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Table of Contents

Serial No.
Part No.1

Title
About Dubai Islamic Pakistan Islamic Banking Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan DIBPLs Vision DIBPLs Mission Core Values Management Team of DIBPL SWOT Analysis Market Analysis

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2 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 18

Part No. 2

Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Services Basic Accounts Other additional accounts BankaTakaful service Consumer financing Corporate banking

Part No. 3

My internship Experience Operations at DIBPL Account opening at DIBPL

Part No. 4

Suggestions and Recommendations

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Part No. 1

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Islamic Banking
Islamic banking is banking or banking activity that is consistent with the principles of sharia and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics. As such, a more correct term for 'Islamic banking' is 'Sharia compliant finance'. Sharia prohibits the fixed or floating payment or acceptance of specific interest or fees (known as riba, or usury) for loans of money. Investing in businesses that provide goods or services considered contrary to Islamic principles is also haraam. Allah has clearly ordained the prohibition of Riba in the Glorious Quran. Verses [2:278-279] translate into: 278. O ye who believe! Fear Allah, and give up what remains of your demand for usury, if ye are Indeed believers. 279. If ye do not, take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger: but if ye repent, ye shall have your capital sums; Neither will you deal with others unjustly, nor shall you be dealt with unjustly. Islamic banking has the same purpose as conventional banking: to make money for the banking institute by lending out capital. But that is not the sole purpose either. Adherence to Islamic law and ensuring fair play is also at the core of Islamic banking. Because Islam forbids simply lending out money at interest (riba), Islamic rules on transactions have been created to prevent this perceived evil. The basic principle of Islamic banking is based on risk-sharing which is a component of trade rather than risk-transfer which is seen in conventional banking. Islamic banking introduces concepts such as profit sharing (Mudharabah), safekeeping (Wadiah), joint venture (Musharakah), cost plus (Murabahah), and leasing (Ijar). In an Islamic mortgage transaction, instead of lending the buyer money to purchase the item, a bank might buy the item itself from the seller, and re-sell it to the buyer at a profit, while allowing the buyer to pay the bank in installments. However, the bank's profit cannot be made explicit and therefore there are no additional penalties for late payment. In order to protect itself against default, the bank asks for strict collateral. The goods or land is registered to the name of the buyer from the start of the transaction. This arrangement is called Murabahah. Riba gives birth to an economic system that is unjust; one that favors the rich at the expense of the poor. Rather than reward for effort and entrepreneurship with profit, the Riba based economic system rewards capitalists. Islamic Finance attempts to create a fair economic system. It works on the principle of profit and loss sharing. Riba (Interest) is strictly prohibited in all its forms and kinds. Islamic banks have to strictly comply with the principles and rules of Sharia which prohibit outright any transaction involving alcohol, pork, gambling, etc. Further, the Islamic modes of finance and investment used by these banks must fulfill the basic conditions of these contracts to be considered Sharia compliant.

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Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan limited (DIBPL)


Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Limited (DIBPL), commenced operations in 2006. Since then, DIBPL has undertaken major initiatives to expand its branch network across the country. Under its consumer banking division, the bank is offering state-of-the-art Sharia compliant products that effectively compete with those being offered in the market by conventional banks. It also has expertise in providing Retail, Private, Small and Medium Enterprises, Corporate, Investment Banking and Advisory services. The Bank launched Pakistan's first Islamic Visa Debit Card and introduced financial products covering Home Financing, Auto Financing, and Depository products. DIBPL has also introduced Priority Banking and Internet Banking, both of which are being recognized as benchmark products in their respective categories. Besides regular banking services, the Bank is committed to bringing foreign investment to the country. DIBPL's corporate wing has actively pursued foreign investors and convinced world renowned giants from the GCC to be part of Pakistan's economy. With short-term credit rating of A-1 and long-term credit rating of A, the bank continues to reaffirm its commitment to Pakistan with new branches and absolutely Halal and Sharia compliant new products and services. DIBPL is currently one of the most active players in the consumer autos and home financeindustry with the combined portfolio standing way above Rs 10 billion. DIBPL is operating through 100 branches located in 30 cities across Pakistan as of, December 2012. The registered office of the bank is situated at Hassan Chambers, DC-7, Block-7, Clifton, Karachi. DIBPL is 100% owned by Dubai Islamic Bank PJSC (Public Joint Stock Company) and its nominated shareholders. The parent company is a listed company in Dubai.

