luteinizing hormone (LH). The hypothalamus shuts off the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

49. The event shown at time X occurs as a result of A. B. C. D. the release of large amounts of LH and FSH. the secretion of oxytocin while breast feeding. the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). a steady decline in FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone.

- 16 -

50. The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in a womans urine indicates that she A. B. C. D. is pregnant. has just ovulated. is about to menstruate. has decreased estrogen levels.

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

OVER - 17 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. State a different function for each of the following in the human body. (3 marks: 1 mark each) Monosaccharides:

Amino acids:

Glycogen:

- 18 -

2. Describe the process of DNA replication.

(3 marks)

OVER - 19 -

Use the following chart to answer question 3.


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamic acid UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

3. a) Determine the DNA base sequence that codes for the amino acid tryptophan.

(1 mark)

b) Determine the anticodon for tryptophan.

(1 mark)

- 20 -

4. Describe how increased vascularization aids in the development of cancer.

(2 marks)

OVER - 21 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

5. Give three functions of the structure above. i)

(3 marks)

ii)

iii)

- 22 -

6. The addition of heavy metals, boiling water or acid all have the same effect on the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Describe the effect that these additions have on the enzyme and the reaction rate. (4 marks)

OVER - 23 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 7. W

7. Identify each of the labelled structures and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 2 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Part W: Name: Function:

Part X: Name: Function:

Part Y: Name: Function:

Part Z: Name: Function:

- 24 -

8. Describe tissue-capillary fluid exchange.

(5 marks)

OVER - 25 -

9. Describe how the characteristics of the lungs assist in the function of gas exchange. (4 marks)

- 26 -

10. Describe how a nerve impulse moves across a synapse.

(5 marks)

OVER - 27 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 11.

X Y V

11. State a different function of each of the labelled structures. Part U:

(6 marks: 1 mark each)

Part V:

Part W:

- 28 -

Part X:

Part Y:

Part Z:

OVER - 29 -

12. a) Give one function of each of the following in a male. Luteinizing hormone (LH):

(3 marks: 1 mark each)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH):

Testosterone:

b)

i) Name two structures that contribute to the production of seminal fluid. i) ii)

(2 marks)

ii) Give two functions of seminal fluid. i)

(2 marks)

ii)

END OF EXAMINATION

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Question 1: 1. (3) Question 2: 2. (3) Question 3: 3. (2) Question 4: 4. (2) Question 5: 5. (3) Question 6: 6. (4)

Question 7: 7. (6) Question 8:


S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

.
INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

8. (5)

.
batch and sequence number Question 9:

9. (4)

Question 10: 10. (5) Question 11: 11. (6) Question 12:
Use this space if I.D. sticker is not available.

BIOLOGY 12
November 1999
Course Code = BI

12. (7)

WRITE STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

I N T H I S S PA C E

Biology 12
January 1999 Provincial Examination

ANSWER KEY / SCORING GUIDE


Curriculum: Organizers 1. Cell Biology 2. Cell Processes and Application 3. Human Biology Part A: Multiple Choice Q 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. K D C D D C C C D B C A D B B A C C D D C D A B B C C K H U H K H U K K U K K H K H H H U U U U U U U K CO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 PLO A1, 3 A1; H1 A1 A1, 2; G5 B3 B3 C1, 2 C2; D1 C2, 8; G1 C3 C9 C2, 12 D2 G1 G3, 4 G4, 8 G6 H3 I1, 2 I1, 2 I1, 9 I2 I2 I2 J1 Q 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. K C CO PLO K1 K2 K1, 6 L1 L1 L1, 5 L7 L8; J2 N2 N3 N4 N4 O1 O2 O2, 4, 5 O4 P1 P1 P3 P4 P5, 6 P9, 10 P10 P7, 9, 10 Sub-Organizers A, B, C, D E, F, G, H I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

B U 3 B H 3 D U 3 C U 3 D K 3 C U 3 D K 3 A U 3 D U 3 C K 3 A K 3 A U 3 A K 3 B U 3 C H 3 DELETED D K 3 D K 3 C K 3 D K 3 B K 3 C H 3 C H 3 A U 3 B K 3

Multiple Choice = 50 marks


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Part B: Written Response Q 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 C K U U H U U U U K S 4 3 4 8 10 3 8 6 4 CO 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 PLO D1 E1 F4 H6; I2, 4 J2, 5, 6 L2 M3, 4 O1, 2 P7

Written Response = 50 marks

Multiple Choice = Written Response = EXAMINATION TOTAL =

50 (50 questions) 50 (9 questions) 100 marks

LEGEND:
Q = Question Number B = Score Box Number K = Keyed Response C = Cognitive Level PLO = Prescribed Learning Outcome S = Score CO = Curriculum Organizer

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PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. Describe the structure of DNA. (You may use a labelled diagram to answer this question.) (4 marks) It consists of two polynucleotide strands. It is a double helix OR ladder configuration. Its sugar is deoxyribose. It has bases A, T, C and G. There is hydrogen bonding between the complementary bases (AT, CG) on the two polynucleotides. It is composed of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of sugar, phosphate and base. It has a sugar-phosphate backbone. any four for 1 mark each

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2. State one role for each of the following molecules in the process of protein synthesis. (3 marks) DNA:

Contains the genetic code for protein synthesis. Serves as a template for the transcription of mRNA.

either one for 1 mark

mRNA: Carries the transcribed code to the ribosome for translation. Determines the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide produced. either one for 1 mark

tRNA: Carries specific amino acid to a codon on the mRNA. Binds to a specific amino acid. Ensures the correct amino acid sequence in the new polypeptide through complementary base pairing of codons and anticodons. any one for 1 mark

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3. Describe the process of carcinogenesis. During initiation, a carcinogen brings about a mutation. During promotion, cancerous growth is triggered. Vascularization occurs. A mutagen converts a proto-oncogene to an oncogene. Metastasis occurs (cancer spreads to other sites). There is a loss of contact inhibition between the cells. The cells develop abnormal nuclei. The cytoskeleton of the cells is altered. any four for 1 mark each

(4 marks)

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February 23, 1999

4. In an experiment designed to test the effects of environmental conditions on the ability of enzymes to digest food, the following steps are carried out: Four test tubes are labelled A, B, C and D. All tubes contain distilled water and a small amount of egg white (protein). Individual tubes have additional contents as shown in the table below. All tubes are to be incubated at 37 C for one hour.

For each tube, explain what will happen and why. (8 marks: 1 mark each for result; 1 mark each for explanation) INITIAL CONTENTS ADDITIONAL CONTENTS

TUBE

RESULT AND EXPLANATION

distilled water + egg white

none

No digestion occurs (1 mark) because no enzyme is present. (1 mark)

distilled water + egg white

pepsin

Little or no digestion occurs (1 mark) because pH is not optimum. (1 mark)

distilled water + egg white

pepsin + hydrochloric acid (at pH 3)

Digestion occurs either one Peptides are produced for 1 mark because the correct enzyme and optimum pH are present. (1 mark)

distilled water + egg white

hydrochloric acid (at pH 3)

Little or no digestion occurs (1 mark) because no enzyme is present. (1 mark) (There is limited hydrolysis by HCl at 37C.)

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February 23, 1999

Use the following diagram to answer question 5a).

W X Y Z V U

5. a) For each blood vessel listed in the table below, write the letter from the diagram which indicates the vessels location. (2 marks: 1 2 mark each ) LETTER FROM DIAGRAM U Z W X -7February 23, 1999

BLOOD VESSEL Iliac artery Aorta Carotid artery Subclavian artery


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b) In the table below, contrast the structure and/or function of the hepatic vein versus the hepatic portal vein.

(4 marks)

HEPATIC VEIN Joins the liver and the inferior vena cava. After a meal, carries blood lower in glucose than the hepatic portal vein. Between meals, carries blood higher in glucose than the hepatic portal vein. Starts in a capillary bed and ends in a vessel. CONTRASTS Carries blood higher in urea than the hepatic portal vein.

HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN Joins the digestive tract and the liver. After a meal, carries blood higher in glucose than the hepatic vein. Between meals, carries blood lower in glucose than the hepatic vein. Starts and ends in capillary beds. any two contrasting pairs for 2 marks per pair

Carries blood lower in urea than the hepatic vein.

Larger in diameter.

Smaller in diameter.

Carries purified blood away from the liver.

Carries blood containing poisons to the liver.

Part of systemic circulatory system.

Part of portal system.

Note to markers: Students must show a valid contrast. No single marks should be given if student fills in only one of the pair of boxes.

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c) Name two structures present in fetal but not in adult circulatory systems and describe the function of each. (4 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Students may choose any two of the following: Name: oval opening Function: Allows blood to move from the right to the left atrium, bypassing the pulmonary circuit. Name: arterial duct Function: Allows blood to move from the pulmonary artery and the aorta, bypassing the pulmonary circuit. Name: umbilical arteries Function: Take blood containing wastes to the placenta. Name: umbilical vein Function: Brings nutrient-rich blood from the placenta. Name: venous duct Function: Allows blood to flow from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava. Name: umbilical cord Function: Carries O2 / nutrients from the placenta; carries wastes to the placenta.

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-9-

February 23, 1999

6. Describe how the upper respiratory tract is specialized to keep the lungs free of debris. (3 marks) Mucus traps debris. Cilia sweep debris back up to the glottis. Cilia filter the air. Hairs in the nasal passages filter the air. Coughing moves debris up and out of the respiratory tract. Epiglottis blocks food from entering the lungs. Saliva traps particles. any three for 1 mark each

991bik

- 10 -

February 23, 1999

7. Describe the transmission of a nerve impulse through a neuron. Through a neuron: Depolarization of postsynaptic membrane occurs. OR Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. Membrane is polarized. Sodium ion gates open. Sodium ions diffuse into the neuron. Depolarization occurs. Membrane potential is + 40mV (upswing). Sodium ion gates close. Potassium ion gates open. Potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron. Repolarization occurs. Membrane potential is 65mV (downswing). Myelinated fibres allow faster transmission because the action potential travels from node to node. Sodium-potassium pump re-establishes resting potential. Transmission occurs in one direction only. At the synapse: Action potential reaches the end of the axon. Presynaptic membrane becomes permeable to calcium. Calcium ions cause microfilaments to pull synaptic vesicles to inner surface of presynaptic membrane. Vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. any eight for 1 mark each

(8 marks)

991bik

- 11 -

February 23, 1999

8. Give two functions of each of the following urinary system structures. Kidney: Helps maintain pH. Excretes nitrogenous wastes, excess salts and H 2O or produces and excretes urine. Helps maintain water balance. Removes histamines, penicillin, etc. Helps maintain nutrient and mineral balance. Purifies blood. Regulates blood volume. any two for 1 mark each

(6 marks)

Collecting duct: Reabsorbs water. Carries urine to the renal pelvis. Regulation of pH. Regulates blood volume. any two for 1 mark each

Proximal tubule: Selective reabsorption of salts. Selective reabsorption of amino acids. Selective reabsorption of glucose. Reabsorption of water. Active transmission of nutrients. Moves filtrate to the loop of Henle. any two for 1 mark each

991bik

- 12 -

February 23, 1999

9. Label the following diagram in the blanks provided.

(4 marks)

oviduct or fallopian tube

ovary uterus or uterine wall

vagina

END OF KEY

991bik

- 13 -

February 23, 1999

MINISTRY USE ONLY

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Biology 12
2001 Ministry of Education

AUGUST 2001
Course Code = BI

Student Instructions
1. Place the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. 2. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. 3. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. 4. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

Question 1: 1. (8) Question 2: 2. (4) Question 3: 3. (3) Question 4: 4. (4) Question 5: 5. (5) Question 6: 6. (7) Question 7: 7. (7) Question 8: 8. (7)

Question 9: 9. (5)

BIOLOGY 12
AUGUST 2001
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 9 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

Y X Z W

1. Which of the organelles in the diagram packages proteins for secretion? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 2. Chromosomes are composed of A. B. C. D. tRNA and DNA. tRNA and lipids. DNA and proteins. RNA and ribosomes.

OVER -1-

3. In contrast to the nuclear envelope, the inner membrane of the mitochondrion A. B. C. D. contains pores. has many folds. is not permeable. has two phospholipid layers.

4. Which organelle provides the energy for protein synthesis? A. B. C. D. nucleus nucleolus mitochondrion rough endoplasmic reticulum

5. Neutral fats do not dissolve in water because A. B. C. D. water is non-polar. water is polar and neutral fats are non-polar. neutral fats are polar and form hydrogen bonds with water. neutral fats break down into ions when combined with water.

6. Which of the following describes the action of a buffer? A. B. C. D. Lysosomes hydrolyze proteins in the cell. During exercise, hemoglobin accepts hydrogen ions ( H + ). Gastric secretions denature salivary amylase in the stomach. Reduced hemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin in the lungs.

-2-

7. Which of the following diagrams represents glucose? A.

B.

C.

D.

8. Unsaturated fatty acids, like those found in fish oils, are characterized by A. B. C. D. the ability to bond with glycerol to make lipids. bonds between an amine and a carboxyl (acid) group. having only single bonds between the carbon atoms in the chain. some carbon atoms in the chain that bond to only one hydrogen atom.

9. If 20% of the base molecules are guanine, how many thymine molecules are present in a DNA molecule with 1 000 bases? A. B. C. D. 200 300 400 600

OVER -3-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 10 and 11.

+
G C C G A T

x y1

x1

y1

x1

10. The diagram above represents A. B. C. D. DNA replication. mRNA translation. mRNA elongation. DNA transcription.

11. The process shown in the diagram occurs in the A. B. C. D. nucleus. nucleolus. ribosomes. rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Use the following information to answer question 12. uracil adenine thymine phosphate deoxyribose

12. RNA contains how many of the molecules above? A. B. C. D. one two three four -4-

13. Worn-out red blood cells are removed from the blood by the process of A. B. C. D. osmosis. exocytosis. endocytosis. simple diffusion.

14. The hormone responsible for increasing the rate at which cells release energy from carbohydrates is A. B. C. D. ATP. ADH. thyroxin. aldosterone.

Use the following diagram to answer question 15. X

15. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. product. enzyme. substrate. enzyme-substrate complex. ________________________________________________ 16. Bicarbonate ions and digestive enzymes are present in secretions from the A. B. C. D. liver. stomach. pancreas. small intestine.

OVER -5-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 17 and 18.

W X V Y

17. Which letter identifies the gall bladder? A. B. C. D. V X Y Z

18. Which organ is involved in maintaining a constant level of glucose in the blood? A. B. C. D. V W X Z ________________________________________________ 19. Which of the following substances is chemically digested by a component of saliva? A. B. C. D. lipid starch protein nucleic acid

-6-

20. Lipase, when added to gastric juice, is ineffective due to the presence of A. B. C. D. mucus. trypsin. bicarbonate ions. hydrochloric acid.

21. Villi are found in the A. B. C. D. esophagus. liver. small intestine. stomach.

22. Which of the following blood vessels have thin, permeable walls? A. B. C. D. veins venules arterioles capillaries

23. The vessel that returns blood that is low in oxygen to the heart is the A. B. C. D. coronary artery. pulmonary vein. pulmonary artery. anterior (superior) vena cava.

OVER -7-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 24 and 25.

24. Which arteries bring blood to structure Z? A. B. C. D. hepatic iliac mesenteric renal

25. Blood flowing through the hepatic vein is obstructed. As a result, the blood pressure increases in the organs drained by the hepatic portal vein. Which of the following organs would be affected? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 26.

26. The blood vessel labelled X carries high levels of A. B. C. D. oxyhemoglobin toward the heart. oxyhemoglobin away from the heart. reduced hemoglobin toward the heart. reduced hemoglobin away from the heart.

Use the following information to answer question 27. 1. 2. 3. 4. umbilical artery umbilical vein anterior vena cava right atrium

27. Which of the following would represent the correct order of structures in the circulatory system of the fetus if the structures are placed in order from highest oxygen concentration to lowest oxygen concentration? DELETED A. B. C. D. 2 2 1 1 3 4 2 4 4 1 4 3 1 3 3 2

OVER -9-

28. The structure that prevents blood from moving back into the left ventricle is the A. B. C. D. cardiac sphincter. chordae tendineae. atrioventricular valve. aortic semilunar valve.

Use the following graph to answer question 29.

150

Y W X Z

blood pressure (mm Hg)

100

50

time 29. The graph shows changes in blood pressure in the aorta over time. Which letter would indicate when ventricular systole is occurring? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 30. A persons blood pressure rose from 120/80 to 160/100 during a stressful situation. This change in blood pressure was caused by a hormone released from the A. B. C. D. thalamus. thyroid gland. adrenal gland. corpus callosum.

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 31.

Z X

31. Which letter indicates the alveoli? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 32. Which of the following is responsible for keeping the respiratory tract clear of mucus and debris? A. B. C. D. cilia alveoli pharynx diaphragm

33. The contraction of the diaphragm is accompanied by the A. B. C. D. relaxation of rib muscles, increased thoracic cavity volume and exhalation. relaxation of rib muscles, decreased thoracic cavity volume and exhalation. contraction of rib muscles, increased thoracic cavity volume and inhalation. contraction of rib muscles, decreased thoracic cavity volume and inhalation. OVER - 11 -

34. Which enzyme speeds up the reaction between CO 2 and H 2 O ? A. B. C. D. amylase dehydrogenase carbonic anhydrase acetylcholinesterase

35. During internal respiration, excess hydrogen ions react with A. B. C. D. oxygen to form oxyhemoglobin. hemoglobin to form reduced hemoglobin. carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate ions. bicarbonate ions to form water and carbon dioxide.

36. Some neurotransmitters in the peripheral nervous system stop or reduce muscle-cell contractions. These neurotransmitters must work by A. B. C. D. destroying cholinesterase in the synaptic cleft. decreasing the amount of stimulus required for depolarization. preventing the sodium gates from opening in the postsynaptic membranes. preventing the reabsorption of acetylcholine in the presynaptic membranes.

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 37 and 38.

X Z W

37. Which of the following indicates the medulla oblongata? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

38. Which of the following activities accompanies high activity in structure Z? A. B. C. D. sleeping swallowing food studying for an exam performing a gymnastics routine ________________________________________________ 39. Which of the following inhibits the digestive actions of the stomach and the small intestine? A. B. C. D. cerebellum anterior pituitary gland sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system

OVER - 13 -

40. Voluntary movement of the limbs is initiated by the A. B. C. D. cerebrum. cerebellum. hypothalamus. medulla oblongata.

41. When proteins are broken down, urea is produced and enters the blood plasma. Which of the following processes would account for the presence of urea in the nephron? A. B. C. D. pressure filtration at the glomerulus tubular excretion in the distal tubule active transport in the collecting duct facilitated transport in the proximal tubule

42. Which of the following structures would have cells with the greatest concentration of mitochondria in their cytoplasm? A. B. C. D. glomerulus collecting duct Bowmans capsule proximal convoluted tubule

43. Low levels of sodium ions ( Na + ) in the body result in the secretion of A. B. C. D. adrenalin. aldosterone. insulin. thyroxin.

- 14 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 44. Y

44. Which of the following structures has receptor sites for ADH and aids in the reabsorption of water? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 45. Which structure is sometimes surgically tied shut to prevent sperm from leaving the body? A. B. C. D. ureter seminal vesicle seminiferous tubules ductus (vas) deferens

OVER - 15 -

46. Testosterone production in the male occurs in the A. B. C. D. prostate gland. interstitial cells. Cowpers gland. seminiferous tubules.

47. The structure in the sperm that contains 23 chromosomes is the A. B. C. D. tail. head. acrosome. mid-piece.

48. A steroid hormone produced in the ovary that causes breast development is A. B. C. D. estrogen. aldosterone. luteinizing hormone (LH). follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

- 16 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 49.

49. Which of the following structures is labelled X? A. B. C. D. ovary uterus cervix oviduct ________________________________________________ 50. Which of the following is true of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)? A. B. C. D. It stimulates the corpus luteum. It causes progesterone levels to decrease. It causes degeneration of the endometrium. It stimulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet. OVER - 17 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1 a). Molecule X


CH3

H O C

N H C C H H O C N N C H

CH3

1. a)

i) Identify molecule X and name the organelle where the molecule is made. Name of molecule: (1 mark)

Name of organelle where made:

(1 mark)

ii)

Describe two ways in which molecule X is used by the cell membrane.

(2 marks)

- 18 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 1 b). Molecule Y

b)

i) Identify molecule Y and name the organelle where the molecule is made. Name of molecule: (1 mark)

Name of organelle where made:

(1 mark)

ii)

Describe two ways in which molecule Y is used by the cell membrane.

(2 marks)

OVER - 19 -

Use the following chart of mRNA codons to answer question 2 a).


