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Dynamic Analysis with Straus7

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Table of Contents
Discussion: Categories of Dynamic Problems and the Corresponding Straus7 Solvers .........1 Discussion: Modelling Considerations for Dynamic Analysis ..................................................5 Discussion: Natural Frequency Analysis .................................................................................9 Torsional Vibration of a Shaft with Disc Attached ...................................................................15 Normal Modes Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam ...........................................................17 Discussion: Mass Participation Factor ...................................................................................19 Discussion: The Use of Symmetry in Natural Frequency Analysis ........................................23 Stress Stiffening Effects on Frequency ...................................................................................27 Discussion: Damping in finite element analysis .....................................................................29 Discussion: Harmonic Response Analysis ............................................................................35 Discussion: The Mode Superposition Method .......................................................................41 Rotating Out-of-Balance Mass ................................................................................................45 Frame on a Shaker Table .......................................................................................................49 Discussion: Mass Matrix Formulation - Consistent vs Lumped .............................................53 Discussion: Transient Dynamics ............................................................................................55 Modelling Moving Loads .........................................................................................................57 Single Degree of Freedom System .........................................................................................61 Viscous Damping Coefficient of a Cantilever ..........................................................................67 Masses Falling on Two Cantilever Beams ..............................................................................69 Discussion: Modelling Shock Problems in Straus7 ................................................................73 Shock Qualification of an Instrumentation Frame ...................................................................77 Drop test on an instrumentation frame ...................................................................................81 Discussion: Modelling Rotating or Pretensioned Structures ..................................................85 Discussion: Spectral Response .............................................................................................87 Discussion: Earthquake Analysis using Straus7 .....................................................................93 A Simple Example of Seismic Analysis ................................................................................107 PSD Spectral Response .......................................................................................................111 PSD - Base Excitation ..........................................................................................................113 References ...........................................................................................................................115

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Discussion: Categories of Dynamic Problems and the Corresponding Straus7 Solvers


Overview
Generally dynamic problems can be categorised into the following four groups: 1. Eigenvalue problems The dynamic behaviour of a structure is closely related to its natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. A well known phenomenon is that when a structure is subjected to a sinusoidal force and the forcing frequency approaches one of the natural frequencies of the structure, the response of the structure will become dynamically amplified i.e. resonance occurs. Natural frequencies and their corresponding mode shapes are related directly to the structures mass and stiffness distribution (for an undamped system). An eigenvalue problem allows the calculation of the (undamped) natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. A concern in the design of structures subject to dynamic loading is to avoid or cope with the effects of resonance. Another important aspect of an eigenvalue solution is in its mathematical significance - that is, it forms the basis of the technique of mode superposition (an effective solution strategy to decouple a coupled dynamic matrix equation system). The mode shape matrix is used as a transformation matrix to convert the problem from a physical coordinate system to a generalized coordinate system (mode space). In general for an FE model, there can be any number of natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. In practice, only a few of the lowest frequencies and mode shapes may be required.

Natural Frequency and Period spectrum for a number of common structures.

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2. Forced Vibration Problems (under Sinusoidally Varying Load) Sinusoidally varying load is common in engineering analysis. For example rotating machinery subject to a mass imbalance. Another example is that of a vibration test table driven by a sinusoidal base excitation. When a sinusoidal excitation is applied to a structure, the structure will initially vibrate in an irregular manner often referred to as the transient stage. The irregular part decays to zero over time due to damping. After the transient stage, the structure will vibrate in a sinusoidal fashion at a frequency identical to the frequency of the applied excitation, but the phase of the response may be different from the applied load. This stage of the response is called the steady state response. For a given excitation intensity, the amplitude of the steady state response changes with the different frequencies of the applied excitation. The forced variation analysis (or harmonic response analysis) is used to calculate the peak values (amplitudes) of the steady state response of a structure at different frequency points within a frequency range. 3. Transient analysis problems Transient dynamic analysis is used to calculate the entire time history, from the starting point of loading, of the dynamic response of a structure subjected to external dynamic loading of an arbitrary time function and initial conditions. This kind of analysis is often used to analyse a structure under a shock loading which has a short action duration but perhaps wide frequency range. The calculation of a transient analysis uses numerical integration methods, such as the Newmark and Wilson methods which are used in Straus7.

4. Spectral analysis problems Basically, spectral analysis is a fast method to get the dynamic response information of a structure which is subjected to an non-deterministic (i.e. random) load. There are two types of spectral analysis problems: (1) Response spectrum analysis which estimates the maximum possible response of a structure based on given spectral curves. This method is widely used in earthquake analysis. (2) Power spectral density analysis where the loading is a stationary random process and a statistical estimation of the response is sought.

General Equation of Motion


The governing equation for all four types of problems can in most of situations, be expressed as:

For an applied load,

MU ( t ) + CU ( t ) + KU ( t ) = P ( t )
For a base excitation,
2

(1)

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MU ( t ) + C ( U ( t ) Y ( t ) ) + K ( U ( t ) Y ( t ) ) = 0
where M - Global mass matrix C - Global damping matrix K - Global stiffness matrix P(t) - Applied external excitation vector U(t) - Unknown nodal displacement vector The dots on top of the U(t) represent first and second order time derivatives respectively.

(2)

Y ( t ) = Y 0 cos t is the base movement.


Depending on the types of external loads and analysis requirements, one or more of the four analyses are conducted. (1) When there is no external load, i.e. P(t)=0 and also the damping matrix C=0, equation (1) can be turned into an eigenvalue problem. (2) When the external load is of sinusoidal form, a harmonic analysis problem is formed. (3) When the external load is a general form of time function and the whole time history of the response of the structure is of interest, transient analysis is needed. (4) If the external load is non-deterministic, spectral analysis is carried out.

Comparison with Static Analysis


Dynamic analysis may be required in addition to, or replacing altogether, static analysis by considering the following points: (1) Loading and response is time dependent (P=p(t), U=u(t)). (2) Inertial forces become significant and cannot be neglected. (3) A dynamic problem is often considered in the frequency domain.

Summary of Dynamic Solvers Available in Straus7


Corresponding to the four categories introduced above, Straus7 has 4 dedicated dynamic solvers: Natural Frequency Solver Calculates the undamped natural (or resonant) frequencies of a structure. Although the solver can calculate any number of natural frequencies for a given model (depending on the number of
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degrees of freedom contained in the model), in practice only a relatively small number of modes is calculated. Harmonic Response Solver Calculates the steady state response of a structure subjected to a sinusoidally varying load. The solver gives deflections, stresses, etc., in the frequency domain. Transient Dynamic Solver - full system/mode superposition Calculates the response of a structure subject to an arbitrary time varying load. The solver gives displacements, stresses, etc., as a function of time. Both linear and nonlinear analysis can be performed. Spectral Response Solver Calculates the response of a structure subjected to a random dynamic loading (e.g. an earthquake represented by its response spectrum or a mechanical vibration represented by its Power Spectral Density). The solver gives estimated maximum deflections, stresses, etc. or statistical estimations (PSD).

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Discussion: Modelling Considerations for Dynamic Analysis


Introduction
Most Straus7 users have a good understanding of the basic requirements for the design and construction of models used in static structural analysis. In general, the techniques used to build models for use in dynamic analysis are similar but there are a number of issues that need special consideration.

Number of Elements and Mesh Density


The overall mesh density required for dynamic analysis is in general higher than that for a static structural analysis, although localised refinement near fillets etc., is usually not required. The higher modes of many structures are very complicated and many elements are required to provide a good representation of these. All the elements in the Straus7 element library have shape functions of a fixed order. These shape functions define the deformed shape of the element. For example the beam element has a cubic shape function. The modes of vibration for a beam with simple supports at both ends are of sinusoidal shapes. If a single beam element is used then the higher order modes cannot be calculated and possibly even the frequencies and mode shapes of some of the lower modes may be incorrect. A single beam cannot represent the sinusoidal mode shapes because of the inability of a single cubic equation to approximate more than half of a sine curve. In this case many cubic beams are required to provide a piecewise cubic approximation to the sinusoidal mode shape. If only the lower modes are of interest, the mesh can be relatively coarse. However for harmonic, transient dynamic and spectral analysis the higher modes are frequently important as they may be excited by high frequency excitation of the structure. Decisions on the mesh density clearly require a sound understanding of the likely behaviour of the structure and the requirements of the analysis. The other point to consider when designing meshes for dynamic analysis is that in general there is less of a need to refine the mesh locally around areas of stress concentration, particularly if the mesh is not being used to calculate stresses in a separate linear static analysis. In dynamic analysis the global inertial and stiffness characteristics of the model are usually more important than local behaviour. There are however some special cases where local modes are important and the mesh may require some local refinement in order the capture these.

Representation of Mass in Dynamic Analysis


In dynamics the stiffness and mass of a structure both play an equally important role in the determination of the frequencies and mode shapes. This is evident in the simple equation for the natural frequency of a mass on a spring:

k m

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This means that when we build a finite element model for use in dynamic analysis, it is important to ensure that the model provides a correct representation of both the stiffness and mass of the structure.

Modelling of Non-Structural Mass


Often a structure being modelled for a dynamic analysis will be a support frame for some sort of equipment. There will be many parts of the structure that can be referred to as non structural mass - that is, items of equipment and other dead weights that contribute mass but no stiffness to the structure. In a typical linear static analysis these masses might be represented with equivalent forces and pressure loads but in a dynamic analysis the actual mass and its distribution must be represented accurately. In many cases non-structural masses can be represented using point masses. A portion of the non structural mass is lumped at each of its attachment points on the structure. This approximation assumes that the item has mass but no stiffness. Often items of non-structural mass provide some additional stiffness between the attachment points. The way in which the stiffness of these items is modelled depends on the relative stiffness of the non structural mass and the structure. If the items of mass have very large stiffness in comparison to the structure, a point mass can be lumped at the centre of gravity of the item. This is connected to the attachment points on the structure with rigid links. An example of a mass that would be modelled in this manner is an engine mounted in a frame. In other cases the stiffness of the non-structural mass, between the attachment points, is similar to the stiffness of the structure. In this case there is no option but to include a coarse finite element representation of the item producing the mass. This mesh can be crude because it is only being used to provide an approximate representation of stiffness and inertia, not to calculate stresses and deflections. Furthermore, the use of a crude mesh helps to keep the model to a reasonable size. A coarse mesh also helps to suppress any local modes of the non structural mass since these are generally of little interest in the analysis. There are two methods commonly used to include the mass of the item in the unrefined finite element model: A point mass is often placed at the centre of gravity of the item and connected to the attachment points on the structure with the finite element representation of the non-structural mass. In this case the elements used to model the non-structural mass are not assigned density. In other cases a density is assigned to the properties for the elements used to model the nonstructural mass. This density is factored until the total mass of the item is correct.

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An example of a mesh used to model the mass and stiffness of a piece of electronic equipment is shown in the adjacent figure. This model is an idealization of a rack of integrated circuit boards. The density of the various components (i.e. rack, boards, etc) was factored to get the correct overall mass. Note the crudeness of the model. This mesh would clearly be too coarse for use in a linear static structural analysis or a dynamics analysis of the component itself. It is however, sufficient for including the mass and stiffness effect of the circuit board rack on the overall behaviour of the structure to which it is attached. Often the centre of gravity of equipment or other items of non-structural mass are offset significantly from the attachment points on the structure. It is very important that the centre of gravity of all items of mass be correctly located. If the centre of gravity offsets are to be included in the model, it is common to offset the mass from the attachment point by a rigid link of an appropriate length. Alternatively if the non-structural mass is modelled using the coarse finite element model approach, the centre of gravity offset will be included automatically. Any such finite element approximation should be checked to verify that the centre of gravity is in the correct location. This can be done by using the Summary/Model option in the Straus7 main menu.

Lumped and Consistent Mass


The mass of a structure is simply the sum of the mass of each element. In Straus7, the mass of an element is automatically calculated provided a density has been assigned. This mass is assumed to be distributed uniformly over the element. In the finite element method all mass is eventually assigned to the nodes. This means that the continuously distributed mass of the elements must be converted to an equivalent set of masses at the nodes. The method by which this is done can influence the solution speed and accuracy. There are two ways that this discretisation of mass can be carried out: the consistent and the lumped mass approximations. In the lumped mass approximation, mass is lumped to the nodes of the elements in a simple distribution such that the sum of these nodal masses equals the total mass of the structure. For a 2-node beam, it is intuitive to lump half the mass at each node. In this typical finite element approach, usually only translational inertias are represented directly at the nodes, omitting terms related to the rotational inertia. Overall rotational inertia is accommodated by the fact that the nodal translational masses are distributed over a large geometric region - a bit like a governor where the overall rotational inertia is a function of the translational masses and the distance between them. In Straus7, the lumped mass approach generates a very small (diagonal) matrix which means that compared with a linear static analysis, only a small amount of extra space is needed. The consistent mass approach is more accurate and the distribution is based on determining a mass lumping scheme that gives both translational and rotational inertias. The distribution is based on the same integrations that are used to calculate the element stiffness matrix and this generally results in a distribution that is not very intuitive. Furthermore, because the mass matrix is as populated as the stiffness matrix, the storage requirements are twice those for a linear static

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analysis. The work required to manipulate these extra terms in the matrix also means that with consistent mass, the solver is slower. The choice of the lumped or consistent mass approximation can, in some special cases, have a significant effect on the accuracy of the analysis, although in practice, for a relatively large model, the differences are small, especially for the lower modes. In Straus7, a point translational mass is always treated as a diagonal mass. Point rotational mass is always treated as a nondiagonal mass. This is because the general case of a rotational inertia about an arbitrary axis requires a full 3x3 local matrix at each node. In Straus7, you have the option of using either Lumped (diagonal) or Consistent (full) mass matrix assemblies. However, if you choose Lumped, but the analysis requires consistent (e.g. because you have a rotational mass or a beam or plate offset, etc.) then for those elements/nodes, the matrix is automatically expanded to include the off-diagonal terms.

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Discussion: Natural Frequency Analysis


Examples
Windmill Blade. Bending and Torsional Frequencies of a Crank Shaft.

The Eigenvalue Problem


The equation of motion for a general system is:

[M ]{d }+[C ]{d }+[K ]{d }={P}


where:

[M] = {d} = {d } = {d } = [C] = [K] = {P} =

mass matrix displacement vector velocity vector acceleration vector damping matrix stiffness matrix externally applied load vector

If we consider a structure without damping and without externally applied loads then the equation reduces to:

[M ]{d }+[K ]{d }=0


This has a solution in the form of a simple harmonic motion, where the displacements are given by:

{d }= {d o }sin
and

{d} = {d }sin t
2 o

where: = 2 f substituting these terms into the equation of motion gives:

[K ]{d o }= 2 [M ]{d o }
This can be recognized as an eigenvalue problem where 2 is the eigenvalue and { d 0 } is the eigenvector. is also the angular natural frequency in radians per second so that the eigenvalue

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is the square of the natural frequency. If is divided by 2 it gives the cyclic frequency fi in cycles per second (Hz). If the system has n equations then there are n independent solutions to the equation. These can be written in the form:

[K ]{d i }=i [M ]{d i }


th where i = 2 eigenvalue and { di } is the corresponding ith eigenvector. i is the i

This can be rewritten in the form:

( [ K ] i [ M ] ) { di } = { 0 }
which is the equation solved by the Straus7 natural frequency solver.

