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SUNRISE TELECOM

SunSet

MTT-50
GigE Module
for the MTT Platform
Users Manual
MAN-22528-001 Rev. B00

www.sunrisetelecom.com
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2010 Sunrise Telecom Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer: Contents subject to change without notice and are not guaranteed for accuracy.
Warning
Using the supplied equipment in a manner not specied by Sunrise Telecom may impair the protection
provided by the equipment.
Warning
This is a Class 1 LASER product. Avoid looking directly at the Transmitter source. For added safety,
turn off the laser when not in use.
End of Life Recycling and Disposal Information
DO NOT dispose of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) as unsorted municipal waste.
For proper disposal return the product to Sunrise Telecom. Please contact our local ofces or service
centers for information on how to arrange the return and recycling of any of our products.
EC Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive aims to minimize the impact of the dis-
posal of electrical and electronic equipment on the environment. It encourages and sets criteria for the
collection, treatment, recycling, recovery, and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment.
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SunSet MTT -50 GigE Module Users Manual
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to the MTT GigE Module ................................................................................... 5
1.1 Module Connector Panel ......................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Test Set LEDs .......................................................................................................................... 8
2 Menus ..................................................................................................................................... 11
3 Applications ........................................................................................................................... 13
3.1 Layer 1 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) ........................................................................................ 13
3.2 Layer 2 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) ........................................................................................ 16
3.3 IP Throughput Layer 3 BERT-Indirect Routing ........................................................................ 18
3.4 Loopback Mode Applications ................................................................................................. 20
3.5 Monitor Mode ......................................................................................................................... 22
3.5.1 Monitor Mode Statistics ...................................................................................................... 23
4 Ethernet Conguration .......................................................................................................... 25
5 Loopback Testing ................................................................................................................... 27
5.1 MANUAL Mode Testing.......................................................................................................... 29
5.2 RESPOND Mode Testing ....................................................................................................... 29
5.3 CONTROL Mode Testing ....................................................................................................... 30
6 BERT/Throughput Testing ..................................................................................................... 33
6.1 BERT Conguration ............................................................................................................... 34
6.1.1 Stream Conguration .......................................................................................................... 34
6.1.1.1 MAC & Type Conguration............................................................................................... 40
6.1.1.2 IP & HEADER Conguration ........................................................................................... 41
6.1.1.3 Pattern Conguration ....................................................................................................... 43
6.1.1.4 Trafc Shaping Conguration ........................................................................................... 45
6.2 BERT/Throughput Results ..................................................................................................... 48
6.3 Error Injection ........................................................................................................................ 54
7 RFC2544 Testing ..................................................................................................................... 57
7.1 RFC2544/NE Test Conguration ........................................................................................... 57
7.1.1 RFC2544 Frame Format Conguration .............................................................................. 58
7.1.2 RFC2544 Frame Length Conguration ............................................................................... 59
7.1.3 RFC2544 Test Sequence Conguration ............................................................................. 60
7.1.4 User Threshold ................................................................................................................... 64
7.1.5 Run Test .............................................................................................................................. 65
8 Advanced Features ................................................................................................................ 71
8.1 IP Conguration ..................................................................................................................... 71
8.2 Ping Test ................................................................................................................................ 73
8.3 Trace Route ........................................................................................................................... 75
8.4 ARP Scan .............................................................................................................................. 76
8.5 VLAN Scan ............................................................................................................................ 78
8.6 Web Access Test ................................................................................................................... 79
8.6.1 HTTP Download Test .......................................................................................................... 80
8.6.2 FTP Download Test ............................................................................................................ 81
8.6.3 FTP Upload Test ................................................................................................................. 82
8.7 Cable Test .............................................................................................................................. 83
8.8 VOIP Features ....................................................................................................................... 84
8.8.1 Protocol Setup ................................................................................................................... 84
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8.8.2 Call Features ...................................................................................................................... 87
8.8.3 VQ Measurements .............................................................................................................. 91
8.8.3.1 Non-intrusive VQM Test Mode ......................................................................................... 91
9 Optical Power Measurement .................................................................................................. 93
10 Measurements Setup ........................................................................................................... 95
11 View/Store/Print .................................................................................................................... 97
12 Proles ................................................................................................................................ 101
13 Reference ............................................................................................................................ 103
13.1 Customer Service .............................................................................................................. 103
13.2 Test Patterns ...................................................................................................................... 105
13.3 Technology Overview ......................................................................................................... 106
13.3.1 Ethernet Overview .......................................................................................................... 106
13.3.2 IP Overview .................................................................................................................... 116
13.4 Service Information ........................................................................................................... 119
13.4.1 Handling Optical Fiber .................................................................................................... 119
13.4.2 Cleaning Optical Fiber .................................................................................................... 121
13.5 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................... 122
13.6 Express Limited Warranty .................................................................................................. 129
Index ........................................................................................................................................... 131
1 Introduction to the MTT GigE Module
The MTT GigE module provides the necessary tools to efciently install, maintain,
and troubleshoot Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet ser vices. Typical
GigE deployment occurs over dark ber or via a DWDM optical ring comprising a
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network).
