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Engine Lubrication, Part I

With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without lubricating oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. Engine oil comes in many forms: synthetic or mineral or a combination of both. Each with their own unique properties and the most important one is viscosity, which determines its readiness to flow at different temperatures. To enhance the properties of the oil, special formulated additives are added which contain friction reducers, high pressure and anti wear compounds to name a few. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot, here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect.

Oil properties
Engine oil performs a number of functions in the engine: lubrication, cooling, cleaning, sealing, corrosion protection, noise reduction and propeller operation. The most important being lubrication. Without oil all moving parts of the engine would be in direct contact and wear out very rapidly. "il forms a layer between the parts and reduces friction. #ou can visuali$e oil as millions of tiny, molecular si$e, ball bearings rolling between the moving parts of the engine. The si$e of these balls is determined by the clearances in the engine and dictates which viscosity the oil must have for a long service life. To perform its task, oil must be able to withstand high temperatures, pressure and shear loads. %t has certain properties as viscosity and contains additives to clean the engine as $inc and other compounds. "il is either mineral &from oil wells', semisynthetic &part mineral part synthetic' or of full synthetic &man made' origin. Each type has its own unique properties and specific purposes.

Viscosity
(or pilots the most important property is oil viscosity, its readiness to flow under different temperatures.

)uring a cold start in wintertime oil will be thicker than during a warm start in summertime. %n both cases it is important that oil pressure is attained within *+ seconds after start to prevent any damage.

Multigrade
"il is said to be of a certain viscosity or grade. ,ultigrade oils are capable of keeping their specific viscosity under a wide temperature range, for e-ample: ./+01 to 2 3+01, important during startup of the engine. "il with higher grades are used at higher startup4ambient temperatures and not really usable in free$ing arctic conditions where a synthetic multigrade like +W or 5W would be best. 6ircraft engines used to use a single grade oil as a 7+ grade &86E3+' or even a /++ grade &86E5+'. 6lthough multigrades &for summer and winter use' like /5W5+ or 9+W5+ are more common these days. 8ome diesel engines and more modern gasoline engines &1enturion, Wilksch, :ota-, 8ubaru' tend to use the /+W3+ or /5W3+ viscosity oils, where :ota- even recommends a motorbike oil as it contains additives for gears. When replenishing, you can add oil of a different viscosity but keep in mind that the final viscosity will end up in between the two. (or e-ample: 5+; of 86E7+ mi-ed with 5+; 86E/++ results in 86E<+. ,i-ing multigrades as /+W3+ and /5W5+ should get /9W35, the final result depends on the mi-ing ratio. =e sure not to mi- mineral, semisynthetic or full synthetic oils.

Cooling
6s oil is pumped around in the engine lubricating gears, bearings, pistons and valves its temperature rises. Especially near the pistons and cylinders. To make sure the oil stays within the operating limits it will need to be cooled by running it through an oil cooler. 8ome of which are thermostatically controlled, which is a must as it keeps the engine oil on a preset constant temperature regardless the ambient temperature. The oil temperature indicator shows the temperature of the oil when it leaves the cooler and is about to enter the engine. %t must be within a certain range so that all parts are cooled properly and do not overheat. Too low an oil temperature isn>t good either as any moisture collected by the oil needs to dry out. (urthermore, the engine is only operating on design specifications when at its proper operating temperature.

Cleaning and corrosion protection


?sing the correct ashless dispersant oil keeps the interior of the engine clean if used continuously after the first hours of initial break.in. These oils contain specific additives which keep dirt suspended so that the oil filter can collect them. )uring the time the engine is running, oil is collecting combustion byproducts as: soot, coke produced by hot areas, blowby gases add acids, water vapour and gasoline dilution from priming.

6ll these products form their own composition as sludge, varnish and corrosive acids. "il is capable to handle all of this without problem but it will need regular changes as the additives in new fresh oil are >used up>. The aircraft maintenance program dictates how many hours can be flown before the oil and filter will need changing, usually every 5+ or /++ hours. 6fter the engine is shutdown the oil will eventually collect in the sump, leaving a thin film on all internal parts preventing corrosion. =ut if the engine is shutdown with oil that was in service for quite some time and isn>t flown for the ne-t couple of weeks or months, there is a change that contaminants in the oil could corrode the metals. %t is wise to change the oil before putting an aircraft in storage or even using preservation oil in the cylinders to prevent any possible corrosion.

Sealing and noise reduction


Thin oil films provide the necessary gas tight seals between piston rings and cylinder walls preventing gas blowby. Lubricating oil on the valve train cushions the valves which open and closes at 9+ times per second at 93++ :@, cruise power reducing valve noise. With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot, here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect. The oil system in an aircraft engine is very reliable and needs little maintenance, changing oil and filters in regular intervals plus visual inspection. The pilot must keep an eye on levels, pressures and temperatures during operation. 8ponsor the siteA

Oil system

6 typical aircraft engine oil system has a dry or wet sump. 6 dry sump means that oil is collected in a separate tank and these are normally used in radial, aerobatic and the well known four stroke :ota- engines. 6 wet sump system as most Lycoming or 1ontinental engine uses has the oil in the sump underneath attached to the engine.

Oil pump
"il is being kept in the sump and flows around through a cooler &sometimes with a thermostat', a filter and to the high pressure oil pump &with regulating valve' which pumps the oil through galeries to spray and splash the lubrication points. )ry sump engines contain a scavenge pump to remove the oil from the engine to the separate tank. "il pumps are usually two gears &gerotor' driven by the camshaft.

Oil pressure and temperature


6n oil pressure gauge is connected in the high pressure line after the oil pump as an indicator for the pilot and a oil temperature gauge shows temperature after being cooled en before entering the engine again. 8ome oil pressure sensors are equipped with an e-tra switch which closes the moment oil pressure is build up by the pump. This can be indicated by a light on the instrument panel.

Screens and filters


6 screen is used in the sump to act as a coarse filter and a screw on type e-ternal oil filter is used as the main filter. This filter sometimes contains a pressure relieve valve to let oil through should the filter become clogged and this valve makes sure that the oil keeps flowing.

Oil cooler
6 radiator type cooler, is basically an air4oil heat e-changer. "utside air is led through the cooler and the cool air picks up the heat from the tubes and fins in the cooler. 1an be equiped with an thermostat and or bypass valve should the cooler become blocked. Those models with a thermostat &either internally or as addon' keep the oil on a preset temperature, regardless. This is much better than having to keep the engine warm with a winteri$ation kit which blocks part of the air flow into the cowling. The engine will reach operating temperatures much quicker after a cold start and maintain it during a long descent. With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances.

Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot, here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect. The oil system in an aircraft engine is very reliable and needs little maintenance, changing oil and filters in regular intervals plus visual inspection. The pilot must keep an eye on levels, pressures and temperatures during operation.

Oil maintenance
"il maintenance you sayB #es. :egular oil changes form the basis of good preventive maintenance. "il should be changed during each 5+ hour check, it also gives the maintenance engineer the opportunity to have a look under the cowling &as some pilots would care less' and see if things are still as they should be. 6nd if you are doing it the proper way, have an oil sample analy$ed. This will give you insight in what is going on inside the engine related to the wear and tear of bearings, pistons, cylinders, valves and more. Engine oil has a number of important functions:

lubrication, reducing friction of moving parts cooling, of internal engine hot spots cleaning, keeping sludge, dirt and other contaminants suspended sealing, pistons in cylinders cushioning, reducing sound and dampening noise corrosion protection

"il must carry out all these functions under harsh conditions as low and high temperatures, pressure and shearing effects without any side effect. %n part % of Engine Lubrication we discussed al off the above but cleaning. )uring an oil change, the oil together with suspended contaminants is being removed from the engine and it forms a very important part of preventive maintenance.

Changing oil
Cormally ashless dispersant type oils are used after the first /++ hours of engine run in. These oils contain additives capable of holding dirt in the engine suspended so that they can be collected by the oil filter, if large enough, or removed during an oil change. This is very important since there are many small passages in the engine which could clog up and cause oil starvation.

)uring engine operation the oil collects dirt from different places, from the atmosphere through the air filter, soot during start and idling, hot areas cause coke, blowby gasses produce sulfuric acids and water vapor is attracted after engine shutdown and startup. 6cids are corrosive, but only in combination with water. Thus it is very important that the oil reaches it correct operating temperature during each flight so that any water gets >boiled off>. The oil dries out and the vapor leaves the engine through the crankcase breather or water4oil separator. The amount of water condensation depends on the humidity of the ambient air, the higher the temperature &summer' the more water vapor it can contain and the location of the aircraft.

Oil change
6ny good brand ashless dispersant oil contains additives as acid neutrali$ers, $inc and more to combat contaminant, sludge, dirt and varnish. There is a reserve of additives in new oil which is >used up> during the time the engine runs. Dust adding e-tra additives will not work as the oil itself is sub!ect to very high temperatures and shearing action which have their effect on quality. "il therefore need to be changed after a certain amount of time.

Oil and air filters


6 filter can only remove particles of a certain specified si$e and larger. Co filter is able to remove everything /++;, for such a filter would even block the oil. (or e-ample a /+ micron filter should remove all particles of /+ micron and larger, but what usually is forgotten is the effectiveness of the filter. 6nd the longer the filter is on the engine, the more dirt it collects the more it starts loosing it effectiveness and it will need replacement which is done during the /++ hour check.

Engine break in
Every engine is run.in or broken.in at the factory on a test stand, but it is generally accepted that the first /++ hours are considered the final break in period. %n the first 95 hours &or when oil consumption stabili$es' straight mineral oil should be used, this is oil without the additives found in ashless dispersant oil. This aids in the break.in. %f normal ashless dispersant oil would be used during the break.in period the additives would cause the break.in to fail and the piston rings will never properly seat in the cylinders resulting in a higher than normal oil consumption and possible a higher cylinder wall wear rate and the engine not reaching its recommended T=".

Oil brands
When on a cross country and the engine needs an oil top up, don>t worry about the brand. Dust make sure that it is the same type: straight mineral or ashless dispersant. The viscosity should be the same you would use, but if it is not available, you may mi- a 9+W5+ with a /5W5+. The result will be a /EW5+, depending on the ratio of the mi-. Dust make sure not to mi- synthetic oil with mineral oil.

With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. 6s oil is used to reduce friction and wear it eventually picks up metals from the engine, measured in parts per million &ppm'. Through analysis we can determine how much and which type. %f the concentration of a certain metal rises its a good indication that wear is increasing and maintenance action might be needed before the engine fails. 8ponsor the siteA

Oil analysis
8pectrographic oil analysis is a popular way of identifying wear characteristics of an engine, it is adopted by the military, commercial and general aviation. Engines are designed with various metals and alloys, the oil system provides oil under pressure or splashes oil to the areas needed and sub!ect to friction. )uring the normal course of operation these parts undergo minimal and minute wear. 8ubmicroscopic material is released and suspended in the oil. "il analysis identifies this and gives a good view of the engine internals regarding wear during its operation.

!nalysis methods
There are two ways of analysis: atomic absorbtion and atomic emissions. =oth will identify submicroscopic particles in the oil in ppm. =ut with atomic absorption particles smaller than 5 micron will be detected and with atomic emission particles smaller than /+ micron are detected. Either method is good, but they should not be used together on the same engine. 1omparing these different reports will have little meaning. %t must be said that all the oil analysis of your engine should be carried out by the same lab &as to assure the same work procedures' and even an one time analysis of a batch of fresh engine oil should be done to set up a base line for the engine. %t goes without saying that the engine should be run on the same type and brand of the oil for the results to have any meaning.

"il analysis is an e-tra tool which can help identify problems in the engine before they develop into threating issues during flight. %t gives the technician insight information in the normal wear of the engine and any deviations from the normal trend should be investigated.

Engine Oil use


The frequency of aircraft 4 engine use is one of the prime factors in determining how the oil will perform and how often it should be changed. (requently flown aircraft, think one hour a week and regular &5+ hour' oil changes will make any oil look good. This behavior keeps the oil covering all internal parts. There is some debate that oil will >run off> engine parts after a while, but oil will always stick to metal and keep it covered. This, however, could not be the case of piston oil compression and scraper rings as they are sub!ect to high temperatures and oil does tend to get burned off, although this is only in minute quantities. Engines flown less than /++ hours a year are candidates for corrosion formation &my personal opinion is that in this day of age engine corrosion can be properly taken care of by good metallurgy and modern engine oil and % wonder why the established engine manufacturers do not apply modern alloys in their engines to combat corrosion'.

Protecti"e coatings
=etween aircraft use, engine oil should maintain a coating on all internal parts, if not, the surfaces will begin to o-idate within a short period of time. %f left unattended longer, the o-idation will damage the steel parts of the engine. (requent oil and filter changes is a good way to minimi$e these effects. Thicker oil would help too as it >sticks> better to the metal. =ut this has the disadvantage that it takes a couple of seconds for the oil to be up to pressure and reaching all parts moving, especially in winter. ence the need for multigrade oils in which we have /5W5+ and 9+W5+ which are thinner at lower temperatures facilitating quicker oil pressure but are able to be >thick> enough at engine operating temperatures.

Moisture formation
,oisture is formed when the engine oil cools and water condenses. :egular flying with oil temperatures reaching /++01 will make sure that all water is boiled off. Fround running is !ust not enough. %ts too short for all parts to get up to operating temperatures and in the end will do harm. %t increases water formation and corrosive attack.

!cids
Engine combustion byproducts are pickup by the oil and will form, when mi-ed with condensation, acids capable of etching into the metals of the engine. :esulting in more corrosion. (requent oil changes, even on a four monthly basis when not flying frequently &time limited as opposed to hour limited', will help against acid formation.

Location
The location where the aircraft is used or parked, coastal and or high humidity places, will contribute to corrosion. 6s said above, if flying infrequently are your are in said locations, do more oil changes to minimi$e possible corrosion and this will help in keeping the engine in good health.

#inally
"il and filter should be changed regularly but the use of the aircraft &or the lack of' and other factors dictates if the oil must be changed sooner than prescribed by the manufacturer to prevent any corrosion formation in the engine. "il analysis is a great tool to see if the oil is up to the task its designed for in your engine and particular use of the aircraft. Lubrication is needed to overcome friction caused by surfaces sliding or rolling over each other. Co matter how polished or closely machined a surface is, on a microscopic level there are always small !agged edges or uneven spots. %f these surface irregularities come into contact they may break off or even sei$e and become attached together. With further movement tiny parts will break and float around in the oil and eventually may cause damage if the oil is not filtered or oil filters not changed at the proper interval. %n an engine, be it diesel or spark ignited, oil is used to lubricate all moving parts so that durability and reliability is assured for many thousands of hours of trouble free service life. 8ponsor the siteA

$ypes of Lubrication
The amount of friction between two parts depends on several factors:

Temperature, either ambient and in the engine itself has an effect on friction 8urface finish, the better the surface is machined or polish the lower the coefficient friction the surfaces have Load, the heavier the load on a surface the more friction there is 8peed of movement, the increase of speed of sliding surface will increase the friction Cature of movement, sliding or rolling motion have different friction characteristics

Type of lubricant, the type of oil and its characteristics also have an effect on friction &viscosity'

%f we want to reduce friction we need to change or remove the factors which may have an adverse effect on the surfaces in motion. There>s a number of ways to do !ust that. %n case of sliding friction use a rolling element like a ball or needle bearing elements. The use of sacrificial surfaces can be used to, think of lead4copper !ournal bearings. Last but not least, the changing of viscosity, different or improved additives or even changing from oil to grease can reduce friction. %n the small area where the sliding or rolling surfaces are lubricated this happens in one of three modes of lubrication:

=oundary lubrication ydrodynamic lubrication, )L Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, E L

We will discuss each of these.

%oundary lubrication
This occurs when an engine is started, at low speed or even in high load conditions. 6t this time the two moving &rolling or sliding' surfaces may come into real contact and damage could result. 8ome specialist say that E+; of all wear in an engine occurs in this regime. To make sure that no damage is done during these regimes, is to use a lubricant which is formulated with antiwear or even e-treme pressure additives. These additives react with the surfaces in contact due to the high pressure and temperature and form a chemical film on those surfaces. This film is then sacrificed as the surfaces come into contact so that the film wears off and not the metal surface. =y increasing the viscosity of the lubricant, ie increasing its thickness, boundary friction can be minimi$ed in some situations. 6lthough care must be taken not to increase viscosity too much as the internal friction of the lubricant increases too and can give rise to higher temperatures.

&ydrodynamic lubrication
This is when a full film of oil has separated an engine shaft &crank or camshaft' from its support and no contact e-ists between the parts. The oil is keeping the shaft and bearing apart by viscosity. 6lso, during hydrodynamic lubrication there is no friction e-cept in the lubricant itself, where molecular structures shear during operation.

)L requires that the machined surfaces have a high degree of geometric conformity and relatively low pressure. This situation can be found between rotating crank or camshafts and the !ournal or sleeve bearings. "nce the engine is at operating temperature and shafts are at normal engine speeds it should be possible to remain in hydrodynamic regime forever so that friction is at minimum.

