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Saturation

Water Saturation
Saturation
Saturation Determination
Objectives :
Resistivity and Partial Saturation
Archie Saturation Equation
Saturation Exponent n
Bulk Volume Fractions and
Moved Oil Plot MOP
Saturation
Water Saturation
.
.
w
BVW Vol Water
S
Vol Pore
= =
Saturation
Parallel Tubes
Water
Saturation
Parallel Tubes
Water & Oil
Saturation
Resistivity & Partial Saturation
Parallel Tubes: Hydrocarbon & Water
0
w
R
R

=
0
w
R
R
BVW
=
w
t
R
R
BVW
=
w
w
t
R
R
S

=
Parallel Tubes: Water Bearing
Saturation
Water Saturation
in resistivity terms, oil appears like glass
both are perfect insulators
water (electrolyte) is the only conductive
material
Saturation
Resistivity & Partial Saturation
+ Tortuosity
Water
+ Tortuosity
Water & Hydrocarbon
0
w
m
R
R

=
w
t
w
R
R
S
m

=
m
Saturation
Water &
Hydrocarbon
Saturation
Resistivity & Saturation
Parallel Tubes,
Water-bearing
Parallel Tubes,
Partially Saturated
Add Tortuosity
0
w
R
R

=
w
t
w
R
R
S

=
w
t
m
w
aR
R
S

=
m
Saturation
Tortuosity (current path)
water-bearing
mid pore
oil-bearing
(water-wet)
grain surface
S
w
and exponents
may differ somewhat
Saturation
Tortuosity :
water vs. oil-bearing
Saturation
Saturation Exponent n
if oil occupies mid-pore space,
(water-wet condition)
tortuosity may change with saturation or
wettability
current path may change
n kept independent of m
Saturation
Determination of Saturation Exponent
n
Desaturation Cell measurements on core
plug . . .slope on log-log plot
Capillary Pressure Curves at irreducible
saturation
OBM Core . . . recover liquids in cleaning
Match Archie saturation by adjusting n
Saturation
Desaturation Cell
Saturation
Saturation
Wettability
Saturation
Effect of
Wettability
on n
Saturation
Capillary Pressure & Water Level
Saturation
Capillary
Pressure &
Saturation
Saturation
Cap. Press. & Reservoir Quality
Saturation
Dean-Stark
Cleaning
Apparatus
Saturation
Sensitivity
to n
Saturation
Archie Saturation Equation
0
n
w
t
R
S
R
=
w
n
w
t
FR
S
R
=
w
n
w
m
t
aR
S
R
=
1
n
w
S
I
=
Saturation
Nomograph for Archie Equation
Saturation
Artificial intelligence is no match for
natural stupidity.
Saturation
Saturation Determination
Summary :
Water Saturation = vol.water / pore space
= BVW /
n can be determined by desaturation
measurements in a lab,or, by
capillary pressure data in the irreducible zone
Archie Saturation Equation for clean reservoirs:
w
n
w
t
FR
S
R
=
Saturation