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UNITED STATES vs.

AH SING

EN BANC
[G.R. No. 13005. October 10, 1917.] THE UNITED STATES, plaintiff-appellee, vs. AH SING, defendantappellant. Antonio Sanz for appellant. Acting Attorney-General Paredes for appellee. SYLLABUS 1.OP !" #A$% ##EGA# "POR&A& ON, $'EN E( )&). * )ect+on ,, Act No. -3.1 /t0e Op+12 #a34 con5tr1e6 a5 follo357 An8 per5on 1nla3f1ll8 +2port5 or br+n95 an8 pro0+b+te6 6r19 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65 30en t0e pro0+b+te6 6r19 +5 fo1n6 1n6er t0+5 per5on:5 control on a ;e55el 30+c0 0a5 co2e 6+rect fro2 a fore+9n co1ntr8 an6 +5 3+t0+n t0e <1r+56+ct+onal l+2+t5 of t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65. n 51c0 ca5e, a per5on +5 91+lt8 of +lle9al +2portat+on of t0e 6r19 1nle55 contrar8 c+rc125tance5 e=+5t or t0e 6efen5e pro;e5 ot0er3+5e. !n+te6 )tate5 ;5. #oo> C0a3 /[1910]4, 1. P0+l., 5734, an6 !n+te6 )tate5 ;5. ?o5e /[191@]4, 3, P0+l., .,04, 6+5t+n91+50e6. -. A.% A. * Aefen6ant p1rc0a5e6 op+12 +n )a+9on, bro190t +t on boar6 a fore+9n ;e55el, an6 0a6 +t 1n6er 0+5 control 30en t0at ;e55el arr+;e6 after 6+rect ;o8a9e +n t0e port of Ceb1. 'el67 &o con5t+t1te +lle9al +2portat+on of op+12 fro2 a fore+9n co1ntr8 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65.

DECISION

MALCOLM, J 7
p

&0+5 +5 an appeal fro2 a <1692ent of t0e Co1rt of B+r5t n5tance of Ceb1 f+n6+n9 t0e 6efen6ant 91+lt8 of a ;+olat+on of 5ect+on , of Act No. -3.1 /t0e Op+12 #a34, an6 5entenc+n9 0+2 to t3o 8ear5 +2pr+5on2ent, to pa8 a f+ne of P300 or to 51ffer 51b5+6+ar8 +2pr+5on2ent +n ca5e of +n5ol;enc8, an6 to pa8 t0e co5t5.

&0e follo3+n9 fact5 are f1ll8 pro;en7 &0e 6efen6ant +5 a 51b<ect of C0+na e2plo8e6 a5 a f+re2an on t0e 5tea250+p Shun Chang. &0e Shun Chang +5 a fore+9n 5tea2er 30+c0 arr+;e6 at t0e port of Ceb1 on Apr+l -5, 1917, after a ;o8a9e 6+rect fro2 t0e port of )a+9on. &0e 6efen6ant bo190t e+90t can5 of op+12 +n )a+9on, bro190t t0e2 on boar6 t0e 5tea250+p Shun Chang, an6 0a6 t0e2 +n 0+5 po55e55+on 61r+n9 t0e tr+p fro2 )a+9on to Ceb1. $0en t0e 5tea2er anc0ore6 +n t0e port of Ceb1 on Apr+l -5, 1917, t0e a1t0or+t+e5 on 2a>+n9 a 5earc0 fo1n6 t0e e+90t can5 of op+12 abo;e 2ent+one6 0+66en +n t0e a50e5 belo3 t0e bo+ler of t0e 5tea2er:5 en9+ne. &0e 6efen6ant confe55e6 t0at 0e 3a5 t0e o3ner of t0+5 op+12, an6 t0at 0e 0a6 p1rc0a5e6 +t +n )a+9on. 'e 6+6 not confe55, 0o3e;er, a5 to 0+5 p1rpo5e +n b18+n9 t0e op+12. 'e 6+6 not 5a8 t0at +t 3a5 0+5 +ntent+on to +2port t0e pro0+b+te6 6r19 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65. No ot0er e;+6ence 6+rect or +n6+rect, to 50o3 t0at t0e +ntent+on of t0e acc15e6 3a5 to +2port +lle9all8 t0+5 op+12 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65, 3a5 +ntro61ce6. 'a5 t0e cr+2e of +lle9al +2portat+on of op+12 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65 been pro;enC &3o 6ec+5+on5 of t0+5 Co1rt are c+te6 +n t0e <1692ent of t0e tr+al co1rt, b1t 3+t0 t0e +nt+2at+on t0at t0ere e=+5t5 +ncon5+5tenc8 bet3een t0e 6octr+ne5 la+6 6o3n +n t0e t3o ca5e5. 'o3e;er, ne+t0er 6ec+5+on +5 6+rectl8 a prece6ent on t0e fact5 before 15. n t0e ca5e of !n+te6 )tate5 ;5. #oo> C0a3 /[1910], 1. P0+l., 5734, +n t0e op+n+on 0an6e6 6o3n b8 t0e C0+ef ?15t+ce, +t +5 fo1n6 *
D&0at, alt0o190 t0e 2ere po55e55+on of a t0+n9 of pro0+b+te6 15e +n t0e5e 5lan65, aboard a foreign vessel in transit, +n an8 of t0e+r port5, does not, as a general rule, constitute a crime triable by the courts of this country, on account of such vessel being considered as an extension of its o n nationality, t0e 5a2e r1le 6oe5 not appl8 30en t0e art+cle, 30o5e 15e +5 pro0+b+te6 3+t0+n t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65, +n t0e pre5ent ca5e a can of op+12, +5 landed from the vessel upon Philippine soil, t015 co22+tt+n9 an open ;+olat+on of t0e la35 of t0e lan6, 3+t0 re5pect to 30+c0, a5 +t +5 a ;+olat+on of t0e penal la3 +n force at t0e place of t0e co22+55+on of t0e cr+2e, onl8 t0e co1rt e5tabl+50e6 +n t0e 5a+6 place +t5elf 0a5 co2petent <1r+56+ct+on, +n t0e ab5ence of an a9ree2ent 1n6er an +nternat+onal treat8.D