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamate UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

2. A segment of hemoglobin has the following sequence of amino acids: leucinethreonineprolineglutamateglutamate The same segment of hemoglobin found in people who have sickle-cell anemia has the following sequence: leucinethreonineprolinevalineglutamate a) Using the chart above, explain how DNA is different in people with sickle-cell anemia. (2 marks)

b) State two environmental agents that can change the DNA. i) ii) - 20 -

(2 marks)

3. Tissue sample A is taken from a mole on the skin that shows abnormal growth while tissue sample B is composed of normal skin cells. Describe how the cells in tissue sample A are different from those in tissue sample B. (3 marks)

OVER - 21 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 4. Side A Side B

amylase and starch solution

distilled water

semi-permeable membrane

4. Side A contains a solution of amylase and starch. Side B, which only contains distilled water, is separated from side A by a semi-permeable membrane. The contents of the beaker are kept at 37C . a) What characteristic does the semi-permeable membrane share with a living membrane? (1 mark)

b) After 20 minutes, the liquid on side B was tested and a disaccharide was found. Identify this disaccharide and account for its presence on side B. (3 marks: 1 mark for name; 2 marks for explanation) Name: Explanation:

- 22 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 5 a).

5. a) Describe three things that would occur if the artery labelled X became blocked? (3 marks) i)

ii)

iii)

b) What would happen if the atrioventricular (AV) valve in the left side of the heart did not close properly? (2 marks)

OVER - 23 -

Use the following information to answer questions 6 a) and b). ACTIVITY exercise sitting (at rest) sleeping RATE OF AIR INTAKE 78 L/min. 45 L/min. 2 L/min.

6. a) What substance found in the plasma would cause the change in the rate of air intake during exercise? (1 mark)

b) Write the chemical reactions that occur during internal respiration that return the rate of air intake during exercise to the resting rate. (2 marks)

c)

i) Why would a drop in pH cause the enzymes that clot blood to function at a slower rate? (2 marks)

ii)

State two other conditions that would have the same effect on the enzymes in the blood. (2 marks)

- 24 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.

X 7. a) Identify the following structures. Structure X: (2 marks: 1 mark each)

Structure Z:

b) Describe the stages in the transmission of a nerve impulse.

(4 marks)

c) How would nerve impulse transmission be affected without the cells that form structure Y?

(1 mark)

OVER - 25 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 8 a) and b).

8. a) Identify structure X and describe the environment within the structure. (2 marks: 1 mark for name; 1 mark for description) Name: Description:

b) Identify structure Y and give its function. (2 marks: 1 mark for name; 1 mark for function) Name: Function:

- 26 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 8 c).

c) Identify structure Z and describe two characteristics that assist in its function. (3 marks: 1 mark for name; 2 marks for characteristics) Name: Characteristic 1:

Characteristic 2:

OVER - 27 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 9.

hormone X

hormone Y

14

21

28

day in cycle

9. a) On what day does ovulation take place?

(1 mark)

b)

i) Identify hormone X.

(1 mark)

ii)

What structure secretes hormone X?

(1 mark)

c) Describe the effects on the body caused by the release of hormone Y between days 1 and 14.

(2 marks)

END OF EXAMINATION - 28 -

MINISTRY USE ONLY

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Biology 12
2001 Ministry of Education

JUNE 2001
Course Code = BI

Student Instructions
1. Place the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. 2. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. 3. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. 4. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

Question 1: 1. (5) Question 2: 2. (4) Question 3: 3. (4) Question 4: 4. (5) Question 5: 5. (4) Question 6: 6. (4) Question 7: 7. (6) Question 8: 8. (6)

Question 9: 9. (7) Question 10: 10. (5)

BIOLOGY 12
JUNE 2001
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 10 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

Y Z

1. Which letter indicates the part of the cell where genetic material is stored? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 2. If the nucleolus ceases to function, the cellular function first affected would be A. B. C. D. DNA replication. cellular respiration. ribosome production. storage of chromosomes.

OVER -1-

Use the following information to answer question 3.

1. packaging of lipase at a Golgi body 2. peptide bonding of valine with other amino acids on the rough endoplasmic reticulum 3. hydrolysis of a protein containing valine 4. vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane

3. The amino acid valine is used in the synthesis of lipase. What would be the correct sequence of events in the production and release of lipase? A. B. C. D. 1 2 3 4 3 3 2 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 4 3

________________________________________________ 4. Water molecules are connected to each other by A. B. C. D. buffers. base pairing. peptide bonds. hydrogen bonds.

-2-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 5 and 6. W

Molecule X

Molecule X

Y 5. Which of the following correctly identifies molecules W and Y? W A. B. C. D. proteins glucose nucleic acids lipids Y amino acids glycogen nucleotides fatty acids

6. What is molecule X? A. B. C. D. ATP DNA water peptides

OVER -3-

Use the following diagram to answer question 7. O CH3(CH2)16 C O CH3(CH2)16 C O CH3(CH2)16 C O CH2 O CH O CH2

7. The chemical compound above is classified as a A. B. C. D. lipid. protein. nucleic acid. carbohydrate. ________________________________________________ 8. An unsaturated fat is characterized by A. B. C. D. a helical structure. four fused carbon rings. double bonds between the carbon atoms. phosphate groups substituting for fatty acids.

9. Primary protein structure is dependent on A. B. C. D. peptide bonding. hydrogen bonding. bonding between R-groups. bonds between protein molecules.

10. Recombinant DNA can be made by joining together which of the following? A. B. C. D. rRNA and DNA mRNA and tRNA viral tRNA and viral DNA bacterial DNA and human DNA

-4-

11. One difference between DNA and RNA is that RNA A. B. C. D. is helical. is single stranded. contains deoxyribose. contains the bases C, G, A, T.

12. The role of ribosomes in protein synthesis is to A. B. C. D. split the two strands of DNA apart. check for and replace faulty codons. carry amino acids to the site of translation. provide a site for mRNA and tRNA to join together.

Use the following table to answer question 13. AMINO ACID CODED FOR proline proline proline proline

mRNA CODON CCU CCC CCA CCG

13. Which of the following mutations will not result in the incorporation of the amino acid proline in a protein? A. B. C. D. use of a G G U anticodon during translation mutation of the DNA from G A A to G G A substitution of the first base in the DNA triplet for proline substitution error changing the DNA from G G G to G G T ________________________________________________ 14. The process whereby cancer cells cause new tumours to form away from the primary tumour is called A. B. C. D. initiation. anaplasia. metastasis. contact inhibition. OVER -5-

15. Vascularization is the process in the development of a tumour whereby A. B. C. D. capillaries are stimulated to grow. viruses implant initiators into the cell. cells begin to spread throughout the body. proto-oncogenes are changed into oncogenes.

Use the following diagram to answer question 16.

1% glucose 1% sucrose 2% glucose 3% sucrose

16. A 2% glucose and 3% sucrose solution was added to a bag made from a membrane that is permeable only to water and glucose. The bag was then placed in a beaker of water containing a 1% glucose and 1% sucrose solution. Which of the following would describe the sugar concentrations inside the bag after one hour? A. B. C. D. Both the glucose and sucrose concentrations would increase. Both the glucose and sucrose concentrations would decrease. The sucrose concentration would increase and the glucose concentration would decrease. The sucrose concentration would decrease and the glucose concentration would increase.

-6-

17. The following diagram represents the shapes of reacting molecules in a living system.

X When molecule X was added to the system, the amount of product decreased. Molecule X must be acting A. B. C. D. as a coenzyme. to denature the reactants. as a competitive inhibitor. to synthesize more of molecule W.

OVER -7-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 18 and 19.

W V

Y Z

18. Which two structures do not produce enzymes involved in digestion? A. B. C. D. U and W U and Z Y and Z X and Y

19. The structure labelled V is the A. B. C. D. liver. stomach. pancreas. duodenum.

-8-

20. The pulmonary artery is classified as an artery because it A. B. C. D. has thin walls. carries blood away from the heart. contains blood that has high levels of oxygen. has one-way valves that prevent blood from flowing back to the heart.

21. In which of the following vessels would blood plasma be the most hypertonic to distilled water? A. B. C. D. renal vein carotid artery subclavian artery hepatic portal vein

22. What would result if a blockage occurred in a lymph vein? A. B. C. D. More lymph would enter the subclavian vein. The tissue served by this lymph vein would fill with fluid. The lymph capillaries attached to this lymph vein would dry up. All lymph veins in this part of the body would fill up with blood.

Use the following diagram to answer question 23.

23. Which of the following components of blood is represented by the diagram? A. B. C. D. a platelet fibrinogen a red blood cell a white blood cell

OVER -9-

24. Which of the following structures prevents viruses from attaching to host cells? A. B. C. D. platelets antigens antibodies lymph nodes

25. One factor that can cause edema, an abnormal accumulation of fluid within tissues, is a decrease in A. B. C. D. blood pressure. the secretion of ADH. concentration of plasma proteins. water reabsorption by the kidneys.

Use the following diagram to answer question 26.

26. The structure labelled X will open when which of the following is contracting? A. B. C. D. atria aorta ventricles sino-atrial (SA) node

- 10 -

27. The vocal chords are found in which structure? A. B. C. D. larynx bronchi pharynx bronchioles

Use the following diagram to answer question 28.

Z X

28. Which of the following indicates a cartilaginous tube lined with a ciliated mucous membrane? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER - 11 -

29. Internal respiration is the A. B. C. D. production of ATP in cells. movement of air into and out of the lungs. exchange of gases between the blood and the air. exchange of gases between the blood and the tissues.

Use the following diagram to answer question 30.

30. Which of the following would be a valid comparison of the blood at location X when compared to the blood at location Y? ( HbO2 = oxyhemoglobin, HCO3 = bicarbonate ions, HHb = reduced hemoglobin) LOCATION X A. B. C. D. low HbO 2 high HbO 2 high HbO 2 high HbO 2 high HCO3 high HCO3 low HCO3 low HCO3 high HHb high HHb low HHb high HHb

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 31.

X W

Y Z

31. Which of the following represents the axon of the motor neuron in the reflex arc? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 32. Relative to the outside of a neuron, the cytoplasm inside a resting neuron is A. B. C. D. positively charged and the sodium ion concentration is lower inside than outside. negatively charged and the sodium ion concentration is lower inside than outside. positively charged and the sodium ion concentration is greater inside than outside. negatively charged and the sodium ion concentration is greater inside than outside.

33. Neurotransmitters are released into the A. B. C. D. axon. dendrite. synaptic cleft. myelin sheath. OVER - 13 -

34. After surgery to remove a brain tumour, a person suffers from poor appetite, alternating chills and fever, and difficulty in maintaining water balance and blood pressure. Memory and muscle control are normal. Which part of the brain is most likely affected? A. B. C. D. thalamus cerebrum cerebellum hypothalamus

Use the following diagram to answer question 35.

Z W

35. Which of the following indicates the part of the brain containing reflex centres for swallowing and vomiting? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 14 -

Use the following components of blood plasma to answer question 36. urea water glucose proteins antibodies hydrogen ions

36. How many of these components of blood plasma are excreted or reabsorbed by the kidneys? A. B. C. D. two three four five ________________________________________________ 37. The glomerulus is located between the A. B. C. D. efferent arteriole and renal vein. renal artery and afferent arteriole. afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole. efferent arteriole and peritubular capillaries.

OVER - 15 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 38 and 39. Y

X Z

38. When compared to location X, the filtrate at location Y would be highest in its concentration of A. B. C. D. urea. water. glucose. blood proteins.

39. Which of the following describes the tissues surrounding Z? A. B. C. D. low water content, low salt concentration low water content, high salt concentration high water content, low salt concentration high water content, high salt concentration

- 16 -

40. After penicillin is administered for an infection in the urinary bladder, what pathway would penicillin take out of the body? renal artery afferent arteriole A. B. C. D. distal convoluted tubule loop of Henle ureter glomerulus efferent arteriole ureter renal vein efferent arteriole distal convoluted tubule collecting duct urethra glomerulus proximal convoluted tubule loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule collecting duct urethra

Use the following diagram to answer question 41.

X Y

41. Which of the labelled structures represents the prostate gland? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 42. If the vas deferens is cut and tied, which component of semen will be missing? A. B. C. D. sperm seminal fluid prostaglandins fructose (sugar) OVER - 17 -

43. Sperm are produced in the A. B. C. D. interstitial cells of the testes. seminiferous tubules of the testes. interstitial cells of the epididymis. seminiferous tubules of the epididymis.

44. Which hormone is released from the anterior pituitary and results in growth of the penis and testes during puberty? A. B. C. D. testosterone progesterone luteinizing hormone (LH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Use the following diagram to answer question 45. W X Y

45. Which of the following indicates the cervix? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 18 -

46. Which of the following hormones is involved in a negative feedback loop in the male reproductive system? A. B. C. D. oxytocin adrenalin aldosterone testosterone

47. Which of the following organs is lined with cilia? A. B. C. D. ovary uterus vagina oviduct

48. During puberty, increased estrogen production causes A. B. C. D. milk production. breast development. development of the corpus luteum. release of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

49. Which of the following correctly describes days 15 to 28 of a 28-day menstrual cycle? A. B. C. D. increased estrogen is associated with the secretory phase in the uterus increased estrogen is associated with the proliferative phase in the uterus increased progesterone is associated with the secretory phase in the uterus increased progesterone is associated with the proliferative phase in the uterus

OVER - 19 -

Use the following graphs to answer question 50.

pituitary hormone levels

hormone levels in plasma

luteinizing hormone follicle-stimulating hormone 1 14 days into cycle 28

ovarian hormone levels

hormone levels in plasma estrogen progesterone

14 days into cycle

28

50. The graphs show the levels of four different hormones in the blood plasma during the ovarian and uterine cycles. Which two hormones would have reduced levels if the corpus luteum fails to develop? A. B. C. D. progesterone and estrogen progesterone and luteinizing hormone estrogen and follicle-stimulating hormone luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 20 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

1. a) Name and describe the process shown below. (4 marks: 1 mark for name; 3 marks for description)

x y1

x1

y1

x1

Name: Description:

b) How could a virus affect the molecule shown in the diagram above?

(1 mark)

OVER - 21 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 2.


S P P S P S P S P S P S P S P S S P S P S P S S P S P S P S S S P S P P S S P P S S P S P S P P S S P S S P P S P S S P S P S

mRNA

2. Name the process shown above and explain how the molecule that is produced is used to determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein. (4 marks: 1 mark for name; 3 marks for explanation) Name: Explanation:

- 22 -

3. List four factors that would affect the rate of diffusion of molecules crossing a cell membrane. i)

(4 marks)

ii)

iii)

iv)

OVER - 23 -

4. An experiment investigating enzyme activity is carried out. A test tube is prepared containing substrate solution W and enzyme solutions 1, 2 and 3. The reactions that occur in the test tube are summarized below.

2 3

Y Z

a) Describe two ways in which the rate of production of product Y can be increased. (2 marks) i)

ii)

b) A substance is added to the test tube. As a result, no product Y is formed, but product Z is still formed. Explain why. (3 marks)

- 24 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

Y 5. a) Describe three different ways that X aids in digestion. i) (3 marks)

ii)

iii)

b) What is the role of Y in the digestive system?

(1 mark)

OVER - 25 -

6. Describe the mechanisms involved in the digestion and absorption of fat.

(4 marks)

- 26 -

7. a) Mountaineers attempting to scale Mt. Everest encounter an environment that contains one-third the oxygen present at sea level. Describe how each of the following will change during the climb and how the change will compensate for the lower than normal oxygen levels. rate of cell division in the bone marrow: (2 marks)

breathing rate:

(2 marks)

b) During the climb, the blood pH decreases. Explain how the body compensates for this change. (2 marks)

OVER - 27 -

8. Complete the following chart that describes the composition of blood. (6 marks: 1 mark each)

PART OF THE BLOOD

COMPONENT NAME

SOURCE

FUNCTION

plasma

water

maintaining blood volume

plasma

liver

maintaining blood volume, pressure and pH clotting

formed elements

platelets

bone marrow

formed elements

fighting infection

plasma

glucose

absorbed by intestinal villi

- 28 -

9. a) On the following grid, draw a curve to represent an action potential.

(2 marks)

+ 40

voltage (mV)

65

time (milliseconds)

b) Label the depolarization and the recovery period of your graph. (1 mark:

1 2

mark each)

c) Describe what happens to the axon during repolarization.

(3 marks)

d) Describe what happens to the axon during the recovery period.

(1 mark)

OVER - 29 -

10. State one function of each of the following. ureter:

(5 marks: 1 mark each)

collecting duct:

antidiuretic hormone (ADH):

renal pelvis:

glomerulus:

END OF EXAMINATION

- 30 -

MINISTRY USE ONLY

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Biology 12
2001 Ministry of Education

NOVEMBER 2001
Course Code = BI

Student Instructions
1. Place the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. 2. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. 3. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. 4. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

Question 1: 1. (3) Question 2: 2. (4) Question 3: 3. (4) Question 4: 4. (6) Question 5: 5. (5) Question 6: 6. (8) Question 7: 7. (8) Question 8: 8. (6)

Question 9: 9. (6)

BIOLOGY 12
NOVEMBER 2001
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 9 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2.

X Y

1. Structure X contains enzymes and is a A. B. C. D. ribosome. lysosome. chromosome. mitochondrion.

2. The structure labelled Y is the site of A. B. C. D. lipid synthesis. protein synthesis. packaging and modification of proteins. chemical reactions that release energy from glucose.

OVER -1-

3. The products of ribosomes are long chains composed of A. B. C. D. glucose. fatty acids. nucleotides. amino acids.

Use the following diagram to answer question 4.

4. Which of the following is packaged and stored by the structure above? A. B. C. D. water enzymes carbon dioxide messenger RNA ________________________________________________ 5. A water molecule is capable of forming hydrogen bonds because A. the oxygen atom gives up an electron to a hydrogen atom. B. the electrons are shared at an equal distance between the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom. C. both the hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom have the same number of protons. D. there is an unequal sharing of electrons between the oxygen atom and the hydrogen atoms.

-2-

6. Which of the following is not a function of water in living systems? A. B. C. D. to act as a solvent to lubricate the joints to buffer changes in pH to regulate body temperature

7. Which of the following food molecules is classified as a disaccharide? A. C6 H12 O6 B. C. C12 H 22 O11 C18H 32 O16

D. C120 H 300 O120

8. Which of the following is an example of hydrolysis? A. B. C. D. production of mRNA from DNA conversion of glucose to glycogen absorption of fatty acids and glycerol formation of amino acids from proteins

9. Which of the following is the energy source produced in mitochondria? A. B. C. D. ATP glucose enzymes acetylcholine

OVER -3-

10. Which of the following represents complementary base pairing in DNA replication? A. B.

G C A T A T

G C A T A T G C T A A U

C.

D.

G C

G C

T A
A T

T A
A T

G T A

C A T

________________________________________________ 11. Which of the following base pairs would form between mRNA and tRNA during protein synthesis? A. B. C. D. adenineuracil uracilguanine thymineadenine cytosinethymine

-4-

Use the following chart of mRNA codons to answer question 12.


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamate UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

12. Which DNA code represents the polypeptide chain:


aspartic acid threonine proline

A. B. C. D.

C T G, C T A, G A C, C A U,

T G T, G G T G G T, A G T A C A, C C A U G A, G G U ________________________________________________

13. Disorganized and uncontrolled growth of cells is called A. B. C. D. anaplasia. metastasis. vascularization. loss of contact inhibition.

OVER -5-

14. A malignant tumour is characterized by cells that A. B. C. D. are differentiated. divide a maximum of 50 times. have a large nucleus when compared to the amount of cytoplasm. stop growing once they come into contact with neighbouring cells.

15. Which of the following could change the order of bases in a DNA molecule causing a proto-oncogene to be converted into an oncogene? A. B. C. D. ATP viruses mRNA competitive inhibitors

Use the following diagram to answer question 16.

X W Z

16. Which of the following represents the part of a cell membrane that requires the breakdown of ATP for the transport of sodium ions? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

-6-

17. If a 0.9% salt solution is isotonic to a certain type of animal cell, the cell will lose mass if it is placed in A. B. C. D. distilled (pure) water. 0.5% salt solution. 0.9% salt solution. 1.2% salt solution.

Use the following diagrams to answer question 18. 1 2

18. To represent the lock and key model of enzymatic action, in which order would the diagrams above have to be placed? A. B. C. D. 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 4 3 2 4 3 4 3 1 1

________________________________________________ 19. A persons ability to breathe and swallow is impaired when the tonsils are swollen. What region is affected? A. B. C. D. larynx trachea pharynx esophagus

OVER -7-

20. The amount of chyme (stomach contents) which enters the small intestine is controlled by A. B. C. D. the release of gastric juice. peristalsis in the esophagus. secretions from the pancreas. constrictions of the pyloric sphincter.