Vision of DIPBL
To be the leading Islamic Bank providing Sharia compliant financial services, by creating value for all stakeholders

Mission of DIBPL
To provide diversified Sharia compliant financial services and products through the best of innovation, talent and operational excellence while ensuring consistent growth and profitability

Value of DIBPL
Trust Communication Innovation Caring One Team, One Goal

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Management Team of DIBPL

Junaid Ahmed Ammar Bin. Mujeeb Iqbal Ahmed Zuberi Irfan Johar Masood Karim Shaikh Syed Iftikhar Ul-Haq Khurram Munawar Wamiq Rizvi Zahid Mansoor Naveed Malik Ali Jaffer Muhammad Salim Yousuf Naveed Lodhi

Chief Executive Officer Head of Information Technology Head of Country Operations Head of Internal Audit Head of Corporate & Investment Banking Head of Consumer Assets Head of Credit Risk Management Head of Human Resources & Administration Head of Treasury Head of Distribution Company Secretary & Head of Legal Affairs Chief Financial Officer Head of Compliance

SWOT Analysis

I.

Strengths:
It is the one of the first and leading Islamic bank. DIBPL has strong financial stability and strong capitalization. It is a most enthusiastic and qualified staff, to provide impeccable customer services. Its website satisfies the need of their customer. Being an Islamic Bank, DIBPL has a wide national network. As an emerging markets bank, it has branches in all major cities of Pakistan with the facility of online banking, it is very easy for its customers to transact all over the country. DIBPL provides online banking service to satisfy customers needs. Online banking service means that a customer can withdraw and deposit his money at any branch in the country. Where this service is not present, cheque has to be presented only in that branch on which they are drawn. But with this facility, a person has access to its funds at any branch of the bank. The innovative service of Islamic Insurance called Takaful.

II.

Weaknesses:

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DIBPL deduct high charges for most of their services as compared to other banks is major weakness. Lack of advertisement of their services. As DIBPL follows centralized system so system becomes time consuming. The degree of satisfaction of employees was quite low. First of all, the pays are lower those offered in other banks. Secondly, the employees are given targets that are too difficult to achieve. This makes a job too stressful and tensed. Due to the dissatisfaction of staff and recession, there is high turnover among them. People who find other alternatives do not stay with the bank. Therefore, the bank incurs loss in their training and development.

iii.

Opportunities:
Growing demand of Islamic products and services Coming up with the products for the SME to target the medium level customers Doing business with the companies having Islamic mindset i.e. Islamic Financial Institutions Increase branch network within the country Growing Islamic finance market.

iv.

Threats:
Right now there are a few banks that are providing Islamic banking services in addition to DIBPL. These banks include Bank Islami, Al-Baraka Bank, Meezan Bank and some branches of Bank Alfalah which are dedicated for Islamic Banking services. Due to the increase in the conventional commercial banks, there is an increase in competition. Also there is a lot of aggressive marketing by the competitor banks. This is also threat for DIBPL.

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Market Analysis
Dubai Islamic Bank Pakistan Limited is growing rapidly in Pakistan. This shows the success of its various strategies. Various factors of marketing for DIBPL are: Target Market Marketing Mix

I.

Target Market:

The DIBPL is mainly focusing on individuals and SMEs. Small and medium sized companies are its main customers. The reason behind focusing on corporate sector is that a single company can deposit a large sum of money that is difficult to achieve by focusing on individual customers. It does not mean that DIBPL is lacking the other side of the picture. It has also got individual customers. Corporate sector constitute 80% of all the deposits of the bank. This is the reason DIBPL is focusing on corporate sector. Due to this reason we see no advertisement of DIBPL in print and electronic media. Target marketing is the basic step for rest of the strategies being developed.

II.