A 2ar>e6 6+fference bet3een t0e fact5 +n t0e #oo> C0a3 ca5e an6 t0e fact5 +n t0e pre5ent +n5tance +5 rea6+l8 ob5er;able. n t0e #oo> C0a3 ca5e, t0e c0ar9e 3a5 t0e +lle9al po55e55+on an6 5ale of op+12 * +n t0e pre5ent ca5e t0e c0ar9e +5 +lle9al +2portat+on of op+12% +n t0e #oo> C0a3 ca5e t0e fore+9n ;e55el 3a5 +n tran5+t * +n t0e pre5ent ca5e t0e fore+9n ;e55el 3a5 not +n tran5+t% +n t0e #oo> C0a3 ca5e t0e op+12 3a5 lan6e6 fro2 t0e ;e55el 1pon P0+l+pp+ne 5o+l * +n t0e pre5ent ca5e t0e op+12 3a5 not lan6e6 b8 t0e 6efen6ant. n t0e ca5e of !n+te6 )tate5 ;5. ?o5e /[191@], 3, P0+l., .,04, t0e 2a+n po+nt, an6 t0e one on 30+c0 re5ol1t+on t1rne6, 3a5 t0at +n a

pro5ec1t+on ba5e6 on t0e +lle9al +2portat+on of op+12 or ot0er pro0+b+te6 6r19, t0e Go;ern2ent 215t pro;e, or offer e;+6ence 51ff+c+ent to ra+5e a pre512pt+on, t0at t0e ;e55el fro2 30+c0 t0e 6r19 +5 6+5c0ar9e6 ca2e +nto P0+l+pp+ne 3ater5 fro2 a fore+9n co1ntr8 3+t0 t0e 6r19 on boar6. n t0e ?o5e ca5e, t0e 6efen6ant5 3ere acE1+tte6 beca15e +t 3a5 not pro;e6 t0at t0e op+12 3a5 +2porte6 fro2 a fore+9n co1ntr8% +n t0e pre5ent ca5e t0ere +5 no E1e5t+on b1t 30at t0e op+12 ca2e fro2 )a+9on to Ceb1. 'o3e;er, +n t0e op+n+on +n t0e ?o5e ca5e, 3e f+n6 t0e follo3+n9 30+c0 2a8 be obiter dicta, b1t 30+c0 at lea5t +5 +ntere5t+n9 a5 50o3+n9 t0e ;+e3 of t0e 3r+ter of t0e op+n+on7
D&0e +2portat+on 3a5 co2plete, to 5a8 t0e lea5t, 30en t0e 50+p carr8+n9 +t anc0ore6 +n )1b+c Ba8. t 3a5 not nece55ar8 t0at t0e op+12 be 6+5c0ar9e6 or t0at +t be ta>en fro2 t0e 50+p. t 3a5 51ff+c+ent t0at t0e op+12 3a5 bro190t +nto t0e 3ater5 of t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65 on a boat 6e5t+ne6 for a P0+l+pp+ne port an6 30+c0 51b5eE1entl8 anc0ore6 +n a port of t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65 3+t0 +ntent to 6+5c0ar9e +t5 car9o.D

