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# 1

A student investigates the rise in temperature when different masses of magnesium are
added to 50 cm3 of hydrochloric acid.
The equation for the reaction is
Mg + 2HCl

MgCl2 + H2

(a) What general name is given to reactions in which there is a rise in temperature?
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
50 cm3 of hydrochloric acid is poured into a beaker. A thermometer is placed in the acid.
The initial temperature of the acid is 20.0 C.
0.10 g of magnesium is added to the hydrochloric acid and the highest temperature reached
is recorded.

magnesium

thermometer

## The experiment is repeated for different masses of magnesium.

The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stem giving the highest temperature
reached after each addition of magnesium.

29

33

36

38

28

32

35

37

27

31

34

36

26

30

33

35

25

29

32

34

24

28

31

33

0.20 g
Mg

0.30 g
Mg

0.40 g
Mg

0.50 g
Mg

5070/41/M/J/13

2
(b) Use the thermometer readings to complete the following table.
mass of magnesium
/g

initial temperature
of hydrochloric acid
/ C

highest
temperature of mixture
/ C

rise in
temperature
/ C

0.10

20.0

23.4

3.4

0.20

20.0

0.30

20.0

0.40

20.0

0.50

20.0

0.60

20.0

35.5

15.5
[2]

## (c) Plot the results on the grid.

Draw two intersecting straight lines through the points.
16

14

12

10

rise in
temperature
/ C

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

mass of magnesium / g
5070/41/M/J/13

0.5

0.6
[3]

3
(d) (i)

## What is the rise in temperature when 0.25 g of magnesium is added to 50 cm3 of

hydrochloric acid?
..............................................C [1]

(ii)

What is the highest temperature of the solution when 0.35 g of magnesium is added
to 50 cm3 of hydrochloric acid?
..............................................C [1]

(e) Why are the last two rises in temperature the same?
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(f)

(i)

From your graph, what mass of magnesium is required to neutralise 50 cm3 of the
hydrochloric acid used in the experiment?

............................................... g [1]
(ii)

Using your answer to (f)(i), calculate the number of moles of magnesium required
to neutralise the hydrochloric acid.
[Ar: Mg, 24]

## ....................................... moles [1]

(iii)

Using your answer to (f)(ii) and the equation for the reaction, calculate the
concentration in mol / dm3 of the hydrochloric acid used in the experiment.
Mg + 2HCl

MgCl2 + H2

## ................................... mol / dm3 [2]

[Total: 13]

5070/41/M/J/13

4
2

A student investigates the rise in temperature when different masses of powdered zinc are
added to 50 cm3 of aqueous copper(II) sulfate in a beaker as shown in the diagram below.
In each case the initial temperature of the aqueous copper(II) sulfate is 25.0 C.

zinc

thermometer

50 cm3 aqueous
copper(II) sulfate

The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stem giving the highest temperature
reached after each addition of zinc.
28

31

34

34

27
0.20 g
Zn

30
0.40 g
Zn

33
0.60 g
Zn

33
0.80 g
Zn

## (a) Use the thermometer readings to complete the table below.

mass of zinc
/g

initial temperature
of aqueous
copper(II) sulfate / C

0.20

25.0

0.40

25.0

0.60

25.0

0.80

25.0

1.00

25.0

highest temperature of
mixture / C

34.0

5070/42/M/J/13

rise in
temperature
/ C

[2]

5
(b) Plot the results on the grid. Draw two intersecting straight lines through the points.
10

rise in
temperature
/ C

(c) (i)

0.2

0.4
0.6
mass of zinc / g

0.8

1.0
[3]

Use your graph to find the maximum temperature produced when 0.3 g of zinc is
added to the aqueous copper(II) sulfate.

.............................................. C [1]
(ii)

Deduce from your graph the mass of zinc required to react completely with 50 cm3
of aqueous copper(II) sulfate.