Use the following diagram to answer question 21. Initial Conditions


Side A Side B

20% peptide molecules 80% water

100% water

membrane not permeable to peptides

21. If peptidase were added to side A, what would occur? A. B. C. D. Amino acids would be found on side A only. Amino acids would be found on side B only. Amino acids would be found on both sides A and B. No amino acids would be found on either side A or side B.

-8-

22. Which of the following digestive enzymes is correctly matched with its optimum pH? Digestive Enzyme A. B. C. D. trypsin lipase amylase pepsin Optimum pH 3 3 8 8

Use the following diagram to answer question 23.


O O

O CH2
O O

O
O

O
O

23. The production of the molecule above increases in the body when a hormone is released from the A. B. C. D. liver. pancreas. thyroid gland. adrenal glands.

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer question 24.

X Y Z

24. Which of the following indicates an iliac artery? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 25. Which of the following correctly describes the level of oxygen in the blood of each chamber of the heart? Right Atrium A. B. C. D. low low low high Left Atrium low low high low Right Ventricle low high low high Left Ventricle low high high low

- 10 -

26. The fetal blood vessel that joins the aorta and the pulmonary artery and normally closes at birth is the A. B. C. D. arterial duct. venous duct. oval opening. umbilical artery.

Use the following information to answer question 27. Blood Vessel W X Y Z Pressure mm Hg 80 less than 5 60 20 Velocity cm/sec. 50 35 20 2

27. What is the correct sequence of blood vessels that a red blood cell passes through while travelling from the left ventricle to the right atrium? A. W Y X Z B. W Y Z X C. Y Z X W D. Y Z W X

Use the following diagram to answer question 28.

28. The function of the blood cells shown is to A. B. C. D. carry oxygen. fight infection. produce lymphocytes. initiate blood clotting.

OVER - 11 -

29. Blood plasma leaves and re-enters the circulatory system by A. B. C. D. active transport. pressure filtration. selective reabsorption. capillary-tissue fluid exchange.

30. Contraction of the right atrium forces blood through A. B. C. D. a semi-lunar valve into the aorta. an AV valve into the right ventricle. an AV valve into the pulmonary artery. a semi-lunar valve into the posterior vena cava.

31. The normal 120/80 blood pressure reading is a measurement of A. B. C. D. atrial systole and ventricular systole. ventricular diastole and atrial systole. atrial diastole and ventricular diastole. ventricular systole and ventricular diastole.

32. Initiation of the cardiac cycle is dependent on the A. B. C. D. sinoatrial (SA) node. sympathetic nervous system. parasympathetic nervous system. nerve impulses from the cerebrum.

33. The movement of mucus up the trachea is caused by A. B. C. D. beating of cilia. waves of peristalsis. contraction of the diaphragm. constriction of smooth muscle.

- 12 -

34. The increased surface area for gas exchange in the lungs is due to the A. B. C. D. villi. alveoli. trachea. bronchi.

35. The level of carbon dioxide in the blood is monitored by the A. B. C. D. cerebrum. cerebellum. hypothalamus. medulla oblongata.

36. Which of the following correctly compares the concentration of CO 2 in exhaled air to the concentration of CO 2 in the pulmonary artery?

Exhaled Air A. B. C. D. low high low high

[CO2 ] in

Pulmonary Artery low high high low

[CO2 ] in the

37. A semiconscious patient has lower than normal blood pH. The high concentration of which component of blood is used to indicate this condition? A. B. C. D. albumin hydrogen ions potassium ions oxyhemoglobin

OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 38. W

Y Z

38. Which of the following indicates the structure that initiates a nerve impulse during a reflex? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 39. In a synaptic cleft, neurotransmitters move to the receptor sites by A. B. C. D. osmosis. diffusion. active transport. facilitated transport.

- 14 -

40. After a fight or flight response, parasympathetic nervous system stimulation will cause A. B. C. D. pupils to dilate. peristalsis to decrease. the bronchioles to dilate. the heart rate to decrease.

Use the following diagram to answer questions 41 and 42.

41. Elevated body temperature due to a prolonged infection is due to a stimulation of which of the following structures? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

42. When the hormone estrogen was administered to patients with Alzheimers disease, the memory of these patients improved. On which structure in the diagram could estrogen have had an affect? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER - 15 -

43. When blood volume increases beyond normal levels, the release of hormone H is inhibited. As a result, the reabsorption of water decreases. Hormone H is A. B. C. D. insulin. thyroxin. aldosterone. antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Use the following information to answer question 44. Relative Concentrations in a Human Nephron water low glucose low hydrogen ions high urea high

44. Where in the kidney could the conditions indicated in the table above be found? A. B. C. D. distal tubule proximal tubule afferent arteriole Bowmans capsule ________________________________________________ 45. An increase of ADH in the blood affects the water content of the blood plasma by A. B. C. D. changing the permeability of Bowmans capsule. increasing the permeability of the collecting duct. stimulating the loop of Henle to reabsorb more salt. making the filtrate in the proximal tubule more concentrated.

46. Cell division resulting in the production of sperm cells occurs in the A. B. C. D. epididymis. interstitial cells. seminal vesicles. seminiferous tubules.

- 16 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 47.

47. Structure X is the site of A. B. C. D. maturation of sperm. production of testosterone. secretion of an alkaline substance to neutralize vaginal fluids. production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). ________________________________________________ 48. The correct pathway that sperm travel to leave the body is A. B. C. D. epididymis testes urethra. testes vas deferens urethra. epididymis urethra vas deferens. testes prostate gland vas deferens.

49. Which part of the female body is structurally similar to the penis in a man and functions as a sexually sensitive organ? A. B. C. D. uterus vagina clitoris follicle

OVER - 17 -

50. Human chorionic gonadotropic (HCG) hormone is produced by the A. B. C. D. hypothalamus. corpus luteum. developing embryo. lining of the oviduct.

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 18 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

1. For each of the following structures, identify a cellular process in which the structure is involved. (3 marks: 1 mark each) chromosomes:

mitochondria:

lysosomes:

OVER - 19 -

2. Complete the following table showing the products and locations of the cellular processes indicated. Translation Replication

(4 marks)

Product

Location

- 20 -

3. Identify and describe the process by which each of the following substances moves into a cell. (4 marks: 1 mark each for process; 1 mark each for description) oxygen: Name of process: Description:

macromolecule: Name of process: Description:

OVER - 21 -

4. The following experiment was conducted to observe the effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme activity. 10 mL of a starch solution was added to each of five lettered test tubes. Each test tube was placed in a different water bath as shown in the table below. An equal amount of salivary amylase was added to test tubes W, X, Y and Z. A sample was taken from each test tube every minute and tested with IKI, an indicator that turns from yellow to black when mixed with starch. Temperature of Water Bath (oC) 20 0 20 40 60

Test Tube V W X Y Z

1 min. black black black black black

2 min. black black black yellow black

3 min. black black yellow yellow black

4 min. black yellow yellow yellow black

5 min. black yellow yellow yellow yellow

a) What is the purpose of test tube V?

(1 mark)

- 22 -

b) Using the grid provided, draw a graph that relates the time it takes for the indicator to turn yellow to the temperatures of test tubes W, X, Y and Z. (2 marks)

temperature (C)

c) Explain the results of the experiment.

(3 marks)

OVER - 23 -

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

- 24 -

5. a) State one digestive system function of the liver.

(1 mark)

b) State three circulatory system functions of the liver. i)

(3 marks)

ii)

iii)

c) State one excretory system function of the liver.

(1 mark)

OVER - 25 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 6.

6. The diagram represents the capillary bed of a villus in the small intestine. a) Identify vessel Y: (1 mark)

b) Describe four ways in which the composition of the blood at point X changes, two to three hours after eating a meal. i)

(4 marks)

ii)

iii)

iv)

- 26 -

c) The following is a graph of glucose concentration in vessel W over time.

concentration of glucose in the blood

Q time

Explain the observed changes in the glucose concentration between time P and time Q. (3 marks)

OVER - 27 -

7. a) Use the word list below to complete the paragraph describing characteristics of a nerve impulse. (Use each word only once. Not all of the words will be used.) (2 marks: 1 2 mark each) resting potential threshold recovery phase all-or-none stimulus polarized membrane

Any change in the environment that can open sodium gates is called a(n) open a sodium gate then the When an action potential is produced, it is called the response. During the can be generated. , no further action potentials . If the change in the environment does not has not been reached.

b) Describe the changes that occur in the polarity of the membrane and the distribution of ions during an action potential. (4 marks)

c) Describe the structure of the myelin sheath and explain why it speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses. (2 marks)

- 28 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 8.

Y Z

8. Identify and give one function of each of the following structures. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Structure X: Name: Function:

Structure Y: Name: Function:

Structure Z: Name: Function:

OVER - 29 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 9.

Y X

9. Identify and give one function of each of the following structures. (6 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Structure X: Name: Function:

Structure Y: Name: Function:

Structure Z: Name: Function:

END OF EXAMINATION

- 30 -

MINISTRY USE ONLY

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Biology 12
2001 Ministry of Education

JANUARY 2001
Course Code = BI

Student Instructions
1. Place the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. 2. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. 3. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. 4. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

Question 1: 1. (2) Question 2: 2. (2) Question 3: 3. (5) Question 4: 4. (6) Question 5: 5. (4) Question 6: 6. (7) Question 7: 7. (3) Question 8: 8. (6)

Question 9: 9. (6) Question 10: 10. (2) Question 11: 11. (4) Question 12: 12. (3)

BIOLOGY 12
JANUARY 2001
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 12 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

1. The majority of cell processes are controlled by the A. B. C. D. nucleus. lysosome. mitochondria. endoplasmic reticulum.

2. The products of mitochondria include ATP and A. B. C. D. water. lipids. oxygen. glucose.

3. At which of the following cell structures would adenine bond with thymine but not uracil? A. B. C. D. nucleus ribosomes Golgi bodies endoplasmic reticulum

OVER -1-

Use the following diagram to answer question 4.

4. The function of the organelle shown in the diagram is to A. B. C. D. produce ATP. detoxify alcohol. package molecules. synthesize nucleic acids. ________________________________________________ 5. Cells that contain large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies and vesicles are found in which of the following? A. B. C. D. liver and testes testes and alveoli stomach and liver stomach and alveoli

-2-

Use the following diagram to answer question 6.

O H H O H H

6. The type of bond shown between the two water molecules is A. B. C. D. ionic. peptide. covalent. hydrogen. ________________________________________________ 7. Which substance releases hydrogen ions causing the pH of a solution to decrease? A. B. C. D. water lipids hydrochloric acid sodium bicarbonate

8. The type of digestive reactions that take place along the gastro-intestinal tract can be classified as A. B. C. D. synthesis. hydrolysis. dehydration. replacement.

OVER -3-

9. Cellulose is composed of which of the following substances? A. B. C. D. glucose fatty acids nucleotides amino acids

Use the following diagrams to answer question 10. W X


N C O

Y
C N N C H

C C O O C N C O N H O N C H C C H N

H C

C C O

C C N O

C C O

C H

C N

C O

C O

10. Which diagram represents the tertiary structure of a protein? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 11. In a solution of nucleotides made from a ground-up segment of DNA, adenine makes up 33% of the solution. What percentage of the solution would be guanine? A. B. C. D. 17% 33% 34% 67%

-4-

O N C N H H N

N O

H C

N R C C N H C O C N C H

12. Nucleic acids which have genes from two different organisms are called A. B. C. D. transfer RNA. ribosomal RNA. messenger RNA. recombinant DNA.

13. Where is the site of protein synthesis? A. B. C. D. nucleus vacuole ribosome Golgi bodies

Use the following table to answer question 14.


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamate UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

14. A single base mutation causes the amino acid leucine to replace tryptophan in the primary structure of a protein. The base in the DNA that changes to cause this mutation is A. B. C. D. adenine. guanine. cytosine. thymine.

OVER -5-

15. Metastasis is the process whereby A. B. C. D. blood vessels grow into a tumour. cell growth in a tumour becomes disorganized. a proto-oncogene is converted into an oncogene. cancer cells detach from a tumour and spread to a new site.

16. An initiator is a factor that causes A. B. C. D. metastasis. vascularization. oncogene expression. gene or chromosome mutations.

17. A recognized danger signal that may indicate the presence of colon cancer would be A. B. C. D. a shortness of breath. difficulty swallowing. a change in bowel habits. persistent hoarseness or coughing.

18. Facilitated transport may be described as the movement of particles from an area of A. B. C. D. low to high concentration using protein carriers. low to high concentration without using protein carriers. high to low concentration using protein carriers. high to low concentration without using protein carriers.

19. As a cell increases in size, the A. B. C. D. metabolic rate increases. surface area to volume ratio increases. volume increases and the surface area increases. surface area increases and the volume decreases.

-6-

Use the following diagram to answer question 20. Metabolic Pathway Enzyme 1 W X Enzyme 2 Y Enzyme 3 Z

20. If substance Z inhibits enzyme 2, this will in turn inhibit the production of A. B. C. D. enzyme 1. enzyme 2. substance W. substance Y. ________________________________________________ 21. Which of the following is a function of thyroxin? A. B. C. D. to decrease body temperature to increase the amount of ATP used by the cells to increase the reabsorption of water by the kidneys to decrease the breakdown of proteins in the small intestine

22. Which of the following is not a part of the theory of how an enzyme functions? A. B. C. D. The shape of the active site facilitates a reaction. The enzyme and substrate fit like a lock and key. The enzyme lowers the activation energy required for the reaction. The shape of the enzyme is permanently changed by the chemical reaction.

OVER -7-

Use the following graph to answer question 23.

I
rate of reaction

II

III

7 pH

10

23. The graph shows the effect of pH on three different enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Which of the following would best describe the effect of pH on enzyme-catalyzed reactions? A. B. C. D. enzyme action increases as pH increases enzyme action decreases as pH increases enzymes work best in an acid environment each enzyme works best within a specific pH range

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 24 and 25.

X Y

V 24. Which letter indicates the appendix? A. B. C. D. V W X Y

25. The structure labelled Z is the A. B. C. D. anus. rectum. duodenum. small intestine.

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer question 26.

26. The section of tissue shown in the diagram was taken from the A. B. C. D. colon. stomach. pancreas. small intestine. ________________________________________________ 27. The structure that prevents regurgitation of food from the intestine back into the stomach is the A. B. C. D. pyloric sphincter. cardiac sphincter. duodenal sphincter. atrioventricular valve.

28. The chemical digestion of polysaccharides begins in the A. B. C. D. colon. mouth. stomach. small intestine.

- 10 -

Use the following information to answer question 29. bacteria cells are destroyed amylase becomes denatured pepsinogen becomes activated trypsinogen changes into trypsin

29. How many of the results above are from the action of gastric juice? A. B. C. D. one two three four ________________________________________________ 30. The coronary arteries carry A. B. C. D. blood to the aorta. nutrients to the heart cells. oxygenated blood to the head. deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 31.

31. The blood vessel labelled X is the A. B. C. D. aorta. ductus venosus (venus duct). foramen ovale (oval opening). ductus arteriosis (arterial duct).

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 32.

32. The function of structure X is to A. B. C. D. initiate the atrial contraction. act as the pacemaker of the heart. prevent the atrioventricular (AV) valve from inverting. open the atrioventricular (AV) valve when stimulated by an electrical impulse. ________________________________________________ 33. During inhalation, A. B. C. D. the diaphragm contracts and the rib muscles relax. the diaphragm relaxes and the rib muscles contract. air pressure in the lungs increases and outside air rushes in. air pressure in the lungs decreases and outside air rushes in.

OVER - 13 -

34. Which part of the brain initiates the resumption of breathing when someone holds their breath? A. B. C. D. cerebellum hypothalamus corpus callosum medulla oblongata

Use the following graphs to answer question 35.

Graph A

Graph B

air pressure

air pressure

time (sec.)

30

time (sec.)

30

35. In the graphs above, graph A represents the change in pressure in the lungs over a 30-second time period. Which of the following would cause, over the same time period, the change as shown in graph B? A. B. C. D. low concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood high concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood decreased nerve impulses sent to the diaphragm from the medulla oblongata increased nerve impulses from the stretch receptors in the lungs to the hypothalamus

- 14 -

Use the following graph to answer question 36. Amounts of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

amount of CO2

inhaled air

exhaled air

blood in the pulmonary artery

36. The graph above is incorrect because the amount of CO 2 should be A. B. C. D. highest in inhaled air. equal in all three instances. lowest in the pulmonary artery. higher in exhaled air than in inhaled air. ________________________________________________ 37. Which of the following is characterized by a short axon and long dendrites? A. B. C. D. interneuron synaptic cleft motor neuron sensory neuron

38. When a doctor taps below the kneecap and the lower leg jerks forward involuntarily, the pathway that the nerve impulse travels is A. B. C. D. effector sensory neuron interneuron motor neuron receptor. effector motor neuron interneuron sensory neuron receptor. receptor sensory neuron interneuron motor neuron effector. receptor motor neuron interneuron sensory neuron effector.

OVER - 15 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 39 and 40.

39. The function of structure X is to A. B. C. D. produce bile. produce urine. produce ADH. carry urine to the bladder.

40. Structure Y is the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. bladder. afferent arteriole. ________________________________________________ 41. Uric acid is a waste produced during the breakdown of nucleic acids. Higher than normal levels of uric acid that build up in the joints indicate a malfunction of the A. B. C. D. lungs. colon. kidneys. pancreas.

- 16 -

Use the following information to answer question 42. CONCENTRATIONS OF SUBSTANCE X IN mg PER 100 mL PLASMA 26 GLOMERULAR FILTRATE 26 URINE 1 820

42. Substance X is A. B. C. D. urea. glucose. albumin. histamine.

Use the following diagram to answer question 43.

43. The function of structures W and Y is to A. B. C. D. produce testosterone. mature and store sperm. deliver the sperm to the female. produce fluids that make up semen.

OVER - 17 -

44. Which gland secretes prostaglandins that aid in the stimulation of uterine contractions? A. B. C. D. adrenal gland hypothalamus pituitary gland seminal vesicle

45. The function of the mid-piece of the sperm is to A. B. C. D. protect the sperm. nourish the sperm. carry genetic material. produce ATP (energy).

Use the following diagram to answer question 46.

Y X W Z

46. In which of the following structures does fertilization normally occur? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 18 -

47. What occurs as a result of the secretion of releasing hormone by the hypothalamus during the first 13 days of the ovarian and uterine cycles? A. B. C. D. the sloughing off of the uterine lining the production of progesterone by the corpus luteum the secretion of large amounts of estrogen by the follicle the release of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) by the anterior pituitary

48. Where is luteinizing hormone (LH) produced? A. B. C. D. follicle hypothalamus corpus luteum anterior pituitary

Use the following diagram to answer question 49.

Tim e

49. The secretions from structure X cause A. B. C. D. the uterine lining to slough off. the ovaries to produce a mature egg. the uterine lining to produce a thick mucus. the production of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

OVER - 19 -

50. Elevated levels of which hormone indicate that implantation has occurred? A. B. C. D. estrogen aldosterone progesterone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 20 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1. X Y Z

1. Identify the structure made up of parts X, Y and Z and state its function. (2 marks: 1 mark for name; 1 mark for function) Name: Function:

OVER - 21 -

2. What is produced as a result of each of the following during protein synthesis? RNA bases and DNA bases join together by complementary base pairing. (1 mark)

Transfer RNA joins to messenger RNA at the ribosome.

(1 mark)

- 22 -

3. An experiment was devised in which blood cells were placed in three beakers containing solutions of different concentrations. The results are given below. % SOLUTE IN RED BLOOD CELLS 2 2 2 % SOLUTE IN THE SOLUTION 2 1 3 (2 marks)

BEAKER A B C

a) Describe what happened to the cells in beaker B and explain the results.

b) Describe what happened to the cells in beaker C and explain the results.

(2 marks)

c) Explain why the solution in beaker A is isotonic to the red blood cells.

(1 mark)

OVER - 23 -

4. A piece of living small intestine was placed in a solution containing maltose, egg white, and fats. In order to ensure that the piece of intestine functioned normally, oxygen was bubbled through the solution and the pH was maintained at 8.2. After one hour the solution was analyzed. a) Explain why glucose was found in the solution. (1 mark)

b) Products from the breakdown of fat were not found. Explain why.

(1 mark)

c) Why was the solution buffered to pH 8.2?

