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EEK 471 LAB 7

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

Familiarization with the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit (Chopper Modes)


OBJECTIVE To learn how to use the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the various chopper modes.

INTRODUCTION The Chopper/Inverter Control Unit The chopper/Inverter Control Unit, whose front panel is shown in Figure 1, is a control element which is especially designed to build two major types of power electronic circuits: choppers and inverters. There are ten modes in which the chopper/Inverter control Unit can operate. These modes are listed below. OFF CHOP.PWM CHOP. STEPS 3~ 120 3~ 180 3~ P1 3~ P2 3~ V/f 2~ 180 AUX Standby Pulse-width modulation (PWM) control chopper Two-step control chopper 120 modulation three-phase inverter 180 modulation three-phase inverter Programmed-waveform 1 modulation three-phase inverter Programmed-waveform 2 modulation three-phase inverter Constant V/f ratio three-phase inverter 180 modulation two-phase inverter Auxiliary

In the OFF mode, the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit runs in a standby condition where it generates no control signals. Notice that the Chopper/Inverter Control unit also runs in the standby condition in the AUX mode. This mode is kept available for future developments. The Pulse-width Modulation (CHOP.PWM) and two-step control (CHOP.STEPS) modes of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit are used to build various types of choppers. These modes are dealt with in this section. Six other modes of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, that 3~ 120, 3~ 180, 3~ P1, 3~ P2, 3~ V/f and 2~ 180 are used to build various types of inverters. These modes will be dealt with in the next section of this manual. The front panel of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit is divided into five sections which are described in the following subsections.

EEK 471 LAB 7

Figure 1: Front panel of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit.

The two-step control chopper MODE (CHOP. STEPS) In this mode, the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit acts as a controller for a two-step neutral-zone control system, which is sometimes referred to as a bang-bang control system. A two-step neutral-zone control system is a closed-loop control system. As in any closed-loop control system, there is a reference signal, a feedback signal and an error signal. The controller in a twostep neutral-zone control system sends an on/off signal to the device which operates on the variable under control, so that the value of this variable remains between two predefined values, which are often referred to as set points. Therefore, the error on the controlled variable remains in a certain range of values which is referred to as the neutral zone. For example, a two-step neutral-zone controller, such as the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit used in the CHOP, STEPS MODE, can be used to switch the transistor(s) in a chopper ON and OFF so that the instantaneous voltage, current, temperature etc., remains within two given set points. Figure 2 shows an example of the signals generated in such a circuit when the variable under control is voltage. As can be seen, the control signals generated by the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit change state when the instantaneous voltage reaches the lower and upper set points. This makes the error signal, that is the difference between the reference voltage (reference signal) and the instantaneous voltage (feedback signal) remain in the neutral zone defined by the two set points. Notice that the control signals generated by the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, which are numbered 1, 2, 4, and 5, can be injected through isolators and amplifiers into the MOSFET gates bearing the same number in the choppers circuit. These control signals are available on pins 1, 2, 4, and 5 of the control outputs connector, respectively.

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Figure 2: Example of signals generated in a two-step neutral-zone control chopper. In the CHOP.STEPS MODE, CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 3 are used to inject the reference and feedback signals, respectively into the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. Voltages varying between -10 and + 10 V can be applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 3. CONTROL INPUT 2 allows the range of the neutral zone to be set. This range is equal to one half the absolute value of the voltage applied to CONTROL INPUT 2. This voltage can be varied between 0 and 10 V. Let us consider an example where the voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2 are equal to +7 V and 3 V, respectively. This sets the reference signal to +7 V and the range of the neutral zone to 1.5 V (3V 2). Since the range of the neutral zone straddles the reference signal, the upper set point is at +7.75V (7V + 0.75V) and the lower set point is at + 6.25V (7V - 0.75V).

EQUIPMENTS EMS 8821 Enclosure Power Supply EMS 8840-0A PE Power Supply EMS 8837-0A Power Mosfets Module EMS 9029-00 Chopper/Inverter Control Unit EMS 9034-00 PID Controller Unit Textronic Oscilloscope Connection Leads BNC-connector cable

EEK 471 LAB 7

WARNINGS The voltages and currents that are used during this lab are larger and rated at 240VDC Line-toNeutral with current as high as 20 amps (or higher if circuits are improperly connected). Please take the proper precautions and use your head before touching any circuitry. NEVER change any circuit connections while the power supply is turned on. Ask the demonstrator to check your connections before turning on the switches. And follow the rating of voltmeters and ammeters given to prevent equipments from damaged. Experiment: Part I The PWM-control chopper MODE (CHOP.PWM) 1. In this part, you will use the circuit shown in Figure 1a to observe the control signals the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit generates in the CHOP.PWM.MODE. You will vary the voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2 while observing the PWM control signals to verify the functions of these inputs. Connect the modules as shown in Figure 1a. Note that the DC SOURCE 1 and 2 are part of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit.

