1
CFD Fundamentals and Applications
Metin Ozen, Ph.D., CFD Research Corporation
Ashok Das, Ph.D., Applied Materials
KimParnell, Ph.D., Parnell Engineering and Consulting
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AGENDA
n 9:009:05 Introductions by Scott Burr
n 9:0510:30 CFD Fundamentals by Metin Ozen
n 10:3010:45 Break
n 10:4512:00 Applications in Semiconductor Industry
by Ashok Das
n 12:001:00 LUNCH
n 1:002:15 Applications in Biomedical Industry by Kim
Parnell
n 2:152:30 Break
n 2:30:3:45 CFD Applications by Metin Ozen
n 3:454:00 Q&A
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Some CFD Books
n Computational Fluid Dynamics: The
Basics with Applications
John David Anderson
n Computational Methods for Fluid
Dynamics Joel H. Ferziger
n Turbulence Modeling for CFD David C.
Wilcox
n http://www.sali.freeservers.com/engineering/cfd/cfd_books.html
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Definitions of CFD on the WEB
n Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); the simulation
or prediction of fluid flow using computers
n Computer modeling of fluid behaviour, for example
the flow of fuel/air mixture into a combustion
chamber.
n Computational Fluid Dynamics refers to
computational solutions of differential equations,
such as the Navier Stokes set, describing fluid
motion.
n
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What is CFD?
1
n CFD has grown from a mathematical curiosity to
become an essential tool in almost every branch of
fluid dynamics, from aerospace propulsion to
weather prediction. CFD is commonly accepted as
referring to the broad topic encompassing the
numerical solution, by computational methods, of the
governing equations which describe fluid flow, the
set of the NavierStokes equations, continuity and
any additional conservation equations, for example
energy or species concentrations.
1  http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/sme/cfd/
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Biochips
BioMedical
MEMS
Semiconductor
Equipment & Processes
Environmental
CBW Protection
Fuel Cells
Power Conversion
Plasmas
NonEquilibrium
Thermal
Combustion
Propulsion
Microelectronics
Photonics
Aerodynamics
Aerostructures
CFD RESEARCH CORPORATION CFD RESEARCH CORPORATION   Major Major Application Application Areas of CFD Areas of CFD
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What is CFD?
n As a developing science, Computational Fluid
Dynamics has received extensive attention
throughout the international community since the
advent of the digital computer. The attraction of the
subject is twofold. Firstly, the desire to be able to
model physical fluid phenomena that cannot be easily
simulated or measured with a physical experiment,
for example weather systems or hypersonic
aerospace vehicles. Secondly, the desire to be able to
investigate physical fluid systems more cost
effectively and more rapidly than with experimental
procedures.
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What is CFD?
n There has been considerable growth in the
development and application of Computational Fluid
Dynamics to all aspects of fluid dynamics. In design
and development, CFD programs are now considered
to be standard numerical tools, widely utilised within
industry. As a consequence there is a considerable
demand for specialists in the subject, to apply and
develop CFD methods throughout engineering
companies and research organisations.
