Você está na página 1de 23
Some Early Travels in Arabia Author(s): C. F. Beckingham Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic
Some Early Travels in Arabia Author(s): C. F. Beckingham Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic

Some Early Travels in Arabia Author(s): C. F. Beckingham

Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (Oct., 1949),

pp. 155-176 Published by: Cambridge University Press

Accessed: 29/07/2011 14:21

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless

you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.

Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at .

Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission.

JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Cambridge University Press and Royal Asiatic Society of

Cambridge University Press and Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

http://www.jstor.org

Some

Early

Ry c.

f.

Travels

in Arabia

RECKINGHAM

are a number

in Arabia

of

journeys

made,

the middle

of

or alleged

of

to

have

and

been

the

THERE

middle

or at

or

are due

made,

of

between

the fifteenth

there

Penetration

of

the

no

seventeenth

century

adequate

account,

a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t ,
Riernan's U n v e i l i n g

Riernan's

Unveiling

Riernan's U n v e i l i n g

little

of

Mecca.

use

these

they made

journeys

Our

ambassador

sole

of Milan's

December,

1497,2

occasions

there.

which

is no mention,

of Arabia

these

omissions

historians.1

Cabot

is a

di

Cabot

talked

is said

to

dispatch

Soncino,

said

to

and

he

the

has

least

in It. H.

in Hogarth's

of Arabia.

of

is one

authority

Many

to the

The earliest

have made to

of the Duke

dated

had

the Portuguese

the

elder

for his

claim

Raimondo

which

in London,

to

and

18th

according

Mecca

on

previous

visited

had

interesting

spice

merchants

been

This

is not

the most

voyages,

not

has

rejected

nineteenth,

come

the most

to

be

discussed

somewhat

of Cabot's

uncritically

it

on

the

grounds

that

in the

Christians

could

not

even

and

its authenticity

Harrisse

at

first

century,

Mecca,

as

in the

he

and

accepted.

fifteenth

approach

suggested

 

that

the

remark might

refer only

to

a

journey

to Arabia.3

In

a

later

work

he

accepted

it and

was

concerned

to

prove

that

the

journey

must

have

taken

place

 

after

1470,

when

fifteen

years'

continuous

residence

at

Venice

enabled

Cabot

 

to

acquire

Venetian

but

before

his arrival

in England

about 1490.4 Professor

citizenship, J. A. Williamson

once

suggested

that

the

information,

being

second

 

1

How

" pilot

little

may

be

judged

from

Hogarth'h

reference

 

to Dom

 

Joao

de

Castro

as

of

the

Governor

of Goa

".

The

only

important

Portuguese

authority

he

used

was

the

Commentaries

 

of

Albuquerque,

 

of

which

 

the

Hakluyt

Society

had

published

a

translation.

The

histories

 

of

the

Portuguese

in

the

East

to which

he

refers

are

the

relatively

unimportant

works

of Malfei

and

Lafitau.

The

former

has

a

certain

value

since

the

papers

to which

Maflei

 

had

access

included

a part

of

Castanheda's

 

history

now

lost

except

 

for

a

few

extracts

copied

for Muffci

himself

ami

preserved

in

the

archives

of

the

Society

of

Jesus.

 

Lafitau

 

is worthless

as

an

original

authority.

 
 

Of

the

travellers

considered

here

only

two,

Covilha

and

da Quadra,

are mentioned

by Hogarth

 

and

Kiernan,

who

say

nothing

 

of

the

former's

journey

in Mecca

 

and

did

not

know

the

most

reliable

account

of

da

Quadra's

 

adventures.

 

evidently

*

Printed

published

in H.

in the

Harrisse,

Jmn

Milan

Annuario

et Sehastien

Scientifiro

Cabot,

for

1805.

1882,

pp.

324-0.

It

was

first

 

8

II. Harrisse,

op.

cit.,

p.

4*1.

 

4

H.

