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Housing Project
Building Audit; September 16-20, 2013

Green Physical Needs Assessment

Report Date: October 4th 2013 Submitted by: Energy Liberty Corporation
Giovanni Ceciro - Johanna Stutz

1. Executive Summary
Energy Liberty Corporation has conducted a Green Physical Needs Assessment (GPNA) of Senior Living Apartments. The building is in good physical condition for its age; the roof, brick shell and basement are all in very good condition. Existing maintenance staff is competent and attentive to preventive maintenance concerns. Some building mechanical equipment is in need of attention; some equipment concerns are urgent. The heating and chilled water loop that thermally conditions the building is in need of $7,500 in repairs that should be engaged ASAP to circumvent catastrophic failure due to high pressure in the system. ELC secured contractor quote while on site to speed the process of getting this repaired. Hot water pipe trunk is significantly deteriorated and under 60-80 PSI pressure. Much deterioration is concealed by insulation jacketing. Failure could happen tomorrow or 15 years from tomorrow but pipe failure en mass is inevitable. Unit fan coils are failing and causing water leakage to 1st floor commercial spaces. They are also saturating the dwelling unit floors at the base of the unit. Fan coils are buried under sheetrock. Fan coils must all be replaced to avert commercial tenant complaints and increasing dwelling unit water damage. The system that feeds fresh air to the building is only feeding the 6th and 5th floors. No fresh air seems to be reaching floors 2-4; ducting must be inspected and repaired. ELC can provide duct testing. Additionally, the units heating coil has failed; so, all through the cold Appalachian Winter, the halls are being fed ice cold air and this must be overcome by the furnace creating heating inefficiency. Windows are the most significant tenant complaint and window replacement is likely to result in energy savings. U factor of current windows is not known but the vacuum seal between panes is absent so windows fog all winter. Window draft is significant enough to move curtains. Most importantly, the elderly tenants are not able to open and close the windows due to high friction. Additionally, screens are absent and this is an insect rich area in the Summer. Tenants beg for windows that they can open as they would prefer this to costly AC for much of the summer. Any new window selection must be approved by a

Energy Liberty Corporation - 6440 Lusk Blvd, Ste. D201, San Diego CA 92121 www.EnergyLibertyCorp.com (619) 870-0800

2 historical representative; Jennifer Smith, at phone number xxx, jSmith@macmax.com.

2. General Information
A Physical Needs Assessment for Senior Living Apartments (SLA) was conducted from September 16 to September 20 2013. Total Energy Liberty Corporation man hours on site for the week is 71; building audit was complete and thorough. This report will detail the physical condition of the building as well as its primary mechanical components. Consideration and financial justification of potential energy efficient retrofits shall be considered in an ASHRAE Level 1 Audit that will be submitted seperately. contractor bids for potential retrofits. SLA is a x story, xx unit, historic building with basement, built in 1916. Building stands at the NW corner of the intersection of Address in Home Town, MD. SLA residential area is 42,000 sq. ft., common area 2,810 sq. ft., first floor commercial space area is 11,682 sq. ft. Total building square footage is 56,492 of conditioned interior space (including residential common area entry, office, lobby). SLA building footprint is 14,342 sq ft; site area is 27,836 sq ft, hardscape 12,672 sq ft. SLA received substantial rehap and was converted from hotel to apartments for seniors in 1986. First floor is commercial space, currently about 65% occupied. Second floor includes residential common areas. There is a very small 7th floor that is used to house the top of a no longer used elevator shaft and the access door to the roof. dwelling units. There are no combustion appliances internal to Residential heating and AC systems rely exclusively on hydronic Cost justifications of potential energy efficiency retrofits will require energy modeling of and

distribution. Each dwelling unit contains a fan coil unit fed by one hydronic line. Attic areas are reasonably accessible and basement is very accessible and well maintained. Attic Insulation is present but time has done its damage and it is unlikely to be significantly effective due to multiple visible voids. Contractor bid for additional attic