(1 mark)

d) In a variation of this experiment, trypsin was also added to the solution. Describe the results of this new experiment after one hour. (3 marks)

- 24 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

Y X

5. a) Compare the composition of the blood in structures X and Y. Structure X:

(2 marks)

Structure Y:

b) Relate the difference in the structure of X and Y to their functions.

(2 marks)

OVER - 25 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 6.

6. a) Identify each of the labelled veins and give one function of each. (4 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Vein X: Name: Function:

Vein Y: Name: Function:

- 26 -

b)

i) Give the location of the oval opening (foramen ovale) in the circulatory system of the fetus and state its function. (2 marks: 1 mark for location; 1 mark for function) Location:

Function:

ii)

Describe what would occur if the oval opening (foramen ovale) failed to close at birth. (1 mark)

OVER - 27 -

7. Describe three ways in which the structure of the alveoli facilitates their function. i)

(3 marks)

ii)

iii)

- 28 -

8. Describe how each of the following is important to the passage of a nerve impulse. sodium/potassium pump: (2 marks)

synaptic vesicles:

(2 marks)

myelinated axon:

(2 marks)

OVER - 29 -

Use the following graph to answer question 9.

+40

0 membrane potential (millivolts)

65

X
time (milliseconds)

9. a) Describe what is occurring at the neuron between time X and time Y.

(4 marks)

b) What would occur if the membrane of the axon became impermeable to potassium ions ( K + ) at time X? (2 marks)

- 30 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 10.

10. a) Explain why it would be abnormal to find glucose in structure Y.

(1 mark)

b) Explain why structure X is longer in an animal that lives in the desert.

(1 mark)

OVER - 31 -

11. Explain what happens in the kidneys in response to each of the following conditions. a decrease in blood pressure: (2 marks)

a decrease in blood pH:

(2 marks)

- 32 -

12. Identify the structure in a female that produces an egg.

(3 marks)

provides nourishment for the developing embryo.

enables the egg to travel to the uterus.

END OF EXAMINATION - 33 -

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

AUGUST 1998

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1998 Ministry of Education

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 12 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. The time allotted for this examination is two hours.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

1. The site of testosterone production in the cytoplasm of an interstitial cell is the A. B. C. D. lysosome. mitochondrion. rough endoplasmic reticulum. smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Use the following diagram to answer question 2.

2. The function of the structure labelled X is to synthesize A. B. C. D. DNA. rRNA. proteins. carbohydrates.

OVER -1-

3. For digestion to occur in a vacuole, the vacuole must first fuse with a A. B. C. D. nucleus. ribosome. lysosome. Golgi body.

4. A water molecule joins with an adjacent water molecule by forming a(n) A. B. C. D. ionic bond. peptide bond. covalent bond. hydrogen bond.

5. Blood has a pH that is slightly basic. A sample of blood containing a buffer is treated with a weak acid. Which pH value would result? A. 1.57 B. 6.78 C. 7.38 D. 13.21

6. Which of the following is a product of the complete hydrolysis of cellulose? A.


H H H O C OH

B.
H C

CH2 OH C O H C OH C H H C OH OH

OH

C.

H2

OH

D.

O CH3 (CH 2 )16 CH3 (CH 2 )16 CH3 (CH 2 )16 C O C O C O CH 2 O CH O CH 2

OH

H2

OH

-2-

7. The linear sequence of amino acids found in an enzyme is called its A. B. C. D. tertiary structure. primary structure. secondary structure. quaternary structure.

8. If the nucleotide sequence of an anticodon was AUC, then the DNA triplet would be A. B. C. D. ATC. TAG. AUC. UAG.

9. Increased blood flow to a cancerous tumour is called A. B. C. D. anaplasia. metastasis. malignancy. vascularization.

Use the following information to answer question 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. promotion metastasis vascularization anaplasia

10. Which of the following is the correct sequence to describe the order of development of a cancerous tumor? A. B. C. D. 1, 4, 3, 2 2, 1, 3, 4 3, 2, 1, 4 3, 4, 1, 2 ________________________________________________

11. A cancer-causing gene is called a(n) A. B. C. D. initiator. promoter. oncogene. protooncogene. OVER -3-

12. The most abundant molecules in the cell membrane are A. B. C. D. steroids. proteins. phospholipids. carbohydrates.

13. Which of the following processes moves molecules using cellular energy? A. B. C. D. Osmosis. Diffusion. Pinocytosis. Facilitated transport.

14. The cytoplasmic concentration of solute in a cell is 0.05%. This cell is placed in a solution that causes the cell to swell and burst. The solute concentration of this solution is A. B. C. D. 0.005% 0.05% 0.5% 5.0%

15. An enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction by A. B. C. D. regulating pH. acting as a buffer. preventing denaturation. lowering the energy of activation.

16. High concentrations of thyroxin in the blood will cause metabolic reactions in a cell to A. B. C. D. speed up. slow down. stop occurring. remain unchanged.

-4-

17. Which of the following would prevent maltase from forming an enzyme-substrate complex? A. B. C. D. pH of 8.5 a competitive inhibitor increased production of bile an increase in substrate concentration

18. Why would drugs like penicillin destroy bacteria but have no effect on human cells? A. B. C. D. Human enzymes would be denatured by penicillin. Bacterial cells would use penicillin as a coenzyme. Penicillin would fit the active site of bacterial enzymes. Enzymes in human cells would use penicillin to produce excess energy.

19. Two glands that are responsible for secreting protein-digesting enzymes are A. B. C. D. salivary and gastric. gastric and pancreas. thyroid and pancreas. intestinal and thyroid.

20. Bile causes the emulsification of A. B. C. D. lipids. proteins. nucleic acids. carbohydrates.

21. Blood proteins are made in the A. B. C. D. liver. kidney. stomach. pancreas.

OVER -5-

Use the following diagram to answer question 22.

X Y Z

22. Organisms producing vitamins, growth factors and essential amino acids that are beneficial to the body are found in A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

Use the following table to answer question 23. BICARBONATE ION (HCO3 ) CONCENTRATION high high low low

VESSEL W X Y Z

UREA CONCENTRATION low high low high

23. The relative concentrations of bicarbonate ions (HCO3 ) and urea were analyzed in blood samples taken from a healthy person. Which vessel is the hepatic vein? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z -6-

Use the following diagram to answer question 24.

W X

Y Z

24. Lymph fluid is returned to the circulatory system in the vessel labelled A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

25. Plasma is composed mostly of A. B. C. D. salt. water. protein. hormones.

OVER -7-

26. The presence of bacteria in the blood will cause the body to produce A. B. C. D. mucus. antigens. antibodies. hydrochloric acid.

27. The osmotic return of fluid from the tissues to the blood occurs at the A. B. C. D. arterioles. lymph veins. capillary bed. subclavian vein.

28. The vein carrying the highest concentration of oxygen is the A. B. C. D. iliac. renal. hepatic. pulmonary.

29. The most muscular chamber of the heart is the A. B. C. D. left atrium. right atrium. left ventricle. right ventricle.

30. A nerve impulse passes through the following structures when the heart contracts. The correct sequence is A. B. C. D. AV node, Purkinje fibres, SA node. SA node, Purkinje fibres, AV node. Purkinje fibres, SA node, AV node. SA node, AV node, Purkinje fibres.

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 31.

W X Y

31. The structure that increases thoracic volume when it contracts is A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

32. Alveoli would not be characterized as A. B. C. D. muscular. thin-walled. vascularized. secreting a lipoprotein.

OVER -9-

33. Consider the following reaction: CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO3 An enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes this reaction is A. B. C. D. nuclease. peptidase. dehydrogenase. carbonic anhydrase.

34. As the blood becomes more acidic in muscle tissues, hemoglobin will carry less A. B. C. D. oxygen. hydrogen ion. carbon dioxide. bicarbonate ion.

35. The formation of carbaminohemoglobin occurs in the A. B. C. D. veins. arteries. arterioles. capillaries.

36. What type of neuron transmits an impulse to the central nervous system? A. B. C. D. Motor. Sensory. Efferent. Interneuron.

37. Resting potential in a neuron is maintained by A. B. C. D. osmosis. diffusion. pinocytosis. active transport.

- 10 -

38. The speed of a nerve impulse along a sensory neuron depends on the A. B. C. D. dendrites. cell bodies. myelin sheath. sensory receptors.

39. In order for a nerve impulse to pass from one neuron to the next, which of the following ions must be present at the pre-synaptic ending? A. B. C. D. Calcium (Ca 2 + ) . Chloride (Cl ) . Phosphate (PO 4 3 ) . Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) .

Use the following diagram to answer question 40.

Y Z

40. Dilation of the pupils is initiated by secretions from A. B. C. D. W X Y Z OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 41.

41. The function of structure X is to A. B. C. D. control the breathing and heart rate. secrete hormones that control organs of the body. channel nerve impulses to the appropriate part of the brain. exchange information between right and left cerebral hemispheres. ________________________________________________

42. In a healthy person, Bowmans capsules are found in the renal A. B. C. D. vein. pelvis. cortex. medulla.

43. The composition of the filtrate in the Bowmans capsule is determined by A. B. C. D. pH. enzymes. temperature. molecular size.

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 44 and 45. W X V U

Z Y

44. In a healthy person, the sequence of structures through which most glucose molecules pass is A. B. C. D. U, X, Y U, W, Z W, Z, X W, X, Y

45. Secretions from the posterior pituitary affect which structure labelled above? A. B. C. D. V W Y Z ________________________________________________

46. Spermatogenesis occurs in the A. B. C. D. epididymis. interstitial cells. seminiferous tubules. ductus (vas) deferens. OVER - 13 -

47. The sperm penetrates the egg by means of enzymes that are found in the A. B. C. D. tail. head. acrosome. mid-piece.

48. Testosterone levels in males are regulated by A. B. C. D. aldosterone. progesterone. luteinizing hormone. follicle stimulating hormone.

49. Fertilization of the egg almost always occurs in the A. B. C. D. uterus. cervix. ovaries. oviducts.

50. The hormone produced as a result of implantation is called A. B. C. D. testosterone. luteinizing hormone (LH). follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). human chorionic gonadotropic hormone (HCG).

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 14 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. Explain the functional relationship between rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, chromosomes and vesicles. (4 marks)

OVER - 15 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 2.

2. a) Identify the molecules labelled X.

(1 mark)

b) Name two processes by which these molecules function in order to move materials. (2 marks) i)

ii)

- 16 -

3. List three ways in which mRNA is different from DNA. i)

(3 marks)

ii)

iii)

OVER - 17 -

4. a) Give one example of an environmental mutagen.

(1 mark)

b) Explain how a mutagen could change the mRNA produced in a cell.

(2 marks)

- 18 -

5. Draw a labelled diagram to illustrate the lock and key model of enzymatic action. (4 marks)

OVER - 19 -

6. a) Name the three glands that secrete enzymes that digest carbohydrates. i) ii) iii)

(3 marks)

b) Name the structure in the small intestine that absorbs the products of carbohydrate digestion. (1 mark)

c) Where does the body store the excess products of carbohydrate digestion?

(1 mark)

- 20 -

7. The maintenance of optimum pH is essential to living systems. Give three different locations in the body where pH is regulated and explain how it is maintained. (6 marks: 1 mark each for locations; 1 mark each for explanations) Location: Explanation:

Location: Explanation:

Location: Explanation:

OVER - 21 -

8. Name any three fetal structures indicated by the letters. Give one function for each structure that you name. (6 marks: 1 mark each for names; 1 mark each for functions)

V W X

Z Y

- 22 -

Letter: Function:

Name:

Letter: Function:

Name:

Letter: Function:

Name:

OVER - 23 -

9. Explain how a nerve impulse travels from one neuron to another.

(4 marks)

- 24 -

10. Describe two ways in which a drug could block transmission of an impulse at the synapse. (2 marks) i)

ii)

OVER - 25 -

11. Describe the process by which each of the following affects the composition of filtrate in the nephron. (4 marks: 2 marks each) Proximal Tubule:

Loop of Henle:

- 26 -

12. a) Give two functions for each of the following structures. Testes: i)

(4 marks: 2 marks each)

ii)

Ovaries: i)

ii)

b) Name the hormone that is involved in a positive feedback loop and explain one of its functions. (2 marks) Name: Function:

END OF EXAMINATION

- 27 -

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

BIOLOGY 12
August 1998
Course Code = BI

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Score for Question 1: 1. _____ (4)

Score for Question 8: 8. _____ (6)

BIOLOGY 12
August 1998
Course Code = BI Score for Question 3: 3. _____ (3) Score for Question 10: 10. _____ (2) Score for Question 2: 2. _____ (3) Score for Question 9: 9. _____ (4)

Score for Question 4: 4. _____ (3)

Score for Question 11: 11. _____ (4)

Score for Question 5: 5. _____ (4)

Score for Question 12: 12. _____ (6)

Score for Question 6: 6. _____ (5)

Score for Question 7: 7. _____ (6)

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

JUNE 1998

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1998 Ministry of Education

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 9 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. The time allotted for this examination is two hours.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

X W

1. The cell produces, stores, packages and exports a steroid hormone. What is the correct order of structures involved in this process? A. B. C. D. Z, X, W V, W, X X, W, Y V, W, Y

OVER -1-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 2 and 3.

2. The structure labelled X is a A. B. C. D. nucleus. ribosome. nucleolus. Golgi body.

3. The process that occurs in the structure labelled Y is A. B. C. D. cell division. active transport. protein synthesis. cellular respiration. ________________________________________________

4. Which of the following is necessary for hydrogen bonding? A. B. C. D. Peptide bonds. Hydrogen ions. Polar molecules. Equal sharing of electrons.

5. The maintenance of a constant pH of the blood is achieved by A. B. C. D. acids. bases. water. buffers. -2-

6. The bonding of unit molecules to produce a polysaccharide is called A. B. C. D. hydrolysis. translation. cellular respiration. dehydration synthesis.

7. Recombinant DNA is defined as DNA produced from A. B. C. D. RNA and a protein. DNA and hemoglobin. viral DNA and glucose. DNA of two different organisms.

Use the following table to answer question 8.


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA, and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamic acid UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

8. Determine the sequence of amino acids produced by this DNA sequence: G G A G T T T T C A. B. C. D. Proline, Valine, Lysine. Glycine, Valine, Leucine. Proline, Glutamine, Lysine. Glycine, Glutamic acid, Leucine.

OVER -3-

9. Movement of cancer cells to a new site where a secondary tumour begins is called A. B. C. D. anaplasia. metastasis. promotion. vascularization.

10. Which of the following is a characteristic of cancer cells? A. B. C. D. Differentiated. Contact inhibition. Poor blood supply. Disorganized growth.

11. One difference between proto-oncogenes and oncogenes is that oncogenes have the potential to A. B. C. D. infect viruses. inhibit cancer cells. produce more hormones. induce cancerous transformations.

Use the following diagram to answer question 12.

Cell X

Cell Y

12. Simple diffusion of molecules would occur most rapidly in which of the cells above? A. B. C. D. Cell X, because it has a smaller volume. Cell X, because it synthesizes proteins at a faster rate. Cell Y, because it can move around more quickly. Cell Y, because it has a larger surface area.

-4-

Use the following diagram to answer question 13.

13. The structure labelled X in the reaction above is A. B. C. D. a vitamin. the substrate. the active site. a competitive inhibitor.

Use the following graph to answer question 14. Enzyme Activity as a Function of pH

Enzyme Activity

7 pH

14

14. Which line on the graph above represents the data from an experiment exploring the effect of pH on the activity of pepsin? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z OVER -5-

15. Peristalsis in the esophagus A. B. C. D. moves food to the stomach. opens the pyloric sphincter. activates the salivary glands. causes the secretion of pepsinogen.

16. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) in pancreatic juice A. B. C. D. emulsifies fats. activates pepsin. neutralizes acid chyme. stimulates the release of insulin.

17. The liver plays vital roles in all of the following systems except the A. B. C. D. nervous system. digestive system. excretory system. circulatory system.

18. Vitamins and amino acids are produced in the large intestine by A. B. C. D. feces. bacteria. the cells of the villi. the reabsorption of water.

19. Blood vessels that allow diffusion of gases through their thin walls are the A. B. C. D. arteries. venules. arterioles. capillaries.

20. The blood vessel that carries blood from the lungs to the heart is the A. B. C. D. coronary vein. coronary artery. pulmonary vein. pulmonary artery.

-6-

21. Lymph enters the circulatory system at the A. B. C. D. jugular vein. umbilical vein. subclavian vein. pulmonary vein.

Use the following diagram to answer question 22.

22. Which arrow indicates a structure present in fetal, but not adult circulation? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

23. All of the following are components of plasma except A. B. C. D. salts. water. proteins. platelets.

OVER -7-

Use the following table to answer question 24. VESSEL W X Y Z RED BLOOD CELLS absent present absent present VALVES absent present present absent

24. Which of the vessels above is a lymph vein? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

Use the following diagram to answer question 25.

25. The blood cells shown in the diagram above function to A. B. C. D. clot the blood. fight infection. buffer the blood. transport oxygen.

-8-

26. A foreign substance that stimulates an immune response is a(n) A. B. C. D. cancer. antigen. antibody. promoter.

27. When comparing the arteriole end of the capillary bed with the venule end, at the arteriole end more fluid QUESTION DELETED A. B. C. D. enters the capillary due to blood pressure. leaves the capillary due to blood pressure. enters the capillary due to osmotic pressure. leaves the capillary due to osmotic pressure.

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 28 and 29.

V Y W

28. The function of the structure labelled X is to A. B. C. D. initiate heartbeat. channel blood to the ventricles. carry blood to the heart muscle. prevent the valves from inverting.

29. The anterior (superior) vena cava is labelled A. B. C. D. V W Y Z

- 10 -

30. The atrioventricular (AV) node stimulates the A. B. C. D. aorta. Purkinje fibers. sinoatrial (SA) node. atrioventricular valves.

31. Which of the following is normal resting systolic blood pressure for an adult? A. B. C. D. 50 mm Hg 80 mm Hg 120 mm Hg 180 mm Hg

32. The product of the reaction between Hb and O 2 is A. B. C. D. bicarbonate. hemoglobin. oxyhemoglobin. carbaminohemoglobin.

33. Carbaminohemoglobin is formed in the A. B. C. D. large intestine by E. Coli. alveolus when excess oxygen is present. capillary for the transport of carbon dioxide. nephron from the breakdown of amino acids.

OVER - 11 -

Use the following table to answer question 34. AMOUNT OF NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASED 100 units 50 units 100 units 75 units 25 units

NEURON V W X Y Z

TYPE OF NEURON Inhibitory Inhibitory Excitatory Excitatory Excitatory

34. In order for a nerve impulse to be transmitted across the synapse, the amount of excitatory neurotransmitter must exceed that of inhibitory neurotransmitter by an amount called the threshold. Which of the following combinations will result in the firing of a neuron whose threshold is 120 units? A. B. C. D. Y and Z V and W V, X and Y W, X and Y ________________________________________________

35. A pesticide that destroys an enzyme found in the synaptic cleft may cause A. B. C. D. denaturation of the presynaptic contractile proteins. an increased rate of diffusion across the synaptic cleft. continued depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. alteration of the receptors on the presynaptic membrane.

36. Which of the components of the nervous system has both autonomic and somatic divisions? A. B. C. D. Central. Peripheral. Sympathetic. Parasympathetic.

- 12 -

37. Which of the following is involved in the initiation of a fight or flight response? A. B. C. D. Thyroid gland. Prostate gland. Adrenal cortex. Adrenal medulla.

Use the following diagram to answer questions 38 and 39.

Y W

38. The function of the structure labelled Y is to A. B. C. D. coordinate balance. initiate a reflex arc. regulate breathing rate. sort incoming sensory impulses.

39. Which letter indicates the structure that integrates control of the endocrine glands by the nervous system? A. B. C. D. V W X Z

OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 40 and 41.

W X

40. Which structure is the renal cortex? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

41. The function of the structure labelled Y is to A. B. C. D. collect urine. protect the kidney. adjust the pH of the blood. supply blood to the kidney.

- 14 -

42. The tube that carries urine out of the bladder is the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. distal tubule. collecting duct.

43. As filtrate moves through the nephron it becomes increasingly hypertonic because of the A. B. C. D. diffusion of glucose. pressure filtration of the blood. active transport of sodium ions. reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

44. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the glomerulus? A. B. C. D. It is composed of capillaries. It surrounds the Bowmans capsule. Its blood pressure promotes filtration. It is connected to arterioles at both ends.

OVER - 15 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 45, 46 and 47. Y

W Z

45. A function of the structure labelled X is to A. B. C. D. collect urine. excrete sodium. reabsorb glucose. bring urea to the nephron.