Harrisse,

John

Cabot,

the Discoverer

 

of North

America,

 

and

Sebastian

 

his

Son,

1890,

p.

38.

 

JHAS.

OCTOBER

1949.

11

156 SOME EARLY TRAVELS

IN ARABIA

hand,

might

be

a

little

confused,1

but

he

has

since

repeated

it

without qualification,2

Cabot

and

of

argument

may

it

is stated

as

a

fact

in the

has

to

inmore

article

be

on

in the

latest

original

Cabot

since

other

but

not

edition

the Encyclopaedia

against

have

Such

Britannica?

needs

to Mecca

llarrisse's

so many

it hardly

taken

seriously

like

well

travelled

an

in disguise

always

been

modern

Christians.

always

enterprise

shown

authorities

dangerous,

by

Probably

equally

the

so, as was

times

behaviour

time

later,

suspect

after

the

Even

have

had

and

route

there

there were

to

was

India

to

to divert

reason why

Varthema

known

to

imminent

received

the

in Cabot's

of

Turkish

to Hurgronje.

thau

it became

had made

well

it was

the

much

activities

less dangerous

of

a generation

the

as a polytheist. Cabot would

the Portuguese

Arabs

European if his Venetian

little

many

of

nationality

being

had

traveller

to

fear

Italian

unless

renegades.

his

discovered,

the

spice

a

spy

as

become

faith

After

known,

had

all,

been

before

had

who

still

there

have

was

The

real

yet

where

on Arab

suspected,

Cape

the

had

know

it from

their

a

been

about

a European

could

his

and

learnt

done

all

nothing

therefore

experience

character

no

of

was

he

news

was

not

had

in

been

trade

countries

the Moslem

rulers

should

few

years

and

a

resent

presence.

His

and

later

suspected

he

Portuguese

is revealing.

by

reached

others

Aden,

attack

some

danger

of

until

recent

shipping.

There

are,

however,

phrase,

Cabot

other

dilficulties

volte

about

esso

Mecca

have

so and

the

The

" dice

said

for

he

a

foolhardy

story.

ambassador's

implies

If

it would

it was

There

that

been

Much

hand

to

that

che altrc

had

e stato

more

alia Meecha,"

than

there

there

once.

at

all,

twice.

to believe

had

a

really

a claim.

second

visited

him

done

the

dangerous

have

been

record

would

disguised

for

Christian

to

to

gone it is hard if he

go

is no

Cabot

of anyone

have

that he would

having

even made

not

have

attach is a more

that

the

to

attempt,

or,

there once,

importance

account,

the

dispatch

but

advanced

such

serious

spices

a

so

incredible

phrase

in

objection.

were

brought

may

Cabot

there

said

According

to Mecca

ion

1 J.

1 J.

Pamphlet,
8

A. Williamson,

A. Williamson,

The

No.

Encyclopaedia

The

106),

Voyages

Voyages

1937,

says

The

of

the Cabots,

and

1929,

Selxistian

of John

visited

p.

that

8.

he

"

Mecca

p.

144.

Cabot

during

(Historical

one

of

his

Associa

trading

voyages

to

irresponsibly

of

the

goods

the

Eastern

Mediterranean

that Mecca

was

" then

the

of

the

East

for

those

of

'*, which

greatest

mart

the West".

is mere

conjecture,

in the world

for

the

and

adds

exchange

SOME EARLY TRAVELS

IN ARABIA

157

"

by

caravans

sono

from

portatc

distant,

countries,

and

earavane

per

de

luntani

who

to

from

in

and

from

paesi

brought

that

their

them

remote

Jbhe Far East, believing,

regions.

le speciarie,"

that

lie had

they

asked

had

brought

those

whence

the

spices

not

know,

but

that

other

from

distant

lands,

and

turn

that

the

spices

Cabot

had

inferred

them

did

in their

came;

be

in fact,

that

readily

obtained

answered

them

brought

they

caravans

that

the

had

that

the

they

by

homes

said

men

come

spices

who

to

them

originated

Japan

came

sailing

from

westwards

could

therefore

Europe.

