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FIRE PUMP ESSENTIALS

Chamco Industries

THE FIRE PUMPS

FOUR TYPES/STYLES OF FIRE PUMPS Horizontal, split case. (250 usgpm - 5000 usgpm) Vertical Turbine. ( 250 usgpm - 5000 usgpm ) End Suction. ( commercial ) Vertical Inline. ( commercial )

FIRE PUMP TYPES

DIESEL DRIVEN HORIZONTAL

ELECTRIC DRIVEN HORIZONTAL

FIRE PUMP TYPES

JOCKEY PUMP

VERTICAL TURBINE FIRE PUMP & ENGINE

ENGINES

Engines are UL or FM approved for Fire Service, and built by:

Caterpillar ( full range, mostly above 200hp ) Cummins ( limited range, 100 - 300hp ) Clarke Engine ( best range, 50 - 700 hp )

RIGHT ANGLE GEAR DRIVES

Right Angle Gear Drives are FM approved for Fire Service, and built by:

Randolph Manufacturing Amarillo Gear Johnson Gear

FIRE PUMP CONTROLLERS

Pump Control panels, for Electric and Diesel drives are UL or FM or ULC approved for Fire Service, and built by:

Cutler Hammer Firetrol Metron

FIRE PUMP CONTROLLERS

Control panels for Diesel drives and Jockey Pumps:

NFPA 20
Does not specify when or if a fire pump must be installed Specifies: How, Components, Equipment, Power Source are acceptable to use Provides the minimum requirements needed for satisfactory operation of listed fire pumps NFPA 20 covers every type of listed fire pump
Most common is centrifugal

Equivalency
1.5 1.5.2
NFPA 20 is not intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over those prescribed in this standard.

AHJ has the final call

NFPA 20 Terms
Shall
Mandatory requirement

Should
Indicates a recommendation that is advised but not required

What Makes a Pump a Fire Pump


4.2
Stationary pumps shall be selected based on the conditions under which they are to be installed and used
Capacities are based on calculated system demand, and pressures are based on available pressure from the water supply

What Makes a Pump a Fire Pump


4.4.1 Unit Responsibility
One supplier for pump, driver, controls
Typically falls on the pump manufacturer SHOULD was used not Shall
Recommendation, having unit responsibility helps ensure that all components are compatible

4.5 Certified Shop Test


Needs to be furnished from the pump manufacturer to the purchaser, and must include head capacity and BHP
Why? To verify that the fire pump was tested by the manufacturer prior to shipment and met the conditions.

What Makes a Pump a Fire Pump


4.6.5 Head
The Head available from a water supply shall be figured on the basis of a flow for 150% rated capacity. (EG: 1000GPM pump shall be able to reach a capacity of 1500GPM)

What Makes a Pump a Fire Pump


4.7 Pumps, Drivers, and Controllers 4.7.3
A Pump shall not be equipped with more than one driver

4.7.4
Each pump shall have its own dedicated driver

4.7.5
Each driver shall have its own dedicated controller

What Makes a Pump a Fire Pump


4.7.7 Maximum Pressure for Centrifugal Pumps
4.7.7.1 The net pump shutoff pressure plus the maximum static suction pressure adjusted for elevation shall not exceed the pressure for which the system components are rated
Ex: 1000Gpm @ 145psi, shut off pressure is 168psi, and suction pressure is 30psi. You need to have 250# fittings on the discharge side of the system.

Dont over design the pump and use a throttle device to regulate pressure!!

4.8 Centrifugal Pump Capacities

NFPA 20

Ref.: Copyright

2006 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.

Automatic (circulation) Relief Valve


4.11.1.3 The valve shall provide flow of sufficient water to prevent the pump form overheating when operating at shutoff. Up to 2500GPM the nominal size shall be 3000GPM and higher shall be 1

Ref.: Copyright

2006 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.

Devices in Suction Piping


4.14.9 4.14.9.1 Devices in Suction Piping. No device or assembly, unless identified in 4.14.9.2 that will stop, restrict the starting, or restrict the discharge of a fire pump or pump driver shall be installed in the suction piping. The purpose is to prohibit anything in the suction that would cause excess turbulence, friciton loss, or cut off the flow to the pump running at 150% capacity. Cutting off the supply would cause catastrophic failure to the pump.

while

Ref.: Copyright

2006 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.

Every fire pump needs a method for performing the acceptance test. 1) Test Header Flows readings are usually taken with a Pitot tube 3) Flowmeter A special pipe is run for the discharge back to the water supply with a flowmeter, control valve, and check valve in the line. 4.20.1.1 A fire pump installation shall be arranged to allow the test of the pump at its rated conditions as well as the suction supply at the maximum flow available from the fire pump. Two objectives: 1) To make sure the pump itself will function correctly 2) Make sure the water supply can deliver the correct amount Under no circumstance may a fire pump be placed into service without an acceptance test!!!
Ref.: Copyright

Water Flow Test Devices

2006 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.

Automatic Air Release


6.3.3 Automatic Air Release.

6.3.3.1 Unless the requirements of 6.3.3.2 are met, pumps that are automatically controlled shall be provided with a listed float-operated air release valve having a normal 0.50 in. (12.7 mm) minimum diameter discharge to atmosphere. Air in the impeller can cause cavitation, dmage the impeller, and negatively impact pump perfomance!

