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UNITED STATES vs.

PROTASIO EDUAVE

EN BANC
[G.R. No. 12155. February 2, 1917.] THE UNITED STATES, plaintiff-appellee, vs. PROTASIO EDUAVE, defendant-appellant. Manuel Roxas for appellant. Attorney-General Avancena for appellee. SYLLABUS 1.CRI INA! !A"# FR$%&RA&E' CRI E%. ( A felony )* fru*trate+ ,-en t-e offen+er perfor.* all t-e a/t* of e0e/ut)on ,-)/- *-oul+ pro+u/e t-e felony a* a /on*e1uen/e, but ,-)/-, ne2ert-ele**, +o not pro+u/e )t by rea*on of /au*e* )n+epen+ent of t-e ,)ll of t-e perpetrator. 2.I'.# A&&E 3&E' CRI E%. ( &-ere )* an atte.pt ,-en t-e offen+er /o..en/e* t-e /o..)**)on of t-e felony +)re/tly by o2ert a/t*, an+ +oe* not perfor. all t-e a/t* of e0e/ut)on ,-)/- /on*t)tute t-e felony by rea*on of *o.e /au*e or a//)+ent ot-er t-an -)* o,n 2oluntary +e*)*tan/e. 4.I'.# I'. ( In /a*e of an atte.pt t-e offen+er ne2er pa**e* t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e of t-e offen*e. 6e )* )nterrupte+ an+ /o.pelle+ to +e*)*t by t-e )nter2ent)on of out*)+e /au*e* before t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e )* pa**e+. 7.I'.# FR$%&RA&E' CRI E%. ( In /a*e of fru*trate+ /r).e* t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e )* /o.pletely pa**e+. %ub5e/t)2ely t-e /r).e )* /o.plete. Not-)n8 )nterrupte+ t-e offen+er ,-)le -e ,a* pa**)n8 t-rou8- t-e *ub5e/t p-a*e. &-e /r).e, -o,e2er, )* not /on*u..ate+ by rea*on of t-e )nter2ent)on of /au*e* )n+epen+ent of t-e ,)ll of t-e offen+er. 6e +)+ all t-at ,a* ne/e**ary to /o..)t t-e /r).e. If t-e /r).e +)+ not re*ult a* a /on*e1uen/e )t ,a* +ue to *o.et-)n8 beyon+ -)* /ontrol. 5.I'.# I'.# %$B9EC&I:E 36A%E. ( &-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e )* t-at port)on of t-e a/t* /on*t)tut)n8 t-e /r).e )n/lu+e+ bet,een t-e a/t ,-)/- be8)n* t-e /o..)**)on of t-e /r).e an+ t-e la*t a/t perfor.e+ by t-e offen+er ,-)/-, ,)t- t-e pr)or a/t*, *-oul+ re*ult )n t-e /on*u..ate+ /r).e. Fro. t-at t).e for,ar+ t-e p-a*e )* ob5e/t)2e. It .ay al*o be *a)+ to be t-at per)o+ o//up)e+ by t-e a/t* of t-e offen+er

o2er ,-)/- -e -a* /ontrol ;; t-at per)o+ bet,een t-e po)nt ,-ere -e be8)n* an+ t-e po)nt ,-ere -e 2oluntar)ly +e*)*t*. If bet,een t-e*e t,o po)nt* t-e offen+er )* *toppe+ by any /au*e out*)+e of -)* o,n 2oluntary +e*)*tan/e, t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e -a* not been pa**e+ an+ )t )* atte.pt. If -e )* not *o *toppe+ but /ont)nue* unt)l -e perfor.* t-e la*t a/t, )t )* fru*trate+.