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3 insulation is recommended; removal of old attic insulation may be called for by an insulation contractor. Primary building staff interviewed: Elena Charming (Manager) and Peter Mason (Maintenance); commercial tenants were also interviewed. Both Elena and Peter have excellent building/tenant knowledge and a combined 33 years of tenure at SLA. Peter gets an A+ as the buildings maintenance supervisor; clear signs of an attentive preventive maintenance routine and good mechanical knowledge abound. well with minimal operational budget and no assistance. underestimated. Elena is indespensible due to her simply unrecordable knowledge of the building and its tenants. Her clear concern and friendship with all tenants is evident. Her knowledge of and attention to the individual needs of each of her elderly tenants must be recognized and commended. Peter and Elena, both up in years, could use a helper and SLA would surely benefit by providing them assistance; computer literate, strong and physically able, compashionate. ELC strongly endorses existing staff at Sr. Apartment. ELC far more commonly recommends the replacement of an unattentive, existing staff after conducting similar building inspections. Peters complaints suggest that SLA has been starved of capital for 2-3 years; he has done very His value should not be

3. Building
Overall physical condition of SLA is very good for a 100 year old building. Brick exterior looks good with minimal signs of efflorescence for its age. Roof looks to be in good condition and while there are water issues, (minor leakage and condensation) water problems do not significantly escalate during periods of heavy rain (information source, Peter). Close examination of the exterior indicates some courtyard facing fenestration areas have been removed and bricked over, most likely during the 1986 renovation. Areas of the roof top parapet walls need mortar replaced and

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4 counterweight bricks meant to insure that the parapet wall will fall on the roof instead of off of the building (if it falls) have fallen off in some areas and should be repaired; some parapet walls have been addressed over time. Roof areas and chimney access/vents would benefit from deterrents against native animal nests (i.e. net the chimney (no longer used) and place fake owls). Thousands of birds were seen entering the chimney over a 10 minute period at dusk. Dual pane windows are in poor condition at approximately 30 years old. They have lost the vaccume between panes. Existing windows have no screens and they are too difficult to open and close for the buildings elderly residents due to high friction in motion. Envelope leakage is significant between window frame and wall. Many clients complain of significant winter drafts and audit staff witnessed curtains being moved by drafts on a fall day that was not significantly windy. Due to such significant envelope leakage at the window frame, it is unlikely that this building can be pressurized or depressurized sufficiently to measure leakage by standard protocols. Windows are likely to be this buildings most significant source of energy loss. If windows are upgraded, it is critical that ventilation be reconsidered as sealing the building envelope (for the first time in the buildings existance) will negatively impact internal air quality. Current fresh air delivery system is deficient. Dwelling units are negatively pressuriced via bathroom exhause fans (re-evaluate) and fed fresh air from corridors via undercut doors.. Building basement is in good, well kept condition; no signs of significant water intrusion problems, rodents, rodent waste or rodent traps; space appears dry and free of significant mold and mildew issues. Residential unit interiors (walls and carpets) are in very good condition. Hallways and common areas have been very well maintained by current maintenance staff. Interior walls are in good condition. Kitchens are somewhat outdated but safe and functional. Refrigerator upgrades will likely be wotrhwhile from an energy perspective. combustion appliances. Central system combustion appliances are located in the basement which is equiped with CO detectors; no leaks present. There are no in unit

4. Mechanical Equipment
Inventory mechanical equipment follows. Equipment efficiency is listed where applicable. Efficiency recommendations to be addressed via ASHRAE Level 1 report. In unit fan/coil units are not identifiable and their internal fan motors vary widely, just 50% are original.

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4.1 - Domestic Hot Water Boiler Ajax Indoor Gas Fired Water Heating M/N: 886 S/N: 60062 Min Relief Valve Cap: 990 Btu/Hour Input/Output: 800,000/640,000 Efficiency: 80% HP: 19.1 Heating Surface: 99 Fuel: Natural Gas Two auxiliary storage tanks ~160 Gallons each Water Circulating Pump Bell & Gossett Circulator NBF-12F/LW 103260 1J90 H. P: RPM: 1725 Thermal Prot: M74799 Part No: M10532 J90 DHW Notes Much uninsulated pipe. Large pipe in basement shows significant deterioration. 80% efficient boiler with room for efficiency improvement. Pumps are adequate. Recommend contractor evaluate present DHW pipe.