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication
This type of lubrication occurs where surfaces have a low degree of conformity combined with high contact pressures as found in gear drives &:ota-' and rolling bearing elements &wheel bearings'. The lubricants are caught by the moving surfaces and under high pressure the viscosity increase to such a high level that it forms a semisolid film separating the two moving surfaces. 6nd as long as these conditions do not change, the metal surfaces will not come into contact. %n fact these surfaces may actually deform long before the semisolid oil or grease film breaks, due to this remarkable property of the lubricant. With the correct oil friction losses in an engine are reduced to a minimum. This is done by taking into consideration circumstances as engine usage, ambient temperature, time of year and climate, location and engine design. The engine manufacturer usually recommends a certain type of oil to use regarding different circumstances. Lubricating oil plays an important part in the life of the engine and during maintenance it will be replaced, on certified aircraft the pilot can only replenish it. Without oil the engine would fail within minutes, keeping a watchful eye during flight is therefore important. aving a basic understanding of engine oil is a must for the professional and private pilot, here we can only scratch on the surface of a very interesting sub!ect. =efore flight the pilot checks the oil level and adds any if needed, during flight he &or she' must pay close attention to temperature and pressure.

Operational !spects
Engine oil systems are usually very reliable but the daily &and in between flights' checks of the oil level can not be forgotten as aircraft engines will use a bit of oil during operation. )uring preflight the pilot should check the oil cooler for obvious blockages by foreign matter and leaks &under the engine on the ground'. ,ake sure to check under the cowling for oil stains, it could indicate a minor oil leak from the sump or oil lines. When topping up, make sure not to add too much oil. (or e-ample: the @6.97./7+ runs perfectly on G quarts but will throw out anything above that &min is 9 quarts', a :ota- should be kept at

ma-imum level for optimum cooling. ,ake sure to top up with the correct quantity, type and grade of oil. 6fter engine start the first and most important item to check is the oil pressure, it must register within *+ seconds &G+ when in cold to free$ing conditions'. 1heck your @" for precise details.

Oil system malfunctions


"il system faults are rare and usually are related to pressure and or temperature, make sure that you are familiar with the normal indications for your engine.

#luctuating oil pressure


This can be an indication that the oil level is getting low and the pump is drawing air from either the in or e-ternal sump. 6 failing scavenge pump may cause oil not being transferred to the e-ternal sump. "n the :ota- < series engine the oil pressure sensor is a resistive type mounted on the engine near the oil pump and due to vibrations from the engine the sensor will eventually fail while indicating fluctuating pressures.

&igh pressure
?sually caused by a faulty pressure relief valve or failing oil pressure sensor &more likely'. "il pressure too high may cause seals to blow out resulting in a loss of oil.

Lo' pressure
,aybe be caused by a low oil level, loss of pressure by a failing pump, broken oil line or relief valve or even a faulty pressure gauge or oil pressure sensor may cause a low oil pressure indication. Heep in mind that a high oil temperature will cause oil viscosity to be lower and that oil pressure will drop slightly.

&igh oil temperature


E-tended climbs in high "6T will cause oil temperature to rise and pressure to drop slightly. %f oil temperature rises with a large oil pressure loss then a oil leak can be e-pected. igh power settings combined with low airspeeds &e-tended climb' will increase the oil pressure due to a higher :@,. %f combined with a low or reducing oil pressure this may indicate an oil leak with a resulting engine failure closeby. Heep an eye on the oil pressure and temperature as these are indications of general engine health, if in doubt land asap and consult your or any aircraft engineer.

Lubrication System in I(C( Engines 2.12.1 Need for Lubrication %n an %.1. engine, moving parts rub against each other causing frictional force. )ue to the frictional force, heat is generated and the engine parts wear easily. @ower is also lost due to friction, since more power is required to drive an engine having more friction between rubbing surfaces. To reduce the power lost and also wear and tear of the moving part substance called lubricant is introduced between, the rubbing surfaces. 2.12.2 Function of Lubrication &a' &b' &c' Lubricant reduces friction between moving part %t reduces wear and tear of the moving parts. %t minimi$es power loss due to friction.

&d' %t provides cooling effect. While lubricating it also carries some heat from the moving parts and delivers it to the surroundings through the bottom of the engine &crank case'. &e' %t helps reduce noise created by the moving parts.

2.12.3 Engine parts which are lubricated The following are some engine parts that require adequate lubrication. /. 1rank shaft 3. @iston pin G. @iston rings 9. 1rank pin *. =ig and small end of the connecting rode 5. %nternal surfaces of cylinder walls E. Ialve mechanisms 7. 1am shaft etc.

2.12.4 Lubrication Systems The main lubrication systems are: /. @etrol lubrication system or ,ist lubrication system. 9. Wet sump lubrication system. 2.12. !etrol Lubrication System or "ist Lubrication System.

This system of lubrication is used in scooters and motor cycles. 6bout *; to G; of lubricating oil is added with petrol in the petrol tank. The petrol evaporates when the engine is working. The lubricating oil is left behind in the form of mist. The parts of the engine such as piston cylinder walls, connecting rod are lubricated by being wetted with the oil mist )isad"antage &i' %f the added oil is less, there will not be sufficient lubrication and even result in sei$ure of the engine, &ii' %f the added oil is more, it will lead to e-cess e-haust smoke and carbon deposits in the cylinder, e-haust parts and spark plugs. 2.12.# $et sump Lubrication System Engine Lubrication Two types of engine lubrication systems are used in internal.combustion engines: the splash system and the pressure.feed system. The pressure.feed system, with small modifications, is the more popular for more popular for modern automobile engines. The splash system is used on most lawn mower and outboard engines. 2.12.% !ressure&Feed System. %n the pressure.feed system, oil is forced by the oil pump through oil lines and drilled passageways. The oil, passing through the drilled passageways under pressure, supplies the necessary lubrication for the crankshaft main bearings, the connecting.rod bearings piston.pin bushings, camshaft bearings, valve lifters, valve push rods, and rocker studs. "il passing through the oil lines is directed to the timing gears and the valve rocker shafts in order to lubricate these parts. The cylinder walls are lubricated by oil thrown off the connecting.rod and piston.pin bearings. 8ome engines have oil spit holes in the connecting rods that line up with drilled holes in the crankshaft !ournal during each revolution, and through or spit a steam of oil onto the cylinder walls.

@ressure.(eed 8ystem

To enable the oil to pass from the drilled passageways in the engine block to the rotating crankshaft, the main bearings must have oil feed holes or grooves that line up with the drilled holes in the crankshaft each time the crankshaft rotates. The same is true in the case of the connecting.rod bearings and the drilled passageways in the connecting rods. 8ince the oil in the passageways is under pressure, each time the drilled holes in the crankshaft and connecting rod line up with the holes in the bearings, the pressure forces the oil through these drilled passages into the crankshaft and connecting rod, lubricating their respective bearings. 6fter the oil has been forced to the area requiring lubrication, it falls back down into the oil pan ready to be picked up again and returned through the system. 6s the oil falls, it is frequently splashed by the moving parts onto some other part requiring lubrication. 2.12.' (he Splash system The splash system is used only on small four.stroke.cycle engines such as lawn mower engines. 6s the engine is operating, dippers on the ends of the connecting rods enter the oil supply, pick up sufficient oil to lubricate the connecting.rod bearing, and splash oil to the upper parts of the engine. The oil is thrown up as droplets, or fine spray, which lubricates the cylinder walls, piston pins and valve mechanism.

The 8plash system

)ry sump lubrication in #* engines


The dry sump lubrication system is a design that intends to lubricate the engine>s internal parts to provide optimal performance of the engine itself. %t is currently the best system for high performance engines and is widely used in (ormula "ne, Le ,ans, %:L and other well known racing series. Lubrication systems for a four.stroke, reciprocating piston engine can be categorised in !ust two groups: the wet sump design and the dry sump system. =oth systems rely on an oil reservoir from which oil is drawn with a pump and spread around the engine for lubrication and cooling purposes. 6ll oil is then allowed to flow back to the reservoir from where the cycle restarts.

Wet sump lubrication is the most widely used system as it is more cost efficient and perfectly adequate for normal passenger vehicles. %n this design, the oil of the engine is stored in a sump located under the crankshaft as an integral part of the engine block. The oil pans> capacity can range from * to E litre, depending on the engine>s si$e and purpose. (rom this pan, the oil is pumped up a pick.up tube and supplied to the engine under pressure. 6 wet sump design has several advantages, including its low cost, low weight and its simplicity. =ecause the sump is an internal part of the engine, there is no need for tubes to circulate the oil from the reservoir to the engine, reducing chances of leaks. )espite its advantages, a wet sump system is unsuitable for racing purposes.(ormula "ne cars for e-ample e-perience lateral F.forces of up to *F in mid corner. 8uch centrifugal accelleration would pull all oil to one side of the sump, possibly leaving the engine without oil for a short period. The latter phenomenon is also known as oil starvation. When performance and reliability matter, such a situation is unacceptable. To resolve this issue, the dry sump system was designed and is now in use in all ma!or racing series. The dry sump system literally keeps the sump of the engine dry and allows for it to be produced small, giving a further advantage to lower the engine>s centre of gravity and reduce its empty weight. The design differs from a wet sump in its e-ternal oil tank. 6gain, the oil is pumped into the engine at elevated pressure and then flows down to the engine>s sump. While it was previously held there, the oil is now sucked away from the engine by one or more scavenger pumps, run by belts or gears from the crankshaft, usually at around half the crank speed. %n most designs, the oil reservoir is tall and narrow and specially designed with internal baffles. The pump itself consists of at least two stages with as many as 5 or G. With two stages, one is for scavenging while the second is a pressure stage. The three.stage dry sump pump has one pressure section and two scavenge sections, while the four.stage pump has one pressure and three scavenge sections. The pressure section of each feeds oil to the block, while the scavenge sections pull oil from special pickups in the dry sump oil pan. The latter system is connected similar to the three stage while the e-tra line of the scavenge section is routed to pull oil from the lifter valley. This prevents e-cess oil to slosh in the top of the engine, reducing windages and increasing horsepower. %n some cases, a fifth stage is added to provide e-tra suction in the crankcase area.

!pplication in #ormula One


6s mentioned, all current (/ engines include a dry sump system, quite simply because it is impossible to create a similar high revving engines with a wet sump system. )ue to the engine free$e, all engines also have a similar layout as the fuel tank is located ahead of the engine, !ust behind the driver. The oil pump that rotates the oil through the engine is . as required by the regulations . driven by the crankshaft through gears.

"ne of the providers of the required high performing lubricants is 8hell, the supplier of (errari. Shell $echnology Manager for #errari, )r( Lisa Lilley e-plains: JEngine lubricant is critical. The very lifeblood of the engine, its job is to protect the moving parts from mechanical wear, reduce friction and power loss and cool the engine as it endures extreme track conditions. It takes a good engine lubricant to achieve just the right balance of these characteristics, while ensuring the cars performance is optimised, no energy is wasted and maximum power is delivered to the engine.K The first !ob of 8hell eli- is to protect all the moving parts that rub together from mechanical wear. The oil is fed to the bearings of the camshafts to lubricate, minimising friction and wear, thereby enhancing the engineLs reliability. The enormous forces required to open the valves quickly enough at /<,+++ rev4min must also be transmitted through a lubricant effectively and without failure. The engine is e-posed to e-treme conditions and high temperatures as it turns. The Mmulti. taskingL lubricant is designed to take away the heat, controlling the engine temperature and preventing the heat from having a detrimental affect. The ability of an engine oil to cool as well as lubricate is often overlooked. @istons can e-ceed temperatures of *++01N engine oil is sprayed on the underside of the pistons to keep them cool . without this e-tra protection they would undoubtedly fail in a race. J hen you consider that the oil flow around the engine is faster than the speed of the !errari !ormula "ne car, this gives you an idea of the extreme conditions in a !ormula "ne engine,# says )r( Lilley. J$t %hell we have a team dedicated to tailoring %hell &elix engine oil for the !errari so that we can ensure reliability and protection but we can also guarantee the car is receiving the most horsepower possible.#

"il is pumped from the Jdry sumpK oil tank on the front of the engine into the Jdistribution networkK within the cylinder block and heads, which ensures it gets directly to all critical engine components

Lubricant is fed to the bearings of the camshafts to minimise friction and wear and also to lubricate the critical cam.to.follower interfaces, where the enormous forces required to open the valves quickly enough at /<,+++ rev4min must be transmitted through a layer of lubricant

efficiently and without failure

The lubricant is fed down the middle of the crankshaft, coming out inside the bearings to keep them working. The lubricant flung off these The lubricant squirts onto the underside of the bearings then creates a film on the cylinder walls, pistons from small no$$les on the distribution on which the pistons and rings run smoothly to network, to take away heat ensure minimum power losses and mechanical wear

The used lubricant is sucked away from the bottom of the crankcase by the scavenge pumps, The JcameraK e-its the engine, showing a fully to be cooled in radiators and returned to the oil lubricated engine tank, refreshed and ready to start its circuit of the engine again +hat ma,or functions do lubricants perform in a"iation enginesLubricants are used to reduce friction and wear, whether it>s in an aviation engine or the wheel bearing on a car.

"ther ma!or functions of a lubricant include cleaning, cooling and sealing, in addition to helping fight corrosion and rust in the engine. 6irplanes that are used infrequently especially need the corrosion and rust protection that good aviation lubricants can provide. ?nused aircraft have a high potential for rust and corrosion, among other downtime problems. The more frequently and consistently an airplane is flown, the easier it is to properly maintain and lubricate. +hat are the benefits of using a lubricant that cleans the engine6ll aviation oils clean. When we say an aviation oil cleans, we think of removing sludge, varnishes, and grunge accumulations in the oil pan, on plugs, or in the screen. owever, when a lubricant keeps your airplane engine clean, it also means a clean ring belt area and better control of the combustion process. When those rings are able to move freely, your engine operates at higher efficiencies, has better ring seal, produces less blow.by, and consumes less oil. 6 dirty ring belt restrains the movement of the rings within the grooves and they can>t seal. This may create pressure between the ring face and the cylinder wall O leading to wear, scarring or scuffing. &o' do a"iation lubricants keep an engine cool6ir.cooled aircraft engines rely on their oil for cooling far more than water.cooled automotive engines. 6utomotive oil typically accounts for about 3+ percent of the engine>s cooling capacity. %n aviation engines, the oil must carry off a greater percentage of the engine>s heat.

Principles of aircraft engine lubrication


"il is a heat.transfer medium which flows through the crankcase and oil coolers, and dissipates the heat from moving parts, thus constantly cooling engine bearings and piston rings. Without the cooling oil film on a cylinder wall, the rings wouldn>t have a good heat transfer path. This can lead to melting, galling, or scarring problems. "il also cools the valve springs and the whole valve train. &o' does oil seal an a"iation engine6viation oil not only provides a seal between the rings and cylinder walls, but also helps seal the gasketed areas and the rubber or synthetic seals for the crankshaft. When oil washes around those areas, it helps retain a seal. Thus, aviation oil must be of a blend or formulation that is compatible with the seal materials so that the seal itself lasts longer. +hat about the ,ob 'e think of first 'hen 'e think of oil . lubricationLubricating properties are among the most important physical characteristics of aviation oil. @roper lubrication requires a strong enough and thick enough oil film between moving parts to keep friction and wear to a minimum. "il properties can include boundary or mi-ed film, dynamic, hydrodynamic, and elastohydrodynamic forms.

=oundary or mi-ed film lubrication is found in the upper cylinder area in the outer boundary of an aircraft engine. This is the most remote engine area to lubricate because the oil rings scrape most of the oil film off the cylinder walls before it reaches the upper cylinder. owever, there must be a residual amount of lubrication in the upper cylinder to protect the engine on startup. 6lso, if an engine has been sitting idle for a month, some lifters have been pressed against cam faces and loaded under ma-imum spring pressure. ,ost of the oil has been squee$ed out of that !unction. When the engine is fired up, it takes a while to get oil to all those surfaces again. 8o, for that crucial moment, you need good boundary or mi-ed film strength at those critical boundary areas. "il film retention is not as critical on startup in cam and crank !ournal areas.

Principles of aircraft engine lubrication


)ynamic lubrication is produced through the pressure generated by an oil pump and this pressure provides an adequate flow of oil to the lubrication system. ydrodynamic lubrication is like water skiing O it provides a smooth surface for any moving part to ride on and prevents any direct contact between moving parts. ydrodynamic lubrication is full.film lubrication that keeps moving parts from contacting one another. %n true hydrodynamic lubrication, as with water skiing, contact pressure is much lower and is spread over a large surface area. 6 constant supply of oil is required between the parts for hydro. dynamic lubrication. When everything is operating properly in an aircraft engine, there is a constant lubricating film between any parts that might rub together. 6ny wear that the lubricant flow itself could cause is so slight that it would take several lifetimes to wear out a component O like a river wearing away the rocks. If that/s true, 'hy do engines 'ear out#our biggest problems are on surfaces where there is no oil. That usually happens after an engine has been sitting for a while. #ou need the right viscosity and the right velocity between moving parts to keep oil where it needs to be. Think about what happens inside your engine whenever you do something like a cold start. %f it>s very cold when you fire up your engine, there is ma-imum velocity between metal parts and ma-imum oil viscosity. The oil isn>t going to provide good hydrodynamic lubrication until the engine warms up. With bearings, the clearances are so close and so contained that they will sometimes keep a good lubricating film on that bearing for years.