Re5ol;+n9 30ate;er 6o1bt 2a8 e=+5t a5 to t0e a1t0or+t8 of t0e ;+e35 <15t E1ote6, 3e ret1rn to an e=a2+nat+on of t0e appl+cable pro;+5+on5 of t0e la3. t +5 to be note6 t0at 5ect+on , of Act No. -3.1 be9+n5, DAn8 per5on 30o 50all 1nla3f1ll8 +2port or br+n9 an8 pro0+b+te6 6r19 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65.D D 2portD an6 Dbr+n9D are 58non82o15 ter25. &0e Be6eral Co1rt5 of t0e !n+te6 )tate5 0a;e 0el6 t0at t0e 2ere act of 9o+n9 +nto a port, 3+t0o1t brea>+n9 b1l>, +5 prima facie e;+6ence of +2portat+on. /&0e "ar8 [!.).], 1@ Be6. Ca5., 93-, 933.4 An6 a9a+n, t0e +2portat+on +5 not t0e 2a>+n9 entr8 of 9oo65 at t0e c15to2 0o15e, b1t 2erel8 t0e br+n9+n9 t0e2 +nto port% an6 t0e +2portat+on +5 co2plete before entr8 of t0e C15to2 'o15e. /!.). ;5. #82an [!.).], -@ Be6. Ca5., 10-,, 10-.% Perot5 ;5. !.)., 19 Be6. Ca5., -5..4 A5 appl+e6 to t0e Op+12 #a3, 3e e=pre55l8 0ol6 t0at an8 per5on 1nla3f1ll8 +2port5 or br+n95 an8 pro0+b+te6 6r19 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65, 30en t0e pro0+b+te6 6r19 +5 fo1n6 1n6er t0+5 per5on:5 control on a ;e55el 30+c0 0a5 co2e 6+rect fro2 a fore+9n co1ntr8 an6 +5 3+t0+n t0e <1r+56+ct+onal l+2+t5 of t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65. n 51c0 ca5e, a per5on +5 91+lt8 of +lle9al +2portat+on of t0e 6r19 1nle55 contrar8 c+rc125tance5 e=+5t or t0e 6efen5e pro;e5 ot0er3+5e. Appl+e6 to t0e fact5 0ere+n, +t 3o1l6 be ab51r6 to t0+n> t0at t0e acc15e6 3a5 2erel8 carr8+n9 op+12 bac> an6 fort0 bet3een )a+9on an6 Ceb1 for t0e 2ere plea51re of 5o 6o+n9. t 3o1l6 l+>e3+5e be +2po55+ble to conce+;e t0at t0e acc15e6 nee6e6 5o lar9e an a2o1nt of op+12 for 0+5 per5onal 15e. No better e=planat+on be+n9 po55+ble, t0e lo9+cal 6e61ct+on +5 t0at t0e 6efen6ant +nten6e6 t0+5 op+12 to be bro190t +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65. $e accor6+n9l8 f+n6 t0at t0ere 3a5 +lle9al +2portat+on of op+12 fro2 a fore+9n co1ntr8 +nto t0e P0+l+pp+ne 5lan65. &o ant+c+pate an8 po55+ble 2+51n6er5tan6+n9, let +t be 5a+6 t0at t0e5e 5tate2ent5 6o not relate to fore+9n ;e55el5 +n tran5+t, a 5+t1at+on not pre5ent.

&0e 6efen6ant an6 appellant, 0a;+n9 been pro;e6 91+lt8 be8on6 a rea5onable 6o1bt a5 c0ar9e6 an6 t0e 5entence of t0e tr+al co1rt be+n9 3+t0+n t0e l+2+t5 pro;+6e6 b8 la3, +t re51lt5 t0at t0e <1692ent 215t be aff+r2e6 3+t0 t0e co5t5 of t0+5 +n5tance a9a+n5t t0e appellant. )o or6ere6. Arellano, C!J!, Johnson, Carson, Araullo an6 Street, JJ!, conc1r.