Properties of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors


The eigenvalues i calculated by the solution of the above equation yield the natural frequencies of the structure as follows: Angular frequency: w i = i (rad/sec).
i Cyclic frequency: fi = -----cycles/sec or Hz.

w 2

For a structure with n degrees of freedom there are no more than n eigenvalues (natural frequencies). For each eigenvalue there is a corresponding eigenvector { d } which is a set of displacements defining the mode shape. It is important to realize that the displacements in the eigenvector are not absolute values of displacement. It is the relative magnitude of the displacements that is important in defining the mode shape. The actual amplitude of a mode depends on the magnitude of an excitation force. Since the natural frequency solver is solving for unforced natural frequencies only, information on the magnitude of the displacements associated with a particular mode shape is not available. The values of displacement (i.e. the eigenvector) in the Straus7 output are normalized such that the modal mass is equal to 1. The following equation is used to carry out this normalization.

{d }i T [M ]{d }i =1
This normalization is a very useful way to present the eigenvector because it means that the modal stiffness of the structure is equal to the frequency.

The Sub-Space Iteration Solver


The eigenvalue problem is a very expensive and time consuming problem to solve. In order to solve this in a reasonable time some approximations must be made to reduce the size of the problem. One solution method (and the one used by Straus7) is Sub-Space iteration.
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The basic concept of this method is that it takes the stiffness and mass matrices for the full structure and reduces these to a manageable size so that it can be solved by direct eigenvalue extraction methods.

Convergence of the Natural Frequency Solution


The default convergence tolerance in the natural frequency solver panel is 1.0E-5. This means that in order for the solution to terminate, the least accurate eigenvalue must be changing by less than this amount between successive iterations. This is a tight tolerance and well below normal engineering accuracy. Users are often tempted to increase the convergence tolerance to values such as 1.0E-3 to decrease the solution time. In many cases this practice will work but it should be used with caution. The reason the default value is set to such a high tolerance is based on the results of extensive experience with the solver. Often additional modes are found between the current eigenvalues as the solution proceeds. This usually occurs when there are many closely spaced modes. These slot in between the modes that had been calculated to this point in the solution and all the higher modes are shuffled up one place. The reason that this occurs is that the initial degrees of freedom used to excite the solution process may not have adequately represented all the modes. As the solution proceeds, random adjustment introduces new degrees of freedom into the sub space. This can allow previously unknown modes to be identified and captured. Reducing the convergence tolerance can cut the solution process short and not allow sufficient time for the detection of all modes including the additional modes not identified by the initial starting vectors. The convergence tolerance should only be reduced when it has been established for a particular problem that this practice is reliable. The solution process would normally be allowed to continue to completion with the default convergence criterion at least once to assist with this verification. In addition to this the Sturm check can be used to verify that all of the modes are being located by the solution with relaxed convergence tolerance. A potentially more serious consequence of reducing the tolerance is that although the eigenvalue (frequency) may be considered adequately represented, the eigenvector (mode shape) may not be fully converged. If unconverged eigenvectors are used in mode superposition analysis (harmonic, spectral, etc.), the results can be erroneous. This is sometimes manifested by spectral runs producing mass participation factors in excess of 100%. Another way of controlling convergence is to reduce the maximum number of iterations (which defaults to 20).

Further Notes on Eigenvalues


There are a number of questions concerning eigenvalues that inevitably arise when doing natural frequency analysis.

Multiple eigenvalues
In many models some of the calculated eigenvalues will appear as identical pairs. The reason for this is that many structures are symmetric and thus have orthogonal pairs of modes. That is, the structure has an equal tendency to vibrate in two perpendicular planes. These planes need not be the global planes.

Zero eigenvalues
If zero eigenvalues are calculated by the solver then this can mean one of two things:

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The freedom conditions applied to the structure are insufficient to restrain the model in space. The zero mode and associated eigenvalue define a mode in which the structure either translates or rotates as a completely rigid body with no relative displacement between the nodes on the structure. This is a common result whenever you model the natural frequencies of an unrestrained structure - e.g. an aeroplane in level flight. The structure is a mechanism. This means that insufficient stiffness is provided to prevent some part of the structure moving as a rigid body.

Occasionally some part of the model may behave as a rigid body when this is not intended or expected. If this occurs the most likely cause is incorrect zipping of the model. It may be necessary to increase the value of zip tolerance that has been used to ensure that all parts of the model are correctly joined together. The free edge display can be used for this verification.

Missing eigenvalues
In some special cases it is possible that the solver will miss some of the eigenvalues. See the following section on the Sturm check for a discussion on how to check for missing modes.

Large models with many local modes


In some large natural frequency analyses, such as that on an entire ship, the natural frequency results will include many local modes in which there is no interest. In general these modes will occur in cladding panels and will involve diaphragm motion of panels.

The Sturm Check


The iterative nature of the sub-space solver does not guarantee that the solution will converge to the first n modes required by the user. Occasionally some low order modes may be missed and higher modes found in their place. An eigenvalue may be missed by the solver if the initial starting vector in the sub-space does not include degrees of freedom that provide an adequate representation of the mode. The degrees of freedom contained in the initial starting vector must be capable of exciting all vibration modes within the range requested by the user. For example, consider the simple case of a cantilever beam. This will have multiple orthogonal modes, both in the plane and out of the plane of the page. If the degrees of freedom excited by the starting vector are only in the vertical direction then these cannot represent the out of plane modes and some of the modes will be missed. The likelihood of Straus7 missing eigenvalues is low since special precautions are taken during the solution process to continually introduce new degrees of freedom into the trial vectors that span the subspace. It should be noted that the Sturm check can only determine the number of eigenvalues in a specific range, it does not calculate the value of the eigenvalues. It is however a useful check on the output data. The Sturm check is a very stable and reliable method for determining the number of eigenvalues in a given range. This stability results from the fact that the method only relies on the signs of numbers and not the actual values. Thus rounding error and other errors will have less effect on the results.

Loading and Damping


1. The solution of the above equation does not take into account any damping on the structure.
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2. If the effects of pre load are to be included (eg. tightening a guitar string will change its frequency), then a linear static analysis can be performed on the model first and the results of this included in the natural frequency analysis. In this case we solve a slightly different equation, namely:

([ K ] + [ Kg ] i [ M ]){d i } = {0}
[ Kg ] is known as the Geometric or Stress Stiffness matrix and is simply added to the normal stiffness matrix. For an element with zero stress, [ Kg ] will be zero.

Shifting the Matrix


1. Often we need to check only on frequencies and modes near a specific frequency (e.g. due to some vibrating machinery). In these cases we can use the shift value (in Hertz) to ask the solver to calculate only modes near the shift value. The eigenvalue search is centred on the given shift and the solver will find the eigenvalues closest to the shift, both above and below the shift. 2. The shift can also be used for finding the natural frequencies of a structure which is not restrained, (e.g. an aircraft in flight). Here we apply a "small" shift to make the system non-singular. 3. The shift is introduced into the natural frequency solution in the following way. From the above, the basic eigenvalue equation that is solved for the natural frequencies is

( [ K ] i [ M ] ) { di } = { 0 }
Some value of shift o can then be introduced as follows:

([K] + o [ M ] ){ di } = { 0 } i
Rearranging the equation yields:

(([K ] [M ]) [M ]){d }={0}


o i i

This equation can be solved in the normal manner for the frequencies i . The actual frequencies of the structure are then i = o + i

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Torsional Vibration of a Shaft with Disc Attached


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Natural Frequency solver. Use and investigate the difference between rotational and translational node masses. Use and investigate the difference between lumped and consistent mass matrices.

Problem Description
A 50 mm diameter disc 10 mm thick is suspended by a rod 10 mm in diameter and 500 mm long. The shaft is fixed at the upper end and the entire assembly is manufactured using 316 stainless steel. Find the first torsional natural frequency. The first torsional natural frequency is given by:

f =

GJ p 1 = 271.7091 Js 2 J d + l 3

Hz

where,
E 4 - = 7.4806202 10 MPa Shear Modulus, G = -------------------2 1 + v

2 4 s Torsional rigidity of shaft, J s = ---------- = 9.817477 10 mm

d 32
4

3 s s s Rotational mass (inertia) of shaft, Js = ------------------- = 3.9269908 10

d p l 32
4

2 tonnes mm

2 d d d Rotational mass (inertia) of disc, J d = --------------------- = 4.9087385 10

d p l 32
2

mm 2 tonnes

4 d d Translational mass of disc, = ------------------ = 1.5707963 10

d p l 4

tonnes

Modelling Procedure
Create a new model and set the units to Nmm.

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Construct three models of the rod side by side in the one model window. Use 10 beam elements to model the shaft. The first model has the disc modelled using a short beam. The second model represents the disc as a point mass with rotational inertia (RY mass = 0.049 Tmm2) and the third model has the disc as a point mass with translational inertia (mass = 1.57x10-4 T). Fully fix the top end of the shaft and globally fix all 3 translations. Run the Natural Frequency solver and calculate the first three modes using both the lumped and consistent mass option. To swap between the lumped and consistent mass matrix option, go to the Defaults tab page in the Natural Frequency solver dialogue. Click the Elements button on the left.

Results
Summarize the results in the following table:

Solution Strand7 (Mass Matrix Lumped) Strand7 (Mass Matrix Consistent)

Number of Elements 10 10

Modelling Technique Short Beam 271.67 271.69 Rotational Mass 271.67 271.69 Translational Mass 1527.38 1530.52

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Normal Modes Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use and investigate the difference between lumped and consistent mass matrices. Understand the mesh density requirements for calculation of important frequency modes. Investigate the effects of varying shear area on the frequency.

Problem Description
The natural frequencies of a 310UB46.2 universal beam are examined. In particular, a comparison is made between the analytical solution, lumped mass matrix and the consistent mass matrix methods. The mesh density and shear area are also evaluated. The beam is simply supported with a length of 5000 mm and the global freedom condition is set to 2D Beam. Analytically, the modes of the beam are derived as:
EI For flexural modes, w n = 2 f = n2 2 ----------4 Al

E For axial modes, n = 2 f = ------2 l

Modelling Procedure
Create a new model and set the units to Nmm. Create a beam 5000 mm long and set the beam ends as pinned. Create a copy of this beam. Subdivide the first into two, and the second into ten elements. Set the global freedoms to 2D Beam. Set the beam property. Set the material of the beam to Structural Steel and the section to 310UB46.2 in the BHP - Universal Beams section database. In the Sections tab page, set the section areas to zero. Run the natural frequency solver and solve for 10 modes. Rerun the solution using the Consistent Mass Matrix option.

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Results
Number of Elements n.a. 2 2 10 10 Mode of Vibration 1 Bending 41.1844 40.8854 41.2099 41.1841 41.0483
st

Solution Analytical Strand7 (Lumped) Strand7 (Consistent) Strand7 (Lumped) Strand7 (Consistent)

2 Bending 164.7376 n.a. 180.4273 164.7180 162.6044

nd

3 Bending 370.65956 n.a. 445.6487 370.4102 360.2227

rd

1 Axial 504.7545 454.4387 556.5714 502.6813 506.8327

st

4 Bending 658.9503 n.a. 794.1139 657.3207 627.4657

th

Note that at least two elements are required to calculate the natural frequency of the flexural and longitudinal modes using the lumped mass approximation. This is because there are insufficient mass degrees of freedom. The consistent mass approximation however uses the element displacement shape functions, and often can better represent the real mass distribution over the structural element. For beam elements, the consistent mass matrix includes terms for rotational inertia. As further study, investigate the difference in results when leaving the shear areas of the beams as non-zero (note that the analytical results assume thin-beam theory).

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Discussion: Mass Participation Factor


Introduction
The Natural Frequency solver can be used to calculate additional dynamic properties of a structure, which can be useful in any mode superposition analysis. The aim of this section is to help the reader understand the concept of mass participation factor.

What is the Mass Participation Factor?


The mass participation factor is an important indicator of whether a sufficient number of modes has been included in a dynamic analysis based on the mode superposition method. The mass participation factor for the i-th mode is calculated using the following formula:

( i MR ) PF i = -----------------------T R MR
where

i
M R

- Mode shape vector of the i-th mode; - Global mass matrix; and - Global movement vector determined by the excitation direction factor vector.

The sum of the mass participation factors can be used as a guide to determine that there is a sufficient number of relevant modes included in the analysis for the given global movement vector R. As more and more relevant modes are included, the value of the sum should approach 1. As a general rule for each excitation direction, the sum of the participation factors of the modes should be greater than 90%. The relevant modes refer to those that have nonzero values of mass participation factor and have some contribution to the global movement. For example, consider a vertical rod. If the base excitation is in a horizontal direction, only the mode shape vectors which have nonzero components in the horizontal direction will have some contribution, while mode shape vectors which have only components in the vertical direction will make no contribution. Mathematically, a relevant mode shape vector is closer or more correlated to the global movement vector R than an irrelevant mode. For the relevant modes, their contribution to the total structural response depends on the magnitude of the response of the individual mode to the modal force. This magnitude is also a function of the mode frequency under the given modal force. Hence, although it is often used as a good indicator, the mass participation factor cannot be used on its own for determining the number of modes to include for mode superposition. The global movement vector R represents the corresponding rigid movements of all the translational degrees of freedom in the FE model under a given base excitation movement. The vector is formed based on specifying the direction factor vector.
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Example
The following example is used to illustrate the above discussion. A vertical rod is modelled by 10 beam elements, restrained at the base. Material is structural steel from the Straus7 material library. To better illustrate the problem, 2D Beam freedom conditions are set such that all mode shapes are found only in the XY plane. A 3 x 3 multiview display is selected so that all 9 modes are shown on screen. Select the Natural Frequency solver. Solve for 9 modes and activate the Sturm check. Set Mass Participation with the participation direction vector as Vx=1, Vy=Vz=0 - that is global movement is in the X direction only. Once solved, you should got the following information in the Results Log file.

The Sturm Check reports that all modes within the frequency range are found. The Mass Participation summary reports that the total mass participation factor is 99.499% indicating almost all the of the mass is active by using 9 modes. The individual contribution of every mode is listed. Scanning through the list, it can be seen that the 8th mode has zero contribution. The mode shape of this mode can be examined by looking at the Straus7 natural frequency result and plotting the mode shapes.