Principles of aircraft engine lubrication

%n elastohydrodynamic lubrication, an oil can act like a solid O as in areas of very fast, e-treme force, such as where the rocker arm contacts the valve stem. The contact happens so quick that the oil can>t get out of the way. When engine parts hit that fast, the oil literally acts like a solid. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication provides effective protection for the instant it>s needed. The oil acts as a shock absorber, and hence, e-hibits elastohydrodynamic properties. What does viscosity have to do with lubricationB 6ll of these lubrication types O the mi-ed film, dynamic, hydrodynamic, and elastohydrodynamic, all relate to and depend on oil viscosity. Iiscosity is a measure of a fluid>s resistance to flow. 6ll fluids flow better when they are warm O cold oil is thick, but thins and flows better as it gets hot. "il viscosity is more important in an aviation engine than in an automobile engine. The fewer additives in the oil, the more dependent it is on its viscometrics &viscosity properties'. 8traight, untreated base oil can be limited in its lubrication without supplemental additives. 6viation oil will assist in boundary or mi-ed film lubrication, detergency and other lubrication aspects. 6sh cannot be added to aviation piston engine oils. :egulations prohibit the use of ash.bearing detergents and anti.wear, $inc.dithio.phosphate that are used in automotive or diesel truck engine oils because they may cause pre.ignition or detonation in an aircraft engine. +hat is an oil/s "iscosity inde0While viscosity is an oil>s internal resistance to flow, its viscosity inde- is simply its resistance to changing flow characteristics due to changes in temperature. %f an oil>s viscosity changes very little, despite significant temperature changes, the oil has a high viscosity inde-. Iiscosity inde- is an arbitrary numbering system. igher numbers mean an oil>s viscosity changes little with temperature, and lower numbers means it changes more. 8ingle grade oils typically have a viscosity inde- of <+ to //+. ,ulti.grade oils, with a viscosity inde- of /5+ or higher, can tolerate e-treme temperature changes and better retain their viscosity characteristics. 8ome automatic transmission fluid is so multi.graded that it may have a viscosity inde- of 9++. ,ulti.grade oils are common in applications such as aviation oil, automatic transmission fluid, power steering fluid, gear oil, and hydraulic fluids. &o' can an oil/s "iscosity inde0 be impro"edIiscosity inde- can be increased by adding viscosity modifiers, or viscosity inde- improvers, to base oils. 8everal types of polymers are used to change the viscosity inde- of aviation oils. Iiscosity modifiers are available in different molecular weights, so oil formulators can select those with the most desirable performance and cost characteristics. +hat other oil characteristics can be changed 'ith additi"es8ome additives help the oil, while others protect engine components.

)ispersants, flow.improvers, anti.foam, anti.rust, anti.corrosion, and o-idation inhibitors can all be found in aviation oils, as can some ashless, anti.wear additives. )ispersants isolate minute particles to prevent sludge and deposit formation. 6shless dispersants in aviation oil are important because they encapsulate these very small particles of contamination and keep them from clumping and getting big enough to cause internal problems such as contributing to deposits or sludge, oil thickening, and oil screen restrictions. (low improvers help prevent wa- crystal formations and slow viscosity increases that occur when oil gets cold. 8ometimes you can improve the pour point of an oil significantly for a cold engine or cold starts by adding a little flow improver or flow modifier. 6nti.foam additives allow small bubbles in oil to burst, preventing e-cessive foam formation. :educing foam improves oil cooling and lubrication. %f an oil is foaming, it can>t adhere to an engine>s surface and can>t cool as effectively. "-idation inhibitors reduce reactions of o-ygen with oil molecules and thereby minimi$e engine deposits.

Principles of aircraft engine lubrication


:ust and corrosion inhibitors help protect the metal engine components from corrosive contaminants introduced by typical engine operation. "-idation inhibitors, as the name implies, tend to fortify the oil against o-idation. #inal thoughts P1hange your aircraft engine oil frequently, based on manufacturer recommendations. P(ly your plane monthly to reduce the effects of rust and corrosion on engine components. That doesn>t mean starting.up and idling the engine for /+ minutes. #ou must fly the plane to allow the moisture to dissipate. P?se only approved aviation oils in aircraft engines. Frease is the word....... 1rease is the 'ord Duly 4 6ugust /<<7 6lthough not in the same category as aviation oils, greases are derivatives of oils that provide the same types of protection to other parts of the aircraft. The following information on grease is from the 8ky :anch Engineering ,anual by Dohn 8chwaner &</G' 39/.EGE9. Freases are thickened oils that seal, protect, cushion, and provide long service life. Freases are often referred to by the type of thickener used. 1alcium &lime' is the original type of thickener, but is becoming less popular. %t has high water resistance but poor high.temperature performance.

Lithium thickeners are used in 6eroshell Frease E &,%L.F.9*79E)' and 6eroshell Frease /E &,%L.F.9//G3)'. These have high melting points &Qdrop outQ' and adequate water resistance. %norganic gels, as used in 6eroshell Frease 99&,%L.F.7/*99)', 6ero8hell Frease 5 &,%L.F. *5351' and 6ero8hell Frease /G &,%L.F.5EG+', offer superior high temperature performance over lithium or calcuim thickeners. %norganic gel does not melt and the grease does not soften at high temperatures. The high temperature point of the grease is often governed by the flash point of the oil portion. These greases burn, rather than melt, if sub!ected to e-cessive temperatures. 1lay.based greases &bentonite' are sometimes used in high temperature greases. The type of oil that makes up the grease can either be synthetic or mineral oil. 6ero8hell Frease E, /G, and /E, are all synthetic oil greases. 6ero8hell Frease 5 is the most common mineral oil grease. %t is not good practice to mi- a synthetic oil grease with a mineral oil grease. 6ero8hell Frease 5 and 99 are both used as a wheel bearing grease. 6ero8hell Frease 99, an inorganic gel synthetic grease, has superior high and low temperature performance and is specified in higher. performance aircraft wheel bearings. 6ero8hell Frease 5, a mineral oil grease, is also used in wheel bearings. 6ero8hell Frease 5 offers superior water and corrosion resistance. Freases are separated by their usage. 6 low.speed, high pressure gear requires different grease characteristics than a high.speed, roller bearing grease. igh pressure sliding surfaces require e-treme pressure additives such as ,olybdemum )isulfide. These Q,olyQ greases form a solid. film lubricant. Low or moderate pressure sliding surfaces may require a grease that will not evaporate, prevent water wash off, and prevent corrosion. ,oly is not desired in roller bearings because of its coating property. :oller bearings require a clean grease that has e-cellent thermal stability. Frease in a roller bearing will be pushed from the race by the action of the balls. %f grease is too thin or melts, the race fills with grease, causing churning of the grease and adding friction and heat to the bearing. %f the grease is too thick or dries out, the grease will be displaced to the side and therefore perform no lubricating action. Frease of the proper thickness will come in contact with the side of the ball as it passes and impart a thin film of oil onto the ball. igh.speed ball bearing greases should be kept clean. (ive gallon pails of grease are sub!ect to dirt contamination because of the length of time it takes to use up that much grease. %all bearing greases 'I()*+!),-.//E 0$ero%hell 1rease //, +oyco //2!, 'obilgrease /,3 6 synthetic inorganic gel grease, used in low or high temperature applications. Wide temperature performance makes it a preferred grease in !et aircraft. 'I()1).4542 0$ero%hell 1rease 4, +oyco 543 6 mineral oil.based, inorganic gel grease, the most common wheel bearing grease used. Cot as temperature stable as ,%L.@:(.7/*99E, but it has superior water resistance at high temperature. 'I()1)/4678$ 0$ero%hell 1rease -7, +oyco /43 6 synthetic inorganic gel grease with the similar temperature applications as ,%L.@:(.7/*99E.

%t has moderate water resistance &between ,%L.@:(.7/*99E and ,%L.F.*535', but has superior o-idation and corrosion resistance. ?sed in amphibious wheel bearings. 'I()1)/44.62 0$ero%hell 1rease -53 6 calcium.based mineral oil grease with e-cellent anti.fretting and o-idation protection. %t is used where ball bearings are sub!ect to static vibration that may cause fretting and corrosion. %t is used in helicopter main and tail rotor bearings.

Principles of aircraft engine lubrication


'obil $viation 1rease %&2 -88 09o mil)spec3 ,obil 6viation Frease 8 1 /++>s synthetic base oil, combined with selected additives, provide outstanding protection against wear, rust, corrosion, and high.temperature degradation. %t is recommended for aviation applications which need a lubricant that can perform normal functions, yet go far beyond that in terms of high and low temperatures, long.life performance. %t is particularly suitable for the lubrication of commercial aircraft wheel bearings. 1eneral purpose grease 'I()1)/.,/6: 0$ero%hell 1rease 6, +oyco /63 6 ,icrogelR grease &6ero8hell Frease E' and a lithium soap &:oyco 9E', synthetic grease with a broad temperature range &./++ to 95+ ('. %t has low evaporation loss, moderate.load wear inde&lower than the moly.based greases', relatively poor water resistance but e-cellent corrosion resistance. This is a good, all.purpose airframe grease. 'I()1),-,/6$ 0+oyco //'%3 6n inorganic gel, molybdenum disulfide synthetic grease with a higher temperature range. %t has the greatest load carrying ability of any of the listed greases. %t has better water resistance than ,%L.F.9*79E or ,%L.F.9//G3. "-idation and evaporation rate are greater than ,%L.F.9*79E. ?sed where high water.resistance, high temperature, and high load carrying is required. 'I()1)66--$ or 'I()1)/5-.; 0$ero%hell 1rease 73 6n inorganic gel mineral oil grease with superior water.resistance than for other listed greases. %t is used as a general purpose airframe grease where water.resistance and corrosion prevention is important. %t is also available with molybdenum disulfide under :oyco //,8 part number. ?sed with high load, slow moving sliding surfaces, such as landing gear bogie pivot assemblies, where water and corrosion resistance are required. 'I()1)/--75< 0$ero%hell 1rease -6, +oyco 753 6 ,icrogelR grease &6ero8hell Frease /E' and a lithium soap &:oyco G3' synthetic oil molybdenum disulfide grease. %t is the same as ,%L.F.9*79E but contains moly. %t is used in !et aircraft where parts are e-posed to low temperatures. %t is not as good as :oyco //,8 in water. resistance and load carrying ability.

T,/+.*<*+.GG+./+ /./*. ECF%CE L?=:%16T%"C 6C) 1""L%CF 8#8TE,8. "%L @?,@. Located on the front housing cover side. The pump draws oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil cooler, and then through the oil filter. (rom the filter, the oil enters the cylinder block to lubricate the engine and is then returned to the oil pan. (rom the filter, oil is also sent through the turbocharger and then returned to the oil pan. "%L @6C. 1ontains the oil that lubricates moving parts in the engine. %t is attached to the bottom of the engine. ECF%CE "%L 1""LE:. Engine oil flows through the plates of the oil cooler. 6s the oil warms, the heat is transferred to the coolant which flows from the radiator. The coolant flows across the plates of the oil cooler. "%L (%LTE:. :emoves particles from the oil which could cause damage to the internal parts of the engine. W6TE: @?,@. )raws coolant from the radiator and sends it through the oil cooler cavity and cylinder block to cool the engine. The coolant then returns to the radiator. (6C. The fan is turned by the engine drive belt. %t creates air flow through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant as it passes through the radiator

T,/+.*<*+.GG+./+ /./*. ECF%CE L?=:%16T%"C 6C) 1""L%CF 8#8TE,8. "%L @?,@. Located on the front housing cover side. The pump draws oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil cooler, and then through the oil filter. (rom the filter, the oil enters the cylinder block to lubricate the engine and is then returned to the oil pan. (rom the filter, oil is also sent through the turbocharger and then returned to the oil pan. "%L @6C. 1ontains the oil that lubricates moving parts in the engine. %t is attached to the bottom of the engine. ECF%CE "%L 1""LE:. Engine oil flows through the plates of the oil cooler. 6s the oil warms, the heat is transferred to the coolant which flows from the radiator. The coolant flows across the plates of the oil cooler. "%L (%LTE:. :emoves particles from the oil which could cause damage to the internal parts of the engine. W6TE: @?,@. )raws coolant from the radiator and sends it through the oil cooler cavity and cylinder block to cool the engine. The coolant then returns to the radiator. (6C. The fan is turned by the engine drive belt. %t creates air flow through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant as it passes through the radiator

T,/+.*<*+.GG+./+ /./*. ECF%CE L?=:%16T%"C 6C) 1""L%CF 8#8TE,8. "%L @?,@. Located on the front housing cover side. The pump draws oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil cooler, and then through the oil filter. (rom the filter, the oil enters the cylinder block to lubricate the engine and is then returned to the oil pan. (rom the filter, oil is also sent through the turbocharger and then returned to the oil pan. "%L @6C. 1ontains the oil that lubricates moving parts in the engine. %t is attached to the bottom of the engine. ECF%CE "%L 1""LE:. Engine oil flows through the plates of the oil cooler. 6s the oil warms, the heat is transferred to the coolant which flows from the radiator. The coolant flows across the plates of the oil cooler. "%L (%LTE:. :emoves particles from the oil which could cause damage to the internal parts of the engine. W6TE: @?,@. )raws coolant from the radiator and sends it through the oil cooler cavity and cylinder block to cool the engine. The coolant then returns to the radiator. (6C. The fan is turned by the engine drive belt. %t creates air flow through the radiator to lower the temperature of the coolant as it passes through the radiator

Properties
,ost motor oils are made from a heavier, thicker petroleum hydrocarbon base stock derived from crude oil, with additives to improve certain properties. The bulk of a typical motor oil consists of hydrocarbons with between /7 and *3 carbon atoms per molecule.SGT "ne of the most important properties of motor oil in maintaining a lubricating film between moving parts is its viscosity. The viscosity of a liquid can be thought of as its QthicknessQ or a measure of its resistance to flow. The viscosity must be high enough to maintain a lubricating film, but low enough that the oil can flow around the engine parts under all conditions. The viscosity inde- is a measure of how much the oil>s viscosity changes as temperature changes. 6 higher viscosity inde- indicates the viscosity changes less with temperature than a lower viscosity inde-. ,otor oil must be able to flow adequately at the lowest temperature it is e-pected to e-perience in order to minimi$e metal to metal contact between moving parts upon starting up the engine. The pour point defined first this property of motor oil, as defined by 68T, )<E as Q...an inde-

of the lowest temperature of its utility...Q for a given application,SET but the Qcold cranking simulatorQ &118, see 68T, )59<*.+7' and Q,ini.:otary IiscometerQ &,:I, see 68T, )*79<.+9&9++E', 68T, )3G73.+7' are today the properties required in motor oil specs and define the 86E classifications. "il is largely composed of hydrocarbons which can burn if ignited. 8till another important property of motor oil is its flash point, the lowest temperature at which the oil gives off vapors which can ignite. %t is dangerous for the oil in a motor to ignite and burn, so a high flash point is desirable. 6t a petroleum refinery, fractional distillation separates a motor oil fraction from other crude oil fractions, removing the more volatile components, and therefore increasing the oil>s flash point &reducing its tendency to burn'. 6nother manipulated property of motor oil is its Total =ase Cumber &T=C', which is a measurement of the reserve alkalinity of an oil, meaning its ability to neutrali$e acids. The resulting quantity is determined as mg H" 4 &gram of lubricant'. 6nalogously, Total 6cid Cumber &T6C' is the measure of a lubricant>s acidity. "ther tests include $inc, phosphorus, or sulfur content, and testing for e-cessive foaming. The C"61H volatility &68T, ).57++' Test determines the physical evaporation loss of lubricants in high temperature service. 6 ma-imum of /5; evaporation loss is allowable to meet 6@% 8L and %L861 F(.* specifications. 8ome automotive "E, oil specifications require lower than /+;.

2edit3 1rades

:ange of motor oils on display in Huwait The 8ociety of 6utomotive Engineers &86E' has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. 86E viscosity gradings include the following, from low to high viscosity: +, 5, /+, /5, 9+, 95, *+, 3+, 5+ or G+. The numbers +, 5, /+, /5 and 95 are suffi-ed with the letter W, designating their QwinterQ &not QweightQ' or cold. start viscosity, at lower temperature. The number 9+ comes with or without a W, depending on whether it is being used to denote a cold or hot viscosity grade. The document 86E D*++ defines the viscometrics related to these grades.

Hinematic viscosity is graded by measuring the time it takes for a standard amount of oil to flow through a standard orifice, at standard temperatures. The longer it takes, the higher the viscosity and thus higher 86E code. Cote that the 86E has a separate viscosity rating system for gear, a-le, and manual transmission oils, 86E D*+G, which should not be confused with engine oil viscosity. The higher numbers of a gear oil &eg E5W./3+' do not mean that it has higher viscosity than an engine oil.

2edit3 Single grade


6 single.grade engine oil, as defined by 86E D*++, cannot use a polymeric Iiscosity %nde%mprover &also referred to as Iiscosity ,odifier' additive. 86E D*++ has established eleven viscosity grades, of which si- are considered Winter.grades and given a W designation. The // viscosity grades are +W, 5W, /+W, /5W, 9+W, 95W, 9+, *+, 3+, 5+, and G+. These numbers are often referred to as the >weight> of a motor oil. (or single winter grade oils, the dynamic viscosity is measured at different cold temperatures, specified in D*++ depending on the viscosity grade, in units of m@aUs or the equivalent older non. 8% units, centipoise &abbreviated c@', using two different test methods. They are the 1old 1ranking 8imulator &68T,)59<*' and the ,ini.:otary Iiscometer &68T, )3G73'. =ased on the coldest temperature the oil passes at, that oil is graded as 86E viscosity grade +W, 5W, /+W, /5W, 9+W, or 95W. The lower the viscosity grade, the lower the temperature the oil can pass. (or e-ample, if an oil passes at the specifications for /+W and 5W, but fails for +W, then that oil must be labeled as an 86E 5W. That oil cannot be labeled as either +W or /+W. (or single non.winter grade oils, the kinematic viscosity is measured at a temperature of /++ 01 &9/9 0(' in units of mmV4s or the equivalent older non.8% units,8tokes &unitWcentistokesTT &abbreviated c8t'. =ased on the range of viscosity the oil falls in at that temperature, the oil is graded as 86E viscosity grade 9+, *+, 3+, 5+, or G+. %n addition, for 86E grades 9+, *+, and 3+, a minimum viscosity measured at /5+ 01 &*+9 0(' and at a high.shear rate is also required. The higher the viscosity, the higher the 86E viscosity grade is. (or some applications, such as when the temperature ranges in use are not very wide, single. grade motor oil is satisfactoryN for e-ample, lawn mower engines, industrial applications, and vintage or classic cars.