Marketing Mix:

Marketing Mix includes four Ps of marketing. These are: Product Price Place Promotion

Products and services provided by DIBPL have been earlier in this report. All the products and services offered by DIBPL are purely Islamic. No other bank offers such services to the customers. Price means that service charges of the bank. Charges are determined by the Schedule of Charges every year. Bank provides quality services at very competitive charges. For example there are charges for the renewal of ATM card, renewal of cheque books and cash withdrawals. The main factor to discuss is the promotion. Promotion strategies consist of promotion mix. The promotion mix includes: Advertising Publicity Sales Promotion Personal Selling

Advertising is paid and non personal communication of companies message to target customers. DIBPL has no focus of advertising. This is also a weakness of DIBPL, because its customers are spending a lot of funds on advertising. Competitors are taking full advantage of it. As DIBPL is offering products and services to individual customers, so they need to communicate their products and services with people through print and electronic media. DIBPL has very effective personal selling teams. Their Financial consultants and Relationship managers convince corporate customers to an account in the bank. This is competitive advantage of DIBPL. This is the reason due to which DIBPL stands good in the market. Even without advertising and other communication methods DIBPL manages to gain a good market share.

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Part No. 2

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All the services offered by DIBPL are Islamic in nature.

Basic Accounts
i. Current Account:

DIBPL Current Account is a non-remunerative checking account, specifically appeals to businessmen and salaried individuals who need to make frequent payments and deposits in their account. The Dubai Islamic Current Account is an ideal low cost option for such customers. Based on the Wadia contract, the Dubai Islamic Current Account offers users safe keeping of their cash deposits against DIBPLs guarantee to provide the depositor his funds on demand. However, the depositor permits DIBPL to use or invest his money in its Sharia compliant investments and is neither entitled to investment profit nor does the account holder bear any risk of loss. All entities including individuals, corporations, firms, societies, clubs, government organizations, statutory bodies, public and private institutions can open Current Account with as low as PKR 1000.

II.

Saving Account:

Dubai Islamic Savings Account is a great investment option for depositors who wish to earn Halal returns on their savings. By investing in the Dubai Islamic Savings Account, the depositor (fund provider or Rabb-ul-Maal) authorizes DIBPL (fund manager or Mudarib) to invest his/her funds on the basis of unrestricted Mudaraba contract according to the principles of Sharia. DIBPL invests these funds in its Common Mudaraba Pool with other deposits and the shareholders equity. The profit on the Common Mudaraba Pool is distributed amongst the shareholders and depositors on the basis of agreed upon weightage which take into consideration the tenor, amount of deposit and profit payment frequency of the account. The Savings Account is offered in Pak Rupees and US Dollar, with as low as Rs. 1000 initial deposit.

III.

Fixed Deposit:

DIBPL Fixed Deposit Account offers the ideal mix of long and short term benefits to depositors seeking attractive and Halal returns on their savings. With a history of high profit payouts Dubai Islamic Fixed Deposit Account is an excellent investment vehicle for depositor. By investing in the Dubai Islamic Fixed Deposit Account, the depositor authorizes DIBPL to invest his/her funds on the basis of unrestricted Mudaraba contract according to the principles of Sharia. DIBPL invests these funds in its Common Mudaraba Pool with other deposits and the shareholders equity. The profit on the C ommon Mudaraba Pool is distributed amongst the shareholders and depositors on the basis of agreed upon weightage which take into consideration the tenor, amount of deposit and profit payment frequency of the account.

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Others Accounts Offered by DIBPL


I. Junior Account:

DIBPL is the first Bank in Pakistan to enable young minor to conduct riba-free banking. It is a unique opportunity for you to not only understand the value of saving money from early age, but also inculcate the importance of Islamic Banking. A junior account can be opened with as little as Rs. 5, with maximum age limit of 18. If one is 15 or above, he can get his Islamic Debit Card.

II.

E-Saving Account:

DIBPL gives the power to control your financial future from anywhere and anytime. E-Saving Account offers you a banking experience like never before. Benefits of E-Savings Account includes Online Account opening, Higher profit rates, Free internet and Mobile banking, 24/7 phone banking. E-Saving account is for Pakistani residents, offered in PKR, with minmum balance requirement of Rs. 10,000, with no issuance of Cheque Book.

III.

Cash Manager Account:

At DIBPL, goal is to offer solutions that help one to achieve his business plan in a convenient and hasslefree manner. DIBPL Cash Manager Account helps in managing business transactions in a fast and simple manner. Through Cash Manager Account, manage the payment of their employees, free collection services, internet banking facility, Cash pick-up service, long banking hours till 8:00 pm, lockers facility.

IV.