DECISION

MORELAND, J <
p

"e bel)e2e t-at t-e a//u*e+ )* 8u)lty of fru*trate+ .ur+er. "e are *at)*f)e+ t-at t-ere ,a* )ntent to =)ll )n t-)* /a*e. A +ea+ly ,eapon ,a* u*e+. &-e blo, ,a* +)re/te+ to,ar+ a 2)tal part of t-e bo+y. &-e a88re**or *tate+ -)* purpo*e to =)ll, t-ou8-t -e -a+ =)lle+, an+ t-re, t-e bo+y )nto t-e bu*-e*. "-en -e 8a2e -).*elf up -e +e/lare+ t-at -e -a+ =)lle+ t-e /o.pla)nant. &-ere ,a* alevosia to 1ual)fy t-e /r).e a* .ur+er )f +eat- -a+ re*ulte+. &-e a//u*e+ ru*-e+ upon t-e 8)rl *u++enly an+ *tru/= -er fro. be-)n+, )n part at lea*t, ,)t- a *-arp bolo, pro+u/)n8 a fr)8-tful 8a*- )n t-e lu.bar re8)on an+ *l)8-tly to t-e *)+e e)8-t an+ one;-alf )n/-e* lon8 an+ t,o )n/-e* +eep, *e2er)n8 all of t-e .u*/le* an+ t)**ue* of t-at part. &-e .ot)2e of t-e /r).e ,a* t-at t-e a//u*e+ ,a* )n/en*e+ at t-e 8)rl for t-e rea*on t-at *-e -a+ t-eretofore /-ar8e+ -). /r).)nally before t-e lo/al off)/)al* ,)t-a2)n8 rape+ -er an+ ,)t- be)n8 t-e /au*e of -er pre8nan/y. 6e ,a* -er .ot-er>* querido an+ ,a* l)2)n8 ,)t- -er a* *u/- at t-e t).e t-e /r).e -ere /-ar8e+ ,a* /o..)tte+. &-at t-e a//u*e+ )* 8u)lty of *o.e /r).e )* not +en)e+. &-e only 1ue*t)on )* t-e pre/)*e /r).e of ,-)/- -e *-oul+ be /on2)/te+. It )* /onten+e+, )n t-e f)r*t pla/e, t-at, )f +eat- -a+ re*ulte+, t-e /r).e ,oul+ not -a2e been .ur+er but -o.)/)+e, an+ )n t-e *e/on+ pla/e, t-at )t )* atte.pte+ an+ not fru*trate+ -o.)/)+e. A* to t-e f)r*t /ontent)on, ,e are of t-e op)n)on t-at t-e /r).e /o..)tte+ ,oul+ -a2e been .ur+er )f t-e 8)rl -a+ been =)lle+. It )* 1ual)f)e+ by t-e /)r/u.*tan/e of ale2o*)a, t-e a//u*e+ .a=)n8 a *u++en atta/= upon -)* 2)/t). fro. t-e rear, or partly fro. t-e rear, an+ +eal)n8 -er a terr)ble blo, )n t-e ba/= an+ *)+e ,)t- -)* bolo. %u/- an atta/= ne/e**)tate* t-e f)n+)n8 t-at )t ,a* .a+e trea/-erou*ly# an+ t-at be)n8 *o t-e /r).e ,oul+ -a2e been 1ual)f)e+ a* .ur+er )f +eat- -a+ re*ulte+.

A* to t-e *e/on+ /ontent)on, ,e are of t-e op)n)on t-at t-e /r).e ,a* fru*trate+ an+ not atte.pte+ .ur+er. Art)/le 4 of t-e 3enal Co+e +ef)ne* a fru*trate+ felony a* follo,*<
?A felony )* fru*trate+ ,-en t-e offen+er perfor.* all t-e a/t* of e0e/ut)on ,-)/- *-oul+ pro+u/e t-e felony a* a /on*e1uen/e, but ,-)/-, ne2ert-ele**, +o not pro+u/e )t by rea*on of /au*e* )n+epen+ent of t-e ,)ll of t-e perpetrator.?

An atte.pte+ felony )* +ef)ne+ t-u*<


?&-ere )* an atte.pt ,-en t-e offen+er /o..en/e* t-e /o..)**)on of t-e felony +)re/tly by o2ert a/t*, an+ +oe* not perfor. all t-e a/t* of e0e/ut)on ,-)/- /on*t)tute t-e felony by rea*on of *o.e /au*e or a//)+ent ot-er t-an -)* o,n 2oluntar)ly +e*)*tan/e.?