2edit3 Multi grade


The temperature range the oil is e-posed to in most vehicles can be wide, ranging from cold temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up, to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather. 6 specific oil will have high viscosity when cold and a lower viscosity at the engine>s operating temperature. The difference in viscosities for most single.grade oil is too large between the e-tremes of temperature. To bring the difference in viscosities closer together, special polymer additives called viscosity indeimprovers, or I%%s are added to the oil. These additives are used to make the oil a multi)grade motor oil, though it is possible to have a multi.grade oil without the use of I%%s. The idea is to

cause the multi.grade oil to have the viscosity of the base grade when cold and the viscosity of the second grade when hot. This enables one type of oil to be generally used all year. %n fact, when multi.grades were initially developed, they were frequently described as all)season oil. The viscosity of a multi.grade oil still varies logarithmically with temperature, but the slope representing the change is lessened.S7T This slope representing the change with temperature depends on the nature and amount of the additives to the base oil. The 86E designation for multi.grade oils includes two viscosity gradesN for e-ample, -8 ).8 designates a common multi.grade oil. The two numbers used are individually defined by 86E D*++ for single.grade oils. Therefore, an oil labeled as /+W.*+ must pass the 86E D*++ viscosity grade requirement for both /+W and *+, and all limitations placed on the viscosity grades &for e-ample, a /+W.*+ oil must fail the D*++ requirements at 5W'. 6lso, if an oil does not contain any I%%s, and can pass as a multi.grade, that oil can be labelled with either of the two 86E viscosity grades. (or e-ample, a very simple multi.grade oil that can be easily made with modern base oils without any I%% is a 9+W.9+. This oil can be labeled as 9+W.9+, 9+W, or 9+. Cote, if any I%%s are used however, then that oil cannot be labeled as a single grade. The real.world ability of an oil to crank or pump when cold is potentially diminished soon after it is put into service. The motor oil grade and viscosity to be used in a given vehicle is specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle &although some modern European cars now have no viscosity requirement', but can vary from country to country when climatic or fuel efficiency constraints come into play.

2edit3 Standards
2edit3 !merican Petroleum Institute
The 6merican @etroleum %nstitute &6@%' sets minimum for performance standards for lubricants. ,otor oil is used for the lubrication, cooling, and cleaning of internal combustion engines. ,otor oil may be composed of a lubricant base stock only in the case of non.detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil>s detergency, e-treme pressure performance, and ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. Lubricant base stocks are categori$ed into five groups by the 6@%. Froup % base stocks are composed of fractionally distilled petroleum which is further refined with solvent e-traction processes to improve certain properties such as o-idation resistance and to remove wa-. Froup %% base stocks are composed of fractionally distilled petroleum that has been hydrocracked to further refine and purify it. Froup %%% base stocks have similar characteristics to Froup %% base stocks, e-cept that Froup %%% base stocks have higher viscosity inde-es. Froup %%% base stocks are produced by further hydrocracking of Froup %% base stocks, or of hydroisomeri$ed slack wa-, &a byproduct of the dewa-ing process'. Froup %I base stock are polyalphaolefins &@6"s'. Froup I is a catch.all group for any base stock not described by Froups % to %I. E-amples of group I base stocks include polyol esters, polyalkylene glycols &@6F oils', and perfluoropolyalkylethers &@(@6Es'. Froups % and %% are commonly referred to as mineral oils, group %%% is typically referred to as synthetic &e-cept in Fermany and Dapan, where they must not be called synthetic' and group %I is a synthetic oil. Froup I base oils are so diverse that there is no catch.all description.

The 6@% service classesS<T have two general classifications: % for QserviceQ &originating from spark ignition' &typical passenger cars and light trucks using gasoline engines', and 2 for QcommercialQ &originating from compression ignition' &typical diesel equipment'. Engine oil which has been tested and meets the 6@% standards may display the 6@% 8ervice 8ymbol &also known as the Q)onutQ' with the service designation on containers sold to oil users.S<T The 6@% oil classification structure has eliminated specific support for wet.clutch motorcycle applications in their descriptors, and 6@% 8D and newer oils are referred to be specific to automobile and light truck use. 6ccordingly, motorcycle oils are sub!ect to their own unique standards. The latest 6@% service standard designation is 8C for gasoline automobile and light.truck engines. The 8C standard refers to a group of laboratory and engine tests, including the latest series for control of high.temperature deposits. 1urrent 6@% service categories include 8C,8,, 8L and 8D for gasoline engines. 6ll previous service designations are obsolete, although motorcycle oils commonly still use the 8(48F standard. 6ll the current gasoline categories &including the obsolete 8 ', have placed limitations on the phosphorus content for certain 86E viscosity grades &the -W.9+, -W.*+' due to the chemical poisoning that phosphorus has on catalytic converters. @hosphorus is a key anti.wear component in motor oil and is usually found in motor oil in the form of Xinc dithiophosphate. Each new 6@% category has placed successively lower phosphorus and $inc limits, and thus has created a controversial issue obsolescing oils needed for older engines, especially engines with sliding &flat4cleave' tappets. 6@%, and %L861, which represents most of the worlds ma!or automobile4engine manufactures, states 6@% 8,4%L861 F(.3 is fully backwards compatible, and it is noted that one of the engine tests required for 6@% 8,, the 8equence %I6, is a sliding tappet design to test specifically for cam wear protection. owever, not everyone is in agreement with backwards compatibility, and in addition, there are special situations, such as QperformanceQ engines or fully race built engines, where the engine protection requirements are above and beyond 6@%4%L861 requirements. =ecause of this, there are specialty oils out in the market place with higher than 6@% allowed phosphorus levels. ,ost engines built before /<75 have the flat4cleave bearing style systems of construction, which is sensitive to reducing $inc and phosphorus. E-ampleN in 6@% 8F rated oils, this was at the /9++./*++ ppm level for $incs and phosphorus, where the current 8, is under G++ ppm. This reduction in anti.wear chemicals in oil has caused pre.mature failures of camshafts and other high pressure bearings in many older automobiles and has been blamed for pre.mature failure of the oil pump drive4cam position sensor gear that is meshed with camshaft gear in some modern engines. There are si- diesel engine service designations which are current: 1D.3, 1%.3, 1 .3, 1F.3, 1(. 9, and 1(. 8ome manufacturers continue to use obsolete designations such as 11 for small or stationary diesel engines. %n addition, 6@% created a separated 1%.3 @L?8 designation in con!unction with 1D.3 and 1%.3 for oils that meet certain e-tra requirements, and this marking is located in the lower portion of the 6@% 8ervice 8ymbol Q)onutQ. %t is possible for an oil to conform to both the gasoline and diesel standards. %n fact, it is the norm for all diesel rated engine oils to carry the QcorrespondingQ gasoline specification. (or e-ample,

6@% 1D.3 will almost always list either 8L or 8,, 6@% 1%.3 with 8L, 6@% 1 .3 with 8D, and so on.

2edit3 ILS!C
The %nternational Lubricant 8tandardi$ation and 6pproval 1ommittee &%L861' also has standards for motor oil. %ntroduced in 9++3, F(.3S/+T applies to 86E +W.9+, 5W.9+, +W.*+, 5W. *+, and /+W.*+ viscosity grade oils. 6 new set of specifications, F(.5,S//T took effect in "ctober 9+/+. The industry has one year to convert their oils to F(.5 and in 8eptember 9+//, %L861 will no longer offer licensing for F(.3. %n general, %L861 works with 6@% in creating the newest gasoline oil specification, with %L861 adding an e-tra requirement of fuel economy testing to their specification. (or F(.3, a 8equence I%= (uel Economy Test &68T, )G7*E' is required that is not required in 6@% service category 8,. 6 key new test for F(.3, which is also required for 6@% 8,, is the 8equence %%%F, which involves running a *.7 L &9*9 inY', F, *.7 L I.G at /95 hp &<* kW', *,G++ rpm, and /5+ 01 &*++ 0(' oil temperature for /++ hours. These are much more severe conditions than any 6@%. specified oil was designed for: cars which typically push their oil temperature consistently above /++ 01 &9/9 0(' are most turbocharged engines, along with most engines of European or Dapanese origin, particularly small capacity, high power output. The %%%F test is about 5+; more difficultS/9T than the previous %%%( test, used in F(.* and 6@% 8L oils. Engine oils bearing the 6@% starburst symbol since 9++5 are %L861 F(.3 compliant.S/*T To help consumers recogni$e that an oil meets the %L861 requirements, 6@% developed a QstarburstQ certification mark.

2edit3 !CE!
The 61E6 &$ssociation des 2onstructeurs Europ=ens d>$utomobiles' performance4quality classifications 6*465 tests used in Europe are arguably more stringent than the 6@% and %L861 standards. 1E1 &The 1o.ordinating European 1ouncil' is the development body for fuel and lubricant testing in Europe and beyond, setting the standards via their European %ndustry groupsN 61E6, 6T%EL, 6T1 and 1"C16WE.

2edit3 4!SO
The Dapanese 6utomotive 8tandards "rgani$ation &D68"' has created their own set of performance and quality standards for petrol engines of Dapanese origin. (or 3.stroke gasoline engines, the D68" T<+3 standard is used, and is particularly relevant to motorcycle engines. The D68" T<+3.,6 and ,69 standards are designed to distinguish oils that are approved for wet clutch use, and the D68" T<+3.,= standard is not suitable for wet clutch use.

(or 9.stroke gasoline engines, the D68" ,*35 &(6, (=, (1' standard is used, and this refers particularly to low ash, lubricity, detergency, low smoke and e-haust blocking. These standards, especially D68".,6 and D68".(1, are designed to address oil.requirement issues not addressed by the 6@% service categories.

2edit3 OEM standards di"ergence


=y the early /<<+s, many of the European original equipment manufacturer &"E,' car manufacturers felt that the direction of the 6merican 6@% oil standards was not compatible with the needs of a motor oil to be used in their motors. 6s a result many leading European motor manufacturers created and developed their own Q"E,Q oil standards. @robably the most well known of these are the IW5+Z.+Z series from Iolkswagen Froup, and the ,=99Z.ZZ from ,ercedes.=en$. "ther European "E, standards are from Feneral ,otors, for the Iau-hall, "pel and 8aab brands, the (ord QW88Q standards, =,W 8pecial "ils and =,W Longlife standards, @orsche, and the @86 Froup of @eugeot and 1itro[n. Feneral ,otors also has the 3E/7, standard that is used for the 1hevrolet 1orvette, a standard that is used in Corth 6merica for selected Corth 6merican performance engines, with a Q?se ,obil / onlyQ sticker usually placed on those cars.Scitation neededT %n recent times, very highly speciali$ed Qe-tended drainQ QlonglifeQ oils have arisen, whereby, taking Iolkswagen Froup vehicles, a petrol engine can now go up to 9 years or *+,+++ km &\/7,G++ mi', and a diesel engine can go up to 9 years or 5+,+++ km &\*/,+++ mi' . before requiring an oil change. Iolkswagen &5+3.++', =,W, F,, ,ercedes and @86 all have their own similar longlife oil standards.Scitation neededT 6nother trend of today represent mid86@ &sulfated ash ]+,7 wt..;' and low86@ &sulfated ash ]+,5 wt..;' engine oil &see specifications: :enault :C +E9+, (":) W88.,91<*3.6'. The 61E6 specifications 1/ to 13 reflect the mid86@ and low86@ needs of automotive "E,s. (urthermore, virtually all European "E, standards require a long drains of *+.+++ km and up by using T 8 & igh Temperature, igh 8hear' viscosity, many around the *.5 c@ &*.5 m@aUs'. %n Dapan, the T 8 figures are low as ^9.G m@as. =ecause of the real or perceived need for motor oils with unique qualities, many modern European cars will demand a specific "E,.only oil standard. 6s a result, they may make no reference at all to 6@% standards, nor 86E viscosity grades. They may also make no primary reference to the 61E6 standards, with the e-ception of being able to use a QlesserQ 61E6 grade oil for Qemergency top.upQ, though this usually has strict limits, often up to a ma-imum of _ a litre of non."E, oil.

2edit3 Other additi"es


%n addition to the viscosity inde- improvers, motor oil manufacturers often include other additives such as detergents and dispersants to help keep the engine clean by minimi$ing sludge buildup, corrosion inhibitors, and alkaline additives to neutrali$e acidic o-idation products of the oil. ,ost commercial oils have a minimal amount of $inc dialkyldithiophosphate as an anti.wear additive to protect contacting metal surfaces with $inc and other compounds in case of metal to

metal contact. The quantity of $inc dialkyldithiophosphate is limited to minimi$e adverse effect on catalytic converters. 6nother aspect for after.treatment devices is the deposition of oil ash, which increases the e-haust back pressure and reduces over time the fuel economy. The so. called Qchemical bo-Q limits today the concentrations of sulfur, ash and phosphorus &86@'. There are other additives available commercially which can be added to the oil by the user for purported additional benefit. 8ome of these additives include:

Xinc dialkyldithiophosphate &X))@' additives, which typically also contain calcium sulfonates, are available to consumers for additional protection under e-treme.pressure conditions or in heavy duty performance situations. X))@ and calcium additives are also added to protect motor oil from o-idative breakdown and to prevent the formation of sludge and varnish deposits. %n the /<7+s and /<<+s, additives with suspended @T(E particles were available e.g. Q8lick5+Q to consumers to increase motor oil>s ability to coat and protect metal surfaces. There is controversy as to the actual effectiveness of these products as they can coagulate and clog the oil filters. 8ome molybdenum disulfide containing additives to lubricating oils are claimed to reduce friction, bond to metal, or have anti.wear properties. They were used in WW%% in flight engines and became commercial after WW%% until the /<<+s. They were commerciali$ed in the /<E+s &EL( 6CT6: ,olygraphite' and are today still available &Liqui ,oly ,o89 /+ W.3+, www.liqui.moly.de'. Iarious other e-treme.pressure additives and antiwear additives. ,any patents proposed use perfluoropolymers to reduce friction between metal parts, such as @T(E &Teflon', or microni$ed @T(E. owever, the application obstacle of @T(E is insolubility in lubricant oils. Their application is questionable.

2edit3 Synthetic oil and synthetic blends


8ynthetic lubricants were first synthesi$ed, or man.made, in significant quantities as replacements for mineral lubricants &and fuels' by Ferman scientists in the late /<*+s and early /<3+s because of their lack of sufficient quantities of crude for their &primarily military' needs. 6 significant factor in its gain in popularity was the ability of synthetic.based lubricants to remain fluid in the sub.$ero temperatures of the Eastern front in wintertime, temperatures which caused petroleum.based lubricants to solidify owing to their higher wa- content. The use of synthetic lubricants widened through the /<5+s and /<G+s owing to a property at the other end of the temperature spectrum, the ability to lubricate aviation engines at temperatures that caused mineral.based lubricants to break down. %n the mid /<E+s, synthetic motor oils were formulated and commercially applied for the first time in automotive applications. The same 86E system for designating motor oil viscosity also applies to synthetic oils. %nstead of making motor oil with the conventional petroleum base, QtrueQ synthetic oil base stocks are artificially synthesi$ed. 8ynthetic oils are derived from either Froup %%% mineral base oils, Froup %I, or Froup I non.mineral bases. True synthetics include classes of lubricants like synthetic esters as well as QothersQ like FTL &,ethane Fas.to.Liquid' &Froup I' and polyalpha. olefins &Froup %I'. igher purity and therefore better property control theoretically means

synthetic oil has good mechanical properties at e-tremes of high and low temperatures. The molecules are made large and QsoftQ enough to retain good viscosity at higher temperatures, yet branched molecular structures interfere with solidification and therefore allow flow at lower temperatures. Thus, although the viscosity still decreases as temperature increases, these synthetic motor oils have a much improved viscosity inde- over the traditional petroleum base. Their specially designed properties allow a wider temperature range at higher and lower temperatures and often include a lower pour point. With their improved viscosity inde-, true synthetic oils need little or no viscosity inde- improvers, which are the oil components most vulnerable to thermal and mechanical degradation as the oil ages, and thus they do not degrade as quickly as traditional motor oils. owever, they still fill up with particulate matter, although at a lower rate compared to conventional oils, and the oil filter still fills and clogs up over time. 8o, periodic oil and filter changes should still be done with synthetic oilN but some synthetic oil suppliers suggest that the intervals between oil changes can be longer, sometimes as long as /G,+++.93,+++ km &/+,+++`/5,+++ mi' primarily due to reduced degredation by o-idation. TestsScitation neededT do show that fully synthetic oil is superior in e-treme service conditions to conventional oil. =ut in the vast ma!ority of vehicle applications, mineral oil based lubricants, sometimes fortified with synthetic additives and with the benefit of over a century of development, continues to be the predominant and satisfactory lubricant for most internal combustion engine applications.