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Mode shapes of a vertical bar From the figure of the mode shapes, it can be seen that the 8th mode is an axial extension mode or vertical movement which is irrelevant to X direction movement, hence the mass participation factor is zero. Looking back at the mode participation report, it can be seen that by only using the first 4 modes, a very good result may be obtained as these modes have the greatest contribution to the total mass participation factor. By only choosing the first 4 modes over 90% of the mass is included, hence the solution time for mode superposition can be reduced by only including these modes. This is one of the major advantages of using mode superposition method, in that a few modes are often sufficient to obtain an accurate result.

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Discussion: The Use of Symmetry in Natural Frequency Analysis


Introduction
When modelling symmetric structures it is common practice to reduce the size of the model by using the principle of symmetry. Appropriate freedom conditions are applied on the plane of symmetry so that half of the structure modelled behaves as though it is still attached to the other half of the structure. The nature of a symmetry boundary condition means that a structure must deform symmetrically about the plane of symmetry. This normally means that in addition to the structural geometry being symmetric, the loading must also be symmetric. Whilst most analysts are comfortable with the concept of symmetry in linear static problems, experience shows that this is not necessarily the case with regard to natural frequency and buckling analysis (note that the equations solved for linear buckling analysis are basically the same as those solved for natural frequency analysis). Symmetric half models can be used for buckling and natural frequency analysis but this is not as straightforward as it is for linear static analysis. A symmetry model with symmetric boundary conditions will yield the symmetric buckling and vibration modes only. To obtain the anti-symmetric modes it is necessary to run the model a second time with anti-symmetric boundary conditions applied to the geometric symmetry plane of the structure. For very large models it may be better to use the symmetry approach, since running the half model twice will usually be faster than running the full model once. Anti-symmetric boundary conditions are simply the opposite of symmetric conditions - any degrees of freedom that are fixed in the symmetric case become free in the anti-symmetric case. Those that are free in the symmetry case, become fixed in the anti-symmetry case.

Example
The following example consists of a simple portal frame with dimensions (in metres) as shown. The model uses Structural Steel as the material property and BHP - Universal Beam 530UB92.4 as the section. Three models are constructed: the full model, a symmetric model and an anti-symmetric model.

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The table contains the natural frequencies whilst the figures show the first 10 modes.
Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Full Model 9.567 45.78 81.534 90.973 146.334 150.701 154.025 169.834 188.927 219.643 Symmetric Model Anti-symmetric Model 9.567 45.78

81.534 90.973 146.334 150.701 154.025 169.834 188.927 219.643

Full Model

Symmetry Model

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Anti-Symmetry Model

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Stress Stiffening Effects on Frequency


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Investigate the effects of stiffening on the natural frequency of a structure.

Problem Description
An aluminum (alloy 6063 T6) circular membrane of radius a = 381 mm, thickness t = 0.254 mm is simply supported along its edge and is subjected to an in-plane radial pre-stress of 68.971125 MPa. Determine the first 3 axisymmetric natural frequencies of lateral vibration of the membrane. Model the membrane using the axisymmetric 8 node plate elements. Use 20 elements as shown in the figure.

Modelling Procedure
Create a new model and set the units to Nmm. Create a beam 0.254mm long in the Y direction. Extrude this beam to a total length of 381mm in 20 steps. Ensure that the beams are converted to Quad8 elements, via the appropriate setting in the Targets tab. Apply the restraints shown in the Problem Description section. Set the plate property as Axisymmetric and use Aluminium Alloy 6063T6 as the material type. Apply the pre-stress as a tensile edge stress on the outer edge of the membrane. Run the Linear Static solver.

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Run the Natural Frequency solver to calculate for 4 modes of the structure without preload. Results should appear as shown. Record the frequencies in the table below.

Run the Natural Frequency solver again, this time include the effect of the preload. Do this by using the linear static results as the initial condition, as shown. Record the results in tabular form.

Results

Mode
1 2 3

Theory
160.5 368.4 577.7

Straus7 without Preload

Straus7 with Preload

Note that a circular disc such as this will exhibit many other frequency modes that are not axisymmetric. In this model, those modes have been ignored.

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Discussion: Damping in finite element analysis


Introduction
Damping is a term used for the measure of the energy loss in a dynamic system. There are many mechanisms responsible for damping, e.g. material damping, friction at contact surfaces, etc. In Straus7, damping is represented by different linear damping models. Three models are available: Rayleigh damping, modal damping and the viscous damping matrix models. In addition, an effective modal damping coefficient can be calculated by defining a material damping ratio at the element level. This last option is useful for determining the overall damping ratio of a system composed of parts with different damping characteristics.

Viscous Damping
The viscous damping model uses the following expression to calculate the element damping matrix:

Ce =
where

Ve

N N dV

N Ve

- Material viscous damping coefficient with the units of force/velocity per unit volume; - Element shape function matrix; and - Element volume domain.

The global damping matrix is obtained by assembling all element damping matrices. The element damping matrix can come from the viscous damping coefficient assigned to the element properties, as shown in the dialog box below, or in the case of a spring element, it can come from the damper coefficient. This type of damping is only relevant to the Full System Transient solvers (both Linear and Nonlinear). To activate the viscous damping contribution for all but the spring elements, you need to select the option Viscous on the Added Damping settings on the solver dialog (as shown).

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For spring-damper elements, the damping part (the so-called discrete damper) is always assembled, irrespective of the setting of the Added Damping option.

Rayleigh Damping
Rayleigh damping, also known as proportional damping, assumes that the damping matrix is a linear combination of the stiffness and mass matrices:

C = M + K
where and are proportional constants. One of the important advantages of Rayleigh damping model is that, like the stiffness and mass matrices, the damping matrix C can be turned into a diagonal matrix by the normal mode shape matrix . Therefore the general dynamic equilibrium equation with Rayleigh damping can be de-coupled into independent equations by the modal transformation matrix , so that the mode superposition technique is applicable. Due to this property, Rayleigh damping is most commonly used in finite element analysis. The two constants and

and

are often determined by using two values of the damping ratio(

2 ) at two chosen frequencies ( 1 and 2 ) according to the following formula:

1 - + - -- = - 2
Explicitly and are given by:

2 1 2 ( 2 1 1 2 ) = -----------------------------------------------------2 2 1 2

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2 ( 1 1 2 2 ) = --------------------------------------2 2 1 2

Damping ratio for Rayleigh damping Usually 1 and 2 are chosen such that they cover the whole frequency range of interest, with

1 being the lowest and 2 the highest frequency.


To define Rayleigh damping, a user can input values of alternatively input

and

, or

and

at two frequency points. Rayleigh

damping can be applied to harmonic, spectral and transient solvers.

Modal Damping
Modal damping is defined in mode space. It can be assigned independently for each vibration mode. In Straus7, modal damping is input in the form of a damping ratio value is c

i . So the damping

i = 2 i ni .

Modal damping can provide a better damping approximation to the structure as different damping values can be assigned to each mode. Consider the case where the analysed structure is composed of different materials that when combined together deliver different damping properties per vibration mode (natural frequency). For example, an FE model of a concrete structure sitting on a soil foundation may contain two groups of modes: modes where the movement is dominated by the structural deformation of the concrete and modes where the concrete structure moves as a rigid body on the soil foundation. In this case, the concrete deformation modes would have a low damping ratio say 5% and the rigid body modes would have a higher damping ratio of say 10% 20%. Another advantage of modal damping is that it is easy to correlate it with experimental results, allowing the evaluation of damping properties from actual test data.

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Modal damping can be used with any Straus7 solver that uses Modal Superposition. This includes the harmonic and spectral solvers and the linear transient dynamic solver with the Superposition option.

Use of modal damping involves the specification of the frequency file along with mode damping coefficients.

Effective Damping Coefficients


If a material damping ratio is defined at the element level, then an effective modal damping coefficient can be calculated based on the material damping ratio. This effective damping coefficient can be used in the spectral, harmonic response or transient solvers. The effective modal damping coefficient is computed according to the following formula (Japan Road Association, 1990):

where

( j ) DC j ( K e ) ( j ) i j i

=1 DC i = j ----------------------------------------------------------T i K i

( j )
K DCj

i j

- Mode shape vector of element j of i-th mode -Stiffness matrix of element j - Global stiffness matrix - Damping ratio of element j

( Ke )

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Notes About Damping


1. Damping exists in almost all real structures although its mechanism is often not clear. Damping can be due to internal friction in the material, Coulomb friction in connection, resistance from surrounding media of the structure (e.g air or oil in bearings) and so on. 2. Damping dissipates energy and causes the amplitude of free vibration to decay with time. The function of damping is critical nearer the natural frequencies of the structure because around a natural frequency, the stiffness force and inertia force tend to cancel each other, leaving only the damping force to balance the external force. Without damping, theoretically the response of a structure will become infinite when the forcing frequency is equal to a natural frequency of the structure. 3. Often damping is small for most structures. The following typical/reference values of damping ratio are mentioned: from 0.02 for piping systems to about 0.07 for bolted structures and reinforced concrete (Cook, 1995); from 0.1 to 0.3 for foundation structures of bridges (Japan Road Association, 1990). The following table provides typical damping ratios:

Type of Construction
steel frame welded connections flexible walls steel frame welded connections normal floors exterior cladding steel frame bolted connections normal floors exterior cladding concrete frame flexible internal walls concrete frame flexible internal walls exterior cladding concrete frame concrete or masonry shear walls concrete or masonry shear wall wood frame and shear wall

0.02

0.05

0.10 0.05

0.07 0.10 0.10 0.15

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Discussion: Harmonic Response Analysis


Examples
Rotating machinery on concrete structure. Plastic fan housing. Reciprocating engine mounting.

Background
The Harmonic Response solver calculates the maximum values of a dynamic response of a structural model due to harmonic loading. The harmonic loads act with identical frequencies and arbitrary phase angles. In addition to the nodal displacement and velocity, the solver is able to recover the maximum values of nodal acceleration, reactions, element stresses and phase angles.

Introduction
The Harmonic Response solver calculates the maximum values of a linear elastic steady state dynamic response. The structural system is subjected to a set of harmonic forces F(t) with identical frequencies and different phase angles .

F(t) = F sin (t + )

F time t

Structure

2/

Harmonic Loading The response is calculated for a set of forcing frequencies, evenly distributed over a user defined frequency range. If some of the natural frequencies of the structure are within the forcing frequency range an additional forcing frequency will be introduced, identical to the natural frequency. This ensures that resonant response is captured. Furthermore, two additional points are introduced automatically at the half-power points for each natural frequency. The external forces may be applied on the model in the load cases, in the same manner as the Linear Static solver. All load cases are assumed to define a single loading condition. All loads contained in a single load case (e.g. point forces, moments, pressure, etc.) act with the same phase angle and vary as functions of time in a sinusoidal fashion. The loads from different load cases act with the same frequency, but can have different amplitudes and different phase angles. Upon the initial application of loading, the structure will initially vibrate in a random manner, often referred to as a transient stage. After the initial period all the points of the structure will vibrate in a sinusoidal fashion with a frequency identical to the forcing frequency , but with different
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amplitudes and different phase angles. This part of the response is known as the steady state stage. The Harmonic Response solver calculates the maximum values of the steady state response, i.e. the amplitudes of the sinusoidal steady state response.

For each forcing frequency step an envelope of the maximum values of the response is given in the results. It is important to note that these maxima will not occur simultaneously; generally each will occur at different times, out of phase with the others.

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

-0.1

-0.2

transient stage
-0.3

steady state stage

The applied harmonic load can act with different frequencies, given as frequency steps on a frequency range sweep. Each frequency step is treated as an individual loading condition and it is solved separately. All the results are available for each frequency step. Nodal displacement, velocity and acceleration may be displayed graphically for the whole frequency range. In addition, it is also possible to assign a table of load factor vs frequency which then factors the amplitude of the harmonic load at each step. This is useful for modelling situations such as a machine vibrating due to an out-of-balance load whose amplitude increases with frequency. Natural frequency analysis must be performed prior to any harmonic analysis. The Harmonic Response solver uses the most recent results from the natural frequency analysis to perform a mode superposition. If the model is modified in any way a new natural frequency analysis must be performed. Once the natural frequency analysis is carried out many runs of the Harmonic Response solver may be performed.

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The number of modes included in the analysis will influence the accuracy of the results. The method used for calculation of the maximum response is based on superposition of the modal responses. A greater number of modes included in the analysis will provide results of greater accuracy.

Basic Theory Review


The total force acting on one particular node is a summation of the forces from all load cases:

F (t ) = Fi sin( t + i )
i =1

where: F(t) - total force on one node, time dependent t - time Fi - force amplitude from load case i
i-

phase angle of the forces from load case i

n - total number of load cases

- forcing frequency, identical for all load cases


For calculation of the maximum response the Mode Superposition approach is applied. The maximum response and the phase angle for each mode is calculated by the following expressions: x(t) = A sin ( t + )

A=

F ( 1 2 ) 2 +( 2 ) 2 K

1 / 2

2 = tan 1 1
where: x(t)- modal response, time dependent A- amplitude of the modal response F- modal force K- modal stiffness

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- forcing frequency
-

phase angle of the modal response ratio between forcing frequency and natural frequency modal damping ratio

The response of the full structure is calculated by superposition of the modal responses considering the phase angles, the sign and the magnitude of the modal responses with respect to time. Superposition of three modal responses is shown in the figure below:

2 .5 2 1 .5 1 0 .5 0 -0 .5 -1 -1 .5 -2 -2 .5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Superposition of Modal Response The maximum response of the displacements, reactions and element stresses is identified analytically by a closed form solution. The only approximation is the finite number of modes used in the analysis. When a sufficient number of modes is used, the Harmonic Response solver can provide an almost exact solution. If all modes for a given model are included, then the exact solution for that model is obtained.

Results
Before considering any results the log file (extension: 'HRL') should be reviewed. Most of the global input parameters and input panel settings are listed. Also all warning messages should be examined carefully. For each frequency step the nodal displacements, velocities, and accelerations are calculated as well as displacement phase angles. Reactions and element stresses are only calculated when requested by the user. All the results, for any frequency step can be shown separately, in a similar manner to the results for a linear static solution. Also, the maximum displacements, velocities, accelerations and displacement phase angles over the entire frequency range can be presented graphically for any node. The results of the analysis are absolute maximum envelope values of the steady state dynamic response. The maximum values do not occur at the same time. Consequently the results do not present an equilibrium state of the structure and they do not correspond to each other. For instance the maximum displacement results do not correspond to the maximum stress results. The stress at one particular point is just the maximum value which occurred at that particular point during the steady state stage of the dynamic response. Unlike other results, the fibre stresses in beams and principal stresses in bricks are not the maxima that occur during the dynamic response. The values for beam fibre stresses and brick
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principal stresses are calculated from the maximum components. For instance, the beam fibre stresses are calculated from the maximum M (bending moment) and maximum N (axial force). But, the maximum M and N may not have occurred at the same time during the response, and the signs of M and N are unknown. Similarly, the brick principal stresses are calculated from the maximum components of stresses, and these may not have occurred at the same time, and their signs are unknown. The Straus7 Harmonic Response solver calculates an exact solution for the number of modes used in the analysis. The solution considers the sign and the phase angle of all included modal responses. When a sufficient number of modes is used, the results are usually of very high accuracy. In some cases, when the structure has many local modes, even 100 mode shapes may not provide a sufficient mass participation (see the section on Mass Participation Factor). In this case the results may underestimate significantly the real behaviour of the structure. It should be considered that the overall response is a summation of the modal responses, and that the structure is represented by a finite number of modes. The contribution of different modes is related to applied loads. The figure below shows the first two mode shapes of a simple structure and the load. The shape of the modes indicates that the first mode will be excited by the load, but not the second one because the load is at the position where the mode shape component is zero. So, the participation for the first mode will be relatively high (70%), while the participation of the second mode will be relatively low (2%).