46. The structure labelled W is the A. B. C. D. glomerulus. loop of Henle. proximal tubule. peritubular capillary network.

47. Which of the labelled structures in the diagram above responds to ADH (antidiuretic hormone)? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z - 16 -

48. Aldosterone is secreted by the A. B. C. D. testes. nephron. adrenal cortex. posterior pituitary.

Use the following diagram to answer questions 49 and 50.

X W Y

49. Which arrow points to the epididymis? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

50. The function of the structure labelled W is to A. B. C. D. store urine. mature sperm. secrete testosterone. produce seminal fluid.

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet. OVER - 17 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. For each of the following molecules, give one function and describe a characteristic of the molecule that aids this function. (6 marks: 2 marks each) a) ATP Function:

Characteristic:

b) Water Function:

Characteristic:

c) Phospholipid Function:

Characteristic:

- 18 -

2. Complete the following table comparing DNA and RNA.

(3 marks: 1 mark each)

DNA Bases Location in cell Number of strands 2 C, G, A, T

RNA

nucleus and cytoplasm

OVER - 19 -

3. Give one role of each of the following in the process of translation. tRNA:

(3 marks: 1 mark each)

Ribosome:

mRNA:

- 20 -

4. a) Explain the lock and key model of enzymatic action.

(2 marks)

b) Explain how denaturation stops enzymatic action.

(1 mark)

OVER - 21 -

5. Two identical red blood cell samples were prepared for an experiment. The samples were placed in two different solutions and the percent change in mass was recorded and graphed over an eight hour period as shown below.
+ 10 +8 +6
Percent Change in Mass Cell Sample in Solution A

+4 +2 0 2 4 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (h)

Cell Sample in Solution B

a) Account for the change in mass of the cells in Solution A during the first four hours. (2 marks)

b) What happened to the cells in Solution A after four hours?

(1 mark)

- 22 -

Use the following diagram of red blood cells in solution to answer part c).

c) A sample of cells from Solution B (at five hours) was examined under the microscope. Explain why they appear as in the diagram above. (2 marks)

d) Give one reason for the results obtained from the cells placed in Solution B between three and eight hours. (1 mark)

OVER - 23 -

6. Complete the table below by giving one enzyme produced by each of the following glands and by stating the digestive product of that enzyme. (6 marks: 1 mark each) GLANDS ENZYME PRODUCED DIGESTIVE PRODUCT

Salivary glands

Gastric glands

Intestinal glands

- 24 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.

Y W

7. a) Label structures W, X, Y and Z on the diagram.

(4 marks: 1 mark each)

b) Describe the roles of structures W, X and Z in the process of inhalation.

(3 marks)

c) Why are the pleural membranes important to the inhalation process?

(1 mark)

OVER - 25 -

8. Name each of the following neurons and for each give its role in a reflex arc. a)

(6 marks)

Name: Role:

b)

Name: Role:

c)

Name: Role:

- 26 -

9. a) Complete this summary table of the ovarian cycle. HORMONE WHICH INITIATES PHASE Phase 1
Days 1 to 14

(4 marks) HORMONE PRODUCED BY OVARY

Phase 2
Days 15 to 28

b)

i) What is the event that occurs on Day 14?

(1 mark)

ii) What causes this event to occur?

(1 mark)

c) What causes Phase 2 to end?

(1 mark)

d) Describe the effects of implantation (pregnancy) on the ovarian cycle.

(2 marks)

END OF EXAMINATION

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INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

BIOLOGY 12
June 1998
Course Code = BI

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Score for Question 1: 1. _____ (6)

Score for Question 8: 8. _____ (6)

BIOLOGY 12
June 1998
Course Code = BI Score for Question 3: 3. _____ (3) Score for Question 2: 2. _____ (3) Score for Question 9: 9. _____ (9)

Score for Question 4: 4. _____ (3)

Score for Question 5: 5. _____ (6)

Score for Question 6: 6. _____ (6)

Score for Question 7: 7. _____ (8)

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

NOVEMBER 1998

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1998 Ministry of Education

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 10 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. The time allotted for this examination is two hours.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

1. The process that occurs in the structure shown above is A. B. C. D. photosynthesis. protein synthesis. cellular respiration. inter-cellular digestion.

Use the following diagram to answer question 2. + H O H O H + H + +

2. The chemical bond that will form between the molecules in the diagram above is a(n) A. B. C. D. ionic bond. peptide bond. covalent bond. hydrogen bond.

OVER -1-

3. Substances that increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution are A. B. C. D. acids. bases. enzymes. polar molecules.

Use the following diagram to answer question 4. H H N H 4. This molecule is part of a A. B. C. D. fat. protein. nucleic acid. carbohydrate. ________________________________________________ C CH3 O C OH

5. Which of the following molecules is a carbohydrate? A. B. C. D. C 3H 7O 2 N C6 H12 O6 C13H 26O 2 C 20 H 40 O 2

6. Which of the following is made up of a long chain of glucose molecules? A. B. C. D. DNA. Starch. Pepsin. Phospholipid.

-2-

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.


C N N C C H O C O N H O N C C N C N N C O C N N O N C O C C O C C O C O C H C C C H C C C H C C O

7. This diagram indicates which level(s) of structure? A. B. C. D. Only primary. Primary and secondary. Primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

Use the following diagram to answer question 8.

X 8. The molecule represented by the line labelled X is A. B. C. D. DNA. tRNA. rRNA. mRNA.

N O

polypeptide chain

OVER -3-

9. A section of DNA has the following sequence of nitrogenous bases: CGATTACAG Which of the following sequences would be produced as a result of transcription? A. B. C. D. CGTUUTCTG GCTAATGTC CGAUUACAG GCUAAUGUC

10. For a substance to be classified as a mutagen, it must cause A. B. C. D. a change in DNA. enzymes to denature. hydrolysis of proteins. mRNA to be produced.

11. Frog eggs placed in an isotonic solution will A. B. C. D. burst. shrink. remain the same. increase in volume.

Use the following graph to answer question 12.

X Energy

Progress of Reaction 12. The arrow labelled X in the graph above indicates the A. B. C. D. net energy gain. activation energy. temperature of the products. temperature of the reactants.

-4-

13. Which of the following is a function of the hormone thyroxin? A. B. C. D. It decreases blood volume. It increases metabolic rate. It slows the release of insulin. It increases blood sodium levels.

Use the following diagram to answer question 14.

14. The structure labelled X in the diagram is a(n) A. B. C. D. enzyme. substrate. coenzyme. enzyme-substrate complex. ________________________________________________

15. Compounds that are needed for enzymes to function properly are A. B. C. D. buffers. steroids. vitamins. heavy metals.

16. When salivary amylase enters the stomach, it becomes A. B. C. D. basic. buffered. activated. denatured.

17. Which of the following would increase the rate of a metabolic reaction in the mouth? A. B. C. D. Adding lead ions. Increasing the pH to 12. Decreasing the temperature to 0 C . Increasing the enzyme concentration. OVER -5-

18. The absorption of water from the digestive tract occurs mainly in the A. B. C. D. colon. kidneys. stomach. duodenum.

19. The function of the cardiac sphincter is to prevent backflow of acid chyme from the A. B. C. D. esophagus to the mouth. stomach to the esophagus. duodenum to the stomach. colon to the small intestine.

20. Which of the following correctly matches a digestive enzyme with its source? A. B. C. D. Pepsin / pancreas. Bile / gall bladder. Trypsin / stomach. Amylase / pancreas.

21. Secretions from the salivary glands catalyze which of the following reactions? A. B. C. D. protein + H 2 O peptides peptides + H 2 O amino acids carbohydrates + H 2 O maltose fats + H 2 O fatty acids and glycerol

22. The emulsification of fat is carried out by A. B. C. D. bile. lipase. pepsin. bicarbonate ions.

-6-

Use the following diagram to answer question 23.

23. Which of the following substances is absorbed into the structure labelled X ? A. B. C. D. Fat. Urea. Glucose. Amino acids. ________________________________________________

24. Populations of E. coli are found in the A. B. C. D. liver. colon. pancreas. gall bladder.

OVER -7-

Use the following diagram to answer question 25.

25. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. iliac artery. hepatic vein. carotid artery. posterior vena cava. ________________________________________________

26. Which of the following organs has a portal system associated with it? A. B. C. D. Skin. Lung. Liver. Heart.

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 27. X

27. In the diagram above, the blood pressure is highest at A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

28. Which of the following is a characteristic of pulmonary circulation? A. B. C. D. Blood leaves the heart via the aorta. Blood in the arteries is deoxygenated. Blood in the veins is travelling to the lungs. Blood in capillaries absorbs high levels of carbon dioxide.

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer question 29.

29. Which of the following blood vessels is represented by the diagram? A. B. C. D. Lymph vessel. Carotid artery. Hepatic portal vein. Peritubular capillary. ________________________________________________

30. Blood leaves the right ventricle via the A. B. C. D. aorta. pulmonary trunk. coronary arteries. anterior vena cava.

31. Hypertension would be indicated by a blood pressure reading of A. B. C. D. 100 / 80 120 / 50 120 / 80 150 / 110

32. The destruction of the cilia lining the respiratory tract would result in A. B. C. D. decreased breathing rate. decreased mucus production. increased debris in the airways. increased temperature in the lungs.

- 10 -

Use the following graph to answer question 33. Temperature

Oxyhemoglobin A B

33. The graph above shows the temperature and level of oxyhemoglobin in the blood as it moves from point A to point B in the body. The shaded area on the graph would represent the A. B. C. D. trachea. body tissues. pulmonary arteries. alveolar capillaries. ________________________________________________

34. The type of neuron that can only be found in the central nervous system (CNS) is a(n) A. B. C. D. interneuron. motor neuron. mixed neuron. sensory neuron.

35. During which stage of a nerve impulse does the opening of the sodium gates play an important role? A. B. C. D. Recovery. Repolarization. Depolarization. Resting potential.

OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 36.

X Y

Z
36. Which letter indicates a structure that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

37. Nerve impulses are not continuously generated at a synapse because A. B. C. D. there are insufficient calcium ions. the presynaptic membrane is depolarized. the synaptic membranes become impermeable. neurotransmitters are broken down by enzymes.

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 38.

38. The structure labelled X represents a(n) A. B. C. D. effector. receptor. interneuron. sensory neuron. ________________________________________________

39. Which of the following would result from stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system? A. B. C. D. Hypotension. Constricted pupils. Decreased digestive rate. Reduced blood flow to skeletal muscles.

40. What part of the brain is malfunctioning if nerve impulses are unable to travel from the right to the left hemisphere? A. B. C. D. Cerebrum. Cerebellum. Hypothalamus. Corpus callosum.

OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 41 and 42.

41. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. bladder. collecting duct.

42. The function of the structure labelled Y is to A. B. C. D. store urine. filter blood. produce urine. maintain blood volume. ________________________________________________

43. Which of the following structures requires a hypertonic environment to function? A. B. C. D. Glomerulus. Loop of Henle. Afferent arteriole. Bowmans capsule.

- 14 -

44. When comparing the blood concentrations of urea and glucose in the hepatic portal vein to those in the renal vein, one finds that in the hepatic portal vein A. B. C. D. urea is lower and glucose is lower. urea is lower and glucose is higher. urea is higher and glucose is lower. urea is higher and glucose is higher.

45. Decreasing the concentration of sodium ions in the blood will result in A. B. C. D. increased ADH secretion and increased aldosterone secretion. increased ADH secretion and decreased aldosterone secretion. decreased ADH secretion and increased aldosterone secretion. decreased ADH secretion and decreased aldosterone secretion.

Use the following diagram to answer question 46.

X W Y

46. Which letter indicates the prostate gland? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER - 15 -

47. A function of the interstitial cells of the testes is the A. B. C. D. storage of semen. maturation of sperm cells. production of testosterone. production of seminal fluid.

48. The production of testosterone is regulated by A. B. C. D. oxytocin. progesterone. luteinizing hormone (LH). follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Use the following diagram to answer question 49.

49. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. uterus. cervix. vagina. urethra.

- 16 -

50. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the sequence of events during the ovarian and uterine cycles? A. B. C. D. Ovulation occurs when progesterone levels decrease. The endometrium is shed as estrogen levels increase. As the corpus luteum degenerates, progesterone levels decrease. When implantation occurs, HCG (human chorionic gonadotropic) hormone levels decrease.

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

OVER - 17 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Use the following diagram to answer question 1. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

- 18 -

1. Identify each part of the cell indicated and give one role for each structure in the secretion and/or synthesis of a protein. (6 marks: 1 2 mark for each name; 1 mark for each function) Part W: Name: Role:

Part X: Name: Role:

Part Y: Name: Role:

Part Z: Name: Role:

OVER - 19 -

2. Demonstrate your understanding of the structure of DNA by describing the following features of the DNA molecule. You may use drawings in your answers. a) Describe the shape of the DNA molecule. (1 mark)

b) Describe the structure of the strands (backbone) of DNA.

(1 mark)

c) Describe complementary base pairing.

(1 mark)

d) Describe the bonding that occurs between bases.

(1 mark)

- 20 -

3. Give three ways in which cancer cells differ from normal cells. i)

(3 marks)

ii)

iii)

OVER - 21 -

4. An experiment was designed to determine the correct salinity of water (percentage of salt in water) required to successfully clone certain cells using tissue culture. Three cell samples were placed in three different salt solutions and their change in mass was recorded in the data table shown below. SALT IN WATER (%) 0.5 1.0 1.5 CHANGE IN MASS OF CELLS (%) + 0. 82 + 0. 40 0.15

a) Use the grid provided to graph the data above. Label the x -axis as salt in water (%). (2 marks)

- 22 -

b) If the cells must be cultured in a solution that does not cause them to shrink or swell, estimate the percentage of salt in water that would be best for culturing the cells. (1 mark)

c) Why do the cells in the 1.5% salt solution lose mass?

(1 mark)

d) Name the process and explain how each of the following nutrients, when added to any of the solutions, would enter the cells in the culture. (2 marks) Glucose: Name of Process: Explanation:

Oxygen: Name of Process: Explanation:

OVER - 23 -

5. Complete the following table for the digestive system.

(4 marks:

1 2

mark each)

SOURCE OF ENZYME Stomach

ENZYME

SUBSTRATE

Lipase Trypsin Maltose

- 24 -

Use the following blood-smear diagram to answer question 6.

6. Name structures X, Y and Z and provide a function of each. (6 marks: 1 mark for each name; 1 mark for each function) Structure X: Name: Function: Structure Y: Name: Function: Structure Z: Name: Function:

OVER - 25 -

7. a) Explain how each of the following structures functions in the process of inhalation. (2 marks) Diaphragm:

Ribs:

b) What role does each of the following have in breathing? Medulla oblongata:

(2 marks)

Pleural membranes:

- 26 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 8.

8. Describe the process which occurs at the circled area labelled X when a nerve impulse travels through this area. (6 marks)

OVER - 27 -

9. Demonstrate your understanding of negative feedback by describing how the kidneys and the hypothalamus work together to regulate blood volume. (5 marks)

- 28 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 10. X Y

W Z

10. Identify the labelled structures in the diagram above and give one function of each. (6 marks: 1 2 mark for each name; 1 mark for each function) Structure W: Name: Function: Structure X: Name: Function: Structure Y: Name: Function: Structure Z: Name: Function:

END OF EXAMINATION

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INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

BIOLOGY 12
November 1998
Course Code = BI

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Score for Question 1: 1. _____ (6)

Score for Question 8: 8. _____ (6)

BIOLOGY 12
November 1998
Course Code = BI Score for Question 3: 3. _____ (3) Score for Question 10: 10. _____ (6) Score for Question 2: 2. _____ (4) Score for Question 9: 9. _____ (5)

Score for Question 4: 4. _____ (6)

Score for Question 5: 5. _____ (4)

Score for Question 6: 6. _____ (6)

Score for Question 7: 7. _____ (4)

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

JANUARY 1998

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SKILLS AND TRAINING

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

1998 Ministry of Education, Skills and Training

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 10 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. The time allotted for this examination is two hours.

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PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

1. The cell organelle labelled X in the diagram is a A. B. C. D. vacuole. lysosome. Golgi body. mitochondrion.

OVER -1-

2. Lysosomes can be expected to be present in large numbers in cells which A. B. C. D. have cilia. produce centrioles. are actively dividing. carry out phagocytosis.

Use the following diagram to answer question 3.

3. The structure labelled X is a A. B. C. D. nucleus. vacuole. nucleolus. chromosome. ________________________________________________

4. A function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to A. B. C. D. form ribosomes. synthesize lipids. store nucleic acid. breakdown carbohydrates.

5. The polarity of a water molecule results from A. B. C. D. more of the protons being in the hydrogen nucleus. more of the electrons being near the hydrogen nucleus. the equal numbers of protons in hydrogen and oxygen. the unequal sharing of electrons between hydrogen and oxygen.

-2-

6. The pH of blood is slightly basic. Which of the following would be the pH of blood? A. B. C. D. 2.0 6.8 7.4 10.3

7. The bonding of a glucose molecule and a maltose molecule would result in a A. B. C. D. triglyceride. disaccharide. phospholipid. polysaccharide.

8. Energy released from the breakdown of monosaccharides in the cytoplasm is stored in A. B. C. D. ATP. RNA. DNA. ADH.

9. Which of the following is not a part of a nucleotide? A. B. C. D. Sugar. Glycerol. Phosphate. Nitrogen base.

OVER -3-

Use the following diagram to answer question 10.

+
G C C G A T

x y1

x1 y

y1

x1

10. The process shown in the diagram above is A. B. C. D. hydrolysis. translation. replication. transcription.

-4-

Use the following table to answer question 11.

Three-letter codons of messenger RNA, and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamic acid UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

11. A tRNA molecule with the anticodon GCU would be carrying the amino acid A. B. C. D. valine. alanine. tyrosine. arginine. ________________________________________________

12. Which of the following is a characteristic of cancer cells? A. B. C. D. Cellular differentiation. Loss of contact inhibition. Decreased oxygen uptake. Inability to actively transport molecules.

OVER -5-

Use the following information to answer question 13. 1. 2. 3. 4. Promotion Metastasis Anaplasia Initiation

13. Which of the following is the correct sequence for the development of cancer? A. B. C. D. 1, 4, 3, 2 3, 4, 2, 1 4, 1, 3, 2 4, 3, 2, 1 ________________________________________________

14. Which of the following might indicate the presence of a developing skin cancer? A. B. C. D. Persistent coughing. Change in bowel habits. Difficulty in swallowing. A sore that does not heal.

15. How many of the following factors would affect the permeability of the cell membrane? A. B. C. D. One. Two. Three. Four. Size of molecules. Lipid solubility of molecules. Presence of transport channels. Presence of ATP inside the cell.

-6-

16. Two identical plant cell samples of equal mass were taken from the same plant and were prepared for an experiment. Each sample was placed in a different solution. The percent change in mass was recorded and graphed over an eight hour period as shown below.

+20 +10

Cell Sample in Solution A

Percent change in mass of plant cells

0 1 10 20 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (hours)

Cell Sample in Solution B

Given the results, which of the following statements is accurate? A. B. C. D. Solution A was hypotonic to the plant cells. Both solutions were isotonic to the plant cells. Both solutions were hypertonic to the plant cells. Solution A was hypertonic and solution B was hypotonic to the plant cells.

17. A non-protein molecule that aids the action of an enzyme to which it is loosely bound is called a(n) A. B. C. D. initiator. coenzyme. competitive inhibitor. enzyme-substrate complex.

OVER -7-

Use the following graph to answer question 18.

100

Enzyme 1
75

Enzyme 2

Enzyme Activity
(% of maximum)

50

25

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

pH 18. The two digestive enzymes shown in the graph have the same substrate. What would the substrate be? A. B. C. D. Starch. Protein. Maltose. Peptides. ________________________________________________

19. The function of the pyloric sphincter is to prevent the backflow of material from the A. B. C. D. esophagus to the mouth. duodenum to the stomach. stomach to the esophagus. colon to the small intestine.

20. Blood glucose levels are lowered by insulin because it stimulates A. B. C. D. gluconeogenesis. the uptake of glucose by cells. the conversion of glucose to fatty acids. the conversion of glucose to amino acids.

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 21.

21. The breakdown of some poisonous substances found in the blood occurs in organ A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER -9-

Use the following graph to answer question 22.

Blood Pressure

Total Cross-sectional Area

22. The graph shows blood pressure and cross-sectional area of vessels in various parts of the circulatory system. What kind of blood vessel would have the characteristics found in area Z? A. B. C. D. Vein. Artery. Arteriole. Capillary.

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 23.