................................................ g [1]
(iii)

Construct the equation for the reaction between zinc and aqueous copper(II)
sulfate.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv)

Using your answers to (c)(ii) and (c)(iii), calculate the concentration of the aqueous
copper(II) sulfate used in the experiment.
[Ar : Zn, 65]

## ................................... mol / dm3 [2]

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(d) State two observations, other than rise in temperature, which can be made when zinc
reacts with copper(II) sulfate.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 12]
3

A student does four experiments to find how the solubility of sodium nitrate varies with
temperature.
thermometer

water
sodium nitrate

heat
10.0 g of sodium nitrate is put into a beaker and 10.0 cm3 of water is added.
The beaker is heated and the contents stirred until all the solid dissolves.
The beaker is allowed to cool slowly. The temperature at which crystals first appear is noted.
A further 10.0 cm3 of water is added and the process repeated.
The experiment is repeated for two further 10.0 cm3 additions of water.
The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stem indicating the temperature at which
crystals appear for total volumes of 10.0, 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 cm3.

60

30

20
30
50

20

10
20
40

10
1

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The solubility of sodium nitrate at each temperature is calculated by using the formula
solubility
in g / 100 cm3
water

## mass of sodium nitrate

100
volume of water

(a) Complete the temperature column of the table using the temperatures shown in the
diagram.
Complete the solubility column of the table using the formula shown above.
experiment

## total volume of water

in solution / cm3

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

temperature at which
crystals appear / C

solubility /
g /100 cm3
of water.
100

33
[2]

(b) Plot the results on the grid below and draw a smooth curve through the points. Extend
the curve to meet the vertical axis.
100

80

solubility
g / 100 cm3
of water

60

40

20

10

20

30

40

temperature / C

5070/42/M/J/12

50

60

70
[3]

8
(c) Use the graph to answer the following questions.
What is the solubility of sodium nitrate at
(i)

0 C,
.............................g / 100 cm3 water

(ii)

40 C?
.............................g / 100 cm3 water
[2]

(d) What is the lowest temperature at which 50 cm3 of water will dissolve 35 g of sodium
nitrate?

............................................. C [2]
(e) A hot solution of 150 g of sodium nitrate in 100 cm3 of water is cooled to 50 C. What
mass of sodium nitrate crystallises out?

............................................... g [2]
[Total: 11]

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4

A student does a series of experiments in which a known mass of a metal is added to 20 cm3
of 0.5 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid (an excess), in the apparatus shown below.

thermometer

20 cm3 of dilute
hydrochloric acid,
initially at 25C
metal
Four metals are used, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc.
In each experiment 0.05 g of the metal is added.
When all the metal has dissolved the volume of hydrogen which collects in the syringe is
measured.
(a) The diagrams below show parts of the gas syringe indicating the volumes of hydrogen
produced from each metal.

20

30

40

40

calcium

10

20

50

60

magnesium

30

iron

10

20

zinc

metal

calcium

40

magnesium

24

iron

56

zinc

65

## volume of hydrogen collected

/ cm3

[1]
5070/41/M/J/12

10
(b) Plot the volume of hydrogen against relative atomic mass, Ar, of the metal on the grid
below. Draw a smooth curve through the points.
60

50

40
volume
of
hydrogen
/ cm3
30

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Ar
[2]
(c) By extending the curve, predict the volume of hydrogen that would be produced when
0.05 g of strontium is added to 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid.
[Ar: Sr, 88]
...........................................cm3 [1]
(d) Suggest why the volume of hydrogen produced decreases as the relative atomic mass
of the element increases.
..........................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

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(e) (i)

When 0.05 g of aluminium is added to 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid,
66 cm3 of hydrogen is produced.
Explain why this volume is greater than the volume that can be predicted from your
graph.
[Ar : Al , 27]
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

Explain why the speed at the beginning of the reaction between aluminium and
hydrochloric acid is very slow.
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 8]