70%

2%

M ode 1

M o d e 2.

L o ad

Mode Participation The phase angle of the nodal displacements indicates the time delay of the nodal vibration with respect to the forcing frequency. For each frequency step all the forces are acting on the structure with that frequency. All the nodes vibrate with that frequency, but in different phases.

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Discussion: The Mode Superposition Method


Introduction
Three of the Straus7 solvers use or have the option to use the mode superposition solution technique. These are the Transient Dynamics, Harmonic Response and the Spectral Response solvers.

Basic Theory
The mode superposition method uses the mode shape vectors calculated by the natural frequency solver to transform the dynamic equilibrium equation into mode space. The response of each mode to the forcing function is calculated and the results for all modes are superimposed to get the complete response of the structure. The motion equilibrium equation of a structure under dynamic loading is expressed as:

MU ( t ) + CU ( t ) + KU ( t ) = P ( t )
Normally equation (1) represents a set of coupled equations. The mode superposition method

(1)

solves the above equations by first de-coupling them using the mode shape vectors , which are obtained by natural frequency analysis, then solving the de-coupled equations in the modal space independently and then finally combining the solutions in the modal space to produce the solution to equation (1). The nodal displacement vector U(t) can be expressed in terms of mode shape vectors as:

U ( t ) = q ( t ) = q 1 ( t ) 1 + q 2 ( t ) 2 + q N ( t ) N
where q(t) represents the generalised coordinates (also referred to as principal coordinates or modal coordinates) in the modal space, N is the total degrees of freedom in the FE model. Substituting (2) into (1) and pre-multiplying the obtained equation by

(2)

yields:

T ( t ) + T C q ( t ) + T K q ( t ) = T P ( t ) Mq or

(3)

( t ) + cq ( t ) + kq ( t ) = F ( t ) mq

(4)

where m, c and k are the modal mass, modal damping and modal stiffness matrices, F(t) is the modal load vector. Matrices m and k are diagonal. For Rayleigh damping and modal damping, c is diagonal as well. The elements, mii, kii and cii (i=1, 2,..., N), of matrices m, k and c are called modal mass, modal stiffness and modal damping respectively. For a mode shape matrix normalized with respect to the global mass matrix (often referred to as a mathematical mode shape matrix), the
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corresponding modal mass mii is equal to 1. If the mode shape matrix is scaled so that the maximum element of each mode vector is equal to 1 (referred to as the engineering mode shape matrix), the corresponding modal mass mii is called engineering modal mass. Straus7 can report this engineering modal mass if required. If matrices m, k and c are diagonal, equation (4) can be expressed as N independent equations (N is the total number of mode shape vectors used in the transformation matrix):

m i qi ( t ) + ci q i ( t ) + k i qi ( t ) = Fi ( t )
If the mode shape matrix

i=1,2,..., N

(5)

is normalised with respect to the global mass matrix, that is:

1 0 0 T m = M = 0 1 0 0 0 1
then

(6)

1 0 0 k = K =
T

0 2 0 0 0 N
2

(7)

with

is the natural frequency of mode i.

Using equations (6) and (7), (5) can be written as:

2 q i ( t ) + 2 i ni q i ( t ) + ni q i ( t ) = F i ( t ) where

(8)

i = c i ( 2 ni )
is the modal damping ratio. (Note: In (9), mi=1 is used. For a single degree of freedom springmass-dashpot system with parameters k, m, c, the damping ratio, also referred to as damping factor or viscous damping factor, is expressed as

(9)

= c ( 2 m n )

with

n =

km

).

The damping factor represents a ratio between the damping value of the dashpot and the critical damping value of the system designated by c cr = 2 m n = 2 km . = 1 is known as critical damping, a point separating the overdamped case and the underdamped case of the system.)

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Solving the N independent differential equations expressed by (5) or (8) then substituting the solution

qi ( t )

into equation (2) yields the solution U(t) for equation (1).

When using a solver based on the mode superposition method, it is very important that the number of modes used in the solution be sufficient to capture the response caused by a particular excitation. In the majority of problems the response is characterised by the first couple of modes. In such cases only a couple of modes are needed in the solution. There are however some problems where this generalisation does not hold true. If the loading contains high frequency components then some of the higher modes may contribute significantly to the response. For example with impacts or blasts, the loading can be of a very high frequency and it is important that the higher frequency modes be included. This means that the impact frequency of the loading should be calculated and all the natural frequencies in the range up to and including the impact frequency also included in the analysis. For spectral analyses involving a seismic spectrum or other broad band excitation, sufficient modes should be included to ensure that all the natural frequencies of the structure within the range of the excitation are included in the analysis. Similarly when using the harmonic and transient solvers, all the modes up to a frequency above the excitation frequency should be included. Deciding on the number of modes to include in a solution by the magnitude of the frequencies alone is not always a reliable criteria. The actual shape of the modes must also be considered. Consider for instance an analysis being carried out to determine the effect of vertical vibrations on an instrumentation rack. The lower modes of these sorts of structures are typically swaying or bending modes. The vertical modes, involving flexing of the shelves and axial excitation of the columns, are usually the higher modes. It is also important to ensure that a sufficient number of modes is included in the analysis to represent the behaviour of the structure in the direction of the excitation. This may require the inclusion of modes with frequencies significantly above the excitation frequency. An indicator is used to assist in assessing whether a sufficient number of modes has been included. This is the mass participation factor. For further details of this see the section on Mass Participation Factor.

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Rotating Out-of-Balance Mass


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the harmonic response solver in combination with the Natural Frequency solver. Use Rayleigh damping.

Problem Description
The response of a structure to a rotating out-of-balance load is a common problem in structural dynamics. In this example we calculate the maximum response and stresses in a mine ventilation fan support structure. The centre of mass of the fan blades is offset eccentrically 3 mm from the spindle axis and the fan is spinning at 540 RPM (9 Hz or 56.5487 radians/sec). The fan is in a horizontal plane with a vertical axis of rotation. The rotating out-of-balance force is the centrifugal force arising from the rotation of the centre of mass of the fan on a radius of 3 mm from the rotation axis. This is calculated using the equation: F = mr 2 = 10000 * 0.003 * 56.54872 = 95932.6 N. This force is applied to the structure as a rotating force vector acting in the radial direction.

Modelling Procedure
The FEA model consists of the fan housing as shown: Create a new file and set the units to Nmm. Create a plate support structure out of three plates. Each plate is 5x5 m and the three plates form an open box. Subdivide the plates 10x10. Create a node centred 3m above the plate support structure top. Create four beams from this node to the top of the plate support structure. Set the beam and plate properties to use Structural Steelwork as the material. Assign CHS 219.1 x 3.0 (in the CHS (350 grade) OD above 100 mm section folder) as the beam section type. Assign the plates a thickness of 30 mm.
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Fully fix the base of the plate support structure. Assign a nodal translational mass of 10 000 kg to the top centre node to represent the weight of the fan. Create two load cases: In the first, assign a nodal force of 95 932.6 N to the centre node to represent the out-of-balance force of the fan; in the second, assign the same magnitude force 90 degrees from the 1st applied load in the horizontal plane. Run the natural frequency solver to determine the first 12 modes.

Natural Frequency Results

Natural Frequency Results for 12 modes

Harmonic Response Solver


The Harmonic Response solver applies a sinusoidal variation of each load case. The force will vary from + to - over the specified frequency range. The direction of the force does not change. In order to simulate a rotating force vector we need to apply two load cases (Load Case 1 and Load Case 2), both are point forces equal to the centrifugal force but the directions are 90 degrees to one another. Both forces are in the plane of the rotation. The harmonic solver will apply a vector summation of these two load cases. If load case 1 is applied 90 degrees out of phase with load case 2, load case 1 will be maximum when load case 2 is zero and vice versa. The vector summation of these two forces will then be a rotating vector.

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Setup the Harmonic Response solver as shown

For the Frequency File choose the natural frequency file from the previous solution

Specify the load cases as shown to apply the load cases out of phase with each other. Specify the Rayleigh damping to span the 12 natural frequency modes to be considered along with a damping ratio of 0.05.

Results
Obtain the peak displacement response at the point where the force is applied. Also determine the maximum tensile principal stress ( 11 ) in the support structure.

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Frame on a Shaker Table


Introduction
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Harmonic Response solver. Use a base acceleration to model a vibrating base load. Use modal damping.

Problem Description
A common test in experimental dynamics involves mounting a component on a shaker table and accelerating it back and forth at a particular frequency or over a range of frequencies. These sorts of tests are used to determine the displacement response, resonant frequencies of the structure (by looking for the peak responses) or often as a fatigue endurance test. The Straus7 Harmonic Response solver can be used to model this sort of test and can calculate the stresses and deflections due to any base acceleration harmonic loading. Often finite element modelling is used in conjunction with test results to refine and develop components. In this example we calculate the maximum response and stresses in an instrumentation rack. The frame of the rack is constructed using a 25 x 25 x 3 square hollow section and the shelving is 3 mm plating.

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Model Setup
The mass of the instruments is included as lumped masses applied at the points where the instruments attach to the shelves. This approach assumes that the actual instruments themselves do not contribute any stiffness to the structure. The feet of the frame are modelled as a pinned connection. The loading is applied as a global base acceleration in the X direction. The acceleration is 1.25g (enter as 1.25*9810 in the X-Direction factor). The harmonic solver assumes that this is applied sinusoidally over the frequency range specified in the Harmonic Response solver dialog. The specified acceleration is the amplitude of the sinusoidal acceleration.

Modelling Procedure
Create a new file and set the units to Nmm. Create two nodes at (0,0,0) and (500 mm,0,0). Copy the two nodes by Y=500 mm. Extrude all four nodes by Z=500 mm. Connect a Quad4 element at the top of the four beams. Subdivide the plate into 9x9 Quad4.

Select all plates and click Tools/Tesselate/Lines and tesselate a perimeter of beams around the plates. Subdivide the columns by 3. Copy all plates and beams by Z=500 mm.

Assign the plates the correct material properties and a thickness of 3 mm. Assign the beams the correct material properties and a 25 mm x 25 mm x 3 mm thick square hollow section.

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Assign pinned restraints to the tables footings. Assign 4x 2 kg translational masses to the top shelf and 2x 10 kg masses to the lower shelf. Use Attributes/Node/Translational Mass. Run the natural frequency solver to calculate the first 12 natural frequencies (use lumped mass).

Harmonic Response Solver Setup


In the Harmonic Response Analysis dialog box, specify that the Load Type is to be a Base Acceleration. Set the Direction Vector to X=12262.5. Set the Damping to Modal. Set the frequency range to cover the majority of modes and ensure that a suitable number of steps is specified.

Note: The direction factor specifies both the magnitude and the direction of the base acceleration. To apply a base acceleration of 1.25g, enter the direction vector as X=1.25x9810 (where units are consistent with the model).

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Click Frequency Files and specify that all modes are to be included with a Damping Ratio set to 0.05 for each mode.

Results
Plot a graph of the DX response at the node indicated (top corner). Find the peak response and identify the range of excitation frequencies where a resonant response occurs. Note that resonance does not occur for all modes - only those modes with dominant motion in the direction of the excitation (X). Note that the response given by the Straus7 harmonic solver includes both the amplitude and the phase. You can plot graphs of phase similarly to graphs of displacement. When plotting graphs of displacement, it may easier to interpret the results by using the graph option the absolute Y values.
Strand7 M axim um Response D x (at node indicated)

which plots

Additional Work
Investigate the stresses in the structure for the frequency step where resonance occurs. Are these stresses high enough to cause fatigue if the endurance limit of the steel is 100 MPa? What is the effect of resonance on the stresses? That is, how much higher are the stresses at resonance compared to the stresses at other non-resonant frequencies. Another useful exercise is to evaluate the effect of varying the damping ratio. You should find that the results are sensitive to damping ratio near the resonant frequencies. Away from the resonant frequency, the damping ratio should have minimal effect.

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Discussion: Mass Matrix Formulation - Consistent vs Lumped


Introduction
In the Defaults tab of the solver dialogue box, you can specify whether to use Lumped or Consistent mass formulations.

What is a Mass Matrix ?


Mass matrices are used to provide a discrete mass approximation for a structure where the mass distribution is continuous. This means that the continuously distributed mass within an element is approximated by lumping a certain amount of mass at each of the nodal points. The mass matrix specifies how much mass is lumped onto each node.

Mass Matrix Formulations


Straus7 supports two different formulations for the mass matrix that are commonly used in finite element analysis systems - the consistent mass and the lumped mass approximations.

Lumped Mass Matrix


The simplest representation of the distributed mass within a structure is the lumped mass approximation. In the lumped mass approach the mass within each element is assumed to be lumped onto each of the nodes such that the sum of the nodal masses associated with the translational degrees of freedom for each global direction equals the total mass of the element. Usually only the translational inertia effects are included. There is no rotational inertia and no mass coupling between the different degrees of freedom. This results in a diagonal matrix like that shown below for a simple two dimensional beam element.

1 0 [m ]= m 2 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

For a bar element the lumped mass matrix is intuitive and simple. In the above example the total mass of the element is divided by 2 and the resulting mass is lumped onto the nodes at each end of the element. Note that each degree of freedom at each node has the same mass assigned. For continuum type elements such as plate and brick elements, the mass matrix cannot be obtained by using such simple intuitive methods and more refined methods must be used. In the simplest case the lumped mass matrix for a regular plate with 90 degree corners or a similarly regular brick is obvious. For a square 4 node plate, 1/4 of the total mass is lumped onto each corner node. For most real structures the elements are distorted and therefore the mass matrix is

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no longer intuitive - different amounts of mass will have to be lumped onto each of the corner nodes. It gets even more complicated when we consider higher order quadratic elements. The lumped mass matrix is commonly used because of its simplicity. The lumped mass matrix is quicker to assemble and requires less storage space compared with a consistent matrix. The lumped mass approximation will generally produce a lower level of accuracy than the consistent mass. This is particularly true if there are significant nodal rotations in the dynamic response such as those that occur in flexural problems. Errors associated with the use of the lumped mass approximation can be greatly reduced with mesh refinement so that the lumped approach is normally the more viable one.

