Você está na página 1de 6

SCHOOL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY General Luna Road, Baguio City, Philippines 2600

Telefax No.: (074) 442-3071 Website: www.ubaguio.edu

COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM


I. INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF TERMS: COMPARATIVE POLICE SYSTEM is the science and art of investigating and comparing the police system of nations. It covers the study of police organizations, trainings and methods of policing of various nations. COMPARATIVE CRIMINAL JUSTICE is a subfield of the study of criminal justice that compares justice systems worldwide. Such study can take a descriptive, historical, or political approach. It studies the similarities and differences in structure, goals, punishment and emphasis on rights as well as the history and political structure of different systems.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE is the study and description of one countrys law, criminal procedure, or justice process (Erika Fairchild).

MODEL SYSTEM is used to describe the countries being used as topics of discussion. These countries were chosen not because they are greater than others but because of the availability of information about them. WHY COMPARE SYSTEMS and ISSUES in CRIMINAL JUSTICE? (Harry Damner) o To benefit from the experience of others o To broaden our understanding of the different cultures and approaches to problems. o To help us deal with the many transnational crime problems that plague our world today. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH METHODS o SAFARI METHOD (a researcher visits another country) or collaborative method (the researcher communicates with a foreign researcher) o Published works tend to fall into three categories: Single-culture studies - the crime problem of a single foreign country is discussed Two-culture studies comprehensive textbooks (it covers three or more countries). The examination of crime and its control in the comparative context often requires a historical perspective since the phenomena under study are seen as having developed under unique social, economic, and political structures. Comprehensive textbooks (it covers three or more countries). The examination of crime and its control in the comparative context often requires an historical perspective since the phenomena under study are seen as having developed under unique social, economic, and political structures. Historical- comparative method the most often employed by researchers. It is basically an alternative to both quantitative and qualitative research methods that is sometimes called historiography or holism.

THEORIES OF COMPARATIVE CRIMINOLOGY o Alertness to crime theory as a nation develops peoples alertness to crime is heightened, so they report more crime to police and also demand the police become more effective at solving crime problems.

Page 1 LEAH GALAS MOYAO

2013

SCHOOL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY General Luna Road, Baguio City, Philippines 2600
Telefax No.: (074) 442-3071 Website: www.ubaguio.edu

Economic or Migration Theory crime is everywhere is the result of unrestrained migration and overpopulation in urban areas such as ghettos and slums. Opportunity Theory along with higher standards of living, victims become more careless of their belongings, and opportunities for committing crime multiply. Demographic Theory is based on the event of when a greater number of children are being born, because as these baby booms grow up, delinquent subcultures develop out of the adolescent identity crisis. Deprivation Theory holds that progress comes along with rising expectations, and people at the bottom develop unrealistic expectations, and people at the top dont see themselves rising fast enough. Modernization Theory sees the problem as society becoming too complex. Theory of Anomie and Synomie (the latter being a term referring to social cohesion on values), suggests that progressive lifestyle and norms result in the disintegration of older norms that once held people together.

o o

II. GLOBALIZATION WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION? o Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. o This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.

MEASURING GLOBALIZATION o Four main economic flows that characterize globalization: Goods and services, e.g., exports plus imports as a proportion of national income or per capita of population Labor/people, e.g., net migration rates; inward or outward migration flows, weighted by population Capital, e.g., inward or outward direct investment as a proportion of national income or per head of population Technology, e.g., international research & development flows; proportion of populations (and rates of change thereof) using particular inventions (especially 'factor-neutral' technological advances such as the telephone, motorcar, broadband). GLOBALIZATION AS INTERNATIONALIZATION o is planning and implementing products and services so that they can easily be localized for specific languages and cultures. o This process requires a combination of both international and technical expertise, and generally involves both deploying new systems and reengineering existing ones. Once the internationalized platform is in place, rollouts in new countries or cultures should be significantly more cost efficient, timely and market effective. GLOBALIZATION TOWARDS LIBERATION

Page 2 LEAH GALAS MOYAO

2013

SCHOOL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY General Luna Road, Baguio City, Philippines 2600
Telefax No.: (074) 442-3071 Website: www.ubaguio.edu

Full liberation is the dream of everyone in the world. To achieve liberation in all respects man dreams, imagines, thinks, plans, works and dies in the world. SIGNIFICANT EVENTS: After the World War II many nations got liberation from British Imperialism. Four decades after World War II also nations got liberation from Imperialism, Nazism, communism and Socialism. Since 1990 onwards, globalization has the world door wide open for the developing nations like India, China and others to transform past losses into profits through new developments in the field of knowledge based computer and information technologies as well as biotechnology. Among these nations, India has got a wonderful chance in biotechnology and information technology to come up top most in the near future because of their English knowledge, sincerity and hard work. In the South Asian Association meetings of various nations revival of the past cultural ties were being discussed and the possibility for the promotion of free trade, tourism and communication, and information technology among the nations was explored.