Make sure to complete the Warranty Registration Card and return it immediately to
Sunrise Telecom. Sunrise Telecom Incorporated must receive your warranty regis-
tration information either online or by the enclosed card in order to provide you with
updated software releases.
Each software card is matched to test set using the serial number. If your test set
does not startup, verify that the serial number on the software card matches the
serial number on the back of the test set.
Notes on the MTT Platform
Options are read from the module, so you can swap the chassis without having
to enable the options on every single chassis (for those users with multiple MTT
chassis).
The MTT 50 will reply to ARP requests while performing P2P or RFC2544 tests.
Notes on Using This Manual
Certain conventions are used throughout this manual. The > symbol means select
each item one after the other. An example would be: Modem Control > Modem
Setup > Modem Type (to choose the type of modem for testing).
Hardware buttons and header banners (such as Running) are shown in single
quotes. Pop up messages are shown in full quotes, e.g. Test Completed!.
A button may be referred to via text or via its icon.
Section numbers are shown in italics: Section 2.3.
indicates a testing tip; information useful in conducting or conguring a test.
indicates technology information which might be useful to know.
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GigE Module
1.1 Module Connector Panel
Figure 1 SSMTT-50 GigE Connector Panel
The module can use the following types of plug-in transceivers:
Sunrise Telecom Transceivers Part Numbers
Part Number Features
SA580-850 dual duplex type 850 nm transceiver
SA580-1310 dual duplex type LC, 1310 nm transceiver
SA580-1550 dual duplex type LC, 1550 nm transceiver
SSMTT-28-FXM 850nm MMF LC FIELD INTERCHANGEABLE
transceiver
SSMTT-28-FXS SMF LC, 1310 nm transceiver
Table 1 Transceivers
To insert a transceiver:
Caution: Use of non Sunrise Telecom transceivers will void the test set war-
ranty.
1. Align the transceiver label side with the label side of module.
2. Insert the transceiver into PORT 1 or PORT 2. There will be a click sound when
the transceiver is properly seated.
3. When ready for use, remove any protective caps on the in terface end of the
transceiver.
To remove a transceiver:
1. If you are removing an optical transceiver, install the protective cap on the inter-
face end of the transceiver.
2. Grip the outer edge of the transceiver and pull it away from the module.
See Table 1 for the recommended cables.
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MTT-50
Sunrise P/N Description
SA561 Standard 2 meter LCUPC to SCUPC duplex
multimode patch cord.
SA562 Optional 2 meter LCUPC to SCUPC duplex
single mode patch cord.
Table 2 Cables
PORTS
Ports may be used for RJ-45 10/1000/1000BT or (SFP) 1000BX interfaces. A 100FX
interface is also available as an option (SWMTT-50-100X). As indicated in Figure 1,
ports have transmit and receive capabilities. See Table 1 for a list of transceivers.
They two ports are fully independent; you may run two tests at one time.
See the next section for a description of the status LEDs.