Consistent Mass Matrix


The most accurate method of discretisation of the mass in a continuum is to use the consistent mass matrix. With this approach, the mass matrix is derived by using the same integrations as are used in deriving the stiffness matrix so that the mass matrix is consistent with the element shape functions. The consistent mass matrix is the same shape as the stiffness matrix and includes off diagonal terms. It therefore considers the effect of mass coupling between the different degrees of freedom and the effect of the rotational inertia. The consistent mass matrix for the simple two dimensional beam of mass m, is shown below:

156 m 22L [M ] = 420 54 13L

13L 3L2 13L 156 22L 3L2 22L 4L2 22L 4L2 54 13L

The calculation for a consistent mass matrix, based on the element shape functions integrated over volume of the element is as follows:

[N]

[ N ] dV

where = element density, N= shape function, V = volume

Additional Notes
For most finite element models, the lumped mass matrix approach, which generates a diagonal mass matrix in Straus7, is a reliable option offering very good results, particularly for the low order modes. Higher order modes will usually exhibit errors of 10% or more compared with a consistent mass solution. This is illustrated in a number of exercises in this course. Although the diagonal (lumped) approach is the default option in Straus7, some models need the consistent (full) mass matrix to correctly model the mass. This includes offset beams and offset plates, rotational mass at nodes and translational mass assigned to nodes that only connect links (ie. rigid links, but not elements). Whenever the Straus7 solver encounters one of these situations, and you have chosen the lumped mass option, the entries in the mass matrix for those elements/nodes requiring a consistent (full) mass matrix are automatically expanded. Therefore, the correct influence of the offset mass is obtained, even when lumped mass is selected.
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Discussion: Transient Dynamics


Examples
Impact loading and drop tests. Time history loading. Response of a structure suddenly released from a loaded condition.

Background
The Transient Dynamic solver can be used to solve the following equation in the time domain:
[ M ] { x } + [ C ] { x } + [ K ] [ x ] = { F t }

where:
[M]

= Mass Matrix [ C] = Damping Matrix = Stiffness Matrix [ K] = Nodal Acceleration Vector {x} {x} = Nodal Velocity Vector {x} = Nodal Displacement Vector { F ( t ) } = Time Dependent Nodal Force Vector
To solve this equation, a direct integration method or modal superposition method is used whereby the conditions at time t are assumed to be known and are required after a discrete time step, Dt.

Direct Integration - Full System


This method generally gives good accuracy provided the time step is sufficiently small. Ref [1] recommends a time step 0.1 to 0.2 times the period of the structure (i.e. five to ten steps per period). The method will fail if the time step is too large. With the full system analysis, it is not necessary to perform a natural frequency analysis if the appropriate time step is known. If the period of the structure is not known, a natural frequency analysis should be run first to find the time step. For loads that are varying at a faster rate, the time step may be dictated by the need to accurately capture the load history.

Mode Superposition - General


Mode Superposition is an approximate method which analyses a reduced structural model. The structural system is approximated with several independent single degree of freedom systems. Each single degree of freedom system corresponds to one natural frequency and related mode shape of the full system. The dynamic response is calculated in two stages. The first stage involves frequency analysis. One or more mode shapes and corresponding frequencies must be calculated. Then the Mode Superposition solver will calculate the dynamic response of the model by summation of all available modal responses. The Mode Superposition solver uses the most
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recent results from the frequency analysis. Once the frequency analysis is completed many runs of the Mode Superposition solver may be performed. If any modification of the model is made a new frequency analysis must be performed prior to any Mode Superposition analysis.

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Modelling Moving Loads


Outlines
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Transient Dynamic solver. Use Factor vs Time tables to apply a specified force history. Create an animation of a bridge vibrating due to a moving load.

Problem Description
In this example we consider the problem of a car driving across a bridge. The bridge is modelled as a simple square hollow section (2 m x 2 m x 0.12 m) with the material properties shown. The car is traveling at a constant 100 km/h (27.77 m/s). Knowing this we can calculate the position of the car at any point in time or more importantly we can calculate the time when the car reaches each point on the bridge. To simulate the moving load a series of point loads are applied along the length of the beam. Each of these is equal to the static weight of the car - 9810 N. Each force must be turned on only when the car is in the vicinity of the node to which the load is applied. This means that when the car is within half the length of the beam elements either side of a node, the load is applied to that node. Only one of the forces is actually applied to the structure at any time. Each force is a different load case, which means that it can be factored independently of all other forces by a load vs time table. There are 11 load cases and corresponding to each one of these there is a load vs. time table. The load vs time table for each applied load is a step input. The table that is applicable turns the load on at the point in time when the car is mid way between the present node and the previous node and turns the
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load off when the car is midway between the present node and the next node. Zero time is assumed to be when the car drives onto the right hand side of the bridge. If the load tables are superimposed over one another then it can be seen that the structure is continuously loaded and that the load moves from one node to another.

Modelling Procedure
Create a new file and set the units to Nmm. Create a beam from the origin to X=20000mm. Subdivide the beam into 10. Fully fix one end and set a roller condition on the other. Set the global freedom case as 2D Beam. Assign the beam the material properties and a square hollow section. Apply 9 point loads in 9 separate load cases. Note that a point load applied to a fixed node will be ignored. Hence, ignore LC1 and LC11 in the previous figure. Create 9 Factor vs Time tables (Tables/Factor vs Time) for a 3 second time history.

Solver Setup
Run the Linear Transient solver for a 3 s time history. Use a 0.001 s timestep. Ensure that beam stresses are calculated.

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In the Load Tables dialog, assign each load case the appropriate load vs time table. Determine the maximum fibre stress and maximum deflection that occurs when the car drives over the bridge. Animate the results. As a further exercise, calculate the natural frequencies of the beam and then apply Rayleigh damping to the structure and investigate the effects of damping.

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Single Degree of Freedom System


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Model a spring/damper system. Use the Linear Transient Dynamic solver. Use the results of a linear static analysis as the input to a transient dynamic analysis.

Problem Description
In this lesson, two problems will be analysed, both involving a single degree of freedom (SDOF) system as shown. In the first, the undamped SDOF system is subjected to a harmonic base displacement of two frequencies - one at 5 rad/s, the other at the systems natural frequency. This harmonic displacement analysis is repeated for a damped system. In the second problem, the damped system is firstly applied a force and is then released. For both problems, we are interested in finding out the displacements of the single degree of freedom. The following data are given: m: lumped mass of the single degree of freedom system = 0.5 Tonne. k: axial stiffness of the spring-type element = 200 N/mm. l : spring length = 500 mm. w : frequency of the external harmonic base displacement = 5 rad/s and then 20 rad/s. Amplitude of the external harmonic base displacement = 20 mm.

SDOF with Support Excitation - Theoretical Solution


S.d.o.f. system without damping The theoretical solution is obtained by solving the following ordinary linear, second order differential equation:

mx+kx=kx g ( t )=kAsin( e t )

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The natural frequency of the system is given by:

n =

k =20rad/s m

If the external and the natural frequency are equal then the resonant response will be obtained. In this case, the displacement of the point B is harmonic but its amplitude increases linearly. Consider the case with an external frequency equal to 5 rad/s. The general solution for this case is:

x (t ) =

A [sin ( e t ) sin( n t )] 1 2

where: = -----e

S.d.o.f. system with damping In this case the equation describing the physical behaviour of the system is:

m x + c x + k x = k xg (t) = k A sin( e t)
with the following steady-state response:

1 x (t ) = A (1 2 )sin(e t ) 2 cos(e t ) 2 2 2 (1 ) + (2 )

where z is the damping ratio.

Modelling Procedure
Create a new model and set the units to Nmm. Create a node at the origin and another at Y=500mm. Create a beam between the two nodes. Select the top node and click Attributes/Node/Translational Mass to assign a mass of 0.5 T. Select the bottom node and click Attributes/Node/Restraint and assign a fully fixed restraint. Set the global freedom condition such that only translation in the Y direction is possible. Click Property/Beam and set the beam as a spring/damper with an axial stiffness of 200 N/ mm. Select the top node and click Attributes/Node/Restraint and assign a 1mm translation in the positive Y direction.

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Click Tables/Factor vs Time. Click the equation editor. Setup a sinusoidal time history with an amplitude of 20 and a frequency of 5 rad/s over a 3 s period. Use approximately 80 sampling points. Create a second table with a sinusoidal time history. This time use a frequency of 20 rad/s and use approximately 500 samping points.

Solver Setup
Use the linear transient dynamic solver. Click Load Tables and set the freedom condition to use the first Factor vs Time table such that the enforced displacement acts sinusoidally. Click Time Steps and set a 3 s time history with time steps that capture roughly 1/20th the period of the highest frequency of the system. Graph the displacements of both the top and bottom nodes.

S.d.o.f. without damping, freq=5 rad/s

Rerun the solver using the second Factor vs Time table. Graph the displacements of this result.

S.d.o.f. without damping, freq=20 rad/s

Assign a damping coefficient to the spring/damper and rerun the solver a third time using a 20 rad/s excitation frequency. The damping coefficient will be set such that it is 0.1 of critical damping. Critical damping is: cc = 2m = 2.(0.5).(20) = 20 Ns/mm

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Note that the frequency value is in (rad/s). Hence, the damping value is 0.1cc = 2 Ns/mm. Graph the displacements of this result.

SDOF with damping, freq=20 rad/s

SDOF with Non-Zero Initial Conditions


Theoretical Solution
The theoretical solution is obtained solving the following ordinary second order differential equation:

mx+cx+kx=0
with the following initial conditions:
x( t = 0) = x (t = 0) = 0 and x

where x is the displacement at the top node because of the point load applied. If we assume c to be as:

c2 mk
the solution has the following expression:

x( t )= x cos( D t )+ sin( D t )e t D
where D is the natural frequency of the damped system = 1 2

Modelling Procedure
Use the model from the previous problem. Click Attributes/Node/Restraint and fully fix the bottom node. Click Attributes/Node/Force and apply a point force of 10 kN at the top node. Click Tables/Factor vs Time and setup a table with a 1 value before the release time and 0 after that for a 4 second period.

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Solver Setup
Run the Linear Static solver. Run the Linear Transient Dynamic solver. Specify as Initial Condition the previous linear static result file (*.lsa). Use the Time Steps from the previous problem, except run for 4000 steps such that a 4 s history is recorded. In the Load Factors dialog, specify that only the first load case refers to the created table. Graph the results.

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Viscous Damping Coefficient of a Cantilever


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Determine the viscous damping coefficient of a component. Use the Linear Transient Dynamic solver. Use the Linear Static solver to obtain an initial condition for the transient solution. Use the Natural Frequency solver to determine a suitable timestep and time length for the transient solution.

Problem Description
The viscous damping coefficient of a cantilevered beam is to be calculated. This coefficient can be calculated by trial and error until the appropriate damping has been found such that the free oscillation of the beam matches what a physical beam does. Alternatively, the coefficient can be set to match known appropriate damping ratios. The Linear Transient Dynamic solver can be used to predict the rate of decay of the resulting free oscillations of the beam. By changing the viscous damping coefficient for the canitlever, the oscillation rate of decay can be modified. For this example, a critical damping ratio ( ) of 2% (nominal for a steel beam) is to be obtained. The critical damping ratio is related to the logarithmic decrement of the rate of decay as per the following equation:

An 2 = ln A = n+1 (1 2 )
Based on a of 0.02, the ratio of decrement (An/An+1) is e
( ( 2 ) ( 1 ) )
2

=e0.1257=1.134.

Modelling Procedure
Create a new file and set the units to Nmm. Create a horizontal beam, 3 m in length. Subdivide the beam into 10. Fully fix one end and apply an enforced displacement of 100 mm in the vertical direction at its tip. Set the default freedoms to 2D Beam. Assign a Structural Steel material property and a 150UB14.0 section (under BHP Universal Beams in the section library).

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The structural damping of the beam is simulated using viscous damping. Set the viscous damping coefficient as zero.

Solver Setup
The Linear Static solver is run to bring the system to an initial rest condition such that the tip of the beam is deflected by 100 mm. Remove the enforced displacement at the tip. Run the Natural Frequency solver to determine the natural frequencies of the beam. Set up the time steps such that a time history of 0.2 s is recorded. Ensure that the time step used is sufficiently small to capture the 1st mode. Based on the 1st natural frequency, 1 x 10-3 s is sufficient. Ensure that Added Damping is set to Viscous.

Results
Plot a graph of the vertical displacement of the tip. The oscillations should be undamped. Close the results and set a viscous damping close to 5 x 10-8 Ns/mm/mm3. Solve the model again using the Linear Transient Dynamic solver and view the graph.

Determine the ratio of rate of decay in the oscillation (A1/A2). If the ratio is not close to 1.134, then change the viscous damping and reiterate until a closer value is found.

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Masses Falling on Two Cantilever Beams


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Nonlinear Transient Dynamic solver. Use zero gap contact elements to model an impact problem. Use rigid links to model the thickness of beams. Use viscous damping. Use a static solution to represent the initial condition for the transient dynamic solution.

Problem Description
Two 150UB14.0 universal beams 3 000 mm in length are cantilevered and separated by a 50 mm gap. A 200 kg mass is dropped from a height of 1 000 mm on to the upper beam. The response of a 2 kg mass, initially at rest on the lower beam, is sought. The beams are sub-divided into 10 equal lengths. The default freedom condition is set to 2D beam. The 200 kg mass is represented by a beam element 150 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length (density = 5.65884 x 10-8 tonnes/ mm 3 ). The 2 kg mass is represented by a beam element 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length (density = 1.01859 x 10tonnes/ mm 3 ). Point contact elements will be used to simulate contact between masses and beams.
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Modelling Procedure
Create a new file and set the units to Nmm. Create the two beams: From (-3000,75,0) to (0,75,0) for the left beam and from (0,-125,0) to (3000,-125,0) for the right beam. Note that the vertical distance is greater than 50 mm - this is to account for the depth of the beams. Subdivide both beams into 10. Create the two masses out of beams: From (0,1225,100) to (0,1225,-100) for the 200kg mass and from (400,-25,50) to (400,-25,-50) for the 2kg mass. Subdivide both into 2. Create three point contact elements out of beams - one is required to model the gap between the two beams, the others are required to model the gap between the masses and the beams. Create a beam from (0,1150,0) to (0,150,0) for the contact between the 200kg mass and the left beam and from (0,0,0) to (0,-50,0) for the contact between the two beams. A contact element is also required to model an infinitesimally small gap between the 2kg mass and the

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right beam. Create a small contact between (400,-50,0) and (400,-49.999,0). To correctly model the thickness of the beams (and masses), use rigid links between the beams (or masses) and the contact elements. Create two freedom cases: one for an initial condition, and one for the falling load. Both cases are set to 2D Beam. Fix the ends of both cantilevers for both freedom cases. For the initial condition, completely fix the 200kg mass and allow the 2kg mass to translate in the Y direction. The second load case is identical except for allowing both masses to translate in the Y direction. Assign both the two cantilevers a Structural Steel material property and a 150UB14.0 section (under BHP Universal Beams in the section library). Assign both masses a Structural Steel material property. Both masses are represented with a solid circular section. The 200kg mass has a 150 mm diameter and the 2 kg mass has a 50 mm diameter. The density for each mass should be varied to obtain the correct mass. The 200 kg mass has a density of 5.65884 x 10-8 T/mm3, while the 2 kg mass has a density of 1.01859 x 10-8 T/mm3. All the point contact elements are set as Zero Gap and have a stiffness of 50,000 N/mm. The structural damping of the two beams is simulated using viscous damping. Set the viscous damping coefficient as 5 x 10-8 Ns/mm/mm3.