GLOBALIZATION AS UNIVERSALIZATION o Universalization - to make universal. o Universal- including or covering all or a whole collectively or distributively without limit or exception ;especially: available equitably to all members of a society DESCRIPTION OF UNIVERSALIZATION 1.) In the 1940s, globalization was thought to mean universalize. In this usage, 'global' means 'worldwide', and globalization is the process of spreading various objects and experiences to people at all corners of the Earth. Ex. - Globalization of automobiles, Chinese restaurants, decolonization, cattle farming, etc. 2.) Frequently, globalization-as-universalization is assumed to entail standardization and homogenization with worldwide cultural, economic, legal and political convergence. Scholte stresses that the assumption of globalization-asuniversalization means the same as globalization-as-homogenization is WRONG. Ex. - some economists have assessed globalization in terms of the degree to which prices for particular goods and services become the same across countries. 3.) Universalization is an age-old feature of world history. Ex. - The spread of the human species, the extension of world religions across large expanses of the earth, transoceanic trade has distributed various goods over long distances. o Universalization (in respect to globalization) is the spreading of new ideas, technologies, and practices to all parts of the world. Including, religion, McDonalds, school curricula, tobacco, coffee, etc.

EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION: o Industrial - emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies.

Page 3 LEAH GALAS MOYAO

2013

SCHOOL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY General Luna Road, Baguio City, Philippines 2600
Telefax No.: (074) 442-3071 Website: www.ubaguio.edu

o o

o o o

o o

Economic - realization of a global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital Political - some use "globalization" to mean the creation of a world government. This regulates the relationships among governments and guarantees the rights arising from social and economic globalization. Informational - increase in information flows between geographically remote locations. Arguably this is a technological change with the advent of fibre optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of telephone and Internet. Language - the most popular language is Mandarin (845 million speakers) followed by Spanish (329 million speakers) and English (328 million speakers). Competition - Survival in the new global business market calls for improved productivity and increased competition. Ecological - the advent of global environmental challenges that might be solved with international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of invasive species. Cultural - growth of cross-cultural contacts; advent of new categories of consciousness and identities which embodies cultural diffusion, the desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign products and ideas, adopt new technology and practices, and participate in a "world culture. Social - development of the system of non-governmental organisations as main agents of global public policy, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts. Technical - Development of a Global Information System, global telecommunications infrastructure and greater transborder data flow, using such technologies as the Internet, communication satellites, submarine fiber cable, and wireless telephones

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION: o Globalization has been one of the most hotly debated topics in international economics over the past few years. Globalization has also generated significant international opposition over concerns that it has increased inequality and environmental degradation. In the Midwestern United States, globalization has eaten away at its competitive edge in industry and agriculture, lowering the quality of life in locations that have not adapted to the change. o Drug and illicit goods trade The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) issued a report that the global drug trade generates more than $320 billion a year in revenues. Worldwide, the UN estimates there are more than 50 million regular users of heroin, cocaine and synthetic drugs. The international trade of endangered species is second only to drug trafficking. EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION TO LAW ENFORCEMENT o The facilitation of transnational crimes and criminals can be easily achieved. o There is a need for transnational policing. The cooperation among police organizations in the world is vital. o Training instructions for incoming law enforcement officers must include advance computer to prepare them as cyber cops so they can be better prepared to deal with cyber crimes. o Development of new strategies to deal with international organized crimes is a must. o Provisions of law enforcement with updated legislations related to modernization theories of crime. THREATS ON LAW ENFORCEMENT: Some threats brought about by globalization are: o Increasing volume of human rights violations evident by genocide or mass killing;

Page 4 LEAH GALAS MOYAO

2013

SCHOOL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY General Luna Road, Baguio City, Philippines 2600
Telefax No.: (074) 442-3071 Website: www.ubaguio.edu

o o o

The underprivileged gain unfair access to global mechanisms on law enforcement and security; Conflict between nations; Transnational criminal networks for drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism.

OPPORTUNITIES FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT: While globalization brings the threats and many other threats to law enforcement, opportunities like the following are carried: o Creation of International tribunals to deals with human rights problems o Humanitarian interventions that can promote universal norms and link them to the enforcement power of states o Transnational professional network and cooperation against transnational crimes o Global groups for conflict monitoring and coalitions across transnational issues

Page 5 LEAH GALAS MOYAO

2013

SCHOOL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY General Luna Road, Baguio City, Philippines 2600
Telefax No.: (074) 442-3071 Website: www.ubaguio.edu

Page 6 LEAH GALAS MOYAO

2013