&-e /r).e /annot be atte.pte+ .ur+er. &-)* )* /lear fro. t-e fa/t t-at t-e +efen+ant perfor.e+ all of t-e a/t* ,-)/- *-oul+ -a2e re*ulte+ )n t-e /on*u..ate+ /r).e an+ voluntarily +e*)*te+ fro. furt-er a/t*. A /r).e /annot be -el+ to be atte.pte+ unle** t-e offen+er, after be8)nn)n8 t-e /o..)**)on of t-e /r).e by o2ert a/t*, )* pre2ente+, a8a)n*t -)* ,)ll, by *o.e out*)+e /au*e fro. perfor.)n8 all of t-e a/t* ,-)/- *-oul+ pro+u/e t-e /r).e. In ot-er ,or+*, to be an atte.pte+ /r).e t-e purpo*e of t-e offen+er .u*t be t-,arte+ by a fore)8n for/e or a8en/y ,-)/)nter2ene* an+ /o.pel* -). to *top pr)or to t-e .o.ent ,-en -e -a* perfor.e+ all of t-e a/t* ,-)/- *-oul+ pro+u/e t-e /r).e a* a /on*e1uen/e, ,-)/- a/t* )t )* -)* )ntent)on to perfor.. If -e -a* perfor.e+ all of t-e a/t* ,-)/- *-oul+ re*ult )n t-e /on*u..at)on of t-e /r).e an+ voluntarily +e*)*t* fro. pro/ee+)n8 furt-er, )t /an not be an atte.pt. &-e e**ent)al ele.ent ,-)/- +)*t)n8u)*-e* atte.pte+ fro. fru*trate+ felony )* t-at, )n t-e latter, t-ere )* no )nter2ent)on of a fore)8n or e0traneou* /au*e or a8en/y bet,een t-e be8)nn)n8 of t-e /o..)**)on of t-e /r).e an+ t-e .o.ent ,-en all of t-e a/t* -a2e been perfor.e+ ,-)/- *-oul+ re*ult )n t-e /on*u..ate+ /r).e# ,-)le )n t-e for.er t-ere )* *u/- )nter2ent)on an+ t-e offen+er +oe* not arr)2e at t-e po)nt of perfor.)n8 all of t-e a/t* ,-)/- *-oul+ pro+u/e t-e /r).e. 6e )* *toppe+ *-ort of t-at po)nt by *a.e /au*e apart fro. -)* fro. -)* 2oluntary +e*)*tan/e. &o put )t )n anot-er ,ay, )n /a*e of an atte.pt t-e offen+er ne2er pa**e* t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e of t-e offen*e. -e )* )nterrupte+ an+ /o.pelle+ to +e*)*t by t-e )nter2ent)on of out*)+e /au*e* before t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e )* pa**e+. @n t-e ot-er -an+, )n /a*e of fru*trate+ /r).e* t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e )* /o.pletely pa**e+. %ub5e/t)2ely t-e /r).e )* /o.plete. Not-)n8 )nterrupte+ t-e offen+er ,-)le -e ,a* pa**)n8 t-rou8- t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e. &-e /r).e, -o,e2er, )* not /on*u..ate+ by rea*on of t-e )nter2ent)on of /au*e* )n+epen+ent of t-e ,)ll of

t-e offen+er. -e +)+ all t-at ,a* ne/e**ary to /o..)t t-e /r).e. If t-e /r).e +)+ not re*ult a* a /on*e1uen/e )t ,a* +ue to *o.et-)n8 beyon+ -)* /ontrol. &-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e )* t-at port)on of t-e a/t* /on*t)tut)n8 t-e /r).e )n/lu+e+ bet,een t-e a/t ,-)/- be8)n* t-e /o..)**)on of t-e /r).e an+ t-e la*t a/t perfor.e+ by t-e offen+er ,-)/-, ,)t- t-e pr)or a/t*, *-oul+ re*ult )n t-e /on*u..ate+ /r).e. Fro. t-at t).e for,ar+ t-e p-a*e )* ob5e/t)2e. It .ay al*o be *a)+ to be t-at per)o+ o//up)e+ by t-e a/t* of t-e offen+er o2er ,-)/- -e -a* /ontrol ( t-at per)o+ bet,een t-e po)nt ,-ere -e begins an+ t-e po)nt ,-ere -e voluntarily desists. If between these two points t-e offen+er )* *toppe+ by rea*on of any /au*e out*)+e of -)* o,n 2oluntary +e*)*tan/e, t-e *ub5e/t)2e p-a*e -a* not been pa**e+ an+ )t )* an atte.pt. If -e )* not *o *toppe+ but /ont)nue* unt)l -e perfor.* t-e la*t a/t, )t )* fru*trate+. &-en t-e /a*e before u* )* fru*trate+ )* /lear. &-e penalty *-oul+ -a2e been t-)rteen year* of /a+ena te.poral t-ere be)n8 ne)t-er a88ra2at)n8 nor .)t)8at)n8 /)r/u.*tan/e. A* *o .o+)f)e+, t-e 5u+8.ent )* aff)r.e+ ,)t- /o*t*. %o or+ere+. Torres an+ Araullo, JJ , /on/ur. !arson an+ Trent, JJ , /on/ur )n t-e re*ult.