Investor Portfolio Securities (IPS) Account:

DIBPL IPS account enables its customers to invest in highly lucrative Sharia complaint Government backed Ijara Sukuk. Not only does the DIBPL IPS Account enable to purchase and sell GoP Ijara Sukuk, it also gives the convenience of maintaining portfolio of Ijara Sukuk at DIBPL. Moreover, one can transfer his existing holding of Ijara Sukuk to your IPS account at DIBPL from any other bank.

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BankaTakaful service (Insurance)


The word Takaful means to guarantee; to help; to take care of ones needs. Takaful is a system based on the principle of Taawun (mutual assistance) and Tabarru (voluntary contribution), where risk is shared collectively by a group of participants, who by paying contributions to a common fund, agree to jointly guarantee themselves against loss or damage to any one of them as defined in the pact. Takaful is operated on the basis of shared responsibility, brotherhood, solidarity and mutual cooperation.

I.

Al-Islami Cash cover:

DIBPL presents Al-Islami Cash Cover a product of Pak-Qatar General Takaful that offers coverage against loss of cash resulting from armed hold-up, mugging and/or forced deprivation of cash following its withdrawal. This agreement covers only cash personally withdrawn by the customers form his own account through any I-Link machine or over the counter at any DIBPL branch in Pakistan. The coverage of the Takaful is restricted to 1.5 kilometers radius or 30 minutes after the withdrawal, whichever occurs first. Any robbery/forced deprivation incident occurring after 20 minutes from the time of cash withdrawal or outside a radius of 1.5 kilometers from the cash withdrawal point/ATM/branch would not be covered by the Takaful Company.

II.

Al-Islami Takaful:

DIBPL is proud to introduce Al-Islami Saving & Takaful Plan in collaboration with Pak Qatar Family Takaful Ltd. (PQFTL) Al-Islami Saving & Takaful Plan is a Sharia compliant alternative to conventional insurance, offering a unique combination of saving, investment and protection. The Al-Islami Saving & Takaful Plan offers ones peace of mind and takes care of the future of ones loved ones by offering a savings plan and providing Takaful coverage in the event of death to ones beneficiaries. So rest assured, with Al-Islami Saving and Takaful Plan, ones future plans are in safe hands. As an individual you have many dreams A college education for your child from a prestigious university A dream wedding for your beloved daughter Your spiritual journey to perform Hajj A comfortable retired life with enough savings to take care of you and your loved ones Any other financial objectives you may want to achieve

There's nothing better than the Al-Islami Saving & Takaful Plan to fulfill your dreams the Islamic Way! Based on your saving capacity, Al-Islami Saving & Takaful Plan offers you a range of investment options to suit your risk profile, with most flexible payment options.

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Consumer Financing
i. Home finance:

Dubai Islamic Home Finance is the key to your dream home and we are eager to put this key in your hands. Using the Musharaka cum Ijara model, the Bank enters into a partnership with you and helps you in fulfilling your dream of owning a home quickly, conveniently and in a fully Shariah compliant manner. Whether you want to buy, renovate or simply wish to switch from your present home finance with any other bank, DIBPLs would be the best Shariah compliant alternative. Currently Dubai Islamic Home Finance is offering three product variants: Home Purchase. Purchase of undivided share (Home Renovation). Purchase of undivided share of property from other bank (Balance Transfer)

ii.

Auto Finance:

Dubai Islamic Auto Finance offers a world class auto finance facility that enables you to get a car quickly, conveniently and in a fully Sharia compliant manner. Using Musharaka cum Ijara model to finance your car, steer yourself towards peace of mind and fulfillment of your desire. Features include: Riba free Quick processing Fully Sharia compliant Low monthly installments inclusive of lowest Takaful/insurance rate & trackers

III.

Business Finance:

Dubai Islamic Business Finance is a shariah compliant term finance facility which provides a complete solution for fulfilling the financial needs of your business. There are so many reasons that make Dubai Islamic Business Finance the right choice! The only product of its kind available in the market 100% Shariah Compliant Minimum financing amount of Rs. 500,000 Maximum financing of up to Rs. 20 million Fastest processing time Affordable monthly payment plan Financing up to 70% of your property value Finance Enhancement option as per the applicable terms Early & Partial settlement option as per the applicable terms Tenor Rescheduling option as per the applicable terms

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Corporate Banking
DIBPL provides a wide range of services specifically designed to assist Pakistani businesses.

i.