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Commercial CFD Codes  1
n ACRi
n ARSoftware (TEP: a combustion analysis tool for windows)
n COSMIC NASA
n Fluent Inc. (FLUENT, FIDAP, POLYFLOW, GAMBIT, TGrid, Icepak, Airpak, MixSim)
n Flowtech Int. AB (SHIPFLOW: analysis of flow around ships)
n Fluid Dynamics International, Inc. (FIDAP)
n ANSYSCFX (CFX: 3D fluid flow/heat transfer code)
n ICEM CFD (ICEM CFD, Icepak)
n KIVA (reactive flows)
n CFD Research Corporation (ACE: reactive flows)
n Computational Dynamics Ltd. (STARCD)
n Analytical Methods, Inc. (VSAERO, USAERO, OMNI3D, INCA)
n AeroSoft, Inc. (GASP and GUST)
n Ithaca Combustion Enterprises (PDF2DS)
n Flow Science, Inc. (FLOW3D)
n ALGOR, Inc. (ALGOR)
n Engineering Mechanics Research Corp. (NISA)
n Reaction Engineering International (BANFF/GLACIER)
n Combustion Dynamics Ltd. (SuperSTATE)
n AVL List Gmbh. (FIRE)
n IBM Corp. catalogue (30 positions)
n Sun Microsystems catalogue (70 positions)
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Commercial CFD Codes 2
n Cray Research catalogue (100 positions)
n Silicon Graphics, Inc. catalogue (75 positions)
n Pointwise, Inc. (Gridgen  structured grids)
n Simulog (N3S Finite Element code, MUSCL)
n Directory of CFD codes on IBM supercomputer environment
n ANSYS, Inc. (FLOTRAN)
n Flomercis Inc. (FLOTHERM)
n Computational Mechanics Corporation
n Computational Mechanics Company, Inc. (COMCO)
n KASIMIR (shock tube simulation program)
n Livermore Software Technology Corporation (LSDYNA3D)
n Advanced Combustion Eng. Research Center (PCGC, FBED)
n NUMECA International s.a. (FINE, FINE/Turbo, FINE/Aero, IGG, IGG/Autogrid)
n Computational Engineering International., Inc. (EnSight, ...)
n Blocon Software Agency (HEAT2, HEAT3)
n Adaptive Research Corp. (CFD2000)
n Unicom Technology Systems (VORSTABPC)
n Incinerator Consultants Incorporated (ICI)
n PHOENICS/CHAM (multiphase flow, NS, combustion)
n Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (LAMDA)
n XYZ Scientific Applications, Inc. (TrueGrid)
n South Bay Simulations, Inc. (SPLASH)
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Commercial CFD Codes  3
n PHASES Engineering Solutions
n Engineering Sciences, Inc. (UNIC)
n Catalpa Research, Inc. (TIGER)
n Swansea NS codes (LAM2D, TURB)
n Engineering Systems International S.A. (PAMFLOW, PAMFLUID)
n Daat Research Corp. (COOLIT)
n Flomerics Inc. (FLOVENT)
n Innovative Research, Inc.
n Centric Engineering Systems, Inc. (SPECTRUM)
n Blue Ridge Numerics, Inc.
n WinPipeD
n Exa Corporation (PowerFLOW)
n Polyflow s.a.
n Flow Pro
n Computational Aerodynamics Systems Co.
n Tahoe Design Software
n ADINAF
n YFLOW
n PSW
n Advanced Visual Systems
n Flo++
n KSNIS
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Commercial CFD Codes  4
n Flowcode
n Concert
n SMARTFIRE
n VISCOUS
n Polydynamics
n Cullimore and Ring Technologies, Inc. (SINDA/FLUINT, SINAPS)
n Linflow (ANKER  ZEMER ENGINEERING)
n PFDReaction
n Airfoil Analysis
n Institute of Computational Continuum Mechanics GmbH
n CFD++
n RADIOSSCFD
n VECTIS
n MAYA Simulation
n Compass
n Arena Flow
n Newmerical Technologies International
n CFDpc
n NIKA EFDLab
n SC/Tetra
n TES International
n ACUITIV
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Computational Fluid Dynamics
2
n Computational Fluid Dynamics is concerned with
obtaining numerical solution to fluid flow problems
by using computers. The advent of highspeed and
largememory computers has enabled CFD to obtain
solutions to many flow problems including those that
are compressible or incompressible, laminar or
turbulent, chemically reacting or nonreacting.
2  http://www.sali.freeservers.com/engineering/cfd/#gotop
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Computational Fluid Dynamics
n The equations governing the fluid flow problem are
the continuity (conservation of mass), the Navier
Stokes (conservation of momentum), and the energy
equations. These equations form a system of coupled
nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs).
Because of the nonlinear terms in these PDEs,
analytical methods can yield very few solutions.