(a) The reaction between aqueous barium chloride and dilute sulfuric acid produces a
precipitate of barium sulfate.
State the colour of this precipitate.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
A series of experiments are done to find the mass of precipitate when different volumes
of dilute sulfuric acid are added to a fixed volume of aqueous barium chloride.
Solution J is 1.00 mol/dm3 barium chloride.
Solution K is sulfuric acid of unknown concentration.
10 cm3 of J is put into each of six test-tubes. Increasing volumes of K are added to each
test-tube. The mixtures are filtered and the precipitates washed with water, dried and
placed in a previously weighed container which is reweighed.
(b) The table below shows the results of these experiments.
Complete the final column.
volume of J /cm3 volume of K /cm3 mass of
empty
container / g

mass of
mass of
container +
precipitate / g
precipitate / g

10.0

2.0

3.50

4.08

10.0

4.0

3.50

4.55

10.0

6.0

3.50

5.25

10.0

8.0

3.50

5.83

10.0

10.0

3.50

5.83

10.0

12.0

3.50

5.83
[2]

12
(c) Plot the mass of precipitate against the volume of K on the grid. Join the points with two
best fit straight lines.
2.5

2.0

1.5
mass of
precipitate
/g
1.0

0.5

0
0

6
volume of K / cm3

10

12
[3]

(d) One of the results is incorrect. Circle this result on your grid and suggest what the correct
result should be.

............................................... g [1]
(e) Use the data on your grid to deduce
(i)

## the volume of K which would produce 1.50 g of precipitate,

............................................cm3 [1]
(ii)

## the maximum mass of precipitate that is produced,

............................................... g [1]

(iii)

the minimum volume of K which reacts completely with the maximum mass in (ii).

................................................ g [1]

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13
(f)

Write the equation for the reaction between barium chloride and sulfuric acid.
...................................................................................................................................... [1]

(g) Using your answers to (e)(iii) and (f), calculate the concentration of the sulfuric acid, K,
used in the experiment.

[Total: 12]
6

## When potassium chlorate(V) is heated it decomposes and oxygen is evolved.

Experiment 1
A student heats a sample of potassium chlorate(V) for three minutes. The volume of oxygen
produced is measured in the syringe.
The results are shown in the table below.

Experiment 2
The experiment is repeated using the same mass of potassium chlorate(V) to which a small
amount of copper(II) oxide is added.
All other conditions are the same.
The diagram shows the volume of oxygen produced in this experiment after 30, 60, 90 and
120 seconds.

20

40

60

80

100

20

30 seconds

20

40

60

60

80

100

80

100

60 seconds

80

100

20

90 seconds

UCLES 2011

40

40

60

120 seconds

5070/42/M/J/11

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(a) Complete the table using the volumes of oxygen as shown in the diagrams.
time / s

volume of oxygen
collected / cm3
experiment 1

30

22

60

40

90

54

120

64

150

70

72

180

72

72

For
Examiners
Use

volume of oxygen
collected / cm3
experiment 2

[1]
(b) Plot the results for both experiment 1 and experiment 2 on the grid below and draw
a smooth curve through each set of points. Label the curves experiment 1 and
experiment 2.
100

80

60
total volume
of oxygen
collected / cm3
40

20

0
0

30

60

90
time/s

120

150

180
[3]

UCLES 2011

5070/41/M/J/11

15
(i)

For
Examiners
Use

## What volume of oxygen is produced in experiment 1 after 45 seconds?

........................................... cm3 [1]

(ii)

## ........................................... cm3 [2]

(d) Suggest the function of copper(II) oxide in the experiment 2.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(e) Why are the final two readings recorded in the table for experiment 2 the same?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(f)

## The equation for the reaction is

2KClO3

2KCl

3O2

By referring to your results in the table, calculate the mass of potassium chlorate(V)
used in the experiment.
[1 mole of a gas has a volume of 24 dm3 at room temperature and pressure.]
[Ar: O,16; Cl, 35.5; K, 39]

............................................... g [3]
[Total: 12]

5070/41/M/J/11

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7

A student investigated the rise in temperature when sulfuric acid was added to a solution
containing 1.00 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide, using the apparatus shown below.

burette

sulfuric
acid

thermometer

stirrer

beaker
3

1.00 mol / dm
sodium hydroxide
20.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide was poured into a beaker. The temperature of
both this solution and the sulfuric acid was 25C.
Following successive additions of 5.0 cm3 volumes of sulfuric acid from the burette, further
The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stem giving the temperature after the
addition of 5.0, 15.0 and 25.0 cm3 of sulfuric acid.