Solver Setup
Because contact elements are being used, the non-linear solvers are required. The Nonlinear Static solver is run to bring the system to an initial rest condition such that the two beams can sag. Ensure that the freedom condition used does not allow the larger mass to translate. The Nonlinear Transient Dynamic solver is then used to predict the response of the two masses using the nonlinear static solution as the initial condition.

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Ensure that the freedom condition used for the transient solve allows for the masses to translate. Set up the time steps such that a time history of 5 s is recorded. Ensure that the time step used is sufficiently small to model the impact of the falling load. Approximately 5 x 10-4 s is sufficient for this model.

Results
Create an animation and a graph of the vertical displacement of the two masses.

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Discussion: Modelling Shock Problems in Straus7


Introduction
Depending on the exact nature of the test required, a shock analysis can be performed in Straus7 using either the transient or spectral solvers. The transient solver can provide a full time history of the response of the structure to the shock. It is suited to the analysis of drop tests, tests where a pulse load is applied to the structure and base acceleration problems. The spectral solver is ideally suited to the majority of shock problems where a short pulse load or acceleration is applied to the structure. The spectral solver will only yield the maximum response of the structure, it cannot calculate the time history of the response. There are basically three types of shock test: 1. A drop test. The structure is dropped from a specified height. 2. A base acceleration applied in accordance with a specified acceleration/time history (i.e. a sinusoidal acceleration pulse). 3. A force is applied to the structure with a specified time history (i.e. a triangular pulse). Tests 1 and 2 are the most common. The following is a discussion of the methods used to model each of these test types.

Use of the Transient Solver for Modelling Drop Tests


Often design specifications require a component to survive, without damage, a drop from a certain height. This sort of problem is best handled using the Transient Dynamic solver. If a structure is dropped from a given height we can readily calculate the velocity at the instant before impact using the equation

V = 2as
where: s = drop height (m) a = gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/ s 2 .

( m/ s )

Contact elements are applied to the model at the points where it will contact the ground when dropped. Impact problems require the use of a small time step due to the rapid rates of loading. As a rough rule of thumb, use a time step equal to approximately 1/100th of the period of the mode of the structure that will be excited during the impact. If the time step is too large, the analysis will not capture the full response of the structure. In particular the higher frequency components of the response will be missed or the solution may not converge at all.

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Use of the Spectral Solver to Model Base Acceleration Problems


Spectral analysis is a method that allows the calculation of the peak response, to a specified loading. There are four different spectra types that can be used with the Straus7 spectral solver. These are the seismic acceleration, seismic velocity, seismic displacement and force spectrum methods. The first three spectra are assumed to excite the structure by movement of the base (i.e. the points where freedoms are applied). The force spectrum applies a more general spectral loading at any point on the structure. All the different spectra are used in a similar manner. The acceleration response spectra is used for most shock problems and will be considered here. There are two factors which are combined to give the spectral acceleration applied to the base of the structure: these are the spectral value and the direction factors in the solver panel. For the acceleration response spectrum the spectral acceleration applied to the model is: Spectral acceleration = (direction factor) x (spectral value) The spectral value is a function of the frequency of the structure. This is defined by a spectral curve in the Tables module. The components of the direction vector are simply factors that multiply the applied loads. They define the direction and in some cases the magnitude of the seismic acceleration and may be either normalised (in which case the magnitude of the acceleration must be factored into the spectral table) or non-normalised (which normally means that the factor includes the magnitude of the acceleration). In shock problems using the method outlined here, the magnitude of the acceleration must be included in either the spectral values (i.e. spectral table) or in the direction vector. Any global acceleration applied to the structure has no effect in a base acceleration problem. As mentioned, the spectral value is defined by a spectral curve entered as a Frequency/Period Table. This is also called the Dynamic Amplification Factor by many texts on dynamics. This factor defines a response ratio between the dynamic response and an equivalent static response when a single degree of freedom is loaded with the peak acceleration. Basically the response of the structure to a loading will depend on the ratio of the frequency of the applied load and the natural frequency of the structure. For a loading frequency much higher than the dominant frequency of the structure, the response will in general be less than the response from an equivalent static acceleration. In most impact analyses the structure is loaded with a very short pulse of high acceleration. In these cases the response of the structure will be considerably less than that which would result if a steady acceleration was applied equal to the peak acceleration during the impact.

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The calculation of the spectral value or amplification factor is covered in texts such as 'Dynamics of Structures' by Clough and Penzien. The following graph shows the spectral value as a function of the frequency ratio for a number of common impulse loading waveforms.

Equations for these curves are given in Clough and Penzien. The curves are graphed with the X axis as the frequency ratio (b = structure load ). This is the normal way of presenting this sort of data as it is independent of the frequency of the load application and the frequency (or period) of the structure. Straus7 requires the spectral table to be defined with the X axis as frequency of the structure ( structure ). Thus the X axis of the graph adjacent needs to be converted to wstructure. This is readily done once the frequency of the load application load is known. For simple examples where one mode of the structure dominates the response a constant value of spectral acceleration applicable to the dominant frequency can be used (i.e. a table with two points defining a constant spectral value). For a more general problem with say 20 frequencies contributing to the response, a spectral curve is required that covers the entire frequency range and the spectral analysis should include all of these frequencies. A spectral value will then be calculated for each of the frequencies and used to excite the corresponding mode. The responses for each of the modes are then combined to get the total response using either the CQC or SRSS methods (see Clough or the Straus7 Online Help for details of these). If the spectral curves shown in the above graph are not applicable to a particular problem you can calculate the spectral curve using a simple single degree of freedom model in Straus7. Basically the procedure is as follows: 1. Establish the loading input i.e. magnitude, period and shape of load vs time curve. 2. Establish the frequency range of interest i.e. check which modes of the structure will contribute to the response when the loading is applied. 3. For each of the frequencies of interest construct a simple single degree of freedom model such that f = (k/m). Normally this model would be a mass on a spring (beam element). If the spectral curve for an acceleration response is being determined the loading will be applied as an acceleration. 4. For each of the models carry out a full time history transient solution with the loading defined by a load vs time table. The loading in all cases should be the input established in step 1. From the transient response analysis determine the peak acceleration response. This is the spectral acceleration required by Straus7.

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5. The spectral value used in the above method is the ratio between this calculated spectral acceleration and the applied peak acceleration. 6. Plot a graph of spectral acceleration or spectral value vs the frequency of the structure and fit a curve through this. This is the spectral curve.

An alternative to steps 3 and 4 above is to solve the equation for a single degree of freedom, for the load input, directly. The equation to be solved is:
2 x ( t ) + 2 x ( t ) + x ( t ) = f ( t )

This can be solved directly for some simple load functions f(t), or numerically for more complicated functions.

Modelling Impact Loading Problems


When an impact loading is applied to a structure in some general manner such as the structure being hit at some point, both the transient and spectral solvers can be used. In both cases, a time history of the impact force must be assumed. As discussed above, the transient solver can calculate the full time history of the response of the structure to the impact. In this case, the maximum amplitude of the loading is applied to the structure. The time history of this load is defined by the input of a load vs time table. This table is linked to the appropriate load case in the transient solver panel. The transient solver is run, once again using a very small time step to capture the response. A faster method for this sort of analysis is to use the Spectral Solver with a load spectra. The procedure is very similar to that discussed above for base acceleration problems except that the solver assumes that the loading is applied at some point other than the base. The spectra is derived as described above and in most cases the standard spectra defined in Penzien & Clough can be used. The amplitude of load would be entered as a point force. The spectral curve will define the spectral value as a function of frequency. Note that in this case the loading is applied to the model as point forces and accelerations etc. It is not included in the spectral table or the direction vector as is the case with the base acceleration problems.

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Shock Qualification of an Instrumentation Frame


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Linear Transient Dynamic solver. Assign an Acceleration vs Time table to model a shock load.

Problem Description
A shock test will be performed on the instrumentation frame used for the Harmonic Response example. The frame will be subjected to a double half sinusoidal impulse with a peak shock loading of 20g. The shock will be applied as a base acceleration in the actual shock test.

Modelling Procedure
Open the model of the instrumentation frame. Define a shock spectrum which corresponds to a double half sinusoidal impulse with a duration of 0.03 seconds. For 0-0.01 seconds, use: sin(2*50x); for 0.01-0.03 seconds, use: 0.5sin(2*25x+/2). Click Tables/Acceleration vs Time and use the equation editor as shown: The Acceleration vs Time graph should appear as shown:

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Solver Setup
Solve using the Linear Transient Dynamic solver. Use Rayleigh damping and only calculate Node Velocity, Node Acceleration and Beam Force/Stress to minimise solution time.

Setup Rayleigh Damping to span a range of frequencies most likely to be excited by the shock - in this case, from 10-50 Hz. Set both damping ratios as 0.02.

Set up the Base Acceleration as shown. Note that the direction vector multiplies the data in the Shock Spectrum Acceleration vs Time table such that a 20g maximum loading is applied in the X direction.

Set up 400 steps for a total of 2 seconds, saving every step.

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Results
Determine the maximum stress in the frame due to the shock loading and the maximum X displacement. The graph of the X displacement over the 2 second range is shown.

Contour of beam fibre stress:

Straus7
Max Displacement (mm) Max Tensile Fibre Stress in the Frame (MPa)

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Drop test on an instrumentation frame


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the Nonlinear Transient Dynamic solver. Use contact elements to model contact between a model and another surface. Use Master/Slave links to enforce a contact condition. Model a dropped object.

Problem Description
The instrumentation frame is to be drop tested from a height of 300 mm. The frame is rotated slightly such that it drops with some eccentricity. In addition, the frame is restricted from falling over by modelling a shaft of square cross section that allows for movement of up to 100 mm in all directions (much like a frame falling through a chimney with a 100 mm clearance all round). The response of acceleration levels at the instrumentation locations is sought.

Modelling Procedure
Open the frame model used in the previous example. Click Global/Coordinate Systems and create a cylindrical UCS using the points as shown. Click Tools/Move/By Increment and select all nodes and rotate according to the newly created cylindrical system by 2 degrees. Click Tools/Extrude/Absolute and extrude the bottom nodes to an absolute value of Y=-300 mm using Beam Property 3. Click Property/Beam and assign Beam Property 3 as a Zero Gap point contact with a stiffness of 1x105 N/mm. Click Attributes/Node/Restraint and delete the node restraints at the bottom of the frames legs. Apply fully fixed restraints to
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the bottom nodes at the ends of the point contact elements. Restrict X and Z translation at the end of one leg and only X translation at another as shown. At the frames top corners, extrude point contacts in both the X and Z directions by 100 mm. This effectively models a chimney through which the frame falls.

Repeat the above procedure, except this time, create master/slave links to enforce the condition that the point contacts remain normal to the surface of the chimney. All master/ slave links should enforce the linked node to follow Y (vertical) translation and either the X or Z translation (depending on which side the link is on). Because two identical extrusions were applied, duplicate nodes were created. Click Tools/ Clean/Mesh to remove these. Click Attributes/Node/Restraint and restrain the newly created nodes at the ends of the links and contacts. Fix all rotations and the translation normal to the surface of the chimney. Click Global/Load and Freedom Cases and set a gravity load in the minus Y direction. Assign a viscous damping coefficient of 1.075 x 10-7 Ns/mm/mm3 to the frames beams.

Solver Setup
The Nonlinear Transient Dynamic solver is required because of the contact elements used in the model. Only Node Velocity and Node Acceleration are to be calculated. Added Damping is set to Viscous. Set the initial condition to include gravity in the minus Y direction.

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Set up the Time Steps as shown. Note that a coarse time step is used for the first 0.2 s to record the falling frame prior to it impacting the surface.

Results
Graph the acceleration and displacement of the instrumentation masses over the course of the drop.

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Discussion: Modelling Rotating or Pretensioned Structures


Introduction
Pretension loads or the normal operating loads of structures can have a significant effect on the natural frequencies and general dynamic response. In exactly the same way as the frequency or tone of a guitar or drum increases as the tension of the string or membrane is increased, the natural frequencies of a structure change as a function of the stress state within the structure. This is a particularly important consideration when carrying out natural frequency analysis on a structure that is operating in a state of pre-stress. Examples of such structures include: Cable stayed structures with pre-tensioned cables. Cables may be mechanically pretensioned or pre-tensioned by the self weight of the structure. Fan blades, turbines and flywheels. Significant centrifugal stresses can develop in rotating structures. These have the effect of stiffening the structure and therefore raising the bending frequencies of the structure. A bridge structure subjected to temperature loading.

Inclusion of [Kg]
The effect of the stress state of a structure can be introduced into a natural frequency analysis by the inclusion of the stress stiffening matrix [Kg]. The formulation of the natural frequency solution including [Kg] is:

(([K] + [Kg]) i [M]){di } = {0}

This equation follows the same form as the standard natural frequency problem and is solved in exactly the same manner. The only difference is that the stress stiffening matrix [Kg] is added to the normal stiffness matrix [K] before the solution is carried out. The stress stiffening matrix [Kg] can also be included in the transient dynamic solver. An option is provided in the main solver panel for the inclusion of [Kg]. This option is only available when using the full system formulation. The transient dynamic solver includes [Kg] in the general equation of motion as follows:

[M ]{x}+[C ]{x}+([K ]+[K g ]){x}={F (t )}

The stress stiffening matrix [Kg] is added to the structural stiffness matrix and the problem is solved by the standard technique. The harmonic and spectral solvers do not have specific options to allow [Kg] to be included in the analysis. The effect of [Kg] can however be included. These solvers use a modal superposition method to calculate the response. If [Kg] is included in the natural frequency solver when calculating the natural frequencies, the effect of [Kg] is automatically included in the harmonic or spectral analysis because the mode shape and frequencies include the effect of [Kg].
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The same is true for the Linear Transient Dynamic solver when the Mode Superposition method is used for the solution. In this case, the Include [Kg] option in the Nonlinear Transient Dynamic solver is not active.

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Discussion: Spectral Response


Examples
Earthquake analysis on buildings. Shock analysis of Components. Random vibration analysis of mechanical components.