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Governing (NavierStokes) Equations
(in Cartesian Tensor form)
n Continuity  Conservation of mass
??/?t + ?(?u
i
)/?x
i
= 0
n NavierStokes  Conservation of Momentum
?(?v
i
)/?t + ?(?v
i
v
j
)/?x
j
= ?B
i
 ?p/?x
i
 ?/?x
i
[2/3(?v
j
/?x
j
)]
+ ?/?x
j
[(?v
i
/?x
j
+ ?v
j
/?x
i
)]
(For compressible and viscous flows)
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Computational Fluid Dynamics
n In general, closed form analytical solutions are
possible only if these PDEs can be made linear, either
because nonlinear terms naturally drop out (eg., fully
developed flows in ducts and flows that are inviscid
and irrotational everywhere) or because nonlinear
terms are small compared to other terms so that they
can be neglected (eg., creeping flows, small
amplitude sloshing of liquid etc.). If the nonlinearities
in the governing PDEs cannot be neglected, which is
the situation for most engineering flows, then
numerical methods are needed to obtain solutions.
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Governing (NavierStokes) Equations
n Continuity  Conservation of mass
??/?t + ?(?u)/?x + ?(?v)/?y + ?(?w)/?z = 0
(For compressible and viscous flows)
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Governing (NavierStokes) Equations
n Conservation of Momentum
?[?u/?t + u?u/?x + v?u/?y + w?u/?z] = ?B
x
 ?p/?x 
(2/3)?/?x[(?u/?x+?v/?y + ?w/?z)] + 2?/?x(?u/?x) + ?/?y[(?u/?y +
?v/?x)]+?/?z[(?u/?z+?w/?x)]
?[?v/?t + u?v/?x + v?v/?y + w?v/?z] = ?B
y
 ?p/?y 
(2/3)?/?y[(?u/?x+?v/?y + ?w/?z)] + 2?/?y(?v/?y) + ?/?z[(?v/?z +
?w/?y)]+?/?x[(?v/?x+?u/?y)]
?[?w/?t + u?w/?x + v?w/?y + w?w/?z] = ?B
z
 ?p/?z 
(2/3)?/?z[(?u/?x+?v/?y + ?w/?z)] + 2?/?z(?w/?z) + ?/?x[(?w/?x +
?u/?z)] + ?/?y[(?w/?y + ?v/?z)]
(For compressible and viscous flows)
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Computational Fluid Dynamics
n CFD is the art of replacing the differential equation
governing the Fluid Flow, with a set of algebraic
equations (the process is called discretization), which
in turn can be solved with the aid of a digital
computer to get an approximate solution. The well
known discretization methods used in CFD are Finite
Difference Method (FDM), Finite Volume Method
(FVM), Finite Element Method (FEM), and Boundary
Element Method (BEM).
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CFD SOLUTION METHODS
n FDM Resistance Network
n FEM [K] {u} = {F}
n FVM [A] {} = {Q}
n BEM [B] {d} = {P}
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Computational Fluid Dynamics
2
n Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a good
example of the many areas that a scientific
computing project can touch on, and its relationship
to Computer Science. Fluid flows are modeled by a
set of partial differential equations, the NavierStokes
equations. Except for special cases no closedform
solutions exist to the NavierStokes equations.
2  http://www.sali.freeservers.com/engineering/cfd/#gotop
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CFD  DISCRETIZATION
n Solving a particular problem generally involves first
discretizing the physical domain that the flow occurs
in, such as the interior of turbine engine or the
radiator system of a car. This discretization is
straightforward for very simple geometries such as
rectangles or circles, but is a difficult problem in CAD
for more complicated objects.
n This issue necessitates automatic mesh generation.