4.2 - Space Heating Boiler-Residential Boiler is new, installed in the early 2000s. A functional backup boiler (old unit) is on site. As SLA is and will continue to be occupied by seniors, actual indoor temperature set
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6 points should override program protocol indoor set point, most likely 70 degrees. Peter (SLA Maintenance) indicated that most residents heat to above 80 degrees. common in senior environments. temperatures be set at 78 degrees for energy modeling purposes. Residential Heating Boiler: Burnham Commercial Low Pressure Boiler M/N: V1114 S/N: 64663644 Fuel: Natural Gas kBtu/Hour Input/Output: 3392/2730 Efficiency: 80% HP: 81.6 Supply Temp.: 180-200 Deg F This is ELC recommends dwelling unit winter indoor

4.3 Chiller, Residential Residential Chiller: York Refrigerant: R-410A M/PIN:

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7 YLAA0080SE17XCASDTXATXBLXCXX44XXXXXXHXXXSAXXXXXXXXXXXNJ1XBXX S/N: 2GWM007136 Air Cooled Chiller, no Tower Tonnage: 80 Compressor-Amps: No. 3(a) Rated Current RLA/Nominal: 55.8/55.8/55.8 Start-up LRA: 425/425/425 No. 3(b) RLA/Nominal: 51.3/51.3/51.3 Start-up LRA: 300/300/300 Fans/Pumps: No. 2(a) FLA: 7.6 LRA: 44 LRA: 44 Refrigerant Kg (lb): 21.3 (47) Refrigerant Kg (lb): 20.0 (44) No 2(b) FLA: 7.6

Copeland Scroll: (6 motors below Chiller) M/N: ZP180KCE-TWC-222 M/N: ZP180KCE-TWC-222 M/N: ZP180KCE-TWC-222 M/N: ZP154KCE-TW5-426 M/N: ZP154KCE-TW5-426 M/N: ZP154KCE-TW5-426 S/N: 10E968557 S/N: 10E968535 S/N: 10E968538 S/N: 10FC3380D S/N: 10FC33xxx S/N: 10FC33xxx CusPeterer 015 04045 101 CusPeterer 015 04045 101 CusPeterer 015 04055 101 CusPeterer 015 04055 101 CusPeterer 015 04055 101 CusPeterer 015 04045 101

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Outdoor Temperature Sensors: Temperature located on This sensors the West location are wall. is







excessive sun exposure and wind exposure which allows the devices to provide the most accurate readings. The devices are installed at a height that will keep them above expected snow fall. Excessive snow drift accumulation up to and covering the devices is a possibility but device movement is not considered necessary by ELC.

4.4 - Chiller, Commercial:

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Commercial Chiller: York Refrigerant: R-22 M/N: H5CE180A25A S/N: (S)N0C8679211 SEER: 13 Tonnage: 15 Commercial Indoor Blower Unit: York M/N: K3EU180A33A S/N: (S)N0G6634092 [Federal Pacific Electric Co. Catalog No. 3232] EER: 8.5 Output: 168,000

4.5 - Fresh Air Ventilation System Dravo-maxstings M/N: LB-5-C S/N: 8590 Fuel: Natural Gas Btu Cu Ft: 1000 Max Input Btu/Hour: 420,000

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This system provides fresh air to all levels of the building but distribution of fresh air is under performing; as most fresh air is delivered to floors 5 (@20%) and 6 (@70%) with little reaching floors 2-4 (@10%). There is an electric heating element inside the unit that warms fresh air during the heating season before it enters the building. The heating element is not working. Without the pre-heating of incoming fresh air, additional heating load is put on the heating boiler. This inefficiency, as well as the ducting deficiency must be resolved.

4.6 - Backup Generator

Kohler Decision Maker II S/N: WA 3328814 G3400 X298 Six Cylinders

5. Energy Considerations
This GPNA will outline energy related efficiencies and deficiencies. No specific upgrades or modifications are recommended. Energy concerns will be independently considered via an ASHREA Level 1 Audit, to be submitted separately. To calculate the cost effectiveness of any energy efficiency upgrade, the associated energy savings as determined via energy modeling must be contrast against contractor bids for the projects under consideration. Renovation work scope shall be redefined after the findings of this GPNA are considered.