30

35

35

25

30

30

20

25

25

5.0 cm3 of
sulfuric acid

15.0 cm3 of
sulfuric acid
5070/41/M/J/10

25.0 cm3 of
sulfuric acid

17
(a) Use the diagrams to complete the following table of results.
volume of sulfuric acid / cm3

temperature / C

0.0

25

5.0
10.0

29

15.0
20.0

33

25.0
30.0

29

35.0

26

[1]

(b) Plot these results on the grid below and connect the points with two intersecting
straight lines.
35

30

25

20

10

15 20 25 30 35
volume of sulfuric acid
5070/41/M/J/10

40

45
[3]

14
Use the graph to answer the following questions.
(c) (i)

State the temperature at the intersection of the two lines (highest temperature).
.............................................. C [1]

(ii)

## What volume of sulfuric acid produced this temperature?

........................................... cm3 [1]

(d) 20.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide was used in the experiment.
(i)

Write an equation for the reaction between sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid.
............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

Using your answer to (c)(ii) calculate the concentration of the sulfuric acid.

## .................................... mol/dm3 [2]

(e) After the highest temperature was reached, explain why the temperature of the solution
decreased as more sulfuric acid was added.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 11]

5070/41/M/J/10

For
Examiners
Use

19
8

A student investigated the solubility in water of two salts, potassium chlorate(V) and sodium
chloride.
She used the apparatus shown below.
thermometer

solution

crystals of
the salt
heat
10 g of water was transferred into a boiling-tube. To this 0.5 g of potassium chlorate(V) was
The tube and its contents were heated until all the solid dissolved. The tube was allowed to
cool.
At the first sign of solid reappearing the temperature was noted.
The experiment was repeated using 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g of potassium chlorate(V).
The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stems giving the temperature at which
the solid appeared.
50

80

90

100

40

70

80

90

30

60

70

80

20

50

60

70

10

40

50

60

30

40

50

1.0 g
potassium
chlorate(V)

2.0 g
potassium
chlorate(V)

3.0 g
potassium
chlorate(V)

5070/42/M/J/10

4.0 g
potassium
chlorate(V)

20
(a) Use the thermometer readings to complete the following table.
mass of potassium chlorate(V)
in 10 g of water /g

0.5

## temperature at which potassium

chlorate(V) appears / oC

10

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

[2]
The experiment was repeated using sodium chloride, the results for which are shown in the
following table.
mass of sodium chloride in 10 g
of water /g

2.7

3.0

3.2

3.4

## temperature at which sodium

chloride appears/ oC

10

34

50

66

(b) Plot the results for both potassium chlorate(V) and sodium chloride on the grid below.
Join the points for potassium chlorate(V) with a smooth curve and those for sodium
chloride with a straight line.
Extend each line in both directions so that at the lower ends each line crosses the
vertical axis and at the upper ends the lines cross.
6.0

5.0

4.0

mass
of salt
in 10 g
of water
/g

3.0

2.0

1.0

0
0

20

40

60

80

## temperature at which solid appears / C

5070/42/M/J/10

100
[4]

21
(c) What is the mass of each compound that dissolves in 10 g of water at 0 C?
(i)

potassium chlorate(V)
.................................................. g

(ii)

[1]

sodium chloride
.................................................. g

[1]

## (d) At what temperature is the solubility of each salt the same?

..................................................C

[1]

(e) The solubility of a salt is defined as the maximum mass of salt that will dissolve in 100 g
of water at a given temperature.
Calculate the solubility of both potassium chlorate(V) and sodium chloride at the
temperature you have given in (d).