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CFD PROBLEM SIZE
n On the discretized mesh the NavierStokes equations take the
form of a large system of nonlinear equations; going from the
continuum to the discrete set of equations is a problem that
combines both physics and numerical analysis; for example, it
is important to maintain conservation of mass in the discrete
equations. At each node in the mesh, between 3 and 20 variables
are associated: the pressure, the three velocity components,
density, temperature, etc. Furthermore, capturing physically
important phenomena such as turbulence requires extremely
fine meshes in parts of the physical domain. Currently meshes
with 20 000 to 2 000 000 nodes are common, leading to systems
with up to 40 000 000 unknowns.
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CFD  SOLVERS
n That system of nonlinear equations is typically solved by a
Newtonlike method, which in turn requires solving a large,
sparse system of equations on each step.
n Methods for solving large sparse systems of equations are a hot
topic right now, since that is often the most timeconsuming part
of the program, and because the ability to solve them is the
limiting factor in the size of problem and complexity of the
physics that can be handled
n Direct methods, which factor the matrices, require more
computer storage than is permissible for all but the smallest
problems.
n Iterative methods use less storage but suffer from a lack of
robustness: they often fail to converge.
n The solution is to use preconditioning; that is, to premultiply the
linear system by some matrix that makes it easier for the
iterative method to converge.
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CFD PARALLEL PROCESSING
n CFD problems are at the limits of computational
power, so parallel programming methods are used.
That brings in the research problem of how to
partition the data to assign parts of it to different
processors; usually domain decomposition methods
are applied. Domain decomposition is often
expressed as a graph partitioning problem, namely
finding a minimum edge cut partitioning of the
discrete mesh, with roughly the same number of
nodes in each partition set.
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CFD VISUALIZATION
n Once the solution is found, analyzing, validating, and
presenting it calls into play visualization and graphics
techniques. Those techniques are useful for more
than just viewing the computed flow field.
Visualization can help with understanding the nature
of the problem, the interaction of algorithms with the
computer architecture, performance analysis of the
code, and, most importantly, debugging!
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TYPICAL PROCEDURE
n CONCEPT/DESIGN
n GEOMETRY
n DISCRETIZATION/MESHING
n ENVIRONMENT
VOLUME CONDITIONS
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
INITIAL CONDITIONS
n SOLUTION
n VISUALIZATION
n (OPTIMIZATION)
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CFD PROBLEM SIZE
3
n In CFD, the flow region or calculation domain is divided into a
large number of finite volumes or cells. The governing partial
differential equations are discretized using a wide range of
techniques: finite difference, finite volume or finite element. This
provides a set of algebraic equations (corresponding to the
respective partial differential equations) for each dependent
variable in each cell volume or cell. A two dimensional
isothermal incompressible flow is governed by three equations,
namely, the continuity equation (conservation of mass), and two
momentum equations (Newton's Second Law), one for each
coordinate. For example consider the flow between the two
parallel plates shown in the figure.
3  http://www.cfdnet.com
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CFD PROBLEM SIZE
3
n For example consider the flow between the two parallel plates
shown in the figure.
n If the calculation domain is divided into 100 rectangular cells,
then there will be 100 algebraic equations for each velocity
component and 100 equations for the pressure, giving a total of
300 simultaneous algebraic equations.
3  http://www.cfdnet.com
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CFD PROBLEM SIZE
3
n These are gathered into matrices which are solved by
an iterative procedure. Once the solution is obtained
we have the values of the dependent variables (two
velocities and pressure) at each one of the cells.
Thus, the numerical solution gives the values of the
dependent variables at discrete locations, and
intermediate values have to be obtained by
interpolation. Thus, the finer the grid the better the
solution, however, the computational effort (CPU and
memory) increases proportionaly.
3  http://www.cfdnet.com
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CFD FLUID PROPERTIES
n Fluid is defined as a substance that cannot resist
stress by static deformation.
n Both gases and liquids are fluids.
n Density : defined as the mass of a small fluid element
divided by its volume (units in kg/m
3
)
volume
mass
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CFD FLUID PROPERTIES
n Viscosity: is defined in terms of the force needed to
pull a flat plate at constant speed across a layer of
fluid (Units in N.s/m
2
or Poise)
n Kinematic viscosity is defined as
Layer of fluid
v
F
dy
du
Shear strain
Shear stress
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CFD NEWTONIAN/NONNEWTONIAN
Newtonian Fluid
Fluids for which the shear stressshear
rate relation is a straight line passing
through the origin.
