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Experiment#2 EGR320L FrankJamison September28,2013

Ohm'sLawinRegardtoResistorsinSeriesandinParallel
Introduction Inthisseriesoffiveexperimentswewillverifythroughthatthetotalresistanceofresistorsinseriesand inparallelfollowformula's5.7and5.8inourtextbook[1].Theformulaforthetotalresistanceofresistors inseriesbeing Rt=R1+R2+R3+...+RN andtheformulaforthetotalresistanceofresistorsinparallelbeing Rt=1/(1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+...+1/RN). Afterverifyingtheseformulas,wewillrunacurrentthroughcircuitswithresistorsbothinseriesandin parallelandmeasurethevoltageacrosseachresistortoseeifourexperimentalresultsmatchthe theoreticalresultsderivedfromOhm'sLaw[2] V=IR andKirchhoff'sVoltageLaw[3] V=0aroundaloop. Onceallofourmeasurementsaremadewewillbedoingastatisticalanalysisoftheresistance measurementsinthedifferentconfigurationsandcomparingthemtoexpectedtheoreticalvalues. ExperimentalProcedure DuringthisexperimentweusedtheNIMyDAQequipmenttobuildcircuitsandtakemeasurements.The NImyDAQisalowcostdataacquisition(DAQ)devicethatgivesstudentstheabilitytomeasureand analyzelivesignalsanywhere,anytime.NImyDAQcombineshardwarewitheightreadytorun softwaredefinedinstruments,includingafunctiongenerator,oscilloscope,anddigitalmultimeter (DMM)[4]. UsingtheDigitalMultimeterapplicationoftheMyDAQ,weusedthevoltmeterandohmmeterfunctions totakemeasurementsofresistancesandvoltagesofresistorcircuitsinseriesandparallelthrougha seriesoffiveexperiments.

InthefirstexperimentweplacedatotaloffourresistorsintothebreadboardoftheMyDAQandused theohmmeterfunctionofitsdigitalmultimeterapplicationtomeasuretheirindividualresistances. Usingdataobtainedfromhobbyhour.com[6],wereadtheresistorcodesprintedoneachresistorand evaluatedtheiraccuracyusingpercentdifference.Precisionwasmeasuredbyseveralstudents measuringsimilarlycodedresistorsandcalculatingthestandarddeviationofallmeasurements. Inthesecondexperiment,weplacedseveralcombinationsofourresistorsinseriesontheMyDAQ breadboard,headtotail,andmeasuredtheirtotalresistance.Accuracywasmeasuredbycalculatingthe percentdifferencebetweenthemeasuredtotalresistancesandthetheoreticaltotalresistances calculatedusingthetotalresistanceformulaforresistorsinseriesandthecolorcodesonthe appropriateresistors.Precisionwasmeasuredbyseveralstudentsperformingthisexperimenton similarlycodedresistorsandthencalculatingthestandarddeviation. Thethirdexperimentwassimilartoexperiment2exceptthattheresistorswereplacedinparallelonthe MyDAQbreadboard.Theheadsoftheresistorsinonerowandthetailsoftheresistorsinanotherrow. Accuracywasmeasuredbycalculatingpercentdifferencebetweenthemeasuredvaluesandthe theoreticalvaluescalculatedusingthetotalresistanceformulaforresistorsinparallelandthecolor codesontheappropriateresistors.Precisionwascalculatedusingstandarddeviationforexperiments runbymyselfandotherstudentsonsimilarlycodedresistors. Forthefourthexperiment,IcreatedaDCcircuitwithresistorsinseriesontheMyDAQbreadboardusing a9Vbatteryasthevoltagesourceandresistorscodedas8.2kand18kresistances.Knowingthat therearedifferencesinmeasuredandtheoreticalvaluedforvoltageandresistance,Imadecalculations usingbothpuretheoreticalvaluesandwhereIcalculatedsometheoreticalvaluesusingactualmeasured valuesforthebatteryandR1andR2.Voltagesacrosseachresistorweremeasuredusingthevoltmeter functionofMyDAQ'sDMMapplicationaswellasthevoltageacrossbothresistors,andaccuracywas calculatedusingthepercentdifferencemethodforboththepuretheoreticalandmeasuredtheoretical instances. ForExperiment5,IcreatedaDCcircuitwiththesametworesistorsfromexperiment4inparallelonthe MyDAQbreadboard.Sinceresistorsinparallelmakeacurrentdivider,theexpectedvoltageacrosseach resistorisexpectedtobethesame.Sincetherearenoresistorsinseries,Iexpectthevoltagetobethe sameasthevoltagesource.VoltagewasthenmeasuredacrosseachresistorusingtheMyDAQ voltmeterfunctionoftheDMMapplication,andacrossbothresistorsinparallel.Theaccuracyofthe experimentwasthenevaluatedagainstbothapurelytheoreticalvalueof9Vforthebatteryandagainst theactualmeasuredvoltageoutputofthebattery.