Figure 1a: Circuit for observing the operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the CHOP.PWM.MODE. 2. Set the rocker switch of power supply to the 1 position. Make the following settings on the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit DC SOURCE 1 Mid position DC SOURCE 2 Minimum MODE CHOP. PWM 3. Set the rocker switch of power supply to the 1 position. Use the oscilloscope to observe control signals 1, 2, 4, and 5 generated by the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. These signals are available on SWITCHING CONTROL INPUTS 1, 2, 4, and 5 of the Power MOSFETS module, respectively. Sketch the waveforms of these signals in Figure 1b. Do these signals resemble those shown in the discussion for this mode of operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit? 4. Connect channels 1 and 2 of the oscilloscope to SWITCHING CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 4 of the Power MOSFETS module, respectively. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly turn the DC SOURCE 1 control knob in both directions while observing control signals 1 and 4 on the oscilloscope screen. Describe what happens. What is the function of CONTROL INPUT 1 when the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit operates in the CHOP.PWM.MODE?

EEK 471 LAB 7

Figure 1b: Waveforms of the control signals generated in the CHOP.PWM.MODE

5. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, set the DC SOURCE 1 control knob to the middle position. Slowly turn the DC SOURCE 2 control knob in both directions while observing control signals 1 and 4 on the oscilloscope screen. Describe what happens. What is the function of CONTROL INPUT 2 when the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit operates in the CHOP.PWM.MODE?

6. Set the main power switch to the 0 position and turn OFF the power supply. Remove all leads, cables and probes.

EEK 471 LAB 7

Experiment: Part II The two-step control chopper MODE (CHOP.PWM) [open loop operation] 1. In this part, you will use the circuit shown in Figure 2a to understand the operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the CHOP.STEPS.MODE (operation as a two-step neutral-zone controller). In this circuit, the voltage applied to CONTROL INPUT 1 is the reference signal and the voltage applied to CONTROL INPUT 2 sets the range of the neutral zone. The voltage applied to CONTROL INPUT 3 is the feedback signal. As you can see the feedback loop is opened in this circuit. You will determine the upper and lower voltage set points from the voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2. You will vary the feedback voltage using DC SOURCE 2 while observing the control signal produced by the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. Connect the modules as shown in Figure 2a. Note that the DC SOURCE 1 and 2 are part of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit.

Figure 2a: Circuit for observing the operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the CHOP.PWM.MODE (open loop operation).

2. Set the rocker switch of power supply to the 1 position. Make the following settings on the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit DC SOURCE 1 Mid position DC SOURCE 2 Mid position MODE CHOP. STEPS 3. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, set the DC SOURCE 1 control knob so that the voltage applied to CONTROL INPUTS 2 (channel 1 on the oscilloscope) is equal to +4 V dc. From the dc voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, determine the values of the reference voltage and the voltage range of the neutral zone. Reference voltage: __________ V Neutral zone range: __________ V From the reference voltage and the voltage range of the neutral zone. Determine the upper and lower voltage set points of the two-step neutral zone controller. Upper voltage set point (calculated): __________ V Lower voltage set point (calculated): __________ V

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4. Disconnect the oscilloscope probe connected to CONTROL INPUT 2 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit then connect it to CONTROL INPUT 3 of the same module. The oscilloscope now displays the feedback signal (on channel 1) and the control signal produced by the two-step neutral zone controller (on channel 2). On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly vary the setting of the DC SOURCE 2 control knob so that the voltage at CONTROL INPUT 3 (feedback signal) varies between 0 and +8 V while observing the control signal produced by the two-step neutral-zone controller. Describe what happens. 5. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, vary the setting of the DC SOURCE 2 control knob to slowly vary the voltage at CONTROL INPUT 3. While doing this, observe the control signal produced by the two-step neutral-zone controller to determine the feedback voltages at which the level of the control signal changes. Note these voltages in the spaces provided below. These voltages correspond to the upper and lower voltage set points of the two-step neutral-zone controller. Upper voltage set point (measured): __________ V Lower voltage set point (measured): __________ V Are the calculated and measured voltage set points nearly equal? Briefly explain the operation of the two-step neutral-zone controller. 6. Set the main power switch to the 0 position and turn OFF the power supply. Remove all leads, cables and probes.