Response Spectrum
General The spectral analysis solver calculates the linear elastic structural response of a structure subjected to a dynamic loading. Usually it is used instead of a transient dynamic analysis as a quicker alternative, especially when the dynamic loading is of a random nature (eg. earthquake loading). The dynamic loading can be either an earthquake excitation represented by its response spectrum or a general dynamic load applied on the structure given by a load spectrum. In both cases the excitation is defined with a spectral curve: Frequency (Hz) versus Spectral Value. The earthquake spectrum is applied as a translational excitation of the base, equally at all supports. The earthquake may act in all three global X-Y-Z directions simultaneously. Three types of earthquake spectral excitations are available: acceleration spectrum, velocity spectrum and displacement spectrum. The earthquake spectrum is used in the calculation of the maximum structural response to a seismic action. It can represent only one particular earthquake or it can be an averaged design spectrum, usually given in the design codes. Rocking seismic excitation of the base and multiple support excitation are currently not supported by the spectral solver. The load spectrum simulates the situation of some random dynamic load applied on the structure at a number of nodes away from the supports. The applied load has the same frequency content at each of the nodes but the magnitude may differ. Its typical application is in response analysis of wind loads, ocean wave loads or machinery vibration. The result of the spectral analysis is given as an envelope of maximum values for nodal displacements, element and nodal stresses, element and nodal strains and recovered reactions at constrained nodes, including elastic forces at all other nodes. The maximum values are calculated by combining the maximum response of all modes included in the analysis. Two methods for the modal combination are available: SRSS (Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) and CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination). Maximum response values of nodal deformations, stresses and reactions are automatically calculated. The maximum values are usually sufficient for most applications. A natural frequency analysis must be performed prior to the spectral analysis since the frequencies and corresponding eigenvectors of the structure are used by the spectral solver. It is important to consider the implications of using a non zero shift in the natural frequency analysis. A non zero shift may result in the removal of some lower frequency modes from the frequency analysis result. If these modes are significant to the response of the structure for the given loading, ignoring them may lead to erroneous results.

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It is also important to remember that the spectral solver always uses the results of the last frequency analysis. When the structure is modified in any way a new frequency analysis must be executed before the spectral solver is used. After successful execution of the analysis it is highly recommended that the log file (filename.SRL) be examined and special attention given to all warning messages. In particular the mass participation should be checked to ensure that it is at least 90%. Before using the results it should be realized that Spectral Analysis is an approximate method. The solution depends on the number of modes included in the analysis and the maximum response is approximated as a combination response of all included modes. The results should be considered as a most likely maximum response of the structure to the dynamic action given by the input spectral curve. Note also that in this type of analysis the sign of all result quantities is not significant. Each result value should be considered positive as well as negative. For the graphical presentation of results, the sign of all maximum results is adopted from the mode with the greatest displacement amplitude. For the graphical presentation of results for individual modes, the sign of the respective mode is adopted. It is important to note that the maximum values given as results will not occur simultaneously. These are only an envelope of the maxima which occurred during the dynamic action at different times. Also, the maximum displacements do not correspond to the maximum stresses and maximum reactions.

Power Spectral Density


The Power Spectral Density (PSD) option is available in the Spectral Response solver as an alternative input excitation. Both excitations can be given as base acceleration, velocity and displacement or as a set of forces applied on the structure. The usage of the solver and display of the results remains unchanged. Introduction PSD analysis is commonly used to determine the response of a structure subjected to a statistical random excitation. The random excitation can be a force, acceleration, velocity or displacement. Because the excitation is random, we cannot determine the structure's response at any particular time. However, given a sufficiently large time interval, we can find the statistical (or probability) distribution of the response of the structure over this period. When the PSD option is selected, the Spectral solver estimates a stochastic response of a structural model subjected to a stationary random dynamic excitation given in a form of a single PSD curve. The results are given as one standard deviation (1 ) of the response. Here, the PSD function is a Fourier Transform of the Autocorrelation Function of the random process considered. The process is assumed to be stationary. Implementation in Straus7 The PSD solver in Straus7 is almost identical to the Spectral Response solver except for the following: The Spectral Table entered in the Tables Input Module is treated as a table of Power Spectral Density vs. Frequency in the PSD solver ( Acceleration2 /Hz or Velocity 2 /Hz etc. versus Frequency), whereas it is a table of Spectral Response Value (ie. Dynamic Amplification Factor versus Frequency) for the Response Spectrum Solver.

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The results given by the PSD option are given as one standard deviation of the response whereas the Response Spectrum solver gives actual (maximum) results. In other words, the Response Spectrum works with known (deterministic) data whilst the PSD works with statistical data.

Standard deviation Given a time varying function x(t), we can define the variation of the function from its mean, by using a property known as the variance, 2 . This is simply the integral over the time period T, of the square of the difference between the function value and the mean value, divided by T:

2 =

1 T ( x x) 2 dt 0 T

The positive root of the above, is known as the standard deviation. This assumes that the response is distributed according to a Normal (or Gaussian) distribution which is the familiar BellShaped Curve. The standard deviation then is a measure of the spread of the function about the mean value. Given a Straus7 PSD result, say a peak stress of 10 MPa, the result would have the following meaning:

The structure will experience stresses of 10 MPa or less for 68.3% of the time under consideration. Alternatively, we could say that the stresses would be less than 20 MPa for 95.4% of the time (i.e., 2 standard deviations). The percentages given, 68.3%, 95,.4% etc., simply represent the probability of a value being within the given standard deviations for a bell shaped distribution.

Spectral Curve
The input spectral curve should be entered as a spectral table in the Table input. Only one single sided positive defined PSD spectral curve can be applied. In the case of force spectrum the curve can be applied on the model at a number of points with different intensities. In the case of seismic excitation different magnitudes of the PSD curve may be applied in different directions simultaneously. In the table for each frequency one spectral value should be entered. The units for the frequencies are Hz. The units for the spectral values depend on the excitation type. If the excitation is Seismic Acceleration, i.e. acceleration of the base, the units for the PSD spectral values can be:
m 2 ---/Hz 2 s

or g2 /Hz. If the spectral curve is defined as g2 /Hz, the magnitude of g must

m 2 be included in the direction vectors in the spectral solver panel. If the acceleration is in /Hz, 2 ---s

the direction vector should be normalized. When the Acceleration spectrum is selected all other loads on the model, including the global accelerations are ignored. The base acceleration is defined by the PSD curve multiplied by the directions vector. When force excitation is used, the units for the spectral values are: N 2 /Hz or kN 2 /Hz. In the case of the load spectrum, the PSD curve factors the loads applied to the structure. The PSD curve The PSD curve is a way of describing the frequency content of a random function in terms of the spectral density of the mean square value of the function. The Mean Square Value of a function is given by:

MeanSquare Value =

1 T

x 2 dt

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It can be shown that the Mean Square Value is made up of discrete contributions in each frequency interval, Df. That is, the summation of the contribution from all the frequencies which make up the function. We call these contributions the power spectrum. The power spectrum is equivalent to the square of the RMS value. The power spectral density is then the power spectrum divided by Df. The RMS value is simply the square root of the mean square value. In practice, when measuring random vibrations, the PSD curve can be determined as follows: For a given frequency range, f we measure the RMS value, x RMS , of the vibrations (eg. the RMS acceleration, therefore g). The Power Spectrum is then the RMS value squared ( x RMS ) 2 , thus g 2 ). The Power Spectrum Density is then ( ( xRMS ) 2 )/ f .

The units of the PSD curve are (value squared per Hertz). Common sets of units for the power spectrum are g 2 /Hz for acceleration, ( ms 1 ) /Hz for velocity, m 2 /Hz for displacement and N2/Hz for a load spectrum. How is a PSD is generated? To create an acceleration PSD curve, for a mechanical component the following approach would be used: An acceleration PSD curve defines the acceleration of the base of the component - that is the acceleration of the base to which the component is attached. In this case an accelerometer is mounted to the base adjacent to the component for which the PSD curve is required. The output signal from the accelerometer is analyzed using a data logger/FFT analyser. The accelerometer will output the random acceleration signal as function of time. The random output contains many frequency components. The user must decide on a frequency range of interest, say 0 - 1000 Hz. This is set-up in the FFT analyser and only data within this range is collected. The frequency analyser is used to do a Fourier Transform on the acceleration vs time data. This produces a graph of acceleration vs frequency or a frequency spectrum of the acceleration. This frequency range is divided into a number of narrow frequency bands of bandwidth f. Say 100 bands with a bandwidth of 10 Hz. The number of bands can be set on the FFT analyser.
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For each of the frequency bands the following process is performed by most modern FFT analysers. Calculate the RMS value of the acceleration within the frequency band. Square this value. (We actually need the Mean Square Value). Calculate the PSD value by dividing the Mean square value by the bandwidth f. This process is illustrated in the following table.
Frequency Range 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 etc. RMS Value 5 4 2 2 (RMS)2 25 16 4 4 PSD Value 2.5 1.6 0.4 0.4

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The PSD curve can now be produced by plotting the PSD values vs frequency. The frequency used for each point is the average frequency for each frequency band. This is shown in the following table:
Freq. 5 15 25 35 etc. PSD (g 2/Hz) 2.5 1.6 0.4 0.4

If the input is a stationary function, which means that the mean value of the function will be the same (for a reasonably large sample), irrespective of whether the sample goes from t1 to t2 or some other range t 3 to t4 , a single sample is sufficient to produce the PSD curve. If the input is non-stationary then most FFT analyzers will have provision for taking many samples. Individual PSD curves are then calculated for each of these samples. The individual curves are then averaged to produce the PSD curve for the component. In the majority of design and analysis situations the PSD curve is defined by specifications and design codes such as MIL Handbooks etc.

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Discussion: Earthquake Analysis using Straus7


Introduction
The purpose of this lesson is to illustrate and compare the most common methods allowed by design codes around the world, for performing seismic analysis of structural systems. The most common methods are: Equivalent Static Analysis. Spectral Analysis. Transient Dynamic Analysis.

The equivalent static analysis is a straightforward method to evaluate horizontal force distributions in structures by means of simple hand calculations. The method has been common practice in the past and still today it is a good quick tool for sizing members prior to design. Spectral and transient dynamic analysis are, these days, much more approachable methods that can save a considerable amount of time in the verification phase. Throughout this discussion we implicitly refer to clauses of Eurocode 8 ENV 1998 as well as Australian standard AS1170.4 1993.

The Different Measures of Earthquake


Before describing in depth the above mentioned methods, it is useful to recall the most popular measures of earthquake events used in practice. It is common, for example, to speak of an earthquake in terms of Richter scale or Mercalli scale. The Richter scale is the base 10 logarithm of the maximum measured displacement in micrometers, captured by a Wood-Anderson seismograph and corrected in a 100 km radius. Earthquakes whose Richter index is bigger than five can produce damages to structures. Another approach (modified Mercalli scale) classifies the earthquake by the effect it has on the community from I (not felt by anyone) to XII (total destruction). These measures, however, are not good enough to quantify seismic events in a rigorous fashion. Instead, a different set of methods based on the behaviour of a single degree of freedom system is used.

Single Degree of Freedom Systems: from Time History to Response Spectrum.


Direct measures of earthquakes in terms of acceleration time history are often available as a result of direct records. We want to convert this information to a form suitable for the evaluation of maximum actions on structures. To do so, first we decouple the dynamic behaviour of a given structure in single oscillators, each fully described by its frequency. The time history is then applied to the base of each of these simple systems and the maximum response (in terms of acceleration, velocity or displacements) stored. The following ordinary differential equation describes the behaviour of a single degree of freedom system subject to a base acceleration:

x (t ) + 2 x (t ) + 2 x (t ) = ab (t )

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where is the damping ratio ( < 0.1) , the natural frequency and a(t) the acceleration time history. It is easy to solve this equation analytically (convolution integral) or numerically by using a finite difference scheme and carefully selecting the time step, considering issues like numerical stability and data sampling rate. The maximum value obtained will determine a point in the response spectrum graph corresponding to the frequency considered, and the amount of damping used. Other factors will have an effect on the response spectrum shape like the class of the foundation soil. The modification of the elastic spectrum to take into account these factors of practical importance, leads to the definition of design spectrum.

Equivalent Static Analysis


Applicability This analysis can be applied to buildings with the following attributes: Structural regularity (plan and elevation). First natural period smaller than 2.0 seconds.

The first item assures that the fundamental mode shapes are described in terms of flexure of a simple cantilever and that they excite nearly all the mass of the structure. Torsional natural frequencies or modes with a coupled torsional-flexural behaviour are not considered in this type of analysis because they generate a more complex force distribution throughout the floors. The second item is responsible for a nearly linear distribution of forces and horizontal displacements in each floor. Note that AS1170.4 allows for the inclusion of structures with higher fundamental frequencies, considering instead a quadratic distribution. Calculation of the total base shear force The total base shear force is calculated by multiplying the total dead load (adding a fraction of the live load as well) for the value of the design spectrum corresponding to the natural frequency of the building.

Fb = Sd W
where Fb = Base Shear Force Sb = Spectral Value at the period in question W = Total Weight (or mass depending on units)

Such a frequency has to be obtained by using rigorous analyses or by applying a simplified approach described within the code. Floor force calculation

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The total shear force is thence distributed to each floor by using the following coefficient:

Ri =

zi Wi j (z j W j )

where z is the height of the i-th floor and Wi the gravitational force associated with it. It is clear that, if the gravitational force generated by each floor is the same then the above distribution is linear. In AS1170.4 a quadratic distribution is also possible for structures whose fundamental period is bigger than 2.0 seconds, by using the following coefficients:

Ri =

zi2 Wi j (z 2j W j )

Torsional effect The forces generated in the structural members as a result of torsional vibration modes are not directly considered in the Eurocodes whereas the Australian standard allows for the evaluation of a torque for each floor (only for buildings of small importance) by multiplying the horizontal component by the eccentricity between the shear centre and the physical centre of the building. Factors for dynamic amplification and construction imperfections are also used. Note that this analysis is linear elastic, eventually with combinations that consider the different directions of the earthquake. The final design result case is an equilibrated solution of a set of linear equations.

Spectral Analysis
Introduction This analysis is a more general approach and allows a much larger number of structural configurations to be dealt with. However, a few assumptions are still needed: Linear material and geometry. Small structural damping.

Spectral results are based on a natural frequency analysis. These frequencies are linear and undamped.

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Numerical Issues A better understanding about how the spectral analysis works comes from the details of its numerical implementation. Once the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been calculated, it is possible to decouple the equations of motion into single oscillators.

y + K ' y = L
where y is the modal coordinate vector, and K the diagonal normalized stiffness matrix. At this stage the damping is added to each of the equations and the external force taken from the design spectrum corresponding to the equations frequency. If the design spectrum is defined in terms of acceleration, the right hand side will have the following expression:

Li = iT M r Si
where i is the i-th eigenvalue, M the mass matrix, r seismic direction vector and Si the ordinate in the design spectrum. If the spectrum has been normalized the peak value is included in the direction vector r. If the spectrum is defined in terms of an external load and not a ground acceleration then the following right hand side applies:

Li = iT R
where R is the load vector for a particular load case. The decoupled equations are solved and the solution transformed back to physical coordinates:

xi = i yi
Number of natural frequencies to be included It is easy to understand that the accuracy of a spectral analysis is dependent on the number of frequencies included. Design codes consider the number of included modes to be adequate for a dynamic analysis if the summation of the modes mass participation factor is greater than 90% of the total mass. An important exception that has to be considered arises when analysing the effects of a vertical earthquake. In general vertical structures will be excited by an axial mode at a relatively high frequency. An important percent of the total mass will also be associated with these members. Hence many more frequencies need to be included to excite a significant amount of mass. However the final results in terms of displacements and forces do not differ much if a smaller number of frequencies has been included. This means that particular cases exist such that the final response will be accurate even with a total mass participation factor less than 90%. The next example illustrates a typical case.