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GigE Module
1.2 Test Set LEDs
Hardware Port LEDs
Two LEDs are located next to each hardware port on the module. LEDs report on
the link status and activity. Here is the color code:
Note: Both 10T/100T share the same bicolor LED
10T: amber 100T: green
1000T: amber
1000X: amber
100FX: green
For each port, the steady/blinking status displays the line status:
Solid: The specic media/speed link is up (link) -
Blinking: Trafc is going through the port (activity) -
RJ-45 Port LEDs
Each RJ-45 port has its own LEDs, on the frame of the port itself. The left LED
represents 10/100Base-T; the right one represents 1000Base-T.
SFP Port LEDs
SFP ports have round status LEDs, located to the side of each port.
Remember the STATUS key also provides more extensive LED information.
Front Panel LEDs
LEDs apply to the port highlighted on the screen. See Figure 2.
MODULE
Green: Test set is in module mode.
SIGNAL: Active port status.
Green: Laser light or electrical signal is being received on the active port.
Red: Laser light or electrical signal is not detected on active the port.
xTU-C/R LEDs: N/A
FRAME: Link Up/Down status.
Green: Framing synchronization or the link is up on the active ports.
Red: Framing synchronization or the link is down on the active ports.
ERRORS: Active whenever the test set is performing a BER, an IP Throughput test,
or in monitor mode.
Red: Currently detecting an error.
Blinking Red: Previously detected an error, but that error is no longer present.
Press HISTORY to clear.
LP1/LP2 SYNC: N/A
AIS: N/A.
BPV/CODE: N/A.
ALARM: Lights red whenever the test set detects an alarm condition.
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MTT-50
PAT SYNC: Active when performing a BER test with a known test pattern.
Green: Pattern synchronization is achieved.
Red: Pattern synchronization has been lost.
Blinking Red: Previously detected pattern loss, but this condi tion is no longer
present. Press HISTORY to clear.
BIT ERR: Active whenever the test set is performing a BER or an IP Throughput
test with a known test pattern.
Red: Currently detecting bit errors.
Blinking Red: Previously detected bit errors, but they are no longer present. Press
HISTORY to clear.
EDI T
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 CONFI GURATI ON
LAYER : LAYER 3
MAC & TYPE : Et her net I I
VLAN # : 3
MPLS # : 0
I P & HEADER : I Pv4
TCP/ UDP : NONE
PAYLOAD : 2e31- 1
FRAME LENGTH : 76
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : CONST
LEDs report status
for the port high-
lighted on the
screen.
In this case, the
LEDs report on
Port 1.
Figure 2 Front Panel LEDs
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GigE Module
This page has been intentionally left blank.
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MTT-50
2 Menus
Press the MODULE key to access the modules main menu. The upper level struc-
ture is shown in Figure 3.
Ethernet MAIN MENU
6 BERT/Throughput
5 LOOPBACK
4 CONFIGURATION
10 MEASUREMENT SETUP
8 ADVANCED FEATURES
7 RFC2544/NE
11 VIEW/STORE/PRINT
12 PROFILES
ADVANCED FEATURES
8.1 IP Configuration
8.4 ARP Scan
8.3 Trace Route
8.2 Ping Test
8.6 Web Access Test
8.5 VLAN Scan
BERT/THROUGHPUT
6.2 BERT/Throughput Results
6.1.1 Stream Configuration
6.1 BERT Configuration
6.3 Error Injection
LOOPBACK
5.1 MANUAL Mode Testing
5.3 CONTROL Mode Testing
5.2 RESPOND Mode Testing
RFC2544/NE TEST
7.1.2 Frame Length Config
7.1.1 Frame Format Config
7.1 RFC2544/NE Test Config
7.1.3 Test Sequence Config
7.1.4 Run Test
9 OPTICAL POWER MEAS.
8.6.1 HTTP Download Test
8.6.2 FTP Download Test
8.6.3 FTP Upload Test
8.7 Cable Test
8.8 VOIP Features
8.8.1 Protocol Setup
8.8.2 Call Features
8.8.3 VQ Meaurements
Figure 3 Menu Tree
Once the MTT is turned on, the modules main menu appears, as shown in Figure
4.