2edit3 %io based oils


=io.based oils e-isted prior to the development of petroleum.based oils in the /<th 1entury. They have become the sub!ect of renewed interest with the advent of bio.fuels and the push for green products. The development of canola.based motor oils began in /<<G in order to pursue environmentally friendly products. @urdue ?niversity has funded a pro!ect to develop and test such oils. Test results indicate satisfactory performance from the oils tested.S/3T

2edit3 Maintenance

"il being drained from a car %n engines, there is inevitably some e-posure of the oil to products of internal combustion, and microscopic coke particles from black soot accumulate in the oil during operation. 6lso the rubbing of metal engine parts inevitably produces some microscopic metallic particles from the

wearing of the surfaces. 8uch particles could circulate in the oil and grind against the part surfaces causing wear. The oil filter removes many of the particles and sludge, but eventually the oil filter can become clogged, if used for e-tremely long periods. The motor oil and especially the additives also undergo thermal and mechanical degradation. (or these reasons, the oil and the oil filter need to be periodically replaced. While there is a full industry surrounding regular oil changes and maintenance, an oil change is fairly simple and something car owners can do themselves. 8ome vehicle manufacturers may specify which 86E viscosity grade of oil should be used, but different viscosity motor oil may perform better based on the operating environment. ,any manufacturers have varying requirements and have designations for motor oil they require to be used. 8ome quick oil change shops recommended intervals of 5,+++ km &*,+++ mi' or every * months which is not necessary according to many automobile manufacturers. This has led to a campaign by the 1alifornia E@6 against the *,+++ mile myth, promoting vehicle manufacturer>s recommendations for oil change intervals over those of the oil change industry. ,otor oil is changed on time in service or distance vehicle has traveled. 6ctual operating conditions and engine hours of operation are a more precise indicator of when to change motor oil. 6lso important is the quality of the oil used especially when synthetics are used &synthetics are more stable than conventional oils'. 8ome manufactures address this &%E. =,W and IW with their respective long.live standards' while others do not. The viscosity can be ad!usted for the ambient temperature change, thicker for summer heat and thinner for the winter cold. Lower viscosity oils are used in many newer 6merican market vehicles. Time.based intervals account for the short trip driver who drives fewer miles, but builds up more contaminants. %t is advised by manufacturers to not e-ceed their time or distance driven on a motor oil change interval. ,any modern cars now list somewhat higher intervals for changing of oil and filter, with the constraint of QsevereQ service requiring more frequent changes with less.than ideal drivingN this applies to short trips of under /G km &/+ mi', where the oil does not get to full operating temperature long enough to burn off condensation, e-cess fuel, and other contamination that leads to QsludgeQ, QvarnishQ, QacidsQ, or other deposits. ,any manufacturers have engine computer calculations to estimate the oil>s condition based on the factors which degrade it such as :@,s, temperatures, and trip lengthN and one system adds an optical sensor for determining the clarity of the oil in the engine. These systems are commonly known as "il Life ,onitors or "L,s. %n the /<G+s typical cars took heavy 9+W.5+ oil. =y the early /<7+s recommended viscosities had moved down to /+W.*+, primarily to improve fuel efficiency. 6 modern typical application would be onda ,otor>s use of 5W.9+ viscosity oil for /9,+++ km &E,5++ mi' while offering increased fuel efficiency. Engine designs are evolving to allow the use of low viscosity oils without the risk of high rates of metal to metal abrasion, prinicipally in the cam and valve mechanism areas.

2edit3 #uture
6 new process to break down polyethylene, a common plastic product found in many consumer containers, is used to make wa- with the correct molecular properties for conversion into a lubricant, bypassing the e-pensive (ischer.Tropsch process. The plastic is melted and then pumped into a furnace. The heat of the furnace breaks down the molecular chains of

polyethylene into wa-. (inally, the wa- is sub!ected to a catalytic process that alters the wa->s molecular structure, leaving a clear oil. &,iller, et al., 9++5' =iodegradable ,otor "ils based on esters or hydrocarbon.ester blends appeared in the /<<+s followed by formulations beginning in 9+++ which respond to the bio.no.to-.criteria of the European preparations directive &E14/<<<435'.S/5T This means, that they not only are biodegradable according to "E1) *+/- test methods, but also the aquatic to-icities &fish, algae, daphnie' are each above /++ mg4L. 6nother class of base oils suited for engine oils represents the polyalkylene glycols. They offer $ero.ash, bio.no.to- properties and lean burn characteristics.S/GT

2edit3 5e refined motor oil


The oil in a motor oil product does not break down or burn as it is used in an engineOit simply gets contaminated with particles and chemicals that make it a less effective lubricant. :e.refining cleans the contaminants and used additives out of the dirty oil. (rom there, this clean Jbase stockK is blended with some virgin base stock and a new additives package to make a finished lubricant product that can be !ust as effective as lubricants made with all virgin oil.S/ET The ?8 Environmental @rotection 6gency defines re.refined products as containing at least 95; re. refined base stock,S/7T but other standards are significantly higher. The 1alifornia 8tate public contract code define a re.refined motor oil as one that contains at least E+; re.refined base stock.S/<T

1eneral classification of lubricants


Mineral lubricants

Fluid lubricants (Oils)

,ineral fluid lubricants are based on mineral oils. ,ineral oils &petroleum oils' are products of refining crude oil. There are three types of mineral oil: paraffinic, naphtenic and aromatic. *araffinic oils are produced either by hydrocracking or solvent e-traction process. ,ost hydrocarbon molecules of paraffinic oils have non.ring long.chained structure. @araffinic oils are relatively viscous and resistant to o-idation. They possess high flash point and high pour point. @araffinic oils are used for manufacturing engine oils, industrial lubricants and as processing oils in rubber, te-tile, and paper industries. 9aphtenic oils are produced from crude oil distillates. ,ost hydrocarbon molecules of naphtenicnic oils have saturated ring structure. @araffinic oils possess low viscousity, low flash point, low pour point and low resistance to o-idation. Caphtenic oils are used in moderate temperature applications, mainly for manufacturing transformer oils and metal working fluids. $romatic oils are products of refining process in manufacture of paraffinic oils.

,ost hydrocarbon molecules of aromatic oils have non.saturated ring structure. 6romatic oils are dark and have high flash point. 6romatic oils are used for manufacturing seal compounds, adhesives and as plasitice$ers in rubber and asphalt production.

Semi-fluid lubricants (greases)

8emi.fluid lubricants &greases' are produced by emulsifying oils or fats with metallic soap and water at 3++.G++0( &9+3.*/G01'. Typical mineral oil base grease is vaseline. Frease properties are determined by a type of oil &mineral, synthetic, vegetable, animal fat', type of soap &lithium, sodium, calcium, etc. salts of long.chained fatty acids' and additives &e-tra pressure, corrosion protection, anti.o-idation, etc.'. 8emi.fluid lubricants &greases' are used in variety applications where fluid oil is not applicable and where thick lubrication film is required: lubrication of roller bearings in railway car wheels, rolling mill bearings, steam turbines, spindles, !et engine bearings and other various machinery bearings.

Solid lubricants

8olid lubricants possess lamellar structure preventing direct contact between the sliding surfaces even at high loads. Fraphite and molybdenum disulfide particles are common 8olid lubricants. =oron nitride, tungsten disulfide and polytetrafluorethylene &@T(E' are other solid lubricants. 8olid lubricants are mainly used as additives to oils and greases. 8olid lubricants are also used in form of dry powder or as constituents of coatings. to top
Synthetic lubricants

Polyalphaolefins (PAO)

@olyalphaoleins are the most popular synthetic lubticant. @6"Ls chemical structure and properties are identical to those of mineral oils. @olyalphaoleins &synthetic hydrocarbons' are manufactured by polymeri$ation of hydrocarbon molecules &alphaoleins'. The process occurs in reaction of ethylene gas in presence of a metallic catalyst.

Polyglycols (PAG)

@olyglycols are produced by o-idation of ethylene and propylene. The o-ides are then polymeri$ed resulting in formation of polyglycol. @olyglycols are water soluble. @olyglycols are characteri$ed by very low coefficient of friction. They are also able to withstand high pressures without E@ &e-treme pressure' additives.

Ester oils

Ester oils are produced by reaction of acids and alcohols with water. Ester oils are characteri$ed by very good high temperature and low temperature resistance.

Silicones

8ilicones are a group of inorganic polymers, molecules of which represent a backbone structure built from repeated chemical units &monomers' containing 8ia" moieties. Two organic groups are attached to each 8ia" moiety: eg. methyl2methyl & &1 *'9 ', methyl2phenyl & 1 * 2 1G 5 ', phenyl2phenyl & &1G 5'9 '. The most popular silicone is polydimethylsilo-ane &@),8'. %ts monomer is &1 *'98i". @),8 is produced from silicon and methylchloride. "ther e-amples of silicones are polymethylphenylsilo-ane and polydiphenylsilo-ane. Iiscosity of silicones depends on the length of the polymer molecules and on the degere of their cross.linking. 8hort non.cross.linked molecules make fluid silicone. Long cross.linked molecules result in elastomer silicone. 8ilicone lubricants &oils and greases' are characteri$ed by broad temperature range: ./++b( to 25E+b( &.E*b1 to *++b1'. to top
Vegetable lubricants

Iegetable lubricants are based on soybean, corn, castor, canola, cotton seed and rape seed oils. Iegetable oils are environmentally friendly alternative to mineral oils since they are biodegradable. Lubrication properties of vegetable base oils are identical to those of mineral oils. The main disadvantages of vegetable lubricants are their low o-idation and temperature stabilities. to top
Animal lubricants

6nimal lubricants are produced from the animals fat. There are two main animal fats: hard fats &stearin' and soft fats &lard'. 6nimal fats are mainly used for manufacturing greases. to top

Classification of lubricants by application


Engine oils Gear oils Hydraulic oils utting fluids (coolants) !ay lubricants ompressor oils

"uenching and heat transfer oils #ust protection oils $ransformer oils (insulating oils) $urbine oils hain lubricants !ire rope lubricants

to top

Classification of lubricants by additi"es


E%treme pressure (EP) Anti-&ear (A!) Friction modifiers orrosion inhibitors Anti-o%idants 'ispersants 'etergents ompounded Anti-foaming agents Pour point depressant

CL!SSI#IC!$IO6 O# L7%5IC!$I61 OILS The Cavy identifies lubricating oils by number symbols. Each identifying symbol consists of four digits and, in some cases, appended letters. The first digit shows the series of oil according to type and useN the last three digits show the viscosity of the oil. The viscosity digits indicate the number of seconds required for a G+.milliliter &ml' sample of oil to flow through a standard orifice at a certain temperature. 8ymbol <95+, for e-ample, shows that the oil is a series < oil which is specified for use in diesel engines. %t also shows that a G+.milliliter sample should flow through a standard orifice in 95+ seconds when the temperature of the oil is 9/+0(. 6nother e-ample is symbol 9/*5 T . This symbol shows that the oil is a series 9 oil, which is suitable for use as a force. feed lubricant or as a hydraulic fluid. %t also shows that a G+.milliliter sample should flow through a standard orifice in /*5 seconds when the oil is at a certain temperature &/*+0(, in this case'. The letters , T, T , or TE@ added to a basic number indicate a primary specific usage within the general category. P5OPE5$IES O# L7%5IC!$I61 OILS Lubricating oils used by the Cavy are tested for a number of properties. These include &/' viscosity, &9' pour point, &*' flash point, &3' fire point, &5' auto.ignition point, &G' demulsibility, &E' neutrali$ation number, and &7' precipitation number. 8tandard test methods are used for each test. The properties of lube oil are briefly e-plained in the following paragraphs. /. I%81"8%T#.The viscosity of an oil is its tendency to resist flow. 6 liquid of high viscosity flows very slowly. %n variable climates, for e-ample, automobile owners change oil according to prevailing seasons. "il changes are necessary because heavy oil becomes too thick or sluggish in cold weather, and light oil becomes too thin in hot weather. The higher the tem.perature of an oil, the lower its viscosity becomesN lowering the temperature increases the viscosity. "n a cold morning, it is the high viscosity or stiff.

ness of the lube oil that makes an automobile engine difficult to start. The viscosity must always be high enough to keep a good oil film between the moving parts. "therwise, friction will increase, resulting in power loss and rapid wear on the parts. "ils are graded by their viscosities at a certain temperature. Frading is set up by noting the number of seconds required for a given quantity &G+ ml' of the oil at the given temperature to flow through a standard orifice. The right grade of oil, therefore, means oil of the proper viscosity. Every oil has a viscosity inde- based on the slope of the temperature.viscosity curve. The viscosity inde- depends on the rate of change in viscosity of a given oil with a change in temperature. 6 low inde- figure means a steep slope of the curve, or a great variation of viscosity with a change in temperatureN a high inde- figure means a flatter slope, or lesser variation of viscosity with the same changes in temperatures. %f you are using an oil with a high viscosity inde-, its viscosity or body will change less when the temperature of the engine increases. 9. @"?: @"%CT.The pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil will barely flow from a container. 6t a temperature below the pour point, oil congeals or solidifies. Lube oils used in cold weather operations must have a low pour point. &C"TE: The pour point is closely related to the viscosity of the oil. %n general, an oil of high viscosity will have a higher pour point than an oil of low viscosity.' *. (L68 @"%CT.The flash point of an oil is the temperature at which enough vapor is given off to flash when a flame or spark is present. The minimum flash points allowed for Cavy lube oils are all above *++0(. owever, the temperatures of the oils are always far below *++0( under normal operating conditions. 3. (%:E @"%CT.The fire point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil will continue to burn when it is ignited. 5. 6?T"%FC%T%"C @"%CT.The auto.ignition point of an oil is the temperature at which the flammable vapors given off from the oil will burn. This kind of burning will occur without the application of a spark or flame. (or most lubricating oils, this temperature is in the range of 3G50 to 7/50(. G. )E,?L8%=%L%T#.The demulsibility, or emulsion characteristic, of an oil is its ability to separate cleanly from any water present. an important factor in forced.feed systems. #ou should keep water &fresh or salt' out of oils. E. CE?T:6L%X6T%"C C?,=E:.The neutrali$ation number of an oil indicates its acid content and is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydro-ide &H" ' required to neutrali$e / gram of the oil. 6ll petroleum products deteriorate &o-idi$e' in air and heat. "-idation produces organic acids which, if present in sufficient concentrations, will cause deterioration of &/' alloy bearings at elevated temperatures, &9' galvani$ed surfaces, and &*' demulsibility of the oil with respect to fresh water and salt water. The increase in acidity with use is an inde- of deterioration and is measured as a part of the work factor test. This test is not applicable to <95+ oil. 7. @:E1%@%T6T%"C C?,=E:.The pre.cipitation number of an oil is a measure of the amount of solids classified as asphalts or carbon residue contained in the oil. The number is reached when a known amount of oil is diluted with naphtha and the precipitate is separated by centrifuging.the volume of separated solids equals the precipitation number. This test detects the presence of foreign materials in used oils. 6n oil with a high

precipitation number may cause trouble in an engine. %t could leave deposits or plug up valves and pumps.
) SYSTEM COMPONENTS It must be remembered that the lubricating system is actually an integral part of the engine and the operation of one depends upon the operation of the other Thus the lubricating system! in actual practice! cannot be considered as a separate and independent system" it is part of the engine The lubricating system basically consists of the follo#ing$ Oil Pan%reser&oir or storage area for engine oil Oil 'e&el (auge%chec)s the amount of oil in the oil pan Oil Pump%forces oil throughout the system Oil Pic)up and Strainers%carries oil to the pump and remo&es large particles Oil *ilters%strains out impurities in the oil Oil (alleries%oil passages through the engine Oil Pressure Indicator%#arns the operator of lo# oil pressure Oil Pressure (auge%registers actual oil pressure in the engine Oil Temperature

Lubrication Systems Classification of Lubricants 6nimal Iegetable ,ineral 8ynthetic 6nimal Lubricants Lubricants 'ith animal origin8 ` Tallow ` Tallow oil ` Lard oil ` CeatLs foot oil ` 8perm oil ` @orpoise oil These are highly stable at normal temperatures 6nimal lubricants may not be used for internal combustion because they produce fatty acids Vegetable

Lubricants E-amples of vegetable lubricants are: ` 1astor oil ` "live oil ` 1ottonseed oil 6nimal and vegetable oils have a lower coefficient of friction than most mineral oils but they rapidly wear away steel Mineral Lubricants These lubricants are used to a large e-tent in the lubrication of aircraft internal combustion engines There are three classifications of mineral lubricants: ` 8olid ` 8emisolid ` (luid Synthetic Lubricants =ecause of the high operating temperatures of gas.turbine engines, it became necessary to develop lubricants which would retain their characteristics at

temperatures that cause petroleum lubricants to evaporate and break down 8ynthetic lubricants do not break down easily and do not produce coke or other deposits Lubricating Oil Properties Fravity (lash @oint Iiscosity 1loud @oint @our @oint 1arbon. :esidue Test 6sh Test @recipitation Cumber 1orrosion and Ceutrali$ation Cumber "iliness E-treme. @ressure & ypoid' Lubricants 1hemical and @hysical 8tability Fravity The gravity of petroleum oil is a numerical value which serves as an inde- of the weight of a measured volume of this product There are two scales generally used by petroleum

engineers: ` 8pecific. gravity scale ` 6merican @etroleum %nstitute gravity scale #lash Point The flash point of an oil is the temperature to which the oil must be heated in order to give off enough vapor to form a combustible mi-ture above the surface that will momentarily flash or burn when the vapor is brought into contact with a very small flame Viscosity Iiscosity is technically defined as the fluid friction of an oil To put it more simply, it is the resistance an oil offers to flowing eavy.bodied oil is high in viscosity and pours or flows slowly Cloud Point The cloud point is the temperature at which the separation of wa-

becomes visible in certain oils under prescribed testing conditions When such oils are tested, the cloud point is slightly above the solidification point Pour Point The pour point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil will !ust flow without disturbance when chilled 1arbon.:esidue Test The purpose of the carbon. residue test is to study the carbon. forming properties of a lubricating oil There are two methods: ` The :amsbottom carbon.residue test ` The 1onradson test 6sh Test The ash test is an e-tension of the carbon. residue test %f an unused oil leaves almost no ash, it is regarded as pure The ash

content is a percentage &by weight' of the residue after all carbon and all carbonaceous matter have been evaporated and burned Precipitation 6umber The precipitation number recommended by the 68T, is the number of milliliters of precipitate formed when /+ mL of lubricating oil is mi-ed with <+ mL of petroleum naphtha under specific conditions and then centrifuged Lubricant 5e9uirements and #unctions 1haracteristics of 6ircraft Lubricating "il (unctions of Engine "il 8traight ,ineral "il 6sh.less )ispersant "il ,ulti. viscosity "il Characteristics of !ircraft Lubricating Oil