Common Newtonian Fluids
Water and air
NonNewtonian Fluid
Fluids that have a viscosity which
may be a function of not only the fluid
velocity, but also the velocity gradient
Common NonNewtonian Fluids
Blood and alcohol
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CFD EFFECT OF VISCOSITY
n Viscosity is a kind of internal friction.
n Viscosity prevents neighboring layers of fluid
from sliding freely past one another.
n Fluid in contact with the wall is stationary (noslip
condition).
Velocity of fluid varies from zero to a maximum along the axis
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CFD REYNOLDS NUMBER
n Reynolds number is a dimensionless number.
n Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertial to
viscous forces. It is defined as:
n Flow is characterized as LAMINAR or
TURBULENT based on the Reynolds number
(>2100 turbulent)
vL
Re
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CFD LAMINAR/TURBULENT
Re=1.54
Re=9.6
Re=13
Re=105
Re=150
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CFD LAW OF CONTINUITY
Mass Conservation: the rate of change of the conserved
quantity within a control volume minus the rate at which the
conserved quantity leaves the control volume
A
1
V
1
A
2
V
2
2 2 1 1
A V A V Adz
dt
d
> < > < > <
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CFD CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
Newtons second law states that the time rate of change of
the momentum of a fluid element is equal to the sum of the
forces on the element.
g p vv v
t
+
] . [ ] [
Rate of change
of momentum
Convection Pressure Viscous Gravitational
Surface forces Body forces
NavierStokes Equation
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CFD INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS
When the density of the fluid is constant, the form of
continuity equation and the momentum equation changes.
This applies to fluids where large pressure changes result in
only slight variations in density.
Density variations are primarily a function of temperature
gradients rather than pressure gradients.
dP
P
V
dT
T
V
dV
T P
) ( ) (
0
T
P
V
V
,
_
Equation of state
Isothermal compressibility
0 ) , , ( T V P f
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CFD COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS
n When density varies appreciably as a result of pressure
and temperature. The static temperature becomes a
function of velocity and stagnation temperature.
n Compressibility becomes important when the Mach
Number becomes greater than about 0.3.
n Mach Number is defined as the ratio of an objects speed
to the speed of sound in the medium through which the
object is traveling:
n when M is less than 1 the flow is subsonic, while
supersonic flows are with Mach numbers greater than
one.
a
v
M
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CFD BOUNDARY LAYER
The noslip boundary condition at the wall leads to the formation a
Boundary Layer.
A boundary layer is a thin fluid layer near the wall which experiences
velocity variations.
Inside the boundary layer the fluid velocity goes from some finite value
at the boundary layer edge to zero at the wall in a very short distance.
dy
v
u
) 1 ( *
0
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CFD BOUNDARY LAYER
x
y
u
U=0.99u
Flow
Boundary layer thickness
u
U
*
Flow
Displacement thickness
is defined as the
distance from the wall
where the velocity has
increased to 99 percent
of the freestream
velocity.
* is defined as the
distance to which
streamlines outside the
boundary layer are
displaced away from the
wall.
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CFD SOME PLANNING
n Is the flow laminar or turbulent?
n Is the fluid Newtonian or NonNewtonian?
n Is the fluid compressible or incompressible?
n Is boundary layer and near wall solution of importance?
n What are the fluid properties and are they dependent on state
variables (T, P,..)?
n What are the dominant physics?