Data Thefollowingtablerepresentsthemeasuredresistancesoftheindividualresistorsintheexperiment. Thetheoreticalvaluesoftheresistorsobtainedfromthecolorcodeontheshellsoftheresistorsarealso includedinthetable. Experiment1ResistorsStudentDataFile28Sept20131300 Theoretical(k) Frank(k) Cristela(k) 8.2 8.10 8.14 18 17.9 17.9 82 81.7 81.9 330 336 335

Resistor R1 R2 R3 R4

Kresta(k) 8.11 18.1 81.3 325

Thefollowingtablerepresentsthemeasuredresistancesofthespecifiedresistorcombinationsinseries. Thetheoreticalvaluesofeachsequenceofresistorsinseriesarealsorecordedonthetable. Experiment2ResistorsinSeriesStudentDataFile28Sept20131300 Resistor Theoretical(k) Frank(k) Cristela(k) Kresta(k) R1+R2 26.2 26.3 26.0 25.8 R2+R3 100 99.6 99.8 98.2 R3+R4 412 417 416 399 R1+R2+R3+R4 438 444 443 433 Thefollowingtablerepresentsthemeasuredresistancesofthespecifiedresistorcombinationsin parallel.Thetheoreticalvaluesofeachsequenceofresistorsinparallelarealsoincludedonthetable. Experiment3ResistorsinParallelStudentDataFile28Sept20131300 Resistor Theoretical(k) Frank(k) Cristela(k) Kresta(k) R1+R2 5.63 5.59 5.59 5.54 R2+R3 14.8 14.7 14.7 14.3 R3+R4 65.7 65.7 65.7 59.7 R1+R2+R3+R4 5.19 5.15 5.15 5.08 Thefollowingtablerepresentsthemeasuredvoltagesacrosseachofthetworesistorsinthe experiment.Asetofpurelytheoreticalvaluesisprovidedusingthecodesandvaluesobtainedfromthe outsideofthebatteryandresistorsalongwithatheoreticalcalculationofwhatthevoltageacrosseach resistorshouldbe.Asetofmeasuredtheoreticalvaluesshowstheactualmeasurementstakenfromthe batteryandresistorsandpresentsatheoreticalvoltageacrosseachresistor.Thefinalcolumnshowsthe actualmeasurementofthevoltagestakenacrosseachresistor.V1representsthevoltageacrossresistor 1,R1.V2representsthevoltageacrossresistor2,R2.VTotalrepresentsthevoltageacrossbothresistors, RTotal.AndITotalrepresentsthetheoreticalcurrentthroughtheresistorsinseries.

VTotal V1 V2 RTotal R1 R2 ITotal

Experiment4DCCircuit,ResistorsinSeries PureTheoretical MeasuredTheoretical 9.00V 9.49V 2.82V 2.96V 6.18V 6.53V 26.2k 26.0k 8.2k 8.10k 18.0k 17.9k .344mA .365mA

MeasuredResistors 9.49V 2.94V 6.53V

Thefollowingtablerepresentsthevoltagesmeasuredacrosseachoftheresistorsinconnectedin parallelonthecircuit.Purelytheoreticalvaluesareenteredincolumnonebasedonthespecified voltageofthebattery.Inthesecondcolumn,theactualvoltageofthebatterywasmeasuredand theoreticalvaluesofvoltagesacrossresistorswereentered.Inthelastcolumnaretheactual measurementstakenacrosseachresistorandthetworesistorsinparallel. Experiment5DCCircuit,ResistorsinParallel PureTheoretical MeasuredBattery 9.0V 9.49V 9.0V 9.49V 9.0V 9.49V