Ref.: Copyright

2006 National Fire Protection Association. All Rights Reserved.

Listed Fire Pump Controllers


10.1.2.1
All controllers and transfer switches shall be specifically listed for electric motor driven Fire Pump Service

12.1.3.1
All controllers shall be specifically listed for diesel engine-driven fire pump

Field Acceptance Testing


14.2.4 .1 A copy of the manufacturers certified pump test characteristics curve shall be available for comparison of the results of the field acceptance test

14.2.5.2.1 The fire pump shall perform at minimum, rated, and peak loads without objectionable overheating of any component

NFPA 20
14.5.2.1
Whenever a critical path component in a piece of centrifugal pump equipment is replaced, changed, or modified, a field/on-site retest shall be performed
Table 14.5.2.4

TESTING METHODS

Courtesy of Proctor & Gamble, Cincinnati, OH

Two hydrants are normally required to conduct a flow test of the water supply. This is the flow hydrant, the second hydrant will only have a pressure gauge and will be used to obtain a static (no flow) and residual pressure reading (while water is flowing).

P UM P A CHUR N P ressure

RATED

100 % FLOW

.
.

. R ATED
ACTUAL CI TY W ATER FROM FLOW TEST

150 % C 100% FLOW FLOW

H E A D

. FLOW IN GPM

PUMP FLOW DETERMINATION WITH ( UL / FM ) FLOW METER

PUM P FLOW DETER M I NATI ON

WITH NOZZLE ( UL / FM ) PLAY PIPE and PITOT TUBE

<FM> Short Play Pipe


1 1/8 Nozzle

1 Nozzle

Pitot Tube

Underwriters Play Pipe

1 Nozzle

Maintenance

Owner / Operators trained in required maintenance, weekly operation, required testing, and record keeping ? Did the pump distrbutor provide the required instruction manuals and a weekly check list for the required weekly testing, maintenance, and inspections of the pump, driver, and controller ? NFPA 20 14.3 NFPA 25 4.1 - 4.3

If not, he is not doing his job!!!


Weekly Check list should include those items required by NFPA 25 Chapter 8.

Review ALL Required Weekly/Annual Maintenance

NOTE: Clean Grease Forced out of the Drain hole with PLUG REMOVED !!

Check For Excess Grease

Annual Alignment Check

AFTER alignment has been re-checked (ANNUALLY) the coupling should be lubricated and reassembled. Be sure to check the set screws for tightness

EMERGENCY MANUAL STARTING PROCEDURE (11.6.6)

CUMMINS

SET at 120 % of Rated RPM **

NOTE !

C OOLI NG
W ATER

#1

#2
F UEL C RANK

BE SURE THAT YOU KNOW WHERE THE OVERSPEED RESET IS ON EVERY TYPE OF ENGINE THAT YOU SELL !!

#3

Develop a check list of your own for both electric and diesel Fire Pumps.
-OR-

Make a copy of NFPA 25, Chapter 8 for use as a guide for weekly checks.

HAVE THESE FOLKS BEEN PROPERLY TRAINED?

?
This is the ONLY WM case relief valve on record, that always had a tight shut off with NO nuisance leakage - until the fire pump overheated and was destroyed !!

Vertical Turbine Fire Pump

NFPA 20 (7. 1)

Motor HP and current limits, multiplied by the service factor, must not be exceeded under any condition of pump load . CHECK

NFPA 20

(9.5.2)*

NOTE: Automatic air release NFPA 20 (7.3.5.2.3) SHALL BE Located between the fire pump and the discharge check valve. *

NOTE: Automatic air release SHALL BE Located in the highest point in the discharge line, between the fire pump and the discharge check valve.

NFPA 20

(7.3.5.2.3)

NFPA 20

ACCESS FOR REMOVAL ?**

(7.6.2.3)

NFP A 20 ( 7.4.3.7.2 ) I beam s m ust be parallel to the engine !*

NFPA 20 ( 7.4.3.7.2 )

One degree of off-set is the preferred angle, per drive shaft manufacturers!! NFPA 20 (7.5.1.8.2)*

NFPA 20 (7.6.1.3)*

Top Shaft Nut is used to raise shaft and impellers approximately 1/8 inch. (see instruction book)

NFPA 20 2007

Screen openings equal to 1 sq. in. for every GPM (pump capacity at 150%) (at LOWEST Water LEVEL) NFPA 20 (5.14.8)*

Water Vel, 2/sec Max

Confirm proper submergence (Pump Length) *

#12
(7.2.2.2)

*
Water Vel. 1/sec Max

NFPA 20 (A.7.2.2.2) (5.14.8)

Removable screens NFPA 20 (5.14.8.3)

Intake size NFPA 20 (5.14.8.4)*

With a vertical turbine fire pump a plugged screen will affect the water level in the sump and a plugged basket strainer on the bottom of the pump will reduce the total pump performance as the flow increases.

NFPA 20

2003

Zebra Mussel Infestation (5.14.8.12)

VTFP INTAKE PROBLEMS..


Removable screens NFPA 20 (5.14.8.3) Intake size ??? NFPA 20 (5.14.8.4)
2 ft/sec and 1 Sq. Inch per GPM at 150% Flow ?

Pond Maintenance -ORLack of !!!