23. The blood vessel labelled X is called the A. B. C. D. subclavian vein. mesenteric artery. anterior vena cava. posterior vena cava. ________________________________________________

24. A red blood cell leaves the aorta, makes a circuit through the body and arrives back in the capillaries of the alveoli. The correct sequence of organs through which the cell may have travelled is A. B. C. D. lungs, heart, small intestine, liver. small intestine, heart, liver, lungs. liver, lungs, small intestine, heart. small intestine, liver, heart, lungs.

OVER - 11 -

25. Rapid production of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes would indicate the presence of A. B. C. D. an infection. hypotension. hypertension. capillary fluid exchange.

Use the following diagram to answer question 26.

26. The blood cells shown in the diagram would not be able to A. B. C. D. carry oxygen. fight infection. initiate a blood clot. carry carbon dioxide.

- 12 -

27. Blood pressure will be at its highest when A. B. C. D. atria relaxes. atria contracts. ventricles relax. ventricles contract.

28. A foreign substance entering the circulatory system is called a(n) A. B. C. D. platelet. antigen. antibody. hormone.

Use the following data table for a capillary bed in the lungs to answer question 29.

PATIENT

NET BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE


ARTERIOLE (mm of Hg)

NET OSMOTIC PRESSURE IN THE


VENULE (mm of Hg)

W X Y Z

15 17 15 14

15 15 17 16

29. Which patient has pulmonary edema, a condition where tissue fluid accumulates in the lungs? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

30. The coordinating structure responsible for an intrinsic heart beat is the A. B. C. D. cerebellum. sinoatrial node. chordae tendineae. sympathetic nervous system. OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 31.

Y X Z W

31. Systole of the ventricles is occurring at A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 14 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 32.

32. Which of the following substances would be found at its highest concentration in blood leaving the capillaries shown in the diagram? A. B. C. D. Oxyhemoglobin. Bicarbonate ions. Reduced hemoglobin. Carbaminohemoglobin. ________________________________________________

33. Air pressure is reduced inside the thoracic cavity when A. B. C. D. the rib muscles relax. the diaphragm moves up. the rib cage moves up and out. the pleural membranes collapse.

34. The level of CO 2 in the blood is monitored by the A. B. C. D. cerebellum. hypothalamus. cerebral cortex. medulla oblongata.

OVER - 15 -

35. Most hemoglobin becomes reduced inside a(n) A. B. C. D. artery. venule. arteriole. capillary.

36. The type of neuron that is found only in the central nervous system is the A. B. C. D. interneuron. motor neuron. mixed neuron. sensory neuron.

37. An axon was stimulated at one place and the voltage changes across the membrane were recorded as shown in the following graph.

+ 40

Millivolts

60

Time What would be the effect if the intensity (amount) of stimulus was increased? A. B. C. D. The frequency of impulses would increase. The resting potential would increase from 60mV to 40mV . Each action potential would increase from + 40mV to + 60mV . Polarity changes would occur during the recovery (refractory) period.

- 16 -

38. In an axon, the nerve impulses normally travel A. B. C. D. in both directions. toward the cell body. away from the cell body. faster as they are unmyelinated.

39. Which of the following substances would not be found in synaptic clefts? A. B. C. D. Noradrenalin. Acetylcholine. Cholinesterase. Carbonic anhydrase.

40. The hormone that initiates the fight or flight response is produced by the A. B. C. D. adrenal gland. hypothalamus. pituitary gland. medulla oblongata.

41. Sharing of information between the two cerebral hemispheres is possible because of the A. B. C. D. cerebellum. hypothalamus. corpus callosum. medulla oblongata.

42. Which of the following interacts with the pituitary gland as the neuroendocrine control centre? A. B. C. D. Thalamus. Cerebellum. Hypothalamus. Medulla oblongata.

43. If the blood becomes acidic, the kidneys will maintain homeostasis by actively excreting A. B. C. D. penicillin. histamine. calcium ions. hydrogen ions. OVER - 17 -

44. Movement of fluids from the glomerulus to Bowmans capsule is due to A. B. C. D. osmosis. secretion. active transport. pressure filtration.

45. The site of tubular excretion is the A. B. C. D. loop of Henle. Bowmans capsule. distal convoluted tubule. proximal convoluted tubule.

46. The concentration of sodium in the blood would increase with increased plasma levels of a hormone from the A. B. C. D. thyroid gland. adrenal gland. prostate gland. anterior pituitary gland.

47. Which of the following store sperm cells and eliminate those that have major genetic defects? A. B. C. D. Epididymis. Interstitial cells. Seminal vesicles. Seminiferous tubules.

- 18 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 48. Y X W Z

48. Which structure would contain the greatest concentration of mitochondria? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________

49. The carbon dioxide produced by a developing fetus is removed by the A. B. C. D. cervix. placenta. oviducts. corpus luteum.

50. Which hormone triggers the release of the egg from the developing follicle? A. B. C. D. Estrogen. Progesterone. Luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

OVER - 19 -

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- 20 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. Draw a generalized amino acid and label the amine, acid (carboxyl) and R groups. (You may use a pencil for your drawing.)

(4 marks)

OVER - 21 -

2. Give one role of each of the following in the production of a protein. (4 marks: 1 mark each) DNA:

mRNA:

tRNA:

rRNA:

- 22 -

3. State how each of the following transport mechanisms functions to move materials into a cell. (4 marks: 1 mark each) Diffusion:

Osmosis:

Facilitated transport:

Active transport:

OVER - 23 -

4. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of pH on pepsin. The following steps were performed: 1. Five test tubes were numbered and equal amounts of egg white and water were added to each. 2. A buffer was added to each test tube to maintain its pH at the level given in the table below. 3. An equal amount of pepsin was added to each test tube. After one hour, the mass of egg white remaining in each test tube was determined. The results are recorded below: TEST TUBE 1 2 3 4 5 pH 1 2 3 5 7 MASS OF EGG WHITE
(in grams)

2.8 1.3 2.7 3.9 5.8

a) Draw a graph that compares the pH to the amount of egg white remaining in each test tube. Label the x-axis (horizontal axis) as pH. (2 marks)

- 24 -

b) What appears to be the optimum pH for pepsin?

(1 mark)

c) Explain what happens to pepsin at a pH of 7, and why this affects its activity.

(2 marks)

OVER - 25 -

5. Give three functions of the bicarbonate ion HCO3 in the body and identify one specific location of each function. (6 marks: 2 marks each) i) Function:

Location:

ii) Function:

Location:

iii) Function:

Location:

- 26 -

6. Describe how the small intestine is specialized for digestion and absorption. Digestion: (2 marks)

Absorption:

(2 marks)

OVER - 27 -

7. How is the structure of the alveoli ideally suited to the exchange of gases with the blood? (4 marks)

- 28 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 8.

Z 8. The diagram above represents a simple reflex arc. Identify structures V, W, X, Y and Z and give one function of each structure. 1 (5 marks: 1 2 mark for each name, 2 mark for each function)
STRUCTURE NAME FUNCTION

OVER - 29 -

9. Plasma from a student was analyzed before and after a ten kilometre cross-country run. During the run, the student became dehydrated. Explain how the resulting lowered blood volume is detected by the body and describe a homeostatic mechanism by which it is returned to normal. (6 marks)

- 30 -

10. State the effects that each of the following hormones has on the body during puberty. (8 marks) Testosterone: (three effects) i) ii) iii)

Estrogen: (three effects) i) ii) iii)

Follicle stimulating hormone: (two effects) i) ii)

END OF EXAMINATION

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| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

BIOLOGY 12
January 1998
Course Code = BI

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY

Score for Question 1: 1. _____ (4)

Score for Question 8: 8. _____ (5)

BIOLOGY 12
January 1998
Course Code = BI Score for Question 3: 3. _____ (4) Score for Question 10: 10. _____ (8) Score for Question 2: 2. _____ (4) Score for Question 9: 9. _____ (6)

Score for Question 4: 4. _____ (5)

Score for Question 5: 5. _____ (6)

Score for Question 6: 6. _____ (4)

Score for Question 7: 7. _____ (4)

INSERT STUDENT I.D. NUMBER (PEN)

S T I C K E R I N T H I S S PA C E

JANUARY 2000

PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

BIOLOGY 12
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 1. Insert the stickers with your Student I.D. Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above and on the back cover of this booklet. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Student I.D. Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink in the space provided in this booklet. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 7. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

2000 Ministry of Education

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BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 11 written-response questions 50 50 Total: 100 marks 2. 3.

Suggested Time

45 75 120 minutes

Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

4.

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PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

1. Which of the following structures produces vesicles? A. B. C. D. nucleus ribosome nucleolus Golgi body

2. Which of the following produces ribosomal RNA? A. B. C. D. nucleolus mitochondrion rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum

3. During cell division, genetic material is contained in structures called A. B. C. D. vacuoles. lysosomes. Golgi bodies. chromosomes.

OVER -1-

Use the following diagrams to answer question 4. W X Y Z

TIME

4. Which of the following describes the sequence in which the above events would occur in the production and secretion of a protein? A. B. C. D. W, X, Y, Z W, Z, X, Y X, Y, W, Z X, Y, Z, W

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

5. Which of the following is a product of the structure above? A. B. C. D. urea oxygen glucose carbon dioxide

-2-

Use the following diagram to answer question 6. + H O + + O H + H H O 6. The indicated charges allow these molecules to A. B. C. D. act as a solvent. buffer a solution. form the cell membrane. store energy for cellular use. H NH2 CH3 C C OH 7. This molecule is the result of the hydrolysis of A. B. C. D. bile. testosterone. hemoglobin. phospholipid. H O + H + -3-

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.

OVER

8. Which of the following represents a lipid molecule? A.


N N

B.
H

O C OH

C.
CH3

OH CH3

D.
CH 2OH C OH C H

O H C H C OH OH

________________________________________________ 9. A bacterial nucleic acid containing the human insulin gene is an example of A. B. C. D. a nucleotide. an oncogene. messenger RNA. recombinant DNA.

-4-

Use the following diagram to answer question 10.

10. Which stage in the development of cancer is indicated by the cells at location X? A. B. C. D. anaplasia metastasis vascularization loss of contact inhibition ________________________________________________ 11. Which of the following is a recognized danger signal that indicates cancer may be present? A. B. C. D. a sore fails to heal an infection occurs a high fever develops the heart beats erratically

12. A carcinogen is a substance that A. B. C. D. prevents anaplasia. prevents mutations. denatures enzymes. transforms a proto-oncogene.

OVER -5-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 13 and 14.

13. What is the function of the structure labelled X? A. B. C. D. move cells trap nutrient molecules enable cellular recognition increase the rate of diffusion

14. The molecule labelled Y contains A. B. C. D. protein. steroids. glycerol. amino acids. ________________________________________________ 15. The cell membrane is selectively permeable because A. B. C. D. all particles can pass through it. particles can quickly pass through it. only certain particles can pass through it. only nutrient molecules can pass through it.

-6-

16. Facilitated and active transport both A. B. C. D. require ATP. require protein carrier molecules. operate in the sodium-potassium pump. move molecules against the concentration gradient.

Use the following micrographs to answer question 17. start of experiment after 2 minutes

17. Red blood cells were placed in an unknown solution. Micrographs were taken at the start of the experiment and after two minutes. The movement of which component of the solution caused the observed change? A. B. C. D. salt water protein glucose

OVER -7-

Use the following diagrams to answer question 18. Protozoan A Protozoan B

18. Spherical protozoans (single-celled organisms), such as A, are generally much smaller than irregularly-shaped protozoans, such as B, because A. B. C. D. irregular protozoans do not divide as often. spherical protozoans use greater amounts of energy. irregular protozoans have a greater surface area to volume ratio. spherical protozoans are able to obtain more food using phagocytosis.

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 19 and 20.

W Y

19. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. trachea. pharynx. epiglottis. esophagus.

20. Which structure stores bile? A. B. C. D. V W Y Z

OVER -9-

21. Secretions from the stomach promote the digestion of A. B. C. D. fats. proteins. nucleic acids. carbohydrates.

22. Which of the following statements about insulin is correct? A. B. C. D. Insulin is produced by the liver. Insulin causes a decrease in blood sugar. Insulin decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood. Insulin is secreted when fats are present in the digestive system.

Use the following diagram to answer question 23.

Y Z X

23. Blood pressure is greatest in which of the labelled vessels? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 24.

24. The structures labelled X are A. B. C. D. platelets. antibodies. red blood cells. white blood cells. ________________________________________________ 25. A function of the larynx is to A. B. C. D. produce sound. facilitate gas exchange. prevent the lungs from collapsing. increase the volume of the thoracic cavity.

26. Cilia are found lining which of the following structures? A. B. C. D. larynx alveoli trachea pleural membranes

OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 27.

27. The structures labelled X are A. B. C. D. villi. alveoli. bronchioles. lymph nodes. ________________________________________________ 28. Inhalation results from A. B. C. D. contraction of the diaphragm. movement of the pleural membranes. decreased carbon dioxide in the blood. relaxation of the rib (intercostal) muscles.

29. The majority of carbon dioxide in the blood travels A. B. C. D. as bicarbonate ions. dissolved in plasma. as carbonic anhydrase. as carbaminohemoglobin.

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 30. X

W Y

30. Which of the following indicates an axon? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 31. In which of the following is ATP required? A. B. C. D. initiation of the nerve impulse establishment of the resting potential repolarization of the neural membrane depolarization of the neural membrane

OVER - 13 -

Use the following graph to answer question 32.

+40

0 membrane potential (millivolts)

65

time (milliseconds)

32. During which of the following times is the membranes permeability to sodium ions increasing? A. B. C. D. 0 to 1 milliseconds 1 to 3 milliseconds 3 to 4 milliseconds 4 to 5 milliseconds ________________________________________________ 33. The space between two neurons in a reflex arc is the A. B. C. D. synaptic cleft. terminal knob. node of Ranvier. post-synaptic membrane.

34. Control of skeletal muscle is a function of the A. B. C. D. somatic nervous system. autonomic nervous system. sympathetic nervous system. parasympathetic nervous system. - 14 -

35. When a stimulus reaches the threshold level in a dendrite of a sensory neuron, A. B. C. D. the sodium gates open. a neurotransmitter is released. the neuron becomes repolarized. the sodium-potassium pump restores the resting potential.

Use the following diagram to answer questions 36 and 37.

W V Z

36. The structure labelled Y is the A. B. C. D. thalamus. cerebrum. hypothalamus. corpus callosum.

37. Balance and muscle coordination are functions of which of the following structures? A. B. C. D. V W X Z

OVER - 15 -

38. The movement of urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is a function of the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. renal pelvis. collecting duct.

39. The greatest salt concentration in the kidney is found in the A. B. C. D. glomerulus. renal pelvis. renal cortex. renal medulla.

- 16 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 40 and 41. X

40. Which process occurs at X? A. B. C. D. tubular excretion pressure filtration selective reabsorption antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion

41. The structure labelled Y is the A. B. C. D. glomerulus. loop of Henle. Bowmans capsule. proximal convoluted tubule.

OVER - 17 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 42.

blood flow in

blood flow out

42. Which of the following statements comparing blood in X to blood in Y is true? A. B. C. D. The concentration of urea is higher in X. The concentration of oxygen is lower in X. The concentration of glucose is higher in Y. The concentration of carbon dioxide is lower in Y. ________________________________________________ 43. Consuming alcohol inhibits the release of a hormone, resulting in the production of dilute urine. This occurs because the alcohol is affecting the A. B. C. D. thyroid gland. adrenal cortex. adrenal medulla. posterior pituitary.

- 18 -

44. High salt concentration in the blood is detected by the A. B. C. D. glomerulus. hypothalamus. medulla oblongata. distal convoluted tubule.

45. Which of the following would cause increased water reabsorption by the kidneys? A. B. C. D. increased blood volume increased cardiac output decreased blood pressure decreased ADH secretion

46. Testosterone is produced in the A. B. C. D. urethra. epididymis. interstitial cells. seminiferous tubules.

47. Which of the following is not a function of seminal fluid? A. B. C. D. to provide energy for sperm to cause the growth of sperm to provide a medium for movement of sperm cells to transport prostaglandins that promote uterine contraction

OVER - 19 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 48 and 49.

Time

X 48. Which of the following structures within the ovary is labelled X? A. B. C. D. egg follicle oviduct corpus luteum

49. After leaving the ovary, the next structure that Y will enter is the A. B. C. D. uterus. cervix. oviduct. endometrium. ________________________________________________ 50. In order to prevent the degeneration of the corpus luteum, the concentration of which of the following hormones increases during implantation? A. B. C. D. estrogen luteinizing hormone (LH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 20 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question. Suggested Time: 75 minutes

1. State two biological functions of glucose in living organisms. i)

(2 marks)

ii)

OVER - 21 -

2. Using the chart below, contrast DNA and mRNA. (3 marks: 1 mark for each contrasting pair) DNA TYPE OF SUGAR NUMBER OF STRANDS BASES mRNA

- 22 -

3. Describe one way in which each of the following pairs of molecules are functionally related in the process of protein synthesis. (4 marks: 1 mark each) DNA and mRNA:

mRNA and tRNA:

tRNA and amino acids:

protein and rRNA:

OVER - 23 -

4. An experiment was conducted to measure the effects of the presence of thyroxin and temperature on oxygen use in human tissue cells. Two tissue samples were prepared as shown below. Sample A: 50 grams of muscle tissue was added to a nutrient solution. Sample B: 50 grams of muscle tissue was added to a thyroxin and nutrient solution. Oxygen consumption was measured at various temperatures. The results are shown below.
Temperature (C) Consumption of oxygen (mL/hour) Sample A
muscle tissue

Sample B
muscle tissue + thyroxin

15C 25C 35C 45C 55C

6 8 12 7 2

12 16 24 14 4

a) Use the grid provided to graph the data in the table above. Label the x-axis as temperature. (2 marks: 1 mark for correct scale and labels; 1 mark for plotting and lines)

Use the following lines to plot your data:


Sample A Sample B

- 24 -

b) Based on your graph of the data for sample B, predict the amount of oxygen consumed per hour at 20C . (1 mark) Amount of oxygen consumed:

c) Explain the difference observed in the results of samples A and B.

(1 mark)

d) Explain the results for sample B at each of the following temperatures. (3 marks: 1 mark each) 15 C :

35 C :

55 C :

OVER - 25 -

5. Explain how the liver is involved in each of the following processes. digestion of fat: (2 marks)

maintenance of blood glucose levels:

(2 marks)

maintenance of healthy blood:

(2 marks)

- 26 -

6. How does the circulatory system respond to each of the following? an antigen enters the blood: (2 marks)

increased stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system:

(2 marks)

hardening of the arteries (inability of arteries to expand and recoil):

(1 mark)

a cut on your finger:

(1 mark)

OVER - 27 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.

7. a) Describe the capillary-tissue fluid exchange at X. (2 marks)

at Y.

(2 marks)

b) Describe what is occurring at Z between the tissue fluid and the cells.

(2 marks)

- 28 -

8. a) How does an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood affect the breathing rate? (1 mark)

b) Where is an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood detected? Explain how the body responds to return carbon dioxide concentration to normal levels. (2 marks)

OVER - 29 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 9.

A B

9. a) Identify the process by which the molecules labelled X leave the cell.

(1 mark)

b) How do the molecules travel from membrane A to membrane B?

(1 mark)

c) Describe the effect of these molecules on membrane B.

(1 mark)

- 30 -

10. Describe the process which occurs at each of the following structures. (4 marks: 1 mark each) Bowmans capsule:

proximal convoluted tubule:

collecting duct:

loop of Henle:

OVER - 31 -

11. Give one function of each of the following hormones. testosterone:

(6 marks: 1 mark each)

follicle-stimulating hormone:

luteinizing hormone:

estrogen:

progesterone:

oxytocin:

END OF EXAMINATION

- 32 -

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BIOLOGY 12
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January 2000
Course Code = BI

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BIOLOGY 12
NOVEMBER 2000
COURSE CODE = BI

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Place only hand-printed PEN here.

Ministry use only.

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Question 1: 1. (6) Question 2: 2. (6) Question 3: 3. (6) Question 4: 4. (8) Question 5: 5. (10) Question 6: 6. (5) Question 7: 7. (7) Question 8: 8. (2)

BIOLOGY 12
NOVEMBER 2000
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HBpencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 8 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

Use the following diagram to answer question 1.

1. The organelle above is A. B. C. D. a nucleolus. a mitochondrion. a Golgi apparatus. an endoplasmic reticulum.

OVER -1-

Use the following diagram to answer question 2.

2. One function of structure X is to A. B. C. D. replicate DNA. produce amylase. transcribe mRNA. hydrolyze nuclease.

Use the following diagram to answer question 3.