VTotal V1 V2 Results&Discussion

MeasuredResistors 9.48V 9.48V 9.48V

Lookingatthetablebelow,wecandeterminehowaccuratethemeasurementsarebyevaluatingits percentdifferencefromthetheoreticalvalueandhowprecisethemeasurementisbyitsstandard deviation.ThemeanandstandarddeviationvalueswerecalculatedusingtheExcelequations =AVERAGE()and=STDEV()respectively.Forthe8.2kresistorsourmeasurementswereveryprecise, havingastandarddeviationof0.0208,butwastheleastaccurateoftheresistors,havingapercent differenceof1.02%.Theaccuracydoesfallwithinthestatedvarianceoftheresistor,however,whichis 5%.The18kand82kresistorsarebothverypreciseandveryaccurate,beinglessthan0.5standard deviationsandlessthan0.5%difference.The330kresistorsareveryaccurate,havinga%difference of0.606%,butnotveryprecise,withastandarddeviationof6.08. Resistor R1 R2 R3 R4 Lookingattheresistorsinseries,weseethatallofourmeasuredvaluesareveryaccurate,havinga% differencewithin0.800%foreachcombinationmeasured.Ourfirsttwocombinationsareveryprecise, Theoretical (k) 8.2 18 82 330 Frank (k) 8.10 17.9 81.7 336 Cristela (k) 8.14 17.9 81.9 335 Kresta (k) 8.11 18.1 81.3 325 Mean (k) 8.12 18.0 81.6 332 Std. Dev. 0.0208 0.115 0.306 6.08 %Diff. 1.02 0.185 0.447 0.606

asexpectedfromourindividualprecisionsmeasuredinexperiment1.Ourthirdandfourth combinations,however,containresistor4.Thepreviousexperimentshowstheprecisionofresistor4is quitepoor,andthatcarriesthroughtotheprecisionoftheresistorsinseries. Theoretical (k) R1+R2 26.2 R2+R3 100 R3+R4 412 R1+R2+R3+R4 438 Resistor Frank (k) 26.3 99.6 417 444 Cristela (k) 26.0 99.8 416 443 Kresta (k) 25.8 98.2 399 433 Mean (k) 26.0 99.2 411 440 Std. Dev. 0.252 0.872 10.1 6.08 %Diff. 0.636 0.800 0.324 0.411

Thedatafromexperiment3presentstwoquestions.Whyistheprecisionnotablybetterforthe combinationstestedinparallelthaninseries?Andwhyarethereadingslessaccurate?Well,sincethere aremultiplelanesforthecurrenttoflowthrough,thetotalresistancewillbelessthantheresistancein anyonelane.Thefactthatthecurrentfollowsthepathofleastresistancemeansthatthestandard deviationleansmoretowardthatoftheresistorwiththelowerresistance.Inthiscase,moretowardR1 thanR2.MoretowardR2thanR3.MoretowardR3thanR4.Inthecasewherealltheresistorsarein parallelmostofthecurrentisgoingthroughR1andsothestandarddeviationofthetotalcircuitisgoing toskewtowardthestandarddeviationofR1.Asforaccuracy,thetotalresistanceofresistorsinparallel islessthanthatofresistorsinseries.Thismeansthateachpercentagepointrepresentsconsiderably fewerohmsofresistanceandthusraisesthe%differencebetweenthemeasuredamountandthe theoreticalamount. Theoretical (k) R1+R2 5.63 R2+R3 14.8 R3+R4 65.7 R1+R2+R3+R4 5.19 Resistor Frank(k) Cristela(k) Kresta(k) 5.59 14.7 65.7 5.15 5.59 14.7 65.7 5.15 5.54 14.3 59.7 5.08 Mean (k) 5.57 14.6 63.7 5.13 Std. Dev. 0.0289 0.231 3.46 0.0404 %Diff. 1.07 1.31 3.01 1.19

Inthefollowingtwoexperiments,Iusedtwodifferentsetsofnumberstocomeupwithmyresults.The firstsetofnumbersisthepurelytheoreticalset.A9Vbatteryproduces9volts.An8.2kresistor produces8.2kofresistance,etc.Inthesecondsetofnumbers,Imeasuredtheactualvoltagecoming outofthebatteryandtheactualresistancesoftheresistorsandusedthemtocalculateatheoretical currentandthuspredictatheoreticalvalueofthevoltageacrosseachresistor.Whilethefirstsetof valuesistechnicallywhatthelabexperimentcallsfor,Ifeltthesecondsetofnumbersmoreclosely reflectsandthenatureofwhatwearetryingtodeterminewiththeseexperiments. Ascanbeseen,thevoltagesareafull4%to5%offfromthetheoreticallypredictedvalues.Thisisdue largelyinparttothefactthatthebatteryisproducing5.16%morevoltagethanadvertised.More voltageoverthesameresistancesmeanshighervoltagesacrosseachresistor.Asystematicerror.