a caravan

and

Japan,

Evidently

route

he

envisaged

more

from

to

or

the

spice

east

trade

as

and

west

the

mainland

Anyone

have

and

lands,

following

across

Asia

opposite

who

that

had

the

caravans

Jidda,

leading

starting

he

knew

less due

a point

be

an

would

on

way

from

by

distant

presumably

which

island.

surely

sea,

talked

spices had

reaching

a day

There

and Medina.

chaplain

from

thirty years,

by

successive

to the merchants

come

Mecca

or

two's

is no

1D20

to

to

almost

at Mecca

the whole

known

that

but

the

from

had

come,

not

journey

away.

reason

to doubt

His

the

travels

were

Portuguese

152G.1

Covilha

having

been

emperors.

that

Pero

de

Covilha

reached

Mecca

described

by Francisco

Alva

res,

the

ambassador

had

then

been

permission

made

who

was

in Ethiopia

living

to

there

for

some

leave the country use of his know

much

was

manners,

so

that

Alvares,

an

also

his

confessor,

must

have

there

is good

affirms

.Besides

who

his

the

have

reason

trust

story

tried

to

believe

in Covilha

is plausible

to

reach

to

succeed.

Covilha

to Morocco.

knew

He

and

refused

The

embassy

and

ledge

observant

come

the

who

of

to

Ethiopian

and

know

supplied

and

few

languages

man,

very

well.

Alvares

who

the details

European

better

gone

on

sensible

him

and

So,

narrative,

had

itself

specifically

himself.

in

Christians

qualified

Mecca

can

have

been

Arabic

well

and

had

two missions

his

Portugal

John

Jersualem

companion,

to

only

Afonso

de

Paiva,

spice

emissaries

investigate

when

precisely

former

the

because

that Covilha

he

they

knew

had

indeed,

and

remarks

pagan.

Moreover,

were

routes

chosen

to

and

by

search

the

King

for Prester

of

had

did

all

abandoned

not

know

languages,

the

Arabic.

Christian,

attempt

at

Alvares,

Moslem,

had

much

experience

of

eastern

1 F.

Alvarea,

pt.

publialifMl

i, rap.

103,

by

the

Verdade.ira

1540

and

Ilakluyt

Infnrmneam

das

1889.

Society

A

translation

1881.

in

Terra-

by

do

Lonl

f*re

Stanley

ite

Joam

of

das

AMerlry

fndins,

was

158

SOME EARLY TRAVELS

IN ARA1UA

travel

before

he went

to

the Holy

Cities.

He

and

his

companion

first

then

Here

went

to Alexandria

a

and

Cairo

of Moors

in the

to

going

Goa,

rendezvous

about

was

instructions

of what

hand

of

Ormuz,

one

Medina,

where,

so

he

had

Jew,

as we

where

Mount

far

guise

Tor,

of merchants,

Suakin,

while

Ormuz.

and

Covilha

When

Paiva,

he

for Portugal

found

and

accompanied

they

party

Paiva

Calicut,

his

Aden.

pro

separated,

to Ethiopia

Sofala

and

with

to

leave

from

ceeded

returned

the

he met

to these

sent

panied

then

Tor

to Cananor,

to Cairo

he

to keep

that

when

latter

had

two Jews

died.

Covilha

account

the

to

Mecca,

bringing

an

by

back

the Ring.

so

after

they

Sinai

know,

In obedience

and

accom

Covilha

way

spent

of

the

he wrote

far discovered

which

parted.

and,

he

he

by

it to Portugal the other

went

Zeila,

to Jidda,

and

to Ethiopia

rest

of

his

life.1

mentions

" Sancarrao

This

it

and

detail

is a

",

Alvares

bones

It was

his

at

in passing

are buried

that

at Medina.

the

that

is of

is, the

interest.

proof

of

of Muhammad,

presumably

that

veracity

he

Mecca,

a mistake

von Harff,

account

left Cairo

Mecca

the

on

derived

from Covilha

did

not

very

suppose

common

Correa

who

he wrote

claimed

of

in July,

1497,

to have

own

and went

his

his way.