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6. Recommendations
Subsequent to observations made while conducting the GPNA at SLA, Energy Liberty Corporation recommends the following building renovations. These upgrades are not being suggested for the purpose of energy efficiency, although they are likely to impact energy efficiency. These recommendations are intended to improve

or maintain building safety and function. The intent is to insure acceptable levels of internal air quality and tenant comfort. Suggested recommendations are also intended to prevent equipment failures that appear inevitable. rather than subsequent to, a catastrophic failure. These problems would be far more cost effectively resolved prior to, Energy efficiency improvements will Systems for which no be considered and cost justified after the project budget recognizes the findings of this report via updates to the renovation scope of work. recommendation are made require no significant attention. 6.1 - Ballast Tank Replacement and Piping Retrofit: The expansion tanks that serve the buildings heating and chilled water loop become waterlogged during the heating season. When this occurs, the hot water creates very high pressure because it has no ability to expand. The safety relief valve blows in a last ditch effort to save the system; it should not be counted on to save the system as it itself is subject to failure. The expansion tanks must effectively absorb expansion to circumvent pressure build up. Replace tanks with new diaphragm style, floor mount. Leave abandoned tanks in place to pinch pennies. Tandem to this is the need for a piping reroute that threatens boiler integrity by creating uneven flow which results in inevitable boiler cracking due to heat differential. The pipe U dip in the photo above should be removed and the pipe should go straight across to the boiler. ELC read the clues during the building audit and called the responsible contractor to create awareness; the contractor had, in fact, recommended the upgrades that ELC suggested just last spring when the system was converted from heating to cooling. The failure that threatens will not occur during the cooling season. ELC secured a quote on repairs while on site. Repair both problems for $7,500, contractors bid attached; do it ASAP. These repairs are not optional and the system will be probably

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12 be converted from cooling to heating this week as history shows typical cut over in the second week of October. The ballast tanks are hung from the basement ceiling. 6.2 - Hot Water Piping: Viewable DHW piping at SLA looks pretty scary; theres just no other way to put it. Lots of scary things will never hurt you; some will kill you. This pipe could fail tomorrow; it could also last another 15 years. Much is covered in insulation and therefore not viewable. Much is located in inaccessible parts of the building. Exposed areas that can be viewed in the basement show signs of very significant deterioration. These pipes are pressurized at 60-80 PSI. ELC removed a piece of jacketing to get a look at the pipe (above). What appears to be inch thick pipe has lost 50% of its thickness due to deterioration. Fact is, pipe this old is likely to have a thick layer of calcification on the inside. The calcification strengthens the pipe. An alarmist says this must be repaired tomorrow; it may last several more years. Inevitably, DHW trunk pipe will fail en mass. The WARNING is to not do what many contractors may recommend be done which is to address all of the easily accessible pipe. This only insures that the system piping will inevitably fail in an area where the pipe is not easily accessible. There are large sections of uninsulated pipe. ELC would ordinarily recommend jacketing these pipe runs but in this case leaving the deterioration and potential leakage visible is advised.