............................................... g [1]
(f)

The student was given two boiling-tubes, one containing 2.0 g of potassium chlorate(V)
in 10.0 g of water, the other 2.0 g of sodium chloride in 10.0 g of water, both at a
temperature of 40 C.
The mixtures were stirred.
Use the information on your graph to describe the contents of each tube.
potassium chlorate(V) ......................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
sodium chloride ...............................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[2]

By referring to your graphs compare the effect of increasing the temperature on the
(g) solubility of each salt.
..........................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 13]

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9

A student does two experiments to investigate the speed of reaction between hydrochloric
acid and an excess of marble.
50 cm3 of hydrochloric acid is used in each experiment.
Carbon dioxide is produced.
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

gas syringe

50 cm3 of
hydrochloric acid
marble
(a) Experiment 1.
50 cm3 of 0.10 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid are added to the marble pieces.
The diagrams below show parts of the syringe indicating the total volume of gas
collected at the times stated.
10

20

30

40

50

10

20

1 min

10

20

30

30

40

50

40

50

2 min

40

50

10

4 min

20

30
6 min

## Use these diagrams to complete the following table.

experiment

1 min

2 min

4 min

6 min

1
2

8 min
40

28

42

56

60

60
[1]

Experiment 2.
50 cm3 of hydrochloric acid of a different concentration are added to the marble pieces.
The results are shown in the table.

5070/41/O/N/12

23
(b) Plot the results for both experiments on the grid and join each set of points with a smooth
curve.
80

70

60

50
total
volume
of gas 40
collected
/ cm3
30

20

10

0
0

4
time / min

8
[3]

(c) (i)

## What volume of gas is collected in experiment 1 during the first 3 minutes?

experiment 1 ............................................... cm3 [1]

5070/41/O/N/12

24
(ii)

## The speed of a reaction may be calculated using the formula:

speed of reaction =

time taken / min

(iii)

## Deduce the concentration of hydrochloric acid in experiment 2. Explain your answer.

............................................................................................................................. [2]
(d) A third experiment is done in which 50 cm3 of 0.10 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid is added
to an excess of powdered marble.
On your grid sketch the curve you would expect to see for the results of this experiment.
[2]
[Total: 11]

5070/41/O/N/12

25
10 A student prepares a sample of the salt, sodium sulfate.
25.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol / dm3 sodium hydroxide is transferred to a conical flask and sulfuric acid
After each addition of sulfuric acid, the pH of the solution is recorded. The apparatus and
table of results are shown below.

burette

sulfuric acid

pH meter

pH electrode

sodium hydroxide

pH value

## volume of acid added / cm3

13.6

5.0

13.4

10.0

12.2

20.0

11.8

22.0

11.2

24.0

10.0

26.0

4.2

28.0

3.0

30.0

1.2

40.0

5070/42/O/N/12

26
(a) On the grid plot a graph of pH against the volume of acid added and draw a smooth
curve through all of the points.
14

12

10

8
pH
6

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

## volume of sulfuric acid added / cm3

[2]
(b) Use the graph to answer the following questions.
(i)

## What is the pH of the solution when 15.0 cm3 of acid is added?

.................................................. [1]
(ii)

## Suggest the pH of the solution at the end-point.

.................................................. [1]
5070/42/O/N/12

18
(iii)

Using your answer to (ii), what volume of acid is required to neutralise 25.0 cm3 of
1.00 mol / dm3 sodium hydroxide?

## ........................................... cm3 [1]

(c) (i)

Construct the equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide.
............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

Using the equation and your answer from (b)(iii) calculate the concentration of the
sulfuric acid used.