X Y W Z

3. Which of the structures manufactures rRNA? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

-2-

4. A solution with a high concentration of hydrogen ions ( H + ) is A. B. C. D. basic. acidic. neutral. isotonic.

5. Which of the following is produced when glucose and fructose are chemically joined to form sucrose? A. B. C. D. water nucleotide peptide bond hydrogen bond

6. Which diagram illustrates an energy storage product of the liver? A.


O
O
O

O
CH 2

O O

CH2
O
O

O
O

O
O

O CH2
O O

CH 2
O

O
O

O
O

B.
CH3

CH3

OH

C.
O

O O

O
O
O O

O
O
O

D.
P

OVER -3-

7. Which of the following is the correct matching of base pairs in DNA? A. B. C. D. cytosineguanine; uraciladenine cytosineadenine; thymineuracil adenineguanine; cytosinethymine adeninethymine; guaninecytosine

8. Which of the following is a component of a DNA molecule? A. B. C. D. ATP uracil ribose nucleotide

9. In DNA replication, the term unzipping refers to A. B. C. D. denaturing the DNA helix. unwinding the mRNA from the DNA after transcription. breaking the bonds between complementary DNA strands. breaking the bonds between the sugar and phosphate molecules.

10. Which of the following is a valid contrast between RNA and DNA? RNA A. B. C. D. helical sugar is ribose found only in the nucleus thymine is one of its bases not helical sugar is deoxyribose found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm uracil is one of its bases DNA

11. Transcription is the production of A. B. C. D. a polypeptide chain. a new DNA molecule. multiple copies of a single type of enzyme. an RNA molecule complementary to a section of DNA.

-4-

Use the following chart to answer questions 12 and 13.


Three-letter codons of messenger RNA and the amino acids specified by the codons
AAU AAC AAA AAG ACU ACC ACA ACG AGU AGC AGA AGG AUU AUC AUA AUG Asparagine Lysine CAU CAC CAA CAG CCU CCC CCA CCG Histidine Glutamine GAU GAC GAA GAG GCU GCC GCA GCG Asparatic acid Glutamate UAU UAC UAA UAG UCU UCC UCA UCG UGU UGC Glycine UGA UGG UUU UUC Valine UUA UUG Leucine Stop Tryptophan Tyrosine Stop

Threonine

Proline

Alanine

Serine

Serine Arginine

CGU CGC CGA CGG

Arginine

GGU GGC GGA GGG

Cysteine

Isoleucine Methionine

CUU CUC CUA CUG

Leucine

GUU GUC GUA GUG

Phenylalanine

12. Read the following DNA sequence left to right. TAT C T T Which amino acid sequence is coded for? A. B. C. D. tyrosine, valine isoleucine, valine tyrosine, glutamate isoleucine, glutamate

13. If a cell grown in the presence of radioactively-labelled uracil is actively producing protein containing lysine, which of the following is correct? A. B. C. D. The lysine produced is radioactive. The codons for lysine are radioactive. The DNA code for lysine is radioactive. The anticodons for lysine are radioactive.

OVER -5-

14. Disorganized and uncontrolled cell growth is called A. B. C. D. anaplasia. metastasis. vascularization. contact inhibition.

15. Which of the following is not one of the recognized seven danger signals that may indicate the presence of cancer? A. B. C. D. headache persistent cough a sore that will not heal change in a moles appearance

16. During carcinogenesis, an initiator A. B. C. D. triggers metastasis. promotes vascularization. brings about DNA mutation. provides an environment for tumour formation.

17. A virus may be able to bring about carcinogenesis since it can A. B. C. D. denature DNA. add a gene to the host cell. reproduce within the host cell. cause the death of its host cell.

18. The movement of an oxygen molecule throughout a cell occurs by A. B. C. D. osmosis. diffusion. pinocytosis. facilitated transport.

-6-

Use the following diagram to answer question 19.

time

19. Which of the following situations is an example of the process shown above? A. B. C. D. the absorption of glucose by the cell red blood cells moving in the bloodstream the excretion of hydrogen ions in the kidney the secretion of neurotransmitters at the synapse

OVER -7-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 20 and 21. Side A Side B

(solution 1)

(solution 2)

membrane 20. The diagram shows two solutions containing solutes and dissolved in water and separated by a membrane. If the membrane is only permeable to water, which of the following will occur? will move from side A to side B. A. B. The concentration of on side A will increase. C. The concentration of on side B will increase. D. Final amounts of , and water will be equal on each side.

21. If the membrane is permeable to A. B. C. D. swell and possibly burst. become isotonic to side B. remain hypertonic to side B. become hypotonic to side B.

but not to

or water, side A will

-8-

Use the following diagram to answer question 22.

22. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. appendix. epiglottis. duodenum. gall bladder. ________________________________________________ 23. Which of the following is not a function of the liver? A. B. C. D. producing bile secreting insulin detoxifying blood making blood proteins

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer question 24.

24. The vessel labelled X is the A. B. C. D. aorta. renal vein. hepatic vein. hepatic portal vein. ________________________________________________ 25. Which of the following is normally found in blood plasma but not in lymph? A. B. C. D. salt urea oxygen platelets

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 26.

26. If osmotic pressure is a constant 25 mm Hg, which of the following best describes what occurs at X? BLOOD PRESSURE EVENT A. B. C. D. nutrients move from the capillaries to the tissues nutrients move from the capillaries to the tissues wastes move into the capillaries from the tissues wastes move into the capillaries from the tissues
(mm Hg)

10 40 25 40

OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 27 and 28.

27. Structure X carries blood to the A. B. C. D. lungs. heart tissue. lower body. upper body.

28. Structure Y is the A. B. C. D. septum. right ventricle. coronary artery. chordae tendineae.

- 12 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 29.

X W

29. In which of the following structures are cilia found? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

OVER - 13 -

Use the following graph to answer question 30.

pressure in thoracic cavity

X
time

30. The graph shows changes in air pressure in the thoracic cavity during breathing. Which of the following occurs between times X and Y? A. B. C. D. rib muscles relax and diaphragm relaxes rib muscles relax and diaphragm contracts rib muscles contract and diaphragm relaxes rib muscles contract and diaphragm contracts

- 14 -

Use the following graph to answer question 31.

+40

0 membrane potential (millivolts)

65

time (milliseconds)

31. What occurs within the neuron between time X and time Y? A. B. C. D. Sodium ions move into the cell. Calcium ions move out of the cell. Potassium ions move out of the cell. Large, negatively-charged ions move into the cell. ________________________________________________ 32. Resting potential is characterized by A. B. C. D. the opening of the sodium gates. more potassium ions outside the membrane than inside. an equal number of sodium ions on both sides of the membrane. more sodium ions on the outside than on the inside of the membrane.

OVER - 15 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 33.

33. The event that occurs next is the movement of A. B. C. D. sodium ions ( Na + ) into the post-synaptic neuron. calcium ions ( Ca 2 + ) into the pre-synaptic ending. potassium ions ( K + ) out of the post-synaptic ending. bicarbonate ions ( HCO3 ) into the receptors of the pre-synaptic membrane.

Use the following diagram to answer question 34.

Y W

34. Which of the following structures sorts incoming sensory stimuli and channels them to the appropriate part of the brain? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z - 16 -

35. The hypothalamus causes the anterior pituitary to secrete hormones by A. B. C. D. negative feedback. releasing adrenalin. releasing hormones. nervous stimulation.

36. Which of the following is a true statement about the collecting duct? A. B. C. D. Water diffuses into it. It responds to aldosterone. It is the site of tubular excretion. The fluid in it becomes hypertonic to blood.

37. In the nephron, the highest concentration of salt is found surrounding the A. B. C. D. loop of Henle. Bowmans capsule. distal convoluted tubule. proximal convoluted tubule.

Use the following diagram to answer question 38.

38. During the process occurring at X, some nutrients are separated from A. B. C. D. salts. water. wastes. proteins. OVER - 17 -

39. The concentration of urea is lower in the renal vein than in the renal artery because A. B. C. D. the kidneys add urea to the blood. little reabsorption of urea occurs in the nephron. Bowmans capsule removes water from the filtrate. the peritubular capillary network passes urea to the loop of Henle.

Use the following diagram to answer question 40.

W Z

40. Which of the following glands produces aldosterone? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 18 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 41.

Y Z

41. In which of the following structures does sperm maturation occur? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 42. The cells of the seminiferous tubules respond to A. B. C. D. luteinizing hormone (LH) and produce sperm. luteinizing hormone (LH) and produce testosterone. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and produce sperm. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and produce testosterone.

43. One function of seminal fluid is to A. B. C. D. lower the pH of the uterus. lower the pH of the vagina. provide nourishment for the egg. provide a medium in which sperm swim.

OVER - 19 -

44. Which part of a mature sperm aids digestion of the outer membrane of an ovum? A. B. C. D. tail head acrosome mid-piece

45. Increased muscle strength, enlarged vocal cords and growth of pubic hair are stimulated by A. B. C. D. thyroxin. estrogen. testosterone. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

46. The hormone that stimulates the secretion of sex hormones in both sexes is A. B. C. D. estrogen. testosterone. luteinizing hormone (LH). human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

- 20 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 47. W

47. In which of the labelled structures is an egg produced? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 48. The function of the corpus luteum is to A. B. C. D. help maintain the endometrium. secrete luteinizing hormone (LH). produce human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). produce more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

49. Days 15 to 28 of the 28-day uterine cycle are referred to as the A. B. C. D. luteal period. secretory phase. menstrual period. proliferative phase.

OVER - 21 -

Use the following graph to answer question 50.

Uterine Cycle

thickness of endometrium

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

days

50. The increased production of what hormone causes the change shown in the graph on or about day 5? A. B. C. D. estrogen oxytocin progesterone luteinizing hormone (LH)

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 22 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

Use the following diagrams to answer question 1. Cell A Cell B

1. Cell A is found lining the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Cell B is found in the liver. Identify three visible differences between the two cells and explain how each difference aids the cell in carrying out its specific functions. (6 marks: 2 marks each) Difference 1: Explanation:

Difference 2: Explanation:

Difference 3: Explanation:

OVER - 23 -

2. Levels of protein structure differ according to the types of bonds that hold them together. As an enzyme is synthesized, these bonds form to give the protein its final 3-dimensional shape. For each of the following diagrams, name the level of protein structure and describe the type of bonding responsible. (6 marks: 1 mark each for level; 1 mark each for description)
C N N C C H O C O N H O N C C N C N N C O N C N N O C O C C O C C O C O C H C C C H C C C H C C O

Level of protein structure: Description of bonding:

Level of protein structure: Description of bonding:

N O

- 24 -

H O C

N R H H O C N C C N C H

Level of protein structure: Description of bonding:

OVER - 25 -

3. What effect would each of the following changes have on the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction occurring in the stomach? Give an explanation for the effect. a) The temperature is increased from 35 C to 37C . (2 marks)

b) A competitive inhibitor is added.

(2 marks)

c) The pH is increased from 3 to 8.

(2 marks)

- 26 -

4. Identify four substances produced by the pancreas and give one function of each. (8 marks: 1 mark each for substance; 1 mark each for function) Substance 1: Function:

Substance 2: Function:

Substance 3: Function:

Substance 4: Function:

OVER - 27 -

5. a) The average resting blood pressures and blood velocities were measured in various blood vessels of an individual as shown in the table below. Identify the type of blood vessel in the space provided. (5 marks)

BLOOD VESSEL A B C D E

AVERAGE BLOOD VELOCITY


(cm/s)

AVERAGE BLOOD PRESSURE


(mm Hg)

TYPE OF BLOOD VESSEL

48.0 0.5 15.0 25.0 4.0

100 22 60 2 10

b) Explain the observed blood pressure and velocity in the following vessels. Vessel A: (2 marks)

Vessel B:

(2 marks)

c) How does the sympathetic nervous system raise blood pressure?

(1 mark)

- 28 -

6. a) During external respiration, reactions involving gases occur in the capillaries. Describe three of these reactions. i)

(3 marks)

ii)

iii)

b) Describe two conditions in the capillaries during external respiration that affect the rate of the reactions above. (2 marks) i)

ii)

OVER - 29 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.

7. a) Label the diagram above using the numbers of the terms listed below. (Not all the terms will be used.) (2 marks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. axon dendrite synapse node of Ranvier cell body receptor

1 2

mark each )

b) Describe how a reflex arc functions.

(5 marks)

- 30 -

8. Name two substances that are actively excreted during the process of tubular excretion. (2 marks) i) ii)

END OF EXAMINATION

- 31 -

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STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS
1. Insert the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by ENDOFEXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

BIOLOGY 12
JUNE 2000
COURSE CODE = BI

2.

3.

4.

Insert only hand-printed PEN here.

Ministry use only.

2000 Ministry of Education

Question 1: 1. (4) Question 2: 2. (4) Question 3: 3. (3) Question 4: 4. (5) Question 5: 5. (6) Question 6: 6. (6) Question 7: 7. (5) Question 8: 8. (4)

Question 9: 9. (7) Question 10: 10. (6)

BIOLOGY 12
JUNE 2000
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HBpencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 10 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer.

1. Which of the following types of molecules are synthesized at the rough endoplasmic reticulum? A. B. C. D. lipids proteins nucleic acids carbohydrates

Use the following diagram to answer questions 2 and 3.

time
X

2. The process shown is an example of A. B. C. D. exocytosis. pinocytosis. endocytosis. phagocytosis.

3. The material labelled X could be A. B. C. D. water. insulin. amino acids. sodium ions. OVER -1-

4. How many of the following molecules are produced at ribosomes? A. B. C. D. one two three four glycogen testosterone phospholipids salivary amylase DNA polymerase

5. A small amount of base (hydroxide) and protein tissue were added to a beaker containing a sample of gastric juice and anutes, the contents of the beaker had a pH 2 and peptides were present. The unknown solution must have contained a D E L T E T E D A. B. C. D. base. buffer. peptidase. polysaccharide.

6. If radioactive nitrogen-15 were available during synthesis, it would show up in which of the following molecules? A. B. C. D. cellulose glycogen fatty acid hemoglobin

-2-

Use the following diagram to answer question 7.


O O

O
O

O CH2

O O

7. Enzymes required to digest the molecule represented in the diagram are produced in the A. B. C. D. liver. colon. stomach. salivary glands. ________________________________________________ 8. Amino acids are identical in structure except for their A. B. C. D. amines. R-groups. peptide bonds. acids (carboxyls).

9. Which of the following molecules is broken down and reformed at a higher rate when the cells metabolic activity increases? A. B. C. D. ATP DNA tRNA rRNA

10. A characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids is that they A. B. C. D. are made up of glycerol. are polymers of glucose. are polymers of nucleotides. have double bonds between some carbon atoms.

OVER -3-

Use the following table to answer question 11.

Table of mRNA Codons


1st position 2nd position 3rd position

C
serine serine serine serine proline proline proline proline threonine threonine threonine threonine alanine alanine alanine alanine

A
tyrosine tyrosine stop stop histidine histidine glutamine glutamine asparagine asparagine lysine lysine aspartate aspartate glutamate glutamate

G
cysteine cysteine stop tryptophan arginine arginine arginine arginine serine serine arginine arginine glycine glycine glycine glycine U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G

U C A G

phenylalanine phenylalanine leucine leucine leucine leucine leucine leucine isoleucine isoleucine isoleucine methionine valine valine valine valine

11. The genetic disorder sickle-cell anemia occurs when the amino acid valine takes the place of glutamate during translation of a hemoglobin chain. Using the table of codons above, determine the mutation in DNA that produces this disorder. A. B. C. D. C A G changes to C T C C T T changes to C A T C U C changes to C A G G A A changes to G U U ________________________________________________ 12. Which of the following is not a characteristic of benign tumours? A. B. C. D. metastasis loss of contact inhibition increased vascularization disorganized and uncontrolled growth (anaplasia)

-4-

13. When a wart or mole changes into a skin cancer, it is usually the result of A. B. C. D. ultraviolet radiation destroying an oncogene. a bacterium introducing an oncogene into a cell. ultraviolet radiation changing a proto-oncogene. a bacterium introducing a proto-oncogene into a cell.

14. When Na + (sodium ions) are moved across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient, A. B. C. D. ATP is used. osmosis occurs. diffusion occurs. vesicles are formed.

15. Which of the following molecules will pass through a cell membrane by simple diffusion? A. B. C. D. water an enzyme nucleic acid carbohydrate

16. Red blood cells are placed in a highly concentrated salt solution. Which of the following describes their environment and what would happen to the cells? ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT INSIDE OF CELLS OUTSIDE OF CELLS RELATIVE TO ENVIRONMENT RELATIVE TO ENVIRONMENT OUTSIDE OF CELLS INSIDE OF CELLS A. B. C. D. hypertonic hypertonic hypotonic hypotonic hypotonic hypotonic hypertonic hypertonic

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CELLS swell shrink swell shrink

17. A substance that lowers the energy of activation for a metabolic reaction is called A. B. C. D. an enzyme. an initiator. a promoter. an inhibitor. OVER -5-

Use the following graph to answer question 18.

rate of reaction of maltase

10

15

20

amount of substrate (grams)

18. When 10 or more grams of maltose were added to a test tube containing maltase, A. B. C. D. the saturation of maltase active sites occurred. the enzyme-substrate complex became unstable. maltase was inactivated by high substrate concentrations. high glucose product inhibited maltase by negative feedback. ________________________________________________ 19. Evidence, either supporting or contradicting an hypothesis, is obtained by A. B. C. D. stating a purpose. developing a theory. reaching a conclusion. performing an experiment.

20. Which of the following protects the walls of the stomach from hydrochloric acid? A. B. C. D. bile pepsin mucus bicarbonate ions

-6-

Use the following diagram to answer question 21.

21. The presence of food at location X indicates a malfunctioning A. B. C. D. pharynx. epiglottis. esophagus. cardiac sphincter. ________________________________________________ 22. How many of the following events require substances produced in the liver? D E L E T E D A. B. C. D. three four five six emulsification of fats secretion of peptidases capillary fluid exchange detoxification of alcohol neutralization of pancreatic juice a rise in blood glucose levels between meals

OVER -7-

Use the following diagrams to answer question 23. structure

W X molecule A Y
H H N H O C H C O H

23. Where in the structure would molecule A be transported to? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 24. Which of the following has the greatest total cross-sectional area of blood vessels? A. B. C. D. capillaries venous system arterial system pulmonary system

-8-

25. In fetal circulation, blood from the placenta enters the posterior vena cava by way of the A. B. C. D. umbilical artery. ductus venosus (venous duct). foramen ovale (oval opening). ductus arteriosus (arterial duct).

Use the following diagram to answer question 26.

26. What happens in the tissues of this structure as a result of a lower than normal concentration of plasma proteins in the blood? A. B. C. D. Fluid is lost from the tissues due to a decrease in blood pressure. Fluid is lost from the tissues due to a decrease in osmotic pressure. Fluid accumulates in the tissues due to a decrease in blood pressure. Fluid accumulates in the tissues due to a decrease in osmotic pressure.

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer question 27.

27. The diagram shows a heart defect that occurs approximately once in every 500 births. Babies born with this defect have A. B. C. D. a lower than normal heart rate. a decreased production of red blood cells. difficulty closing the atria-ventricular valves. oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mixed together. ________________________________________________ 28. How many heart valves would a blood cell travelling from the renal vein to the pulmonary vein pass through? A. B. C. D. none one two four

29. The chordae tendineae function to A. B. C. D. give support to the septum. open the semi-lunar valves. open the atrioventricular valves. prevent valves in the heart from inverting.

- 10 -

30. Which of the following contains structures that vibrate to produce sound? A. B. C. D. larynx trachea epiglottis pleural membranes

31. Which of the following lines the chest cavity? A. B. C. D. cilia alveoli diaphragm pleural membranes

32. In the respiratory system, which structure would have the greatest surface area to volume ratio? A. B. C. D. alveoli trachea bronchi bronchioles

33. During the exhalation of air, the A. B. C. D. alveoli contract. diaphragm relaxes. rib muscles contract. thoracic cavity increases in volume.

34. The part of the brain responsible for increasing breathing rate during exercise is the A. B. C. D. cerebral cortex. corpus callosum. pulmonary trunk. medulla oblongata.

OVER - 11 -

35. Which of the following events causes the pH of the blood to increase? A. B. C. D. reduced hemoglobin is produced oxygen combines with hemoglobin carbon dioxide combines with water bicarbonate and hydrogen ions are produced

Use the following diagram to answer question 36.

W Z

36. Which letter indicates where the greatest concentration of carbaminohemoglobin is found? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z

- 12 -

37. What part of a neuron carries impulses toward the cell body? A. B. C. D. axon dendrite synaptic cleft terminal knob

38. Synaptic vesicles of the sympathetic nervous system contain A. B. C. D. sodium ions. acetylcholine. noradrenaline. potassium ions.