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13 6.3- In Unit Fan Coils: Unfortunately, this is likely to be a costly repair. More unfortunately, this is going to be a necessary repair. Existing fan coil make and model are not identifiable. The building is experiencing a noticeable problem in this regard and the problem will surely continue to grow. The fan coil units are clearly at end of life and must be replaced. The problems are the inability of the fan coil stack to remove the condensation moisture created by the system as well as the deterioration that moisture has caused to the fan coil housing over time. Inside the fan coil unit, which is hidden behind sheetrock (which must be removed in order to replace the fan coil units) there is a housing door for the fan motor. The housing door is held on by screws. The rim of the housing door is covered in an insulation that stops the sound of metal on metal vibration near the motor and looks a lot like the soft side of Velcro. The insulation has frayed over near 30 years of use and the air circulation of the system itself has caused the frayed pieces of insulation to get sucked into the drain ports which are now mostly clogged. The floor level trays are therefore often full of standing water, heavily rusted and shedding overflow water where they should not. The water makes its way down the fan coil stacks and leaks to the commercial spaces on the first floor which generates complaints; it also soaks the dwelling unit carpet and floor at the base of the fan coil unit. ELC opened at least 20 of 69 fan coil units. We found that the model information sticker was in every case just plain gone and that the majority of the units we viewed were holding about inch of standing water. Their trays were very near rusted through; a light finger press caused breakage via crumbling; the water that had been standing in the tray simply drained out into the unit below. ELC photographed a sign posted in the elevator requesting that tenants call for maintenance when their carpets become saturated at the base of their heater/AC. Unfortunately, the limited vision of elderly tenants often fails to perceive the saturation.

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14 6.4 - Fresh Air Feed to Building: Dravo Hastings system on roof is failing in two regards. This system feeds fresh air into the building by driving outside air into the corridors; units are fed fresh air via negative pressurization and undercut doors to corridors. The units heating coil is not working, therefore, during the cold Appalachian Winter, the halls are being fed very cold air. The furnace clearly needs to offset this by increasing its output; so, the energy consequences are obvious. This is an energy problem, not a safety problem but it should clearly be resolved by repairing the units heating coil. The larger problem with the fresh air system is in the ducting. This roof mounted unit and system does not seem to be feeding fresh air to floors 2 through 4 at all. Clearly the internal air quality ramifications are significant. ELC estimates that 70% of the air that this system circulates is being fed to the 6th floor. Another 20% is feeding the 5th floor. Very little if any fresh air is being fed to floors 2-4. There is a ducting failure (clog or hole) somewhere in the system. ELC tried at length to trace the ducting through the attic but reached limits of accessibility and time. This problem is likely to be inexpensively tracked down by an appropriate contractor. Recommendation is for duct leakage testing and repair as well as repair of the heating unit. 6.5 - Birds nesting in Chimney: Fireplace no longer uses chimney. At dusk ELC noticed and took a video of thousands of birds entering the chimney over a 10 minute period. There is no way to determine where in the building the birds go. The chimney should be netted or closed off entirely at its opening, clearly during the middle of a clear day so that the birds are not there. The video is really somewhat surprising; thousands is without doubt not an exaggeration. An astounding amount of bird waste is collecting somewhere. This will continue, if unaddressed, until the sheer weight of the bird waste build up causes a failure to the system (roof, ceiling) currently supporting it. 6.6 - Windows: The largest tenant complaint and probably the largest energy waste for the building. Windows are too difficult for the elderly tenants to operate due to high friction. Additionally, they lack screens in a mosquito rich area. The energy consequence is that tenants use AC all summer when they would rather open windows. The vacuum between window panes has failed and tenants complain that windows fog for most of the winter. The air seal between window frame and brick wall is deficient and causes drafts sufficient to move curtains. The windows are

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15 not tinted and whatever the U factor was when they were new is no longer intact due to vacuum failure between panes. In all, there is a strong case for upgrading windows; however, energy modeled energy savings may not support the case as energy models may not consider tenant behavior (inability to open existing windows) and energy model may determine the energy savings based upon the manufacturers stated performance characteristics of the current windows when they were new; performance has deteriorated due to loss of vacuum. Interpretation is program dependent. Historical rep will need to approve potential new window selection. When these windows were installed almost 30 years ago, installers paid little attention to caulking as compared to today. Pennies could be pinched by not replacing the courtyard facing windows in the corridors. Dwelling unit windows should be addressed as the buildings thermal leakage will be significantly reduced by modern window installation standards. 6.7 - Lighting: Lighting system includes Fluorescent T12 lamps and standard Edisonbase fixtures which can receive incandescent or CFL and has not been upgraded since last renovation circa 1986. Fluorescent T12 lamps and ballasts (fixtures) are the standard in the non-residential areas including commercial suites, hallways, reception area, leasing office, basement storage and mechanical rooms. Non-residential spaces were generally void of additional task lighting. These antiquated fixtures are due for replacement. Commercial suites 60-68 Main St. have available window display cases with Edison-based fixtures. The retail store Thomas Jewelers has track lighting with halogen bulbs. These halogen bulbs are doing a great job in heating the displays and ceiling, independent of the spaces heating or cooling needs. Residential spaces and some common areas have Edison-based light fixtures. It is the practice of staff to replace these fixtures with CFLs but incandescent bulbs are by far most common, especially in residential units where tenants have provided the replacement bulbs; upgrade to pin based recommended. 6.8 - Tenant and Manager Complaints: a. It is difficult to convey how much Elena wants and needs a new Dial-Com; this is the unit that tenants use to buzz people up by unlocking the lobby