## .................................. mol / dm3 [1]

(d) In a separate experiment the volume of sulfuric acid calculated in (b)(iii) is added to
25.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol / dm3 sodium hydroxide. The resulting solution is used to produce
sodium sulfate crystals.
Describe briefly how the student makes good quality sodium sulfate crystals from this
solution.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 10]

UCLES 2012

5070/42/O/N/12

For
Examiners
Use

28
11 A student investigates the temperature change produced when different amounts of powdered
iron are added to 50 cm3 of aqueous copper(II) sulfate in a beaker as shown in the diagram
below.
The initial temperature in each case is 25.0 C.
thermometer
iron

50 cm3
copper(II) sulphate

The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stem when the thermometer records the
highest temperature reached after each addition of iron.
27

29

31

32

26

28

30

31

0.20 g
iron

0.40 g
iron

0.60 g
iron

0.80 g
iron

## (a) Use these diagrams to complete the table below.

volume of
copper(II)
sulfate / cm3

mass of iron
/g

50

0.2

50

0.4

50

0.6

50

0.8

50

1.0

maximum
temperature
/ C

temperature
rise / C

31.2

6.2
[2]

5070/41/O/N/11

29
(b) Plot the temperature rise against the mass of iron on the grid below and connect the
points with two intersecting straight lines.
10

6
temperature
rise / C
4

0
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
mass of iron/g

0.8

1.0
[3]

(c) (i)

Use your graphs to determine the mass of iron required to produce a temperature
rise of 3.0 C.

............................................... g [1]
(ii)

Deduce from your graphs the mass of iron required to react completely with 50 cm3
of aqueous copper(II) sulfate.

............................................... g [1]
(iii)

Write the equation for the reaction between iron and copper(II) sulfate.

............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iv)

## What type of reaction is this?

............................................................................................................................. [1]
5070/41/O/N/11

30
(v)

Using your answer to (c)(ii) and the equation in (c)(iii), calculate the concentration
of the aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate used in the experiment.
[Ar : Fe, 56]

## ................................... mol / dm3 [2]

(d) State one observation, other than a rise in temperature, which can be made when iron
reacts with aqueous copper(II) sulfate.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 12]
12 The reaction between aqueous sodium thiosulfate and hydrochloric acid produces a
precipitate of sulfur which makes the solution go cloudy. The speed of this reaction can be
investigated by measuring the length of time it takes for the solution to go cloudy.
A student does two experiments to investigate the effects of both temperature (Experiment 1)
and concentration (Experiment 2) on the speed of the reaction.
thermometer

time t
cross on card
held behind
beaker

cloudy liquid,
cross invisible

(a) Experiment 1
50 cm3 of aqueous sodium thiosulfate is put into a beaker and 5.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol / dm3
A stop watch is started and the temperature of the mixture is noted. At the moment the
cross becomes invisible, the watch is stopped and the time taken recorded.
The experiment is repeated four more times, keeping the volumes and concentrations of
both solutions the same but using different temperatures.

5070/41/O/N/11

For
Examiners
Use

31
The diagrams below show parts of the thermometer stem for each of the four
experiments, indicating the temperature of the mixture / C.
time 73s

30

time 48s

time 30s

time 20s

60

70

50

60

40

50

40

20

30

10

20

(i)

## Use these diagrams to complete the table below.

temperature of
the mixture / C

time / sec

20

110
73
48
30
20
[2]

5070/42/O/N/11

For
Examiners
Use

32
(ii)

Plot the results on the grid below and draw a smooth curve through the points.
120

100

80
time / s

60

40

20

0
10

(iii)

20

30
40
temperature/C

50

60
[2]

Use your diagram to determine how long it would take for the cross to become
invisible at 30C.

............................................... s [1]
(iv)

From your graph determine the temperature at which the reaction would be twice
as fast as at 20 C.

............................................. C [1]

5070/42/O/N/11

33
(i)

Plot the results on the grid below and draw a smooth curve through the points.
240

200

160
time / s

120

80

40

0
0

(ii)

0.02

0.04
0.06
0.08
concentration in mol/dm3

0.10
[2]

Use your graph for Experiment 2 to determine how long it takes for the cross
on the card to become invisible when the concentration of sodium thiosulfate is
0.03 mol / dm3.

............................................... s [1]
(iii)

Use both graphs to determine the concentration of sodium thiosulfate in the first
experiment.