Cash Management:

DIBPL Cash Management offers comprehensive end-to-end Sharia compliant solutions to meet cash flow requirements. One can reduce turnaround times for your accounts receivables, better manage your payables, and benefit from our value-adding MIS reports. GL reconciliation would have never been easier for you.

a) Collections:
DIBPL is an expert at facilitating the collection of sales proceeds and converting your Receivables into Funds Available. You are provided the facility of maintaining a single concentration account. Collections from all over Pakistan (cash/ cheque/ pay order/ demand draft) will be credited to this main account via DIBPL's real time online branch network.

b) Bulk & Data Processing:


DIBPL has formed project-to-project alliance with NIFT on processing and collection. DIBPL will perform the role of the financial institution while NIFT will provide the expertise in the area of bulk processing. National Institutional Facilitation Technologies has 10 years of experience in this area and has previously done such projects for SSGC and LESC successfully. A deal with PTCL and KESC has been inked for provision of this service.

c) Payment Product:
The product facilitates clients in managing their outflow of funds. The outflows can be through Pay Order/Demand Draft or by way of electronic cheques issued at the clients office.

d) Depository Services / Liquidity / Funds Management:


In DIBPL's suite of Shari'a approved Investment Depository Products, your organization will certainly find just the right combination of attractive returns and enhanced liquidity that it requires. Enhance your funds management like never before.

e) Foreign Exchange Remittances:


The Cash Management Group at DIBPL is adept at handling outward/inward remittances through State Bank of Pakistan. Be it money transfers within Pakistan or outside, DIBPL will have a product to meet your needs safely and efficiently. The Bank's extensive network of correspondent banks in all major countries of the world is all that your business will require.

f) Designated Bank Services:


Designated banking service such as managing dividend payouts on behalf of corporate clients is also available.

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g) Cash-In-Transit Services:
DIBPL can arrange for its clients a secure pick up of cash from the customers door step for deposit at DIBPL's nearest branch.

II.

Trade Related:
DIBPL offers a range of solutions to help customers in their trade transactions. DIBPLs Sales and Service Outlets have the infrastructure in place to ensure that customers documents are processed accurately and in the fastest possible time.

a) Import Murabaha:
Import Murabaha is a product, used to finance a commercial transaction which consists of purchase by the Bank (generally through an undisclosed agent) the goods from the foreign supplier and selling them to the customer after getting the title to and possession of the goods. Murabaha financing is extended to all types of trade transactions i.e., under Documentary Credits (LCs), Documentary Collections and Open Account.

b) Wakala Istithmar Facility (Exports):


A unique structure tailor-made for the exporters of the country, the Wakala Istithmar facility which has been developed under the direct guidance of Sharia to meet the working capital requirements of exporters and local manufacturers speaks volumes about our Sharia expertise and edge in bringing new Sharia compliant products to the market for promotion of Islamic banking and ridding those who desire Halal income from interest-based financing.

c) Wakala Cum Istisnaa Facility (Local Supplies):


Istisnaa is a contract for manufacturing or construction whereby the manufacturer sells to the buyer, goods of specific description, at a fixed price, which the manufacturer shall make from raw material of its own and deliver to the buyer at a future date. Istisna cum Wakala is a two-leg short-term trade finance solution which enables a manufacturer to fulfill his payment obligation under a documentary credit presentation and allows time for the goods to be cleared, manufactured and stocked. Once the goods are delivered to the buyer, the customer then sells the goods, in its capacity as the agent of the bank to creditworthy and trusted buyers and realizes the sale proceeds on behalf of the Bank. Such finances are offered in conjunction with L/Cs to corporate customers under Wakala Istisna facility.

d) Guarantee:
A guarantee is issued by DIBPL (the guarantor) on behalf of its customer (the applicant) in favor of a third party (the beneficiary), for fulfillment of specifically defined contractual and/or financial obligations of the applicant. If the obligations are not fulfilled by the applicant, the guarantor will pay up to a certain amount to the beneficiary on non-performance of the obligations by the applicant.

iii.