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Example

The structure in the figure is a 2D portal frame of 6 m height and 5 m width, subject to a vertical earthquake. The following natural frequencies were calculated with the spectral mass participation factors as shown:

EXCITATION FACTORS Mode Excitation Amplitude 1 1.638919E-15 2.448030E-17 2 1.731137E+01 1.495795E-02 3 7.394676E-14 2.817129E-17 4 2.212920E+01 4.995576E-03 5 2.944856E-11 1.244316E-15 6 4.858872E+00 1.762342E-04 7 3.813599E-11 7.171120E-16 8 5.671975E-01 5.109340E-06 9 1.183167E-10 9.264109E-16 10 9.762941E+00 4.490351E-05 11 2.925012E-10 1.107574E-15 12 6.661620E+00 2.416929E-05 13 1.021053E-11 1.917199E-17 14 4.736429E+01 3.397340E-05 15 3.738907E-12 2.675485E-18 16 8.956269E-02 1.439609E-08 17 1.506789E+01 1.232426E-06 18 8.143820E-08 6.660660E-15 19 1.597571E-06 6.696231E-14 20 7.913091E+00 2.601720E-07 TOTAL MASS PARTICIPATION: 99.339%

Participation (%) 0.000 8.540 0.000 13.955 0.000 0.673 0.000 0.009 0.000 2.716 0.000 1.265 0.000 63.928 0.000 0.000 6.470 0.000 0.000 1.784

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The 14th mode is associated with the axial vibration of the columns and it excites 64% of the mass. Two different solutions are considered: the first includes modes 2 and 4 with a resultant mass participation factor of 22.5%, and the second includes modes 2, 4 and 14 with 86.4% mass participation. The following figure shows that the final displacements of the two solutions are very similar. The response in this case is adequately represented by the flexural modes (modes 2 and 4). Mode 14 is an axial mode of the columns, which does not significantly contribute to the result, despite having a large mass participation factor. This indicates that the mass participation alone may be a too restrictive condition when deciding on whether the spectral response solution is valid.

If it becomes necessary to increase the mass participation factor in situations such as this, we need a way of determining only the relevant mode shapes in the natural frequency solution; that is, focus on the vertical modes (in this case), and extract as many vertical modes as possible, without significantly increasing the set of requested modes.

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In Straus7, you can independently ignore mass in any of the three global axis directions (X, Y, Z), by setting the option in the Defaults/Dynamics tab of the solver panel. In this example, you could disable X and Z mass, thereby only determining modes that have mass participation in Y.

Superposition of modal results Once the results for the single modes are found, the problem is how to combine them to obtain the maximum force or displacement within the elements. Note that this is not in general a simple problem since the peak amplitude of different modes doesnt occur at the same point in time. Thus the simple summation of modal results will in general highly overestimate the physical force distribution. The first proposed method is the SRSS (or Square Root of the Sum of the Squares) combination in which the final results are obtained as the euclidean norm of the single modal results:
2 x = x12 + x2 + x32 + ... xn2

Note that the outcome consists of just positive result quantities. Furthermore this combination method is considered to be valid only if the frequencies are sufficiently spaced, e.g. if fi and fj are two natural frequencies with fi < fj then the requirement is that fi < 0.9fj. That is, this method does not consider the interaction between close frequencies. Another method, the CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination) method is widely used in practice. This method combines each frequency with all the others using coefficients that are dependent on the damping and the natural frequencies, thereby considering the effect of closely spaced frequencies.

x = ij ij xi x j i j

1/ 2

This combination is a generalized version of the SRSS method and the two methods coincide if the frequencies are sufficiently spaced. Note that the final solution, in general, is not equilibrated as it is the result of a combination of equilibrated modes.

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Transient Dynamic Analysis


Applicability This analysis is the most realistic as it considers the structure subject to a time acceleration history. The previous hypothesis regarding linear behaviour and small damping are no longer required. Material non linearities (e.g. plastic hinges in beams) as well as geometric non linearities (e.g. structures with cables) can be analyzed using this approach. The only problem relates to the solution time, due to the solution (implicit formulation) of a linear set of equations at any timestep. If the problem is non-linear the time taken is further increased by the iteration process. On the other hand an explicit formulation will decrease the time taken to solve the single time step, but the stability of the method is only assured for a very small time increment.

Example In the following example the different methods discussed are applied to a simple building structure and the final results are compared. The following picture illustrates the geometry of the simple building:

Evaluation of the Response Spectrum First of all it is necessary to calculate the response spectrum to be used in the equivalent static and spectral response. For this example, we have evaluated it directly by starting from the acceleration time history of the El centro earthquake. For simplicity, no correction factors have been applied to it. A finite difference equation is used to solve the single degree of freedom system with a damping ratio of 5% (that is, the equation presented on the first page of this lesson is solved).

The following picture illustrates the comparison of the obtained spectrum with the one given by Eurocode 8 for a class A soil. Typical code spectra are simplified (smoothed) with scaling factors applied.
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Equivalent Static Analysis The effect of flexural and torsional vibrations is obtained using static forces and moments. Although the geometry of the structure is not regular (lift core not in a central position) the analysis can be equally carried out in accordance with the clauses in the Australian standards. According to Eurocode 8 a static analysis cannot be used in this case. The natural periods are: First period (Torsional): 1.55585 s Second period (Flexural minor axis): 1.26129 s

Different mesh sizes were considered to make sure that the frequencies represent converged results. The total amount of dead load is 705 T. The acceleration of the calculated spectrum corresponding to the first period (torsional) is approximately 0.1g and for the second period (first flexural mode) it is around 0.3g. These correspond to approximately 0.6g and 0.8g respectively for the Eurocode spectrum.

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Total Base Shear [kN] Calculated Spectrum 692 2074 Eurocode 8 4152 5536

First Period Second Period

The base shear is then distributed along the height using the following relationship:

F floor1 =

Vbase1 h ihi

Using the other fundamental frequency (generating torsion) the forces in each floor are:

F floor 2 =

Vbase2 h ihi

The eccentricity between the shear centre and the physical centre of the generic floor is required to evaluate torsional effects. The shear centre can be obtained through the following relationship:

x=

I x I
i x ,i i x ,i

where Ix,i is the moment of inertia of the single structural element referred to its own centroid (with a distance xi from the origin of the reference coordinate system). The eccentricity is hence 4.66 m. Once the static forces have been applied to the model, the solution can be run and the results viewed.

Spectral Analysis The following solver parameters have to be set:

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Load Type - This option allows the selection of different types of external causes (e.g. applied force, base acceleration, etc.) which will be subject to the design spectrum. Damping - Damping can be modal or Rayleigh. With the former a certain damping ratio can be entered directly in the decoupled equations of motion. The latter adds a damping to the structure that is proportional to a combination of its stiffness and mass. This approach assigns a damping to each natural frequency following a non-linear curve defined through two damping ratiofrequency couples. Direction Vector - The direction of action of the earthquake is entered as a vector. If the design spectrum is normalized then the peak value has to be specified here. Frequency File - The frequencies included in the analysis, together with their damping ratios and the relative spectra are chosen in this dialog box.

Transient Dynamic Analysis The acceleration time history must be entered in the solver panel:

Base Load - Once the time history has been specified, it is possible to choose between either absolute or relative output for displacement, velocity and acceleration results. Forces and stresses are not affected by this choice.

Results Comparisons The maximum bending moment in the two principal directions from the transient dynamic analysis has been chosen as the comparison parameter. Two different spectral and equivalent static analyses were performed using the calculated spectrum and the EC8 spectrum.

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The design spectrum given in EC8 has not been factored by any of the importance, site, damping or statistical factors. This example illustrates that using a spectral analysis (code design spectra) conservative results are obtained in a fraction of the time taken for the full transient dynamic analysis and saving hand calculations needed to calculate statically equivalent forces.

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A Simple Example of Seismic Analysis


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson you will be able to: Have a clear idea of what to expect when comparing different approaches for seismic analysis.

Introduction
The example illustrates how to perform three different types of seismic analysis on a very simple building model.

Problem
The first part of this exercise will focus on the selection of a proper response spectrum and of an earthquake time history, such that the results given by each method are directly comparable. To do this we have to choose a set of multipliers for the unscaled code response spectrum. They are: Site Factor: it takes into account the quality of the foundation soil. Acceleration Coefficient: it quantifies the peak of acceleration for the relevant earthquake (selected on the basis of a given return period). Importance Factor: related to the type of construction and its use. Structural response factor: it considers that the real system will exhibit a certain ductility during the earthquake.

The choice of a proper acceleration factor that allows comparisons between transient dynamic and spectral results, means that we have to choose also a reference acceleration time history. The following picture illustrates the Athens September 99 seismic event chosen for this example.

The acceleration peak for this accelerogram is 287.394 cm/s2. Using a discrete range of periods for a single degree of freedom system, the response spectrum has been obtained from the time
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history and compared with the one given in the Australian code multiplied by the Importance factor and the structural response factor. The result is illustrated in figure.

Once the reference response spectrum has been determined we can start to perform the equivalent static analysis.

Modelling Procedure
The model used is a simple concrete four storey building. Its dimension are 12 m x 6 m with a floor height of 3 m. The following quantities need to be calculated:

Natural Frequencies
The natural frequency solver is used to evaluate the natural frequencies of the building. The frequencies obtained are: First natural frequency, flexural oscillation about the buildings minor axis of inertia: 0.518269 Hz. Second natural frequency, flexural oscillation about the buildings major axis of inertia: 0.565712 Hz.

Note that the first two natural frequencies are free of torsional effects. Hence all the three approaches are feasible to be applied to the considered geometry.

Total Base Shear


In the Australian standard AS1170.4 - 1993 part 4 the total base shear is calculated using the following formula:

C S V = I ---------- Gg R f
where I is the importance factor, S the site factor, Rf the structural response factor and C the earthquake design coefficient given by:

1.25 a C = ----------------23 T

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with a the acceleration coefficient. The latter value characterizes the peak acceleration of the seismic event for a given return period. In our example it will be equal to the maximum value of the time history for the Athens earthquake. The total weight of the building is 148.61 Tonnes. The following table gives coefficients used and the result obtained for each fundamental period. Table 1: Coefficients used for the base shear calculation Coefficient
I C first period C second period Rf a S

Value
1.25 0.2355 0.2496 1.5 0.292 1.0

The values of the shear forces in the two principal directions of inertia of the building thus result: 280 kN for the direction associated with the first period. 296,7 kN for the direction associated with the second period.

The forces on the single floor is then 3/30, 6/30, 9/30, 12/30 of the total shear just calculated.

Comparison of results
The following graph illustrates the results following different approaches.

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PSD Spectral Response


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Use the PSD option in the Spectral Response solver. Apply a load spectrum via a PSD curve to a model.

Problem Description
A single degree of freedom system with mass m, natural frequency f and damping is subjected to a random dynamic force. The random force F is given with a power spectral density.

Geometry
Mass (m) = 60 kg Natural frequency (f) = 4 Hz Relative damping ratio ( ) = 0.05 Length of spring (l) = 1 m Spring stiffness (K) = m(2 f)2 = 37899.3 N/m F = 1.0 In this analysis, the curve of PSD value is a Load Spectrum. This will factor the loads applied to the model. The magnitude of the force is built into the PSD curve and thus a unit load is applied to the model. Default Freedom Case: All fixed except DY.

Solver Setup
Run the Natural Frequency solver for 1 mode. Use the Lumped Mass option. The target frequency is 4 Hz.

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Spectral Response Create a new Factor versus Frequency table and define the PSD curve. Select the Spectral Response solver and setup as shown:

Select Frequency File...:

Select Load Cases:

Results
Displacement = 0.0661 m Note that this is the one standard deviation response. This means that the displacement will be no more than 0.066/m for 68.3% of the time.

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PSD - Base Excitation


Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this lesson, you will be able to: Apply a PSD curve to specify a base excitation.

Problem Description
A power spectral density analysis is to be carried out on the frame from the Spectral Example. The frame is to be mounted in an off-road vehicle. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the stresses when the frame is subjected to a random base excitation that occurs as a result of the vehicle driving over rough ground. The power spectrum of the attachment points in the vehicle has been measured using an accelerometer and a spectrum analyser. The spectrum is based on the average of a large number of measurements during the most extreme operations that will occur in practice. A graph of the spectrum is shown in the following figure: This spectrum is assumed to act in the horizontal global X direction Enter the spectrum as Spectral Table 2 using the Tables option from the main Straus7 menu. (Table 1 already exists from Example 1). Run the Natural Frequency solver using the following parameters: Solve for 30 Modes Lumped Mass The first 10 calculated frequencies are
Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Eigenvalue 3.85384384E+03 3.88046239E+03 1.30269834E+04 2.81202089E+04 7.13699066E+04 7.44108044E+04 7.66895957E+04 7.81961853E+04 2.51547652E+05 2.51566387E+05 Frequency (rad/s) 6.20793350E+01 6.22933575E+01 1.14135811E+02 1.67690813E+02 2.67151468E+02 2.72783439E+02 2.76928864E+02 2.79635808E+02 5.01545264E+02 5.01563941E+02 Frequency (Hertz) 9.88023303E+00 9.91429577E+00 1.81652785E+01 2.66888219E+01 4.25184766E+01 4.34148327E+01 4.40745976E+01 4.45054212E+01 7.98234080E+01 7.98263805E+01

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Run the Spectral Response solver as shown :

Load table is as shown

Results
The results calculated by the spectral solver are for one standard deviation ( ) - i.e. will not be exceeded 68.3% of the time. Find the maximum stress in the beam elements. Scale this by 2x for 2 and 3x for 3 . This will give an indication of the maximum stress that is unlikely to be exceeded 95.4% and 99.7% of the time respectively.
R e s u lt 2 3 M a x F ib r e S tre ss (M p a ) 5 9 .4 9 1 1 8 .9 8 1 7 8 .4 7

The maximum stress occurs at the upper end of one of the lower legs.

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References
1. Clough RW and Penzien J. "Dynamics of Structures". McGraw-Hill, 1975 2. Thomson W.T. "Theory of Vibration with Applications" Fourth Edition Chapman and Hall 1993 3. Bruel & Kjaer "Mechanical Vibration and Shock Measurements" 1980 4. NAFEMS "A Finite Element Dynamics Primer" 1992

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