%t should have the proper body &viscosity' igh antifriction characteristics ,a-imum fluidity at low temperatures ,inimum changes in viscosity with changes in temperature igh antiwear properties ,a-imum cooling abilities ,a-imum resistance to o-idation Concorrosive #unctions of Engine Oil Lubrication, thus reducing friction 1ools various engine parts 8eals the combustion chamber 1leans the engine 6ids in preventing corrosion 8erves as a cushion between impacting parts Straight Mineral Oil 8traight mineral oil is one of many types of oil used in

aircraft reciprocating engines %t is blended from selected high.viscosity. inde- base stocks These oils do not contain additives, e-cept for a small amount of pour. point depressant for improved fluidity at cold temperatures !shless )ispersant Oil ,ost aircraft oils other than straight mineral oils contain a dispersant that suspends contamination such as carbon, lead compound and dirt The dispersant helps prevent these contaminants from gathering into clumps and forming sludge or plugging oil passageways Multi"iscosity Oil %n certain circumstances, all single.grade oils have short comings %n cold. weather starts,

single grade oil generally flows slowly to the upper reaches and vital parts of the engine ,ultigrade oils have viscosity characteristics that allow for better flow characteristics at engine start 1haracteristics of Lubrication 8ystems Pressure Lubrication 8plash Lubrication and 1ombination 8ystems @rincipal 1omponents of a Lubrication 8ystem "il 1apacity %n a pressure lubrication system, a mechanical pump supplies oil under pressure to the bearings "il flows into the inlet of the pump through the pump and into an oil manifold which distributes it to the crankshaft bearings 8plash

Lubrication and 1ombination 8ystems 6lthough pressure lubrication is the principle method of lubrication on all aircraft engines, some engines use splash lubrication also 8plash lubrication is never used by itself 6ll lubrication systems are pressure systems or combination pressure4splash systems Components of Lubrication Systems @lumbing for Lubrication 8ystems Temperature :egulator &"il 1ooler' "il Iiscosity Ialve "il @ressure :elief Ialves "il 8eparator "il @ressure Fuage "il Temperature Fuage "il @ressure @umps 8cavenge @umps

"il )ilution 8ystem Plumbing for Lubrication Systems "il plumbing is essentially the same as is used in oil and hydraulic systems When the lines will not be sub!ect to bending, aluminum tubing is used 8ynthetic hose is often used near the engine and other places on the aircraft that are sub!ect to vibration or other movement $emperature 5egulator :Oil Cooler; 6n oil temperature regulator is designed to maintain the temperature of the oil for an operating engine at the correct level These regulators are often called oil coolers since cooling of engine oil is one of their main functions Oil Viscosity

Val"e The oil viscosity valve is generally considered a part of the oil temperature regulator unit and is employed in some oil systems The viscosity valve consists essentially of an aluminum alloy housing and a thermostatic control element The oil viscosity valve works with the oil cooler valve to maintain a desired temperature and keep the viscosity within required limits Oil Pressure 5elief Val"es The purpose of the oil pressure relief valve is to control and limit the lubricating pressure in the oil system This is necessary to prevent damage caused by e-cessive system pressure and to ensure that engine parts are not deprived of

fuel due to a system failure "il 8eparator 6ir systems where oil of oil mist is present may require the use of an oil separator These are often used on vacuum pump outlets The oil separator contains baffle plates which cause the air to swirl and it deposits on the baffles Oil Pressure 1auge 6n oil pressure gauge is an essential component of any engine oil system These gauges generally use a bourdon tube to measure the pressure They are designed to measure a wide range of pressures Oil $emperature 1auge The temperature probe for the oil temperature

gauge in the oil inlet line or passage between the pressure pump and the engine system "n some installations the temperature probe is located in the oil filter housing These are normally electric or electronic "il @ressure @umps "il pressure pumps may either be of the gear type or vane type The gear
type pump is used in the ma+ority of reciprocating engines and uses close fitting gears that rotate and push the oil through the system

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Engine Lubrication 8 Lubrication system components


8ump "il collection pan "il tank @ickup tube "il pump "il pressure relief valve "il filters 8purt holes e galleries "il indicators "il cooler

Sump

The sump is bolted to the engine under the crankcase. %t is a reservoir, or storage container, for the engine lubricating oil, and a collector for oil returning from the engine lubricating system. The sump can be formed as a thin sheet metal pressing, and shaped to ensure that oil will return to its deepest section. The oil pickup tube and strainer are located in this deep section to ensure they stay submerged in oil, and to prevent air being drawn into the oil pump. 8ome high performance vehicles have a windage tray fitted to prevent churning of the oil by the rotation of the crankshaft. =affles prevent oil from surging away from the pickup during cornering, braking and accelerating. The sumpLs large e-ternal surface area helps heat transfer from the oil to the outside air. %n some designs, the sump is an aluminum alloy casting with fins and ribs to assist in this heat transfer.

Oil collection pan

The oil collection pan is part of the dry sump system which is used in some motorcycles. %t replaces the sump in the wet sump system, but it is much smaller. %t collects the oil after it has circulated through the engine, and directs it to the pick.up strainer on the scavenge pump. 8ince no oil is stored in the engine in this system, a dipstick that is normally used to check oil levels in the sump is not needed.

Oil tank

The oil tank is part of the dry sump lubrication system. %t is usually positioned away from the heat of the engine, and the large surface area improves cooling. %t receives oil from the scavenge pump and allows it to settle and cool. The main oil pump then pumps it back through the lubrication system. 6 dipstick is often provided to measure the oil level.

Pickup tube

=etween the sump and oil pump is a pickup tube with a flat cup and a strainer immersed in the oil. The strainer stops large particles of dirt and carbon entering the pump and damaging it. The pickup tube leads to the inlet of the oil pump, on the low pressure side of the pump.

Oil pump

"il pumps may be driven from the camshaft or the crankshaft. %n a rotor.type oil pump, an inner rotor drives an outer one. 6s they turn, the volume between them increases. This larger volume lowers the pressure at the pump inlet. "utside atmospheric pressure is then higher. This forces oil into the pump, and it fills the spaces between the rotor lobes. 6s the lobes of the inner rotor move into the spaces in the outer rotor, oil is squee$ed out through the outlet. The crescent pump uses a similar principle. %t is mounted on the front of the cylinder block. The inner gear is on the end of the crankshaft which then drives the pump directly. 6n e-ternal toothed gear meshes with this inner one. 8ome gear teeth are meshed but others are separated by the crescent.shaped part of the pump housing. The increasing volume between gear teeth causes pressure to fall. "il is then taken through the intake port, and carried around between the gears and crescent, then discharged to the outlet port. 8imilarly in a geared oil pump, the driving gear meshes with a second gear. 6s both gears turn, their teeth separate, creating a low pressure area. igher atmospheric pressure outside forces oil up into the inlet. The spaces between the teeth fill with oil. The gears rotate, and carry oil around the chamber. The teeth mesh again, and oil is forced from the outlet toward the oil filter.

Oil pressure relief "al"e

6 normal pump is capable of delivering more oil than an engine needs. %tLs a safety measure to ensure the engine is never starved for oil. 6s the pump rotates, and engine speed increases, the volume of oil delivered also increases. The fi-ed clearances between the moving parts of the engine prevent oil escaping back to the sump, and pressure builds up in the system. 6n oil pressure relief valve stops e-cess pressure developing. %tLs like a controlled leak, releasing !ust enough oil back to the sump to regulate the pressure of the whole system.

Oil filters

There are 9 basic oil.filtering systems . full.flow, and by.pass. The full.flow type filters all of the oil before delivering it to the engine. The by.pass type only filters some of the oil. The full.flow type is the more common. %ts filter uses pleated filtering paper in a metal housing, to collect harmful particles. Cormally all oil goes through the filter before it gets to the engine, but if the filter clogs up, it can starve an engine of oil. 6s a safety measure, full.flow filters have a bypass valve. %f the filter clogs, this valve opens and directs unfiltered oil to the engine. )irty oil is better than none at all. ,ost oil.filters on diesel engines are larger than those on similar gasoline engines, and some diesel engines have 9 oil filters. )iesel engines produce more carbon particles than gasoline engines, so the oil filter can have a full.flow element to trap larger impurities, and a bypass element to collect sludge and carbon soot. %n a by.pass system, the bypass element filters only some of the oil from the pump by tapping an oil line into an oil passage. %t collects finer particles than a full.flow filter. 6fter this oil is filtered, it goes back to the sump.

Spurt holes = galleries

@istons, rings and pins are lubricated by oil thrown onto the cylinder walls from the connecting rod bearings. 8ome connecting rods have oil spurt holes. These holes are positioned to receive oil from similar holes in the crankshaft. "il can then spurt out at the point in the engine cycle when the largest area of cylinder wall is e-posed. %t lubricates the walls and gudgeon pin, and also cools the underside of the piston. "il feeds to the cylinder head, and through a gallery to the camshaft bearings and valve.train. 6s well as lubricating these moving parts, it also gathers heat from the engine so its temperature keeps rising. (inally it drains back to the sump to cool, and start again.

Oil indicators

%f a lubrication system fails itLs serious, so itLs crucial to know itLs working. %f oil pressure falls too low, a pressure sensor in a gallery can light up a warning light, or register on a gauge. Low oil pressure can mean a lack of oil. %t may have leaked away, or it may have been burned. This can be caused by worn piston rings which let oil into the combustion chamber. 8ome engines even use an automatic cut.out that turns off the engine if oil pressure falls too low. Too little oil in the engine is a problem but so is too much. The crankshaft can whip it into foam, and cause leaks by flooding the seals.. "f course, the simplest indicator of oil level is still the dip stick.

Oil cooler

Engines which operate under severe conditions may use an oil cooler to cool the oil in the engine. %n diesel engines, the oil cooler and oil filter are often on the same mounting , on the cylinder block. The oil cooler is a heat e-changer. %t transfers heat from the oil to coolant from the cooling system. 1oolant circulates through tubes in the cooler, and oil fed from the lubrication system surrounds the tubes. 6s the coolant circulates, heat is removed from the oil. %n another design, the oil cooler is mounted in the airstream at the front of the vehicle. This type of oil cooler uses the flow of air passing across its fins to cool the air circulating through it. %t is called an oil.to air heat e-changer. 6n engine lubrication system in which the lubricating oil is carried in an e-ternal tank and not internally in a sump. The sump is kept relatively free from oil by scavenging pumps, which return the oil to the tank after cooling. The opposite of a wet sump system. The pumping capacity of scavenge pumps is higher than that of the engine.driven pumps supplying oil to the system.

:ead more: http:44www.answers.com4topic4dry.sump.lubrication.systemfi-$$/%eE%gw(/ The Dry Sump System

The dry sump lubrication system is the ultimate oiling system for internal combustion engines. The simple fact that all Formula One, Indy cars, e !ans and Sports "acing cars as #ell as Super Speed#ay Stock $ars use dry sumps, pro%es this point. In order to ha%e a good understanding of the dry sump system, let&s first e'amine the #et sump system. (et sump oiling systems are used on ))* of all street cars. They utili+e a con%entional oil pan #ith dipstick, #here the oil is stored and supplied to the oil pump. The pans capacity can range from , -uarts to ./ -uarts or more, depending on the engine. The oil is sucked up a pickup tube into the stock oil pump, #here it is filtered and supplied to the engine under pressure. (hile this system is %ery ade-uate for high#ay use, it presents problems under racing conditions. 0side from the si+e of the pan, and necessity of a deep sump, the oil is sub1ected to e'treme cornering forces in racing, and the oil simply 2cra#ls3 up the sides of the pan and a#ay from the pick4up. 0lthough there are many good designs, #ith trap doors, etc., racing cars generate lateral and acceleration5deceleration forces that o%ercome the best #et sump designs. 0side from the ob%ious pressure loss, this also results in a reduction in horsepo#er as #ell as oil aeration. These are the reasons dry sumps #ere de%eloped. I #ill discuss other ad%antages later. The main purpose of the dry sump system is to contain all the stored oil in a separate tank, or reser%oir. This reser%oir is usually tall and round or narro# and specially designed #ith internal baffles, and an oil outlet 6supply7 at the %ery bottom for uninhibited oil supply. The dry sump oil pump is a minimum of . stages, #ith as many as 8 or 9. One stage is for pressure and is supplied the oil from the bottom of the reser%oir, and along #ith an ad1ustable pressure regulator, supplies the oil under pressure through the filter and into the engine. The remaining stages 2sca%enge3 the oil out of the dry sump pan and return the oil 6and air7 to the top of the tank or reser%oir. If an oil cooler is used usually it is mounted inline bet#een the sca%enge outlets and the tank. The dry sump pump is usually dri%en by a Gilmer or :T; timing belt and pulleys, off the front of the crankshaft, at appro'imately one half crank speed. The dry sump pump is designed #ith multiple stages, to insure that all the oil is sca%enged from the pan. This also results in remo%ing e'cess air from the crankcase, and is the reason they are called 2dry sump3 meaning the oil pan is essentially dry. Increased engine reliability from the consistent oil pressure pro%ided by the dry sump system is the reason dry sumps #ere in%ented. The many other benefits I mentioned earlier are, shallo#er oil pan allo#ing engine to be lo#ered in chassis, horsepo#er increase due to less %iscous drag 6oil resistance due to sloshing into rotating assembly7 and cooler oil. (e ha%e also increased these ad%antages further through ad%anced designs of #indage trays, and sca%enge pickup designs and locations, as #ell as our utili+ation of precision machined alloy castings, #hich add stiffness to the block and afford better sealing. 0ll in all, the dry sump system came out of necessity to maintain oil pressure, and e%ol%ed into a %ery sophisticated system #hich increases reliability as #ell as horsepo#er #hile allo#ing the engines to be mounted #ith the lo#est center of gra%ity. Gary 0rmstrong, S.0.<

+et Sump "s( )ry Sump Oiling Systems

! 'et sump system is based on the original e9uipment oiling system, and can be enhanced 'ith certain components to impro"e oil control and increase po'er(

The use of a wet or dry sump oiling system is often determined by the level of competition and the racerLs budget. 6 wet sump system is based on the original equipment oiling system, and can be enhanced with certain components to improve oil control and increase power. 6 dry sump system is designed for the top levels of racing where ma-imum power and oil control are absolutely essential. Oil Pan Capacities 1apacities listed for ,oroso Wet 8ump "il @ans include the capacity of the pan only, measured at or below the normal fill mark on a stock dipstick. 6dditional oil must be added to compensate for filters, coolers, tanks, etc. ?nlike a wet sump system where oil is stored in the pan, a )ry 8ump "iling system stores oil in a separate tank .. leaving the pan essentially Qdry.Q 6n e-ternally.mounted pump, generally with three or four stages, is used to QscavengeQ or remove oil from the pan, deliver it to the storage tank, and send it back through the engine. %n a typical setup, all but one of the stages is used to scavenge oil from the pan. 6 single pressure stage is normally used to return oil from the tank to the engine. The primary advantage of a dry sump system is its ability to make more power. With very little oil in the pan, the rotating assembly is not burdened with the weight of e-cess oil &a phenomenon commonly referred to as QwindageQ'. 6nd because there is no internal pump, the windage tray or screen which serves to isolate sump oil from the rotating assembly, is allowed to run the full length of the pan. Heeping the rotating assembly free of windage allows it to spin freely and make more power. %n addition, the e-tra crankcase vacuum created by the dry sump pump helps to improve ring seal for additional power gain. "ther advantages of a dry sump system include increased oil capacity, more consistent oil pressure, the ability to easily add remote coolers, and ad!ustable oil pressure. 6nd because the pan doesnLt store oil, it can be relatively shallow in depth to allow lower engine placement for improved weight distribution and handling. ,oroso manufactures a full range of )ry 8ump "iling 8ystem components, all of which are engineered to be fully compatible with one another. This allows the engine builder to select the best combination of equipment and avoid the costly problems that often occur when Qmi-ing and matchingQ components from various manufacturers.