Investment Banking:
With its team of seasoned professionals, DIBPL has become the Investment Bank of choice for local and regional clients in a short span of time. DIBPL leverages the regional expertise and local knowledge to create an efficient blend of solutions for our customers. DIBPLs Investment Banking provide its clients with a unique combination of expertise, broad range of investment banking/financial services and access to top regional decision makers. DIBPL derive strength from our team that has unrivalled experience in dealing with the largest M&A, Advisory and Fundraising transactions in the country.

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Part No. 3

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During my internship I have worked in various departments of bank. The reason for selecting DIBPL was that it is among those few banks which performed remarkably well in less time and grabbed the market share with its products, services and different banking experience.

Operations at Branch
i. Cash Management:

The money which either comes or goes out from the bank, its record should be kept. Cash department performs this function. The deposits of all customers of the bank are controlled by means of ledger accounts. Payment is a bankers primary contract to repay money received for this customers account usually by honoring his cheque. Cash Closing and opening at the start and end of the day is maintained by operations department.

ii.

Clearance:

A clearing house is a platform for commercial banks set up given below for the purpose of interchange and settlement of credit of different cheques. In Pakistan, the clearing system is operated by the NIFT. The easy, safe and most efficient way is to offset the reciprocal claims against the other and receive only the net amount owned by them. This facility of net interbank payment is provided by the clearing house. Clearing may inward or outward clearing. When a customer of DIBPL deposit a cheque of other bank in his account, that has to go through outward clearing and when a issues a cheque on party which has account in other bank, clearing would be inward.

III.

Remittance Department:

Another important function is remittance. People send their money to other persons and organizations through various ways i.e. bank draft, telegraphic transfer, mail transfer, coupons, Western Union Money Transfer, Xpress Money etc. It works both inward and outward. DIBPL offers the following forms the remittance. Demand Draft Telegraphic Transfer Pay Order Mail Transfer Safe custody of specimen signature book Preparation of periodical statements Any other work/duty assigned by manager

IV.

Utility Bills acceptance:

DIBPL accepts the utility bills of KESC, PTCL and SSGC on the behalf of the respective companies. SSGC slabs are sent to Tameer Micro finance bank to further process while KESC and PTCL slabs are sent to NIFT.

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Account Opening at DIBPL


When a customer comes to open his account, he has to fill an Account Opening form (AOF). New customer also signs his/her signature on Specimen card for further transactions with the banks, and also signs the Bank Service Agreement (BSA). Verisys a verification system started by NADRA on the CNIC of the new account opener. A Verisys tells, that whether the candidate is a Pakistani citizen or not and all the information written in account opening form are true or not by matching the information to the database of NADRA. SBP and World check are checked to ensure that new customer is not in the blacklist of State Bank defaulter or his name is not in the any terrorist organization. His job ID cards photocopy and companys letter on letterhead is taken in case if customer is employed. The documents required for account opening are as follows: Filled Account Opening Form (AOF) Banking Service Agreement signed (BSA) Signed Specimen card. ATM card form filled. Other than CNIC signature form NADRA Verification World check list and State Bank list Job Card/ID card/Company letter Telephonic verification report

The account opening process is completed by Customer Relation Officer (CRO), by scanning all the documents and sent to Centralized Account Opening Department. Account Number is received from CAOD, after Department checks all the documents and allocates the unique number (Account Number). After opening an account, Letter of thanks is sent to the account holder directing him to collect the check book in person after receiving the letter. All the documents are put in jacket in safe place for any further reference in the future. Check book and ATM card is issued to new account holder in 3-4 days time. And pin code of ATM card is received by branch in 4-5 days. Account holder, himself/herself, collects the check book from the branch.

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Part No. 4

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Based on my experience at DIBPL, I have tried to give recommendations for further improvement:

i.

First of all, I would like to recommend the bank must pursue am aggressive marketing and advertising strategies so that it can create awareness in the public about its Islamic products and services. The personnel in the bank should not be overstressed with workload. The workload is of a destructive level. At that level of load the employees loose all the comfort in their work and remain tense and frustrated. DIBPL should increase the pays to employees, because the salaries of the employees are much lower as compare to the banking industry, which leads to employees d issatisfaction and turnovers. DIBPL needs to improve its website. More information relating to financial performance of the bank should be available on the website. Management should distribute work equally among the different employees. Related jobs should be assigned to the employees so that they can work more efficiently.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v. vi.

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