39. The bacterial toxin that causes botulism prevents the release of acetylcholine from pre-synaptic membranes. Which event in the transmission of a nerve impulse would be affected first by this poison? A. B. C. D. the depolarization of an effector the opening of sodium gates in dendrites the production of an action potential at the nodes of Ranvier the operation of the sodium-potassium pump in the neuron membrane

Use the following table to answer question 40. STRENUOUS EXERCISE


(mL/min.)

BLOOD FLOW TO brain kidney skeletal muscle

NORMAL
(mL/min.)

750 1 100 850

750 600 12 500

40. Secretions from which of the following glands would cause the effects shown in the table? A. B. C. D. thyroid adrenal anterior pituitary posterior pituitary

OVER - 13 -

41. Which part of the brain functions to maintain a blood pressure of 120/80 and a body temperature of 37 C ? A. B. C. D. thalamus hypothalamus cerebral cortex corpus callosum

Use the following diagram to answer question 42.

42. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. collecting duct. urinary bladder.

- 14 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 43.

43. The structure labelled X is the A. B. C. D. loop of Henle. distal convoluted tubule. proximal convoluted tubule. peritubular capillary network.

Use the following information to answer question 44. 1. proximal tubule 2. renal artery 3. collecting duct

44. Which of the following is the correct sequence of structures from highest to lowest concentration of urea? A. B. C. D. 2, 1, 3 2, 3, 1 3, 1, 2 3, 2, 1 OVER - 15 -

45. Sperm acquire the ability to swim in the A. B. C. D. epididymis. seminal vesicles. seminiferous tubules. ductus (vas) deferens.

46. The function of the acrosome is to A. B. C. D. produce an energy supply for sperm. stimulate development of the follicle. contribute nutrients to the seminal fluid. release enzymes needed to penetrate the egg.

47. Movement of a fertilized egg in an oviduct occurs with the help of A. B. C. D. cilia. flagella. diffusion. active transport.

48. Rising progesterone levels in the blood trigger the pituitary to A. B. C. D. release luteinizing hormone (LH). release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). stop releasing luteinizing hormone (LH). stop releasing human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormone.

49. The hormone that controls the maturation of eggs in women and the production of sperm in men is A. B. C. D. estrogen. testosterone. luteinizing hormone (LH). follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

- 16 -

50. Which of the following is an example of positive feedback? A. B. C. D. A rise in oxytocin levels causes uterine contractions. An increase in body temperature produces increased perspiration. A drop in blood glucose levels stimulates the liver to release glucose. An increase in thyroxin levels in the blood decreases the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) released from the pituitary.

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

OVER - 17 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

1. The symbols shown below represent parts of a DNA molecule. Construct the DNA molecule by redrawing the parts to make a complete section. (4 marks)
Legend
= base = sugar

P = phosphate

= hydrogen bond = other bonds

thy

mi

cytos
ne

ine

adenine

a gu

nin

Draw your diagram below using a pencil.

- 18 -

2. a) What is the purpose of transcription during protein synthesis?

(1mark)

b) What occurs during translation?

(3marks)

OVER - 19 -

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- 20 -

3. Describe the following mechanisms of transport across cell membranes. (3marks: 1markeach) osmosis:

facilitated transport:

active transport:

OVER - 21 -

4. An experiment was carried out to measure the effect of pH on enzyme activity. The following steps were performed: 1. An equal volume of hydrogen peroxide was added to eight numbered test tubes at 20 C . 2. The contents of each test tube were maintained at a different pH. 3. An equal mass of liver was added to each test tube. Liver, which contains the enzyme catalase, catalyzes the following reaction: hydrogen peroxide oxygen gas ( O 2 ) and water The time to collect 10 mL of oxygen gas ( O 2 ) from each tube was measured and recorded in the table below. TIME TO COLLECT 10 mL of O2 (SECONDS) 120 90 50 30 40 60 90 140

TEST TUBE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

pH OF SOLUTION 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

- 22 -

a) Draw a graph that compares the time taken to collect 10 mL of oxygen gas ( O 2 ) produced to the pH of the solution. Label the x-axis as pH of solution. (2marks) (Use a pencil to graph the data.)

b) Using your graph, estimate the time it takes to collect 10 mL of oxygen gas ( O 2 ) at pH 6.5. (1mark)

c) Explain what causes the results observed between pH 8 and pH 12.

(2marks)

OVER - 23 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

5. Place the correct number for each of the following descriptions in the appropriate box at the location in the diagram. Not all the descriptions will be used. (6marks) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. kills bacteria lined with cilia produces thyroxin lipid emulsifier produced here contains bacteria that produce vitamins has no known digestive function in adults where maltose is broken down into glucose hormone that controls blood sugar produced here

- 24 -

6. Describe the concentration of dissolved gases in the following pairs of vessels and explain why the concentrations are different. pulmonary vein / pulmonary artery: (2marks)

posterior vena cava / aorta:

(2marks)

umbilical vein / umbilical artery:

(2marks)

OVER - 25 -

Use the following graph to answer question 7.

+ 40

0 membrane potential (millivolts)

65

time (milliseconds)

7. The graph shows the change in an axons polarity before, during and after an action potential. a) Explain what occurs in the axon at the following times. From 1 to 3 milliseconds: (3marks:1markeach)

From 3 to 5 milliseconds:

From 5 to 7 milliseconds:

- 26 -

b) What would be the effect of increasing the stimulation of the neuron? Give reasons to support your answer.

(2marks)

OVER - 27 -

8. Give one function of each of the following parts of a reflex arc. myelin sheath:

(4marks:1markeach)

effector:

interneuron:

receptor:

- 28 -

9. Explain how each of the following structures contributes to the formation of urine. Bowmans capsule: (1mark)

proximal convoluted tubule:

(2marks)

loop of Henle:

(2marks)

distal convoluted tubule:

(1 mark)

collecting duct:

(1mark)

OVER - 29 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 10.

X Y

10. Identify the following structures indicated in the diagram and give one function of each. (6marks:1markeachforstructure;1markeachforfunction) Structure X: Name: Function:

Structure Y: Name: Function:

Structure Z: Name: Function:

END OF EXAMINATION - 30 -

Insert Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

Insert only pre-printed PEN label here.

STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS
1. Insert the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by ENDOFEXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

BIOLOGY 12
AUGUST 2000
COURSE CODE = BI

2.

3.

4.

Insert only hand-printed PEN here.

Ministry use only.

2000 Ministry of Education

Question 1: 1. (5) Question 2: 2. (4) Question 3: 3. (5) Question 4: 4. (6) Question 5: 5. (2) Question 6: 6. (8) Question 7: 7. (5) Question 8: 8. (5)

Question 9: 9. (6) Question 10: 10. (4)

BIOLOGY 12
AUGUST 2000
COURSE CODE = BI

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room. 2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HBpencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked. 3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in ink unless otherwise instructed in the space provided in this booklet. 4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero. 5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to30 minutes of additional time to finish.

BIOLOGY 12 PROVINCIAL EXAMINATION


Suggested Time 45 75 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 50 multiple-choice questions PART B: 10 written-response questions Total: 50 50 100 marks

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 45 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer. Use the following diagram to answer questions 1, 2 and 3.

X Y W Z

1. Which of the following structures is labelled X? A. B. C. D. nucleus nucleolus lysosome Golgi apparatus

2. The function of the organelle labelled Z is to A. B. C. D. replicate DNA and transcribe mRNA. determine what enters and leaves the cell. produce ATP to be used in cell processes. package and store substances made in the cell.

3. Which of the following is a correct statement regarding structures W and Y? A. B. C. D. Structure W produces ATP and structure Y produces lipids. Both structures have ribosomes embedded in their membranes. Both structures produce substances that are stored in the nucleolus. Structure W produces steroid hormones and structure Y produces proteins. OVER -1-

4. What is the function of an organelle that produces vesicles and is composed of a stack of flattened saccules? A. B. C. D. produce ATP replicate DNA package proteins produce vitamins

Use the following diagram to answer question 5.

5. If a substance temporarily interferes with the function of the structure labelled X, which of the following would occur? A. B. C. D. The breakdown of worn-out cell organelles would stop. There would be an increase in the production of mRNA. The number of amino acid molecules entering the cell would decrease. The active transport of water across the cell membrane would decrease.

-2-

6. Which of the following is a function of water in cells? A. B. C. D. emulsifying fats dissolving chemicals copying nucleic acids catalyzing chemical reactions

Use the following chart to answer question 7. Reaction I HX H +X


+ +

Reaction II H +Z HZ

7. When substance Z is added to the products of Reaction I, Reaction II occurs. Substance Z is A. B. C. D. an acid. a buffer. an enzyme. a sodium ion. ________________________________________________ 8. How are starch and cellulose similar? A. B. C. D. Both are polymers of glucose. Both are produced in human cells. Both are components of the cell membrane. Both can be digested by enzymes produced in the pancreas.

OVER -3-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 9, 10 and 11. H H

O C OH

H 9. The molecule above is A. B. C. D. a protein. a fatty acid. a nucleic acid. an amino acid.

10. During digestion, the process that produces this molecule is A. B. C. D. hydrolysis. deamination. transcription. dehydration synthesis.

11. An example of a substance that could be produced from this molecule is A. B. C. D. DNA. trypsin. sucrose. cellulose. ________________________________________________ 12. An unsaturated fat is converted to a saturated fat when A. B. C. D. glucose forms covalent bonds with cellulose. amino groups are added to fatty acid molecules. hydrogen atoms are added to the unsaturated fat. the unsaturated fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.

-4-

Use the following diagram to answer questions 13 and 14.

Y Z

13. Which of the following correctly identifies the parts labelled W, X, Y and Z? W A. B. C. D. adenine adenine guanine base X uracil thymine cytosine ribose Y deoxyribose phosphate deoxyribose cytosine Z phosphate ribose phosphate guanine

14. The parts labelled X, Y and Z in the diagram above make up A. B. C. D. a fatty acid. a nucleotide. an amino acid. a monosaccharide. ________________________________________________ 15. One DNA strand is attached to another DNA strand by A. B. C. D. hydrogen bonds between the bases. hydrogen bonds between the sugars. covalent bonds between the sugars and bases. covalent bonds between the sugars and the phosphates.

OVER -5-

16. A characteristic that identifies metastasizing cells is that they A. B. C. D. contain steroid hormones. make hydrolytic enzymes that digest fats. stop growing when they touch other cells. grow in a disorganized, uncontrolled manner.

Use the following symptoms to answer question 17.


q q q q q

a high fever a change in bowel or bladder habits an obvious change in a wart or mole persistent indigestion or difficulty swallowing a lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere

17. How many of the symptoms above are found among the seven commonly recognized cancer danger signals? A. B. C. D. two three four five ________________________________________________ 18. An oncogene can be introduced into a cell by A. B. C. D. a virus. thyroxin. a bacterium. ultraviolet radiation.

-6-

Use the following diagram to answer question 19.

Side A
5% glucose

Side B
50% glucose

Membrane only permeable to water

19. The diagram above represents the initial conditions of an experiment. Which of the following graphs most accurately represents the change in the net rate of osmosis over time? A. B.

Net rate of osmosis (molecules/min.)

Net rate of osmosis (molecules/min.)

Time (min.)

Time (min.)

C.

D.

Net rate of osmosis (molecules/min.)

Net rate of osmosis (molecules/min.)

Time (min.)

Time (min.)

OVER -7-

20. What happens when a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution? A. B. C. D. The cell swells. The cell shrinks. The cell metabolizes faster. There is no effect on the cells volume.

21. The location at which the substrate attaches to the enzyme is the A. B. C. D. active site. co-enzyme. peptide bond. hydrogen bond.

22. Which of the graphs below represents the relationship between the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction and temperature? A.
Rate of Reaction

B.

Rate of Reaction

100 Temperature (C)

100 Temperature (C)

C.
Rate of Reaction

D.
Rate of Reaction

100 Temperature (C)

100 Temperature (C)

-8-

23. Which of the following structures does food enter after it leaves the esophagus? A. B. C. D. liver pharynx stomach pancreas

24. Which of the following enzymes is correctly matched with its site of production? A. B. C. D. amylaseliver pepsinstomach maltasepancreas trypsinsmall intestine

25. Enzymes that digest proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are secreted by the A. B. C. D. stomach. pancreas. small intestine. salivary glands.

26. Insulin is produced in the A. B. C. D. liver. pancreas. thyroid gland. adrenal gland.

OVER -9-

Use the following diagram to answer question 27.

27. The blood vessel labelled X is the A. B. C. D. aorta. iliac vein. subclavian vein. anterior vena cava.

- 10 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 28.

28. The cells above A. B. C. D. carry oxygen in the blood. exchange gases in the lungs. are active in areas of infection. begin the process of blood clotting. ________________________________________________ 29. The substance produced by the body in response to a foreign substance is A. B. C. D. an antigen. a hormone. an enzyme. an antibody.

OVER - 11 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 30.

30. If normal blood pressure drops at point X, what will be the result? A. B. C. D. Blood velocity will increase. The amount of water entering the tissues will increase. Active transport of nutrients into the tissues will decrease. The rate of diffusion of materials from tissues into the blood will increase.

- 12 -

Use the following information to answer question 31. 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node 2. Purkinje fibers 3. Atrioventricular (AV) node

31. Trace the pathway of electrical activity of the heart beginning with atrial systole and ending with ventricular systole by identifying, in order, the structures above. A. B. C. D. 1, 2, 3 1, 3, 2 3, 1, 2 3, 2, 1

Use the following diagram to answer question 32.

32. Which of the following structures is labelled X? A. B. C. D. trachea bronchi diaphragm bronchiole OVER - 13 -

33. If the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood increases, the breathing control centre in the brain will A. B. C. D. decrease thoracic cavity volume. decrease rib muscle contractions. increase contractions of the diaphragm. increase pressure in the thoracic cavity.

34. In a neuron, the correct order of structures that a nerve impulse passes through is A. B. C. D. axon cell body dendrite. dendrite axon cell body. cell body dendrite axon. dendrite cell body axon.

Use the following graph to answer question 35.

+ 40

0 membrane potential (millivolts)

65

X
time (milliseconds)

35. Which of the following is a characteristic of the neuron at time X? A. B. C. D. Sodium ions are transported into the axon. The axon membrane is impermeable to potassium ions. There is a lower concentration of potassium ions inside than outside of the axon. There is a net positive charge on the inside of the axon and a net negative charge on the outside. - 14 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 36.

Direction of Impulse 36. Considering the direction of the nerve impulse, what is structure X? A. B. C. D. cell body myelin sheath synaptic ending post-synaptic membrane ________________________________________________ 37. Two areas of the brain that regulate the responses of the autonomic nervous system are the A. B. C. D. cerebrum and cerebellum. corpus callosum and thalamus. hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary.

OVER - 15 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 38.

W Z

38. Which letter indicates the cerebellum? A. B. C. D. W X Y Z ________________________________________________ 39. The portion of the brain involved in speech, vision, learning and memory is the A. B. C. D. cerebrum. cerebellum. hypothalamus. medulla oblongata.

40. The loop of Henle is found in the A. B. C. D. ureter. urethra. renal pelvis. renal medulla.

- 16 -

41. Identify the correct order of structures through which urine passes on its way out of the body. A. B. C. D. renal pelvis collecting duct ureter bladder urethra collecting duct renal pelvis ureter bladder urethra bladder collecting duct urethra renal pelvis ureter urethra ureter bladder renal pelvis collecting duct

42. Which of the following will cause the kidneys to reabsorb more sodium ions? A. B. C. D. a decrease in blood pressure an increase in the volume of blood constriction of the afferent arterioles a decrease in the amount of ADH secreted

43. If a drop in the pH of the blood occurs, the kidneys will A. B. C. D. increase the absorption of urea. decrease the absorption of sodium ions. decrease the secretion of hydrogen ions. increase the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

44. Sperm cells travel through which of the following structures? A. B. C. D. ureter prostate gland seminal vesicles ductus (vas) deferens

OVER - 17 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 45, 46 and 47.

X Y Z

45. Which two structures contribute fluids that make up semen? A. B. C. D. W and X X and Y X and Z Y and Z

46. The structure labelled W is the A. B. C. D. prostate. epididymis. Cowpers gland. seminiferous tubule.

47. Secretions from structure V cause A. B. C. D. follicle maturation. increased secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). beard growth and growth of the genitals at puberty. rhythmic contractions of the female reproductive system.

- 18 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 48 and 49.

Y X

48. Structure X is the A. B. C. D. ovary. cervix. vagina. oviduct.

49. What will occur in structure Y if there is a reduction in hormones secreted from the ovary? A. B. C. D. the release of an egg increased vascularization the maturation of a follicle the breakdown of the endometrium

OVER - 19 -

50. What hormone is primarily responsible for egg maturation and the distribution of fat in females? A. B. C. D. estrogen progesterone luteinizing hormone (LH) human chorionic gonadotropic (HCG) hormone

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

- 20 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 50 marks Suggested Time: 75 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Use a pen for this part of the examination unless otherwise instructed. 2. Write your answers in the space below the questions. 3. Organization and planning space has been incorporated into the space allowed for answering each question. 4. You may not need all of the space provided to answer each question.

1. a) In an experiment conducted to study protein synthesis, radioactive thymine and radioactive uracil were added to a culture of human cells. A few hours later, the culture was analyzed and radioactive mRNA was found. i) Explain how an mRNA molecule is produced. (2 marks)

ii)

Explain why the mRNA produced is radioactive.

(1 mark)

b) In a different experiment, radioactive uracil was added to a culture of human cells undergoing DNA replication. What will be the characteristic of the resulting DNA in terms of radioactivity? Explain. (2 marks)

OVER - 21 -

2. Materials move across the cell membrane either actively or passively. Complete the following table to compare and contrast these two ways of moving materials.

(4 marks)

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

PASSIVE TRANSPORT

- 22 -

Use the following graph to answer question 3 a).

rate of reaction

concentration of substrate

3. a) The graph represents data collected from an enzyme-catalyzed reaction in the small intestine. Explain the results. (2 marks)

b) How would the shape of the graph below change if a large amount of concentrated acid were added to the enzyme-catalyzed reaction at time X? Draw the change on the graph and explain your answer. (3 marks)

rate of reaction

time

Explanation:

OVER - 23 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 4.

4. Secretions from glands in the walls of structure X and secretions from structure Y are collected and added to test tubes containing three substrates as shown below. The test tubes are allowed to stand for one hour. Blue litmus paper, which turns red in the presence of an acid, is used as an indicator.

Substrate Secretions from

starch X and Y

fats X and Y

protein X and Y

- 24 -

a) The test tubes were sampled during a one hour period. Identify any new substances produced in the following test tubes and account for their presence. Test tube 1: (2 marks)

Test tube 2:

(2 marks)

b) Each test tube was tested with litmus paper at the beginning of the experiment and after one hour. In test tube 3, the litmus paper changed from blue at the beginning of the experiment to red after one hour. Explain what occurred in the test tube to cause the litmus paper to turn red. (2 marks)

OVER - 25 -

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- 26 -

5. Explain how the structure of arteries is related to their function.

(2 marks)

OVER - 27 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 6.

6. Identify and give one function of each of the following structures. (8 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Structure W: Name: Function:

Structure X: Name: Function:

- 28 -

Structure Y: Name: Function:

Structure Z: Name: Function:

OVER - 29 -

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- 30 -

7. a) Describe internal respiration.

(3 marks)

b) Explain why the pH of the blood in the lung capillaries and in the body-tissue capillaries is similar. (2 marks)

OVER - 31 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 8. X

8. a) Identify each of the following structures and give one function of each. (4 marks: 1 mark each for name; 1 mark each for function) Structure X: Name: Function:

Structure Y: Name: Function:

- 32 -

b) A substance disrupts communication between structures X and Y. Give an explanation of how a substance could do this. (1 mark)

OVER - 33 -

Use the following diagram to answer question 9 a). W X

9. a) Give one different function of each of the following structures. Structure W:

(4 marks: 1 mark each)

Structure X:

Structure Y:

Structure Z:

- 34 -

Use the following table to answer question 9 b).

Filtrate 95% water

Urine 50% water

b) Provide an explanation that accounts for the difference in the water content as shown in the table above. (2 marks)

OVER - 35 -

10. a) Describe any two events that occur during days 15 to 28 of the ovarian or uterine cycles. (2 marks) i)

ii)

b) During days 1 to 13 of the ovarian cycle, what would occur if follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was not secreted? (2 marks)

END OF EXAMINATION

- 36 -