EEK 471 LAB 7

Experiment: Part III The two-step control chopper MODE (CHOP.PWM) [close loop operation] 1. In this part, you will use the circuit shown in Figure 3a to control signal produced by the two-step neutral-zone controller (available on SWITCHING CONTROL INPUT 4 of the Power MOSFETS module) is fed back to CONTROL INPUT 3 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit through LOW PASS FILTER 2 in the P.I.D. Controller. LOW PASS FILTER 2 acts as a simple RC circuit which integrates the control signal produced by the two-step neutral-zone controller. You will determine the upper and lower voltage set points from the voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2. You will vary the voltages at CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2 while observing the effect on the control signal and the feedback signal. Connect the modules as shown in Figure 3a. Note that the DC SOURCE 1 and 2 are part of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit.

Figure 3a: Circuit for observing the operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the CHOP.PWM.MODE (closed loop operation). 1. In the circuit of Figure 3a, SWITCHING CONTROL INPUT 4 of the Power MOSFETS module is used as an output. It delivers control signal 4 coming from the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. Set the rocker switch of power supply to the 1 position. Make the following settings on the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. DC SOURCE 1 Mid position DC SOURCE 2 Mid position MODE CHOP. STEPS 2. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, set the DC SOURCE 1 and DC SOURCE 2 control knobs so that the voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2 are equal to +2 V dc. From the dc voltages applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, determine the values of the reference voltage, the voltage range of the neutral zone, the upper and lower voltage set points. Reference voltage: __________ V Neutral zone range: __________ V Upper voltage set point (calculated): __________ V Lower voltage set point (calculated): __________ V

EEK 471 LAB 7

3. Disconnect the oscilloscope probe connected to CONTROL INPUT 1 and 2 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit then connect them to the LOW PASS FILTER 2 INPUT of the P.I.D. Controller and CONTROL INPUT 3 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit respectively. On the oscilloscope, set the channel 1 sensitivity to 2 V/DIV. The oscilloscope now displays the control signal produced by the two-step neutral-zone controller (on channel 1) and the feedback signal applied to CONTROL INPUT 3 (on channel 2). Sketch the waveforms of these signals in Figure 3b.

Figure 3b: Waveforms of the signals generated in the CHOP.STEPS MODE (+2 V applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2). 4. Determine the maximum and minimum voltages the feedback signal reaches. Does the voltage of the feedback signal remains between the upper and lower voltage set points calculated in the previous steps? Maximum feedback voltage: __________ V Minimum feedback voltage: __________ V 5. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly turn the DC SOURCE 2 control knob in both directions to vary the voltage applied to CONTROL INPUT 2 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. While doing this, observe the feedback signal on the oscilloscope. Describe what happens. Briefly describe the function of CONTROL INPUT 2 when the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit operates in the CHOP.STEPS MODE 6. On Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, set the DC SOURCE 2 control knob so that the feedback signal resembles again the feedback signal sketched in Figure 3b. On the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit, slowly turn the DC SOURCE 1 control knob in both directions to vary the voltage applied to CONTROL INPUT 1 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit. While doing this, observe the control signal produced by the two-step neutral-zone controller and the feedback signal on the oscilloscope. Describe what happens. Briefly describe the function of CONTROL INPUT 1 when the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit operates in the CHOP.STEPS MODE. 7. Set the main power switch to the 0 position and turn OFF the power supply. Remove all leads, cables and probes.

EEK 471 LAB 7

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Briefly describe the operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the CHOP. PWM MODE. 2. What are CONTROL INPUTS 1, 2, and 3 of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit used for in the CHOP.STEPS MODE? 3. Briefly describe the operation of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit in the CHOP.STEPS MODE. 4. Determine the reference voltage, the voltage range of the neutral zone and the upper and lower voltage set points when voltages of 6 V and + 2 V are applied to CONTROL INPUTS 1 and 2, respectively of a Chopper/Inverter Control Unit operating in the CHOP.STEPS MODE. 5. What are the duty cycle and frequency ranges of the control signals generated in the CHOP.PWM MODE of the Chopper/Inverter Control Unit?

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