6ote8 "il pan rules vary from track to track. 1heck with your race track and4or sanctioning body before selecting your ,oroso "il @an. Tech Tip courtesy of 'oroso. 6 'et sump is a lubricating oil management design for four.stroke piston internal combustion engines which uses a built.in reservoir for oil, as opposed to an e-ternal or secondary reservoir used in a dry sump design. (our.stroke engines are lubricated by oil which is pumped into various bearings, and thereafter allowed to drain to the base of the engine under gravity. %n most production automobiles and motorcycles, which use a wet sump system, the oil is collected in a * to /+ litres &+.GG to 9.9 imp galN +.E< to 9.G ?8gal' capacity pan at the base of the engine, known as the sump or oil pan, where it is pumped back up to the bearings by the oil pump, internal to the engine. 6 wet sump offers the advantage of a simple design, using a single pump and no e-ternal reservoir. 8ince the sump is internal, there is no need for hoses or tubes connecting the engine to an e-ternal sump which may leak. 6n internal oil pump is generally more difficult to replace, but that is dependent on the engine design. 6 wet sump design can be problematic in a racing car, as the large g force pulled by drivers going around corners causes the oil in the pan to slosh, gravitating away from the oil pick.up, briefly starving the system of oil and damaging the engine. owever, on a motorcycle this difficulty does not arise, as a bike leans into corners and the oil is not displaced sideways. Cevertheless, racing motorcycles usually benefit from dry sump lubrication, as this allows the engine to be mounted lower in the frameN and a remote oil tank can permit better lubricant cooling. Early stationary engines employed a small scoop on the e-tremity of the crankshaft or connecting rod to assist with the lubrication of the cylinder walls by means of a splashing action. ,odern small engines, such as those used in lawnmowers, use a QslingerQ &basically a paddle wheel' to perform the same function.

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6lthough the oil system of the modern gas turbine engine is varied in design and plumbing most have units which perform similar functions. %n most cases a pressure pump or system furnishes oil to the engine to be lubricated and cooled. 6 scavenging system returns the oil to the tank for reuse. The problem of overheating is more severe after the engine has stopped than while it is running. "il flow which would normally have cooled the bearings has stopped. eat stored in the turbine wheel will raise the bearing temperature much higher than that reached during operation. ,ost systems will include a heat e-changer &air or fuel' to cool the oil. ,any are designed with

pressuri$ed sumps. 8ome incorporate a pressuri$ed oil tank. This ensures a constant head pressure to the pressure.lubrication pump to prevent pump cavitation at high altitude. "il consumption in a gas turbine engine is low compared to that in a reciprocating engine of equal power. "il consumption on the turbine engine is affected by the efficiency of the seals. owever, oil can be lost through internal leakage and on some engines by malfunction of the pressuri$ing or venting system. "il scaling is very important in a !et engine. 6ny wetting of the blades or vanes by oil vapor will encourage the accumulation of dust and dirt. 6 dirty blade or vane represents high friction.to.airflow. This decreases engine efficiency, and results in a noticeable decrease in thrust or increase in fuel consumption. 8ince oil consumption is so low, oil tanks can be made relatively small. This causes a decrease in weight and storage problems. Tanks may have capacities ranging from l49 to 7 gallons. 8ystem pressures may vary from /5 psig at idle to 9++ psig during cold starts. Cormal operating pressures and bulk temperatures are about 5+ to /++ psig and 9++o(, respectively.
GENERAL

%n general, the parts to be lubricated and cooled include the main bearings and accessory drive gears and the propeller gearing in the turboprop. This represents again in gas turbine engine lubrication simplicity over the comple- oil system of the reciprocating engine. The main rotating unit can be carried by only a few bearings. %n a piston power plant there are hundreds more moving parts to be lubricated. "n some turbine engines the oil may also be used..

To operate the ser&o mechanism of some fuel controls To control the position of the &ariable area e,haust-no..le &anes To operate the thrust re&erser

=ecause each bearing in the engine receives its oil from a metered or calibrated orifice, the system is generally known as the calibrated type. With a few e-ceptions the lubricating system used on the modem turbine engine is of the dry.sump variety. owever, some turbine engines are equipped with a combination dry. and wet.type lubrication system. Wet.sump engines store the lubricating oil in the engine proper. )ry.sump engines utili$e an e-ternal tank usually mounted on or near the engine. 6lthough this chapter addresses dry.sump systems, an e-ample of the wet.sump design can be seen in the 8olar %nternational T.G9 engine. %n this engine the oil reservoir is an integral part of the accessory.drive gear case. 6n e-ample of a combination dry. and wet.sump lubrication can be found in the Lycoming T.55.series engines.

$75%I6E E61I6E )5? S7MP L7%5IC!$IO6


%n a turbine dry.sump lubrication system, the oil supply is carried in a tank mounted e-ternally on or near the engine. With this type of system, a larger oil supply can be carried and the oil temperature can be controlled 6n oil cooler usually is included in a dry.sump oil system &(igure 5.l'. This cooler may be air.cooled or fuel.cooled. The dry.sump oil system allows the a-ial.flow engines to retain their comparatively small diameter. This is done by designing the oil tank and the oil cooler to conform to the design of the engine.

The following component descriptions include most of those found in the various turbine lubrication systems. owever, not all of these components will be found in any one system. The dry.sump systems use an oil tank which contains most of the oil supply. owever, a small sump usually is included on the engine to hold a supply of oil for an emergency system. The dry. sump system usually contains..

Oil pump Sca&enge and pressure inlet strainers Sca&enge return connection Pressure outlet ports Oil filter Mounting bosses for the oil pressure transmitter Temperature bulb connections

6 typical oil tank is shown in (igure 5.9. %t is designed to furnish a constant supply of oil to the engine. This is done by a swivel outlet assembly mounted inside .the tank a hori$ontal baffle

mounted in the center of the tank, two flapper check valves mounted on the baffle, and a positive.vent system.

The swivel outlet fitting is controlled by a weighted end, which is free to swing below the baffle. The flapper valves in the baffle are normally open. They close only when the oil in the bottom of the tank rushes to the top of the tank during deceleration. This traps the oil in the bottom of the tank where it is picked up by the swivel fitting 6 sump drain is located in the bottom of the tank. The airspace is vented at all times. 6ll oil tanks have e-pansion space. This allows for oil e-pansion after heat is absorbed from the bearings and gears and after the oil foams after circulating through the system. 8ome tanks also incorporate a deaerator tray. The tray separates air from the oil returned to the top of the tank by the scavenger system. ?sually these deaerators are the QcanQ type in which oil enters a tangent. The air released is carried out through the vent system in the top of the tank. %nmost oil tanks a pressure buildup is desired within the tank. This assures a positive flow of oil to the oil pump inlet. This pressure buildup is made possible by running the vent line through an ad!ustable check.relief valve. The check.relief valve normally is set to relieve at about 3 psi pressure on the oil pump inlet. There is little need for an oil.dilution system. %f the air temperature is abnorrnally low, the oil may be changed to a lighter grade. 8ome engines may provide for the installation of an immersion.type oil heater.

$75%I6E E61I6E +E$ S7MP L7%5IC!$IO6

%n some engines the lubrication system is the wet.sump type. =ecause only a few models of centrifugal.flow engines are in operation, there are few engines using a wet.sump type of oil system. The components of a wet.sump system are similar to many of a dry.sump system. The oil reservoir location is the ma!or difference. The reservoir for the wet.sump oil system may be the accessory gear case, which consists of the accessory gear casing and the front compressor bearing support casing. "r it may be a sump mounted on the bottom of the accessory case. :egardless of configuration reservoirs for wet. sump systems are an integral part of the engine and contain the bulk of the engine oil supply. The following components are included in the wet.sump reservoir:

/ bayonet-type gage indicates the oil le&el in the sump T#o or more finger strainers 0filters) are inserted in the accessory case for straining pressure and sca&enged oil before it lea&es or enters the sump These strainers aid the main oil strainer / &ent or breather e1uali.es pressure #ithin the accessory casing / magnetic drain plug may be pro&ided to drain the oil and to trap any ferrous metal particles in the oil This plug should al#ays be e,amined closely during inspections The presence of metal particles may indicate gear or bearing failure / temperature bulb and an oil pressure fitting may be pro&ided

This system is typical of all engines using a wet.sump lubrication system. The bearing and drive gears in the accessory drive casing are lubricated by a splash system. The oil for the remaining points of lubrication leaves the pump under pressure. %t passes through a filter to !et no$$les that direct the oil into the rotor bearings and couplings. ,ost wet.sump pressure systems are variable.pressure systems in which the pump outlet pressure depends on the engine :@,. The scavenged oil is returned to the reservoir &sump' by gravity and pump suction. "il from the front compressor bearing in the accessory.drive coupling shaft drains directly into the reservoir. "il from the turbine coupling and the remaining rotor shaft bearings drains into a sump. The oil is then pumped by the scavenge element through a finger screen into the reservoir.

OIL S?S$EM COMPO6E6$S


The oil system components used on gas turbine engines are..

Tan)s Pressure pumps Sca&enger pumps *ilters Oil coolers 2elief &al&es 3reathers and pressuri.ing components

Pressure and temperature gages lights Temperature-regulating &al&es Oil-+et no..le *ittings! &al&es! and plumbing Chip detectors

Cot all of the units will be found in the oil system of any one engine. =ut a ma!ority of the parts listed will be found in most engines.
Oil Tanks

Tanks can be either an airframe or engine.manufacturer.supplied unit. ?sually constructed of welded sheet aluminum or steel, it provides a storage place for the oil. %n most engines the tank is pressuri$ed to ensure a constant supply of oil to the pressure pump. The tank can contain..

4enting system 5eaerator to separate entrained air from the oil Oil le&el transmitter or dipstic) 2igid or fle,ible oil pic)up Coarse mesh screens 4arious oil and air inlets and outlets

Pressure Pumps

=oth gear. and Ferotor.type pumps are used in the lubricating system of the turbine engine. The gear.type pump consists of a driving and a driven gear. The engine.accessory section drives the rotation of the pump. :otation causes the oil to pass around the outside of the gears in pockets formed by the gear teeth and the pump casing. The pressure developed is proportional to engine :@, up to the time the relief valve opens. 6fter that any further increase in engine speed will not result in an oil pressure increase. The relief valve may be located in the pump housing or elsewhere in the pressure system for both types of pumps. The Ferotor pump has two moving parts: an inner.toothed element meshing with an outer. toothed element. The inner element has one less tooth than the outer. The missing tooth provides a chamber to move the fluid from the intake to the discharge port. =oth elements are mounted eccentrically to one another on the same shaft.
Scavenger Pumps

These pumps are similar to the pressure pumps but have a much larger total capacity. 6n engine is generally provided with several scavenger pumps to drain oil from various parts of the engine. "ften one or two of the scavenger elements are incorporated in the same housing as the pressure pump &(igure 5.*'. )ifferent capacities can be provided for each system despite the common driving shaft speed. This is accomplished by varying the diameter or thickness of the gears to vary the volume of the tooth chamber. 6 vane.type pump may sometimes be used.

Oil

ilters an! Screens "r Strainers

To prevent foreign matter from reaching internal parts of the engine, filters and screens or stainers are provided in the engine lubricating system. The three basic types of oil filters for the !et engine are the cartridge screen.disc and screen &(igures 5.3, 5.5 and 5.G'. The cartridge filter is most commonly used and must be replaced periodically. The other two can be cleaned and reused. %n the screen.disc filter there are a series of circular screen.type filters. Each filter is comprised of two layers of mesh forming a chamber between mesh layers. The filters are mounted on a common tube and arranged to provide a space between each circular element. Lube oil passes through the circular mesh elements and into the chamber between the two layers of mesh. This chamber is ported to the center of a common tube which directs oil out of the filter. 8creens or strainers are placed at pressure oil inlets to bearings in the engine. This aids in preventing foreign matter from reaching the bearings.

To allow for oil flow in the event of filter blockage, all filters incorporate a bypass or relief valve as part of the filter or in the oil passages. When the pressure differential reaches a specified value &about /5 to 9+ psi', the valve opens and allows oil to bypass the filter. 8ome filters incorporate a check valve. This prevents reverse flow or flow through the system when the engine is stopped (iltering characteristics vary, but most filters will stop particles of appro-imately 5+ microns.
Magnetic #hip $etect"r

"ne or more magnetic chip detectors are installed on gas turbine engines. They are used to detect and attract ferrous material &metal with iron as its basic element' which may come from inside the engine. This ferrous material builds up until it bridges a gap. Whenever there is a requirement, the chip detectors may be collected and analy$ed to determine the condition of the engine. ,ost engines utili$e an electrical chip detector, located in the scavenger pump housing or in the accessory gearbo-. 8hould the engine oil become contaminated with metal particles, the detector will catch some of them. This causes the warning light on the caution panel to come on.
Tubing% &"se% an! ittings

Tubing, hose, and fittings are used throughout the lubricating system. Their purpose is to connect apart into a system or to connect one part to another to complete a system.
Oil Pressure 'n!icating System

%n a typical engine oil pressure indicating system the indicator receives inlet oil pressure indications from the oil pressure transmitter and provides readings in pounds per square inch

Electrical power for oil pressure indicator and transmitter operation is supplied by the 97.volt 61 system.
Oil(Pressure(L") #auti"n Light

,ost gas turbine engine lubricating systems incorporate an engine oil.pressure.low caution light warning device into the system for safety purposes. The light is connected to a low.pressure switch. When pressure drops below a safe limit, the switch closes an electrical circuit causing the caution light to burn. @ower is supplied by the 97.volt )1 system.
Oil Temperature 'n!icating System

%n a typical engine oil temperature indicating system, the indicator is connected to and receives temperature indications from an electrical resistance.type thermocouple or thermobulb. These are located in the pressure pump oil inlet side to the engine. @ower to operate this circuit is supplied by the 97.volt )1 system.
Oil #""lers

The oil cooler is used to reduce oil temperature by transmitting heat from the oil to another fluid usually fuel. 8ince the fuel flow through the cooler is much greater than the oil flow, the fuel is able to absorb a considerable amount of heat. This reduces the si$e and weight of the cooler. Thermostatic or pressure.sensitive valves control the oil temperature by determining whether the oil passes through or bypasses the cooler. "il coolers are also cooled by air forced through them by a blower4fan.
*reathers an! Pressuri+ing Systems

%nternal oil leakage is kept to a minimum by pressuri$ing the bearing sump areas with air that is bled off the compressor &(igure 5.E'. The airflow into the sump minimi$es oil leakage across the seals in the reverse direction.

The oil scavenge pumps e-ceed the capacity of the lubrication pressure pump They are capable of handling considerably more oil than actually e-ists in the bearing sumps and gearbo-es. =ecause the pumps area constant.displacement type, they make up for the lack of oil by pumping air from the sumps. Large quantities of air are delivered to the oil tank. 8ump and tank pressures are maintained close to one another by a line which connects the two. %f the sump pressure e-ceeds the tank pressure, the sump vent check valve opens, allowing the e-cess sump air to enter the oil tank. The valve allows flow only into the tankN oil or tank vapors cannot back up into the sump areas. Tank pressure is maintained little above ambient. The scavenge pumps and sump.vent check valve functions result in relatively low air pressure in the sumps and gearbo-es. These low internal sump pressures allow air to flow across the oil seals into the sumps. This airflow minimi$es lube oil leakage across the seals. (or this reason it is necessary to maintain sump pressures low enough to ensure seal.air leakage into the sumps. ?nder some conditions, the ability of the scavenge pumps to pump air forms a pressure low enough to cavitate the pumps or cause the sump to collapse. ?nder other conditions, too much air can enter the sump through worn seals. %f the seal leakage is not sufficient to maintain proper internal pressure, check valves in the sump and tank pressuri$ing valves open and allow ambient air to enter the system. %nadequate internal sump and gearbo- pressure may be caused by seal leakage. %f that occurs, air flows from the

sumps, through the sump.vent check valve, the oil tank, the tank and sump pressuri$ing valves to the atmosphere. Tank pressure is always maintained a few pounds above ambient pressure by the sump and tank pressuri$ing valve. The following addresses two types of lubrication systems used in the 6rmy today: the Feneral Electric T.E+/ turboshaft engine and the %nternational48olar T.G9.series engine.

$?PIC!L OIL S?S$EM #O5 $ @A*


The lubrication system in the T.E++.FE.E+/ engine distributes oil to all lubricated parts &(igure 5.7'. %n emergencies it supplies an air.oil mist to the main shaft bearings in the 6. and =.sumps. The system is a self.contained, recirculating dry.sump system. %t consists of the following subsystems and components:

Oil supply and sca&enge pump Seal pressuri.ation and sump &enting Emergency lube system Oil filtration and condition monitoring Tan) and air-oil cooler Oil cooler Oil pressure monitoring Cold oil-relief and cooler-bypas &al&es Chip detector Integral accessory gearbo,

Lube Supply System

The oil tank, integral with the mainframe, holds appro-imately E.* quarts of oil &(igure 5.<'. This is a sufficient quantity to lubricate the required engine parts without an e-ternal oil supply. The tank is filled using a *.inch, gravity.fill port on the right.hand side. Iisual indication of oil level is supplied by a fluid level indicator installed on each side of the tank. 6 coarse pickup screen located near the tank bottom keeps si$able debris form entering the lube supply pump inlet. 6 drain plug is located at the bottom of the tank.