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16 door. Fact is, the Dial-Com system is entirely antiquated and this is accomplished wirelessly and via telephone today. The elderly tenants favor the low tech, already understood Dial-Com that was vogue in their 1950s60s hay days. They do not realize that what they want is equivalent to a brand new black and white, nine channel TV. In any case, the ability of tenants to recognize and grant entry to callers must be resolved as this is a true security problem for the building and a significant time drain and inconvenience for Elena. The back door to the building does not lock when it swings shut. Tenants often use this door (to parking lot) and Peter feels exposed to the potential of entry by vagrants intent on theft or a warm place to sleep. Tenants want the ability to have heat or AC as necessary during Fall and Spring. Currently the entire building must provide either heat or AC. This will not change as there is only one hydronic line in the building and it can either be used by the furnace or the chiller, but not by both simultaneously. Largest tenant complaint is drafty, hard to open windows that lack screens and fog all winter. Building manager would like the device in her managers unit that enables her to know which tenant has rung her repaired. The unit currently only conveys that a tenant has rung; so, when a tenant needs managers assistance after hours, tenant rings for manager and Elena (upon hearing the alert in her unit) must go down to the office to determine which dwelling unit called for assistance before she can go to that dwelling unit. These elderly tenants are often in need of assistance urgently. The building manager, Elena, is an angle, but no spring chicken herself, and she does not move quickly as is. This should be resolved for the safety of the elderly tenants and Elenas convenience. ELC audit staff makes the following complaint on behalf of the tenants and management of SLA who are not currently aware of the problem. SLA IAQ is currently deficient and must be resolved. Floors 2-4 are receiving very little fresh air. Some exhaust fans do not suck sufficiently to hold a single, square piece of toilet paper to the grate. The window upgrade that will likely be recommended to address energy loss due to thermal leakage will worsen the IAQ problem. Ventilation must be addressed.



d. e.


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7. Qualifications and Representations

This Green Physical Needs Assessment (GPNA) has been conducted in accordance with Building Performance Institute (BPI) guidelines. Assumptions and extrapolations have been avoided as this report is intended to clarify factual information and existing conditions. This report will provide decision makers with the information necessary to insure via remediation that this building is running well; but not necessarily to maximum energy efficiency. Energy efficiency will be addressed via an ASHRAE Level 1 Audit. This GPNA conveys building and equipment efficiencies and deficiencies. Energy Liberty Corporation personnel involved in the study include Johanna Stutz and Giovanni Ceciro. following pages. Energy Liberty Corporation warrants the integrity of this report and all statements included therein. SLA was photo documented at length during our inspection of the building. Report findings have been supported via geo and date stamped photo documentation whenever possible. Approximately 1,500 photos have been catalogued and can be provided on request. The most crucial 25% of the photos are labeled and all photos are sorted to appropriate folders. Photos are all of very high quality and may be blown up for detail when needed. Pertinent mechanical equipment manuals were scanned where available and are also available on request. Energy Liberty Corporation shall be pleased to discuss and clarify the findings of this report with any reader, at any future time, at no cost. It has been an honor and privilege to engage and serve the deserving management and tenants of Senior Living Apartments. As Managing Principle of Energy Liberty Corporation, I, Giovanni Ceciro, personally attest to the accuracy of the information contained in this report. I shall ensure that my corporation will be at all times responsive to the needs of this senior community and this shall be my privilege. Documentation of certifications appears on the

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