## ................................... mol / dm3 [2]

[Total: 11]
5070/42/O/N/11

34
13 A student used the apparatus shown below to find the loss in mass during the reaction
between 20.0 g of marble pieces (an excess) and 30.0 cm3 of 1.20 mol / dm3 hydrochloric acid
(experiment 1).

## 1.20 mol / dm3

hydrochloric acid

marble

balance

90.90

The marble was added to the acid and the mass was recorded every 30 seconds.
(a) Why did the mass of the flask and contents decrease during the reaction?
...................................................................................................................................... [1]
The experiment was repeated using the same mass of marble but finely powdered. The
volume and concentration of the hydrochloric acid were the same (experiment 2).
The results of the two experiments were recorded in the table below.
(b) Complete the table by calculating the total loss in mass for both experiments.
experiment 1
time / s

experiment 2

mass / g

total loss
in mass / g

mass / g

total loss
in mass / g

90.90

0.00

90.90

0.00

30

90.62

0.28

90.42

0.48

60

90.42

0.48

90.23

0.67

90

90.27

90.14

120

90.17

90.10

150

90.10

90.10

180

90.10

90.10
[2]

5070/41/O/N/10

35
(c) Plot the points for each experiment on the grid. Join each set of points with a curve.
Label the curves 1 (experiment 1) and 2 (experiment 2).
1.2

1.0

0.8

total
loss in
mass / g

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

30

60

90

120

150

180

time / s
[3]
(d) Why were the last two results in experiment 1, and the last three results in experiment 2
the same?
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
(i)

## What was the total loss in mass in experiment 1 after 75 seconds?

.............................................. g [1]

(ii)

## What was the mass in experiment 2 after 45 seconds?

.............................................. g [1]

(f)

Compare the two curves and deduce the effect of using powdered marble in
experiment 2.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 10]

5070/41/O/N/10

36
14 A student plated a silver ring using the apparatus shown below.

A
variable
resistor
+

aqueous
silver nitrate
carbon
(graphite)
anode

silver ring

The ring, which was the cathode, was weighed before it was placed in the aqueous silver
nitrate. The circuit was completed and a current of 1.0 A was allowed to flow.
The ring was removed every ten minutes, washed, dried and weighed before being returned
to the solution and reconnected to the circuit.
This was experiment 1.
The experiment was repeated using a current of 1.5 A. This was experiment 2.
The results from both experiments are shown in the table below.
(a) Complete the table by calculating the total increase in mass after each ten minute period
in both experiments.
experiment 1

experiment 2

current 1.0 A

current 1.5 A

time / mins

mass of ring / g

total increase in
mass / g

mass of ring / g

total increase in
mass / g

8.80

0.00

8.80

0.00

10

9.10

0.30

9.20

0.40

20

9.40

0.60

9.60

30

9.70

10.00

40

10.00

10.40

50

10.30

10.40
[1]
5070/42/O/N/10

37
(b) Plot the two sets of results on the grid below. Join the points in experiment 1 by a straight
line and the points in experiment 2 by two intersecting straight lines. Label the lines
1 and 2 corresponding to the two experiments.
2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

total
increase
in mass
/g

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

time / min
[4]

5070/42/O/N/10

38
(c) What was the time taken to deposit 1.00 g of silver in each experiment?
1 ........................................ mins [1]
2 ........................................ mins [1]
(d) Calculate how much more silver was deposited after 35 minutes in experiment 2 than in
experiment 1.
mass of silver deposited in 35 minutes in 2 ............................................................. g
mass of silver deposited in 35 minutes in 1 ............................................................. g
difference in mass = ............................................................. g [2]
(e) The results for experiment 2 indicate that all the silver had been deposited after 40
minutes. By extending your line for experiment 1 suggest, after how many minutes, all
the silver had been deposited in this experiment.

## ......................................... mins [1]

(f)

Suggest what change should be made to the experiment so that more silver could be
deposited on the ring.
.................................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 11]

5070/42/O/N/10