Byusingtheactualmeasuredvoltageandresistances,Iwasabletoproducetheoreticalvaluesthat reflectmoreaccuratelythenatureofOhm'sLawandKirchhoff'sCurrentLaw.ByusingI=V/RIwasable todetermineatheoreticalcurrent,andfromthatIwasabletocalculatetheoreticalvaluesforthe voltageacrosseachresistor.Theaccuracyofmymeasurementswiththesecalculationswaswithin 0.56%.Amarkedimprovementoverthepurelytheoreticalvalues. VTotal V1 V2 Thefinalexperimentwasfairlyeasy.Kirchhoff'sCurrentLawtellsusitisthecurrentthatgetsdividedin aparallelcircuitwhileKirchhoff'sVoltageLawindicatesthatthevoltagewillremainequalacrossall resistorsconnectedinparallel.Thevoltagemeasuredacrosseachresistorandacrossthetworesistorsin paralleldidindeedallreportthesamevoltage9.48V.Thiswas5.06%overthepurelytheoretical9.00V thatthebatteryissupposedtooutputand0.105%underthemeasured9.49Vthatthebatteryactually putout.This0.01Vlosscouldbeduetoresistanceinthewires. VTotal V1 V2 Conclusion Ibelievethisexperimentsuccessfullyshowsthatthetotalresistanceofresistorsinseriesisthealgebraic sumoftheresistancesandthatthetotalresistanceofresistorsinparallelistheinverseofthesumof thereciprocalsoftheindividualresistances.Wehavefurtherproventhatresistorsinseriesforma voltagedivider. Whilewedidnotactuallymeasurethecurrentthroughtheresistorsinparallel,ourvoltageswere consistentwithKirchhoff'sVoltageLaw.Byusingthemeasuredvoltageacrosseachresistorinparallel,I amconfidentwewouldderiveanaccuratepredictionofwhatthecurrentthrougheachresistorwould be. Statistically,allofourpercentdifferenceswerewithin3.01%forthefirstthreeexperiments.Thisfell withinthestatedmarginoferrorforeachresistorwhichwas5%.Iwouldsaytheslightdifferences werepurelymanufacturingvariablesinthematerialsused. Pure Theoretical 9.00V 9.00V 9.00V Measured Theoretical 9.49V 9.49V 9.49V Measured Resistors 9.48V 9.48V 9.48V %Diff.from %Diff.fromMeasured Theoretical Theoretical 5.06 0.105 5.06 0.105 5.06 0.105 Pure Theoretical 9.00V 2.82V 6.18V Measured Theoretical 9.49V 2.96V 6.53V Measured Resistors 9.49V 2.94V 6.53V %Diff.from %Diff.fromMeasured Theoretical Theoretical 5.16 0.00 4.19 0.558 5.31 0.0536

Forexperiments4and5Ihavepresentedtwodifferentsetsofstatistics.Oneforthetheoreticalvoltage ofthebattery,9V,andonefortheactualvoltageoutputofthebattery,9.49V.Thepercentdifference fromthepurelytheoreticalvaluesvariedbetween4.16%and5.31%.Thepercentdifferencefromthe actualmeasuredvoltageofthebatteryonlydifferedbetween0and0.558%.Thecleardifference betweenthesetwosetsofmeasurementsisthedifferencebetweenthestatedoutputofthebattery andtheactualoutputofthebattery. Futureexperimentsofthisnaturemightbenefitfromawaytotestthecalibrationoftheequipmentas wellasknowledgeastowhetherornotalltheresistorscamefromthesamebatch. References


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IntroductiontoEngineeringAnalysis,3rdEdition,page156. IntroductiontoEngineeringAnalysis,3rdEdition,page159. 3 IntroductiontoEngineeringAnalysis,3rdEdition,page170. 4 NationalInstrumentsMyDAQwebsite(http://www.ni.com/mydaq/whatis/) 5 HobbyHourelectronicswebsite(http://www.hobbyour.com/electronics/resistor_color_code.php)