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CFDACE(U) Introduction and Overview
CFD APPLICATIONS
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n CFDACE+ System
CFDACE(U) Modules
Unique Attributes
n Theory
General Transport Equation
Discrete Methods
Solution Procedure
Linear Equation Solvers
UnderRelaxation
n Graphical User Interface
CFD CFDACE+ OVERVIEW
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(1) Geometry and Grid Generation
(2) Problem Setup
(4) Post Processing
(3) Solution Generation
CFDGEOM CFDGUI CFDVIEW
Input Files Graphical Results
Batch Solver
CFDACE(U)
Text Results
Computational Grid
and BC / VC Locations
CFD CFDACE+ SYSTEM
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Optional Modules
Optional Modules
FLOW
HEAT TRANSFER
TURBULENCE
M IXING
USER SCALAR
RADIATION
CAVITATION
GRID DEFORMATION
STRESS
PLASMA
ELECTRIC
MAGNETIC
ELECTROPLATING
ELECTROKINETICS
BIOCHEMISTRY
FREE SURFACES
SPRAY
TWOFLUID
MONTECARLO RAD
Your Building Blocks for a MultiDisciplinary Simulation
Core Modules
CFD CFDACE+ MODULES
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n Structured or Unstructured Grid Systems
quadrilateral ( ), hexahedral ( )
triangle ( ), tetrahedral ( ), prism ( ), polyhedral ( )
+ =
n Arbitrary Interfaces
mix and match grid systems
parametric part studies
fully conservative
Velocity Vectors
on Second Design
Stream Traces on
First Design
CloseUp of Interface
CFD UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES
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n User Subroutines
ability to customize the solver for special needs
boundary conditions
properties
source terms
output
initial conditions
time step
grid deformation
much more...
11.6
3.4
2.6
1.8
1.0
6.4
0
4
8
12
16
0 4 8 12 16
S
p
e
e
d
u
p
F
a
c
t
o
r
Number of Processors
Ideal Speedup
Actual Speedup
n Parallel Processing
optional feature
automatic domain decomposition
CFD UNIQUE ATTRIBUTES
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Control Volume
t
S
t
+ +
) ( ) ( V
r
transient convection diffusion source
diffusion
convection convection
diffusion
source
CFD TRANSPORT EQUATION
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n General Transport Equation Can Be Used for All
Transported Quantities
momentum (u, v, w)
turbulence (, )
enthalpy (H)
species or mixture fractions (f
i
, Y
i
)
user scalar (), etc.
n Equations are Nonlinear and Coupled
simultaneous solution difficult
discretize
iterate
CFD TRANSPORT EQUATION
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n Calculation Domain Subdivided into
Discrete Control Volumes (Cells)
grid generation process
n Variables Calculated at Centers of Cells
assumed constant over entire cell
6 equally spaced cells 8 cells with stretching
n Build Equation for Each Variable at Each Cell
S a a a a a a a
L L H H S S N N W W E E P P
+ + + + + +
S
N L
H
W E
P
CFD DISCRETE METHODS
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S
P
W
N
E
n Each a
nb
Represents Effects of Convection and
Diffusion
w
w
w
w w W
A u a
,
_
+
W w w w
A u
w
w
P W
w
A
) (
e.g., at the west face
convection =
diffusion =
rearrange and assemble link coefficients
nb P
a a
u
w
S a a
nb nb P P
+
'
<
0 if
0 if
w P
w W
w
u
u
1stupwind
2
P W
w
+
central
'
<
0 if
2
1

2
3
0 if
2
1

2
3
w W P
w WW W
w
u
u
2ndupwind
n Upwind Blending Used to Maintain Stability
order higher upwind 1st
) 1 (
+
w w w
( is a user input)
CFD DISCRETE METHODS
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n Source Term ( S ) Contains Terms Other Than Convection and
Diffusion
transient term, boundary conditions, underrelaxation, etc.
