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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Unit 3

Till now we have been discussing the one dimensional Fourier Transforms .In digital image processing it is mandatory to have two dimensional transforms. Basically, Fourier's contribution in this field states that any periodic function can be expressed as the sum of sines and/or cosines of different frequencies, each multiplied by a different coefficient. Even functions that are not periodic (but whose area under the curve is finite) can be expressed as the integral of sines and/or cosines multiplied by a weighing function. The formulation in this case is the Fourier transform, and its utility is even greater than the Fourier series in many theoretical and applied disciplines. Both representations share the important characteristic that a function, expressed in either a Fourier series or transform, can be reconstructed (recovered) completely via an inverse process, with no loss of information.

3.1 Complex Numbers


A complex number, C, is defined as C == R + jI where R and I are real numbers, and j is an imaginary number equal to the square of -1; that is, j = Here, R denotes the real part of the complex number and 1 its imaginary part. Real numbers are a subset of complex numbers in which I = O. The conjugate of a complex number C denoted C*,is defined as C = R j I

Complex numbers can be viewed geometrically as points in a plane (called the complex plane) whose abscissa is the real axis (values of R) and whose ordinate is the imaginary axis (values of I). That is, the complex number R + jI is point (R, I) in the rectangular coordinate system of the complex plane. Sometimes, it is useful to represent complex numbers in polar coordinates, C = ICI ( + j sin)

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Unit 3

Addition: (a + jb) + (c + jd) = (a + c) + j(b + d) Multiplication: (a + jb).(c + jd) = (ac bd) + j(ad + bc) Here a is the real number R b is the imaginary number I

3.2 Fourier series


A function f (t) of a continuous variable t that is periodic with period, T, can be expressed as the sum of sines and cosines multiplied by appropriate coefficients. This sum, known as a Fourier series, has the form

Where

are the coefficients in the expansion of cosines and sines.

3.3 Fourier Transform


The Fourier transform of a continuous function f (t) of a continuous variable, t, denoted; {f(t)}, is defined by the equation

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Unit 3

Where is also a continuous variable. Because t is integrated out, {f(t)} is a function only of . Hence the Fourier transform is represented as; {f (t)} = F (); that is, the Fourier transform of f(t) may be written for convenience as

Conversely the inverse Fourier Transform is given by f(t) = -1{F ()}

The above two equations together are caller as the Fourier Transform Pairs.

3.4 Discrete Fourier Transform for 2 variable functions or 2D functions.


3.4.1 The 2-D Continuous Fourier Transform Pair Let f(t, z) be a continuous function of two continuous variables, t and z. The two-dimensional, continuous Fourier transform pair is given by the expressions

and

where u and v are the frequency variables. When referring to images, t and z are interpreted to be continuous spatial variables. As in the I-D case, the domain of the variables J-L and v defines the continuous frequency domain. 3.4.2 The 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform and Its Inverse The 2-D discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is denoted by F(u,v)

where f(x, y) is a digital image of size M x N. As in the 1 -D case, the values are evaluated for the discrete variables 1I and v in the ranges u = 0, 1, 2, ... , M - 1 and v = 0, 1, 2, . , .. N 1

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

Unit 3

Given the transform F(u, v), we can obtain f(x, y) by using the inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT):

for x = 0,1,2, ... , M - 1 and y = 0,1,2, ... , N -1. The above two equations constitute the 2-D discrete Fourier transform pair.