This

further

that

Muhammad's

tomb

at

that

time

and

made

2, and,

as we

shall

see,

even

was

by

by

been

travels

there.

8 von

HariT

overland

to Aden,

alleges

passing

is a unique

claim

for a European

Barros, Couto, Castanheda,

Arnold

In

that

through

he

1 Castanhcda's

and

he

"

qual

ombaixada,

partes."

add*

obtained

do

He

nothing.

somo

Francisco

que

does

levou

not

opening

and

Covilha

Governor

goes

Paiva

chapter

went

going

gives

from

account

Harms,

is evidently

dee.

e

I, eap.

I,

I

from

assi

liv.

de

Ill

Alvares

eap.

5,

uses

porsonnlly

tratado,

hum

sonbemos

journey

confused

a pilgrim

to

there

to Ormuz,

goes

about

to Mecca,

Later,

different

way

by

his

Ethiopia

events

which

Covilha

:

Soares,"

1

Couto,

eap.

Tho

Hakluyt

edited

carefully

cannot

dec.

9.

IV

Society

translation

liv.

taken

which

a

quo

e

and

phraso

as

well

elle

ontras

fez

as

Medina.

1>. Rodrigo,

mention

a

hopelessly

Egypt

with

the

and

Paiva

and

about

estas,

to Mecca

account,

caravan

India.

is a

very

makes

to

in

whero

his

version.

third

to

way

India,

of

be

preceded

believed

liv.

has

v

eap.

3:

now

by

made

Mr.

according

Sampayo,

Egypt

Mecca,

unreliable

says

viii

" cap.

I*opo

1860.

and

of Covilha,

from

implies

his

viagem

Corrca

Alvares

that

book,

desta

information

Alvares,

from

da

eousas

daquellas

in his

to which

Covilha

they

chapter

In

sails

this

separated,

on

the

Covilha

from

Correa

Coa

own

he

arrival

con

is

is

lOgypt.

his

when

Castanheda,

it

accessible

Letts.

Malcolm

to Ethiopia

Lopo

caravan

Sea,

Xaz

de

from

from

v i s i t s

visits

lied

notoriously

what

Alvares.

and

eap.

ho

liv.

Correa,

II

in

by

dee.

\ii:

published

by

to

in

in

tradicted

India

the

general

* Uarros,

IV

* First

liv.

in

a

readable,

scholarly,

to

have

deserves

made

careful

SOME EARLY TRAVELS

and

it has

not

always

IN ARABIA

IN A R A B I A

been

accepted.

examination.

Von

Harff,

like so many

159

The

mediaeval

story

travellers,

is no

reason

can

sometimes,

to doubt

that

but

not

large portions

be

always, of his book

believed.

There

are

substantially

true,

but

it also

contains

much

the

like.

His

Arabian

journey

tour

of

the East

beginning

and

about

formed

Amazons,

part

of

ending

in Egypt.

sea

monsters

and

a

kind

of

circular

He

says

that

he

set

.out

sailed

from

from

Sinai.1

Cologne

Venice

He

in November,

to Alexandria

to

us

believe

to Aden,

the Nile,

returned

1496,

and

that

sailed

he

to

went

and

proceeded

first

to

Italy.

and

the

He

Mount

whole

visited

to Cairo

traversed

asks

Arabia

of

then

then

Socotra

of Eastern

found

to

the

Cairo.

and

Ceylon,

Moon

followed

India and Madagascar,

source

He

climbed

the

the Mountains

course

of which

of

the

he

to Europe

through

and

back

Palestine,

Syria

and

Turkey.

His

later

travels

arc

not

relevant.

 

Except

for

some

confusion

about

dates

and

minor

matters

von

Hartf'8

narrative

is credi<