linearized
P P U
S S S +
P P U nb nb P P
S S a a + +
U nb nb P P P
S a S a +
) (
n Final Equation
CFD DISCRETE METHODS
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At t=t
f
Prescribe Initial Flow Field
At t=t
f
Prescribe Initial Flow Field
t = t + t
t = t + t
Evaluate Link Coefficients (as)
Evaluate Link Coefficients (as)
Solve Velocities
Solve Velocities
Evaluate Mass Imbalances
Evaluate Mass Imbalances
Solve Pressure Correction
Solve Pressure Correction
Correct p, u, v, w
Correct p, u, v, w
Solve Enthalpy
Solve Enthalpy
Solve Mixture/Species Fractions
Solve Mixture/Species Fractions
Stop
Stop
Repeat For Each
Solution Iteration
(until solution stops changing)
Repeat For Each
Solution Iteration
(until solution stops changing)
Repeat For
Each Time Step
(transient simulations only)
Repeat For
Each Time Step
(transient simulations only)
Solve Turbulence / Scalar / Etc.
Solve Turbulence / Scalar / Etc.
SIMPLEC
CFD SOLUTION PROCEDURE
ASMESCVS Professional Development Series CFD Fundamentals & Applications
57
n Need to Solve Sparse Matrix of Equations
'
'
1
1
1
]
1
R A
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1
2 1
1
1 2
2 3 1
1 2 3
3 2 1
n n
n
n n
n n n
n n n
n n n
a a
a
a a
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
n Use an Iterative Linear Equation Solver
conjugate gradient squared (CGS)
conjugate gradient squared + preconditioning (CGS+Pre)
algebraic multigrid (AMG)
# cells
# cells
CFD LINEAR EQUATION SOLVERS
ASMESCVS Professional Development Series CFD Fundamentals & Applications
58
n Anywhere in Solution Procedure where SOLVE is
Found
Solve
Solve
Attempt to Solve
Attempt to Solve
R A
DONE
DONE
STOP with WARNING
STOP with WARNING
sweep = sweep + 1
sweep = sweep + 1
yes
no
sweep > maxsweeps
<
*
yes
no
criteria
(criteria and maxsweeps are user inputs)
CFD LINEAR EQUATION SOLVERS
ASMESCVS Professional Development Series CFD Fundamentals & Applications
59
n Used to Constrain the Solution From One Iteration to the Next
necessary to prevent divergence of the solution procedure
different methods for the solved and auxiliary variables
*
P P
*
) (
P P U nb nb P P P P P
a S a a S a + + +
I I
(I is a user input)
n Inertial UnderRelaxation (Solved Variables)
add a term to each side of the equation
at convergence so there is no effect
I usually varies from ~0.0 to ~2.0 with ~0.2 the
default
increasing the value of I adds constraint
(stability)
increasing the value of I slows convergence
CFD UNDER RELAXATION
ASMESCVS Professional Development Series CFD Fundamentals & Applications
60
n Linear UnderRelaxation (Auxiliary Variables)
auxiliary variables are not directly solved for but are
computed during the solution procedure
density, pressure, temperature, viscosity, etc.
specifies the amount of correction to be applied
+
old new
(is a user input)
is bounded from 0.0 to 1.0 with 1.0 the
default
decreasing the value of adds constraint
(stability)
decreasing the value of slows convergence
CFD UNDER RELAXATION
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61
(1) Geometry and Grid Generation
(2) Problem Setup
(4) Post Processing
(3) Solution Generation
CFDGEOM CFDGUI CFDVIEW
Input Files Graphical Results
Batch Solver
CFDACE(U)
Text Results
Computational Grid
and BC / VC Locations
CFD GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
ASMESCVS Professional Development Series CFD Fundamentals & Applications
62
n What CFDGUI Is:
graphical front end to the CFDACE(U) solver
expert system for setting up multidisciplinary
simulations
guides user through the setup process
protects user from inappropriate inputs
provides reasonable default inputs
solver controller (submit / save / stop)
solver monitor (residuals / output)
n What CFDGUI Is Not:
CFDGUI is not a solver
CFD GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
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63
Graphics Area
Title Bar
Menu Bar
Tool Bar
Control Panel
Model Explorer
Status Line
CFD GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
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