"il from the pickup screen enters a cast passage in the mainframe. %t is then conducted to the top of the engine to a point beneath the lube supply pump. 6 short connector tube transfers the oil from the mainframe to the accessory gearbo- pump inlet port. The connector tube contains a domed, coarse.debris screen. The screen keeps foreign ob!ects out of the passage when the accessory module is not installed on the mainframe. "il flows through the connector tube to the pump inlet. There it enters the pump tangentially in alignment with pump rotational direction. The lube supply pump, a Feroter.type pumping element assembly, is comprised of an inner and outer element. The element assembly is located ad!acent to the drive spline end of the pump. 8iscavenge elements are also located in tandem on the common drive shaft. The stack of pump elements is retained in a cast tubular hosing having an integral end plate. The complete pump slides into a precision bore in the gearbo- casing. "il from the supply pump flows to the lube

filter inlet and through the filter, a *.micron filter element. "il flow passes from outside to inside of the filter element. %t then passes through the open bore of the bypass valve and into the gearbo- outlet passage. =ypass valve opening occurs when filter differential pressure unseats a spring.loaded poppet from its seat. The filter bowl contains an impending bypass warning button which will provide an indication for filter servicing. 6n electrical bypass sensor for cockpit indication of filter bypass tits into an 6F= boss ad!acent to the lube filter. 6 differential pressure of G+.7+ psi across the filter will actuate this sensor. 6 spring.loaded poppet.type, cold oil relief valve is incorporated in this system. This valve prevents e-cessive supply pressure during cold starts when high oil viscosity creates high line pressures. 1racking pressure is set for /9+./7+ psid and reset is //5 psid minimum. When open, apart of the lube flow is discharged into the 6F= where churning in the gears will assist in reducing warm.up time. "il leaving the filter branches in three directions. %t goes to the to of the emergency oil reservoirs in the 6 and =.sumps, the 6F=, and 1.sump !ets. %cavenge %ystem. 6fter the oil has lubricated and cooled the parts, the scavenge system returns it to the oil tank &(igure 5./+'. %n addition, fuel.oil and air.oil coolers and a chip detector are located in the scavenge return path.

%cavenge Inlet %creens. Each scavenge pump inlet is fitted with a relatively coarse screen &(igure 5.//'. This screen is designed to protect the pumps from foreign ob!ect damage and to provide for fault isolation. 8cavenge oil &and air' enters the bore of each screen a-ially on the

open inner end. %t e-its into a cast annulus which discharges directly into the scavenge pump inlet.

These screens may be removed for inspection if chip generation is suspected %cavenge pumps. 8i- scavenge pumps are in line with the lube supply pump on a common shaft &(igure5./+'. @ositioning of the pump elements is determined by these factors:

The lube supply element is placed in the least &ulnerable location and isolated from sca&enge elements at one end The 3-sump element is placed at the other end of the pump to help isolate it from the other sca&enge elements This element is the only one #ith an ele&ated inlet pressure Pump #indmilling e,perience on other engine sca&enge pumps sho#s that ad+acent pumps tend to cut each other off due to interelement lea)s at &ery lo# speed Therefore! the t#o /-sump elements are placed ad+acent! as are the three C-sump elements! to reduce the possibility of both elements in a sump being inoperati&e simultaneously Porting simplification for the gearbo, coring determines relati&e positions of /- sump! 3-sump! and C-sump elements

%cavenge <ischarge *assage. The common discharge of all si- scavenge pumps is cast into the gearbo- at the top of the pump cavity. Top discharge facilitates priming by clearing air bubbles and by wetting all pumping elements from the discharge of first pumps to prime. The discharge

cavity is tapered to enlarge as each pump enters the flow steam. This keeps discharge velocity relatively constant. %t also tends to avoid air traps which could short.circuit pumping at windmilling speeds. This discharge plenum flows into the core to the chip detector. (low leaving the chip detector passes to the fuel.oil cooler in series with the air.oil cooler. To promote faster warm.up and guard against plugged coolers, a bypass valve is provided which bypasses both coolers. 6ir.oil cooling is an integral part of the mainframe casting. 8cavenge oil enters a manifold at the tank top. %t then flows in a serpentine fashion in and out through the hollow scroll vanes and bo-.sectioned hub. 6ir for the particle separator is pulled across the vanes by the scavenge air blower providing the oil cooling process. E-it from the air.oil cooler is through three holes at the top of the tank. These outlets disperse the oil over the tank surfaces on both sides to settle in the tank. The oil tank vents to the 6F=.
Emergency Oil System

The T.E++.FE.E+/ engine is designed to have two oil !ets to provide each main bearing with oil for lubricating and cooling &(igure 5./9'.

%n addition to being designed for normal engine operation, the system provides for operation if the normal oil supply from the primary system is interrupted. The 6F= and 1.sump components can continue to operate at least G minutes with residual oil present. The Co. 3 bearing in the =. sump and the bearings and gears in the 6.sump are provided with emergency air.oil mist systems located in each sump. The emergency oil system forms part of the normal full.time lubrication system and incorporates one full set of main bearing oil !ets operating in parallel with

the primary !ets. The dual.!et system also provides redundancy to minimi$e the effect of oil !et plugging. 6 small reservoir, curved to tit the 6. and =.sumps, retains a sufficient amount of oil to provide air.oil mist when normal lubrication is interrupted The total sump oil supply is fed into the reservoir at the top. Top feed prevents reservoir drainage if the supply line is damaged. @rimary oil !ets, squee$e film damper, and uncritical lube !ets are connected to a standpipe at the top of the tank. 8econdary or emergency !ets are similarly connected to the lowest point in the tank. 8econdary !ets are only located at points where lubrication is vital for short.duration emergency operation. Each secondary oil !et has a companion air !et or air source which flows over the end of the oil !et and impinges on the lubricated part. The air !ets aspirate oil mist when normal oil supply pressure is lost. They are pressuri$ed from the seal pressuri$ation cavities and operate continuously with no valving required.
#"mp"nent $escripti"n

The oil filter &(igure 5./*' consists of three subassemblies:


*ilter element 3o#l and impending bypass indicator 3ypass &al&e and inlet screen

!ilter Element. ,edia used in this filter are high.temperature materials containing organic and inorganic fibers. The layered media are faced on both sides with stainless steel mesh. This mesh provides mechanical support to resist collapse when pressure loads become high. @leating of the faced media adds surface area and mechanical rigidity. 6 perforated steel tube in the bore also adds rigidity and retains the circular shape of the element. The media and support tube are epo-y.bonded to formed sheet metal and caps. These end caps include an ".ring groove which seals inlet to outlet leak paths at each end.

(iltration level selected is /++ percent of all particles three microns or larger and is disposable when saturated with debris. 8upport of the filter element is provided by the bypass valve on one end and the impending bypass indicator on the other. The indicator end has a spring.loaded sleeve which restrains the filter a-ially. :owl and :ypass Indicator. 6n aluminum bowl houses the element and contains the impending bypass indicator at the end. ,ounting is hori$ontal to fit the space available and provide ready access for servicing %mpending bypass indication is provided by a small unit which is part of the bowl assembly. The indicator is installed from the inside of the bowl. %t is retained in place with an e-ternal retaining ring. =asic mechanics of operation are as follows:

5ifferent pressure bet#een filter inlet and outlet acts to mo&e a piston against a spring at 66 to 78 psi Piston contains a magnet #hich normally attracts a redbutton assembly and holds it seated against its spring 9hen the piston mo&es! the button is released It e,tends :;<7 inch to &isually indicate an impending bypass condition 3utton is physically reattained from tripping by a cold loc)out bimetallic latch if temperature is less than <88 to <:8=* This pre&ents a false trip during cold starts /s the button is released! a small spring-loaded ball also mo&es out of position to latch the button and bloc) reset The internal piston assembly automatically resets on shutdo#n" ho#e&er! the indicator remains latched out /fter remo&ing the filter element and the bo#l from the gearbo,! a springloaded slee&e around the indicator mo&es aft and pulls the piston assembly to a tripped position This causes the button to trip if operation is attempted #ith no filter in the bo#l To react the indicator! the bo#l is held &ertically so the button latch ball can roll out of the latched position The button is then manually reset

%f the bowl is reassembled with no filter, the indicator will trip when the temperature e-ceeds the /++ to /*+0( lock.out level. The internal latch mechanism prevents resetting the button without disassembling the bowl. :esetting must be done with the bowl removed from the accessory gearbo- and held vertically, button up, to release the latch. "il !ilter :ypass %ensor. The oil filter bypass sensor is a differential.pressure switch which senses filter inlet minus outlet pressure. The sensor consists of a spring.loaded piston which moves aft at high filter differential pressure &G+ to 7+ psi' and magnetically releases a microswitch lever. The switch is in a sealed cavity separated from the oil and is wired to a hermetically sealed electrical connector. The switch connects 97.I)1 aircraft power when tripped and reopens the circuit at /5 psi minimum differential Co latch is used in the sensor so resetting is automatic. 6lso, there is no cold lockout. The pilot will be informed of filter bypassing during cold start warm.ups. 8ensor tolerance range is set slightly below the tolerance range of bypass valve cracking pressure. Therefore, bypassing will not occur without pilot warning. The impending bypass indicator will show need.to.change filter elements. This sensor provides backup warning if maintenance action is not taken.

(ubrication and %cavenge *ump. The lube and scavenge pump is a Ferotor.type pump of cartridge design, located on the forward side of the accessory gearbo- &refer back to (igure 5. /+'. %t fits into a precision bore in the gearbo- casing. The Ferotor.type pump was chosen because of its wear resistance and efficiency. Ferotor elements are similar to male gear inside a female &internal' gear with one less tooth on the inner member. The inner Ferotors are keyed to the drive shaft, and the outer Ferotors are pocketed in individual eccentric rings. 68 the assembly rotates, oil is drawn into an e-panding cavity between teeth on one side. The oil is e-pelled when the cavity contracts appro-imately /7+0 away. %nlet and discharge ports are cast into the port plates. They are shaped and positioned to fill and empty at proper timing for ma-imum volumetric efficiency and resistance to inlet cavitation. There are seven different elements in the pump from the spline end forward. They are the lube supply element, 1.sump cover, 1.sump aft, 1.sump forward, 6.sump forward, 6.sump aft, and =.sump )elta scavenge elements. The port plate eccentric rings and Ferotors are assembled into a surrounding concentric aluminum tubular housing The housing maintains all elements in proper alignment. The oil suction and discharge pas.sages from the Ferotors are brought radially through the housing. They match the appropriate locations of the mating passages in the engine gearbo- casing. The entire stack of port plates is retained in the housing with the retaining rings at the spline end. The outermost end of the housing has an integrally cast cover. The cover bolt holes are arranged to orient the pump assembly in the gearbo- housing during installation. 2old "il +elief ?alve. The cold oil relief valve protects the oil supply system from overpressure during cold starts &refer back to (igure 5.<'. %t is a conventional poppet.type valve with a cracking pressure of /9+./7+ psi. Ialve tolerances are held sufficiently close to achieve the desired sacking pressure without ad!ustment shims or selective fitting of parts. The valve includes a Co. /+.*9 threaded hole on the outside. This allows for the use of a bolt as a pulling handle during valve removal from the 6F=. "il 2ooler. The fuel.oil cooler is a tube and shell design &(igure 5./3'. %t cools the combined output of the scavenge discharge oil that is ported through gearbo-.cored passages to the cooler. The cooler is mounted ad!acent to the fuel.boost pump on the forward side of the gearbo-. "il and fuel porting enter on the same end via face porting to the gearbo-. (uel is used as the coolant. %t is provided to the cooler via the boost pump, fuel filter, and hydromechanical control unit. 6 counterparallel flow, miltipass cooler design is used to minimi$e pressure drop while obtaining ma-imum cooler effectiveness. (uel flows through the tubes, while the oil flows over the tubes resulting in the counterparallel flow arrangement.

"il 2ooler :ypass ?alve. )esign of the oil cooler bypass valve is identical to the cold oil relief valve with an e-ception &refer back to (igure 5.<'. 6 lighter spring is utili$ed to obtain a lower cracking pressure of 99.97 psi. ousing modifications prevent inadvertent interchange with the cold oil relief valve. 2hip <etector. The chip detector in the common scavenge line is the engine diagnostic device most likely to provide first warning of impending part failure &(igure 5./5'.

The chip detector magnetically attracts electrically conductive ferrous chips. The chips bridge the gap between the detector>s electrodes and close a circuit in series with the aircraft cockpit indicator &warning light'. The chip detecting gap has a magnetic field induced in tapered pose pieces at each end of a cylindrical permanent magnet. 6 single ferrous chip +.+<+ inch in length or longer will be indicated if magnetically attracted to bridge the pole pieces. The local mangetic field is intense at the gap and tends to orient particles in the bridging direction. 8maller particles tend to form chains until the pole pieces are bridged Conconductive particles greater than +.+/5 inch are trapped inside the screen for visual e-amination. 8maller particles will be found either in the lube tank or in the lube supply filter. The detector housing pushes into the accessory gearbo- %t is retained by two captive bolts used in common with other accessories. 8elf.locking inserts in the gearbo- ensure retention of these bolts if assembly torque is improperly low.
Venting System

$)%ump. The 6.sump centervent handles air.oil separation and overboard venting from these sources:

/-sump seals and emergency air system Sca&enge pumped air from the lube tan) /ccessory gearbo, &ent 0no air sources) 3-sump center&ent flo# #hich passes through the intershaft seal

@ath of this vent is into the bore of the power turbine shaft and torque.reference tube and out the aft end of the engine through the 1.sump cover. The centrifugal air.oil separator vent holes in

the power turbine shaft are located under the forward end of the high.speed shaft. Windage from @T" gear locknut wrenching slots assists in turning oil back into the sump. 6ir from the sump and intershaft seal flows inward radially through these holes in the power turbine shaft. The air must flow forward in the annulus between the power turbine shaft and the torque.reference tube. ,ovement of air is blocked by a standoff ring on the reference tube "). The forward a-ial passage of the air centrifuges oil droplets outward to the bore of the power turbine shaft. They either flow back into the sump at the centervent or at small weep holes forward of the @T shaft spline. )ried air then e-its through multiple rows of holes in the reference tube and out the aft 1. sump cover. 8ome remaining oil in this air is spun into the 1.8ump if it has condensed in transit. 6ny additional accumulated oil is then scavenged through the 1.sump cover. :)%ump. 6 centervent on the forward side of the Co. 3 bearing accommodates air entering the sump at the labyrinth seals at each end Two rows of small holes are drilled in a radially thickened section of the forward seal runner. ?se of many small holes increases the surface area of metal in contact with e-iting oil droplets. These small holes also reduce effective window area for any droplets which may have a tra!ectory aimed directly at the holes. 6fter the air is inside these holes, it follows a tortuous path through additional rows of holes in the turbine shaft and compressor rear shaft. The air then enters the annulus between the high.and low.speed shafts. %n doing this, remaining oil is spun back into the sump. 6bout E+ percent of =.sump centervent flow moves forward through the bore of the compressor tiebolt and intershaft seal. %t e-its at the 6.sump centervent. "il weep holes are provided near the aft end of the compressor tiebolt. These weep holes keep oil out of the rotor by returning it to the sump. 6 rotor seal is provided hereto keep any weepage out of the seal air. This airflow keeps the compressor tiebolt relatively cool and uniformly clamped. The remaining *+ percent of =.sump centervent air !oins the inner balance piston seal leakage flow. %t e-its aft under the gas generator turbine wheels. 2)%ump. 1enterventing the 1.sump is a passage between the aft end of the @T shaft and a stationary standpipe built into the 1.sump cover. Windage at the torque and speed.sensor teeth and in the annulus between the reference tube and the standpipe will return oil droplets to the sump. Weep holes are provided through the reference tube, shaft, and bearing spacer to allow oil from 1.or 6.sumps to enter the 1.sump. 1.sump cover scavenging through the 1.sump housing removes remaining oil accumulation from the centerventing process during locked @T rotor operation and normal operation. "il Tank. 6fter being routed through air.oil cooler passages into the oil tank, air from the scavenge pumps flows down the radial drive shaft passage &6-is 6' into the 6.sump. 1enterventing occurs after air enters the 6.sump. $ccessory 1earbox. The accessory gearbo- is vented through the 6-is 6 pad via the mainframe oil tank and eventually through the 6.sump. The 6F=, tank, and 6.sump essentially operate at the same pressure levels since they are interconnected.

L7%5IC!$IO6 S?S$EM #O5 $ B<

The lubrication system consists of..


Pump Internal oil passages Oil filter assembly *ilter bypass relief &al&e Pressure s#itch 0mounted e,ternally) Oil +et ring Sump

The oil filter cavity, oil passages, and oil sump are built into the reduction drive housing. Two oil separator plates are installed on the accessory drive gear. Lubrication system capacity is * quarts and is a wet.sump system. "il is drawn out of the sump into the pump housing. The oil is carried between the pump gear teeth and pump housing wall. %t is then forced through drilled passages to the oil filter housing. "il under pump pressure enters the bottom of the filter housing and passes through the filter element &from outside to inside'. %t then flows out the housing through a passage in the filter element cap. 6 relief valve in the filter element cap unseats at a differential pressure of /5 to 95 psi. This allows oil to flow from outside the filter element, through a passage in the filter element cap, to the filter outlet passage. %f the filter element becomes clogged, the valve will open and allow oil to bypass the filter element. (rom the filter, oil is forced into a passage to the system relief valve and to four oil !ets. The oil !et ring, which encircles the high.speed input pinion, contains three of these !ets. %t sprays oil to the points where the high.speed input pinion meshes with the three planetary gears. "ne !et directs a spray between the end of the output shaft and the high.speed pinion to create a mist for lubrication of the rotor shaft bearings. The remaining gears and bearings are lubricated by air.oil mist created when oil strikes the planetary gears and high.speed pinion. 8ystem pressure is maintained at /5 to 95 psi by a system relief valve. The valve regulates pressure by bypassing e-cessive pressure directly into the reduction drive housing. The bypassed oil strikes the inside surface of the air inlet housing, aiding in cooling the oil. =ypassed oil returns to the sump by gravity flow through an opening in the bottom of the planet carrier. The normally open contacts of the low oil pressure switch close on increasing oil pressure at 5 to E psi. When the switch contacts close, the low oil pressure circuit is deenergi$ed. 6t rated engine speed a drop in oil pressure below 5 to E psi will open the low oil pressure switch contacts. Through electrical circuitry, the drop in oil pressure will also close the main fuel solenoid valve and shut down the engine.