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GigE Module
PORT1/ 2
ETHERNET MAI N MENU
CONFI GURATI ON
LOOPBACK
BERT/ THROUGHPUT
RFC2544
ADVANCED FEATURES
MEASUREMENTS SETUP
VI EW/ STORE/ PRI NT
PROFI LES
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
Selected port;
screen data applies to
the highlighted port
Non-selected port
Switch ports
Figure 4 MTT GigE Main Menu Screen
Select the port to congure by pressing the PORT1/2 (F1) key. The port highlighted
at the top of the screen corresponds to the current selection; all changes you make
in your conguration apply only to the selected port. The conguration screen also
has a PORT parameter, letting you switch views to the screen for the other port.
Link status is reported on the top right of the screen, as is IP status when appli-
cable.
The Ethernet main menu screen, as shown in Figure 4, contains an F-key to turn
the laser on and off when an optical port is in use. Press LAS.OFF (F2) to turn the
laser off; press LAS.ON (F2) to turn the laser on. A Laser banner is displayed at
the top of the screen when the laser is on.
To make a selection on a menu, use the chassis cursor keys to move the cursor
highlight to the feature you want (such as BERT/THROUGHPUT in the gure), then
press the ENTER key. A new screen will appear, often featuring the menu for that
feature set.
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MTT-50
3 Applications
Power on the MTT GigE and enter the ETHERNET MAIN MENU.
Make sure to use the right type of connectors and fber (single-mode and mul-
timode) when connecting the test port of the MTT -50 GigE module to the ber
access point of the network. The MTT -50 SFPs use LC/UPC connectors.
Make sure the laser is turned on if required.
Verify the port has a green LINK LED.
If there is no link, verify the auto-negotiation settings of the device under test
and set the MTT GigE to a compatible conguration.
If auto-negotiation is disabled on one device and enabled on the other, the default
duplex setting is half-duplex, which may cause problems and confusion during test-
ing. In most testing environments, it is best if the MTT GigE and the device under
test have the same auto-negotiation settings.
Getting the link up is the most important step in any application, and it can be the
most frustrating. Take the time to ensure the Ethernet CONFIGURATION screen
is properly set up.
You may need to make a change, see what effect that has, make another change,
and so on, until the conguration is correct. Once the link is UP, testing is ready to
begin.
3.1 Layer 1 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT)
In a Layer 1 environment as illustrated in Figure 5, a Layer 1 BERT between two
test sets or between a test set and a far end loop can be performed using this
procedure.
1. Connect PORT 1 to the circuit as in Figure 5.
If you are using an 850 nm optical transceiver, use the SA561 patch cord.
If you are using either a 1310 or 1550 nm optical transceiver, use the SA562
patch cord.
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GigE Module
PORT 1 TX
PORT 1 RX
or
loop
Gigabit
Extender
Gigabit
Extender
Figure 5 Layer 1 BER Testing Setup
2. Turn on the test set. The module automatically negotiates with the link partner
device to bring the link up. Refer to the screen header or the module LEDs for
information on the status of the port.
3. From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select CONFIGURATION, and congure
as follows:
OPERATION: P2P_P2P
START-UP: MENU or CONFIG
For Ethernet use, select CONFIG (the test set will boot up on the BER test
conguration screen).
For other applications, select MENU (the test set will boot up on the module
main menu screen).
PORT: PORT1, or as required.
AUTO-NEGO: ENABLE (recommended setting)
MEDIA: As required
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MTT-50
PAUSE: ENABLE (recommended setting)
C. Press ESC.
4. From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select BERT/THROUGHPUT > BERT
CONFIGURATION, and congure the BER test as follows:
# OF STREAM: 1
5. At the #1 line, press EDIT (F1), and congure the stream.
LAYER: LAYER 1
PAYLOAD: Select the test pattern for the BER test.
FRAME LENGTH: Select the appropriate frame length.
TRAFFIC SHAPING: Select the type of trafc shaping.
A. Press EDIT (F4) to set the trafc shaping parameters.
B. Press SAVE (F4) when done.
Note: Refer to Section 6.1.1 for details on these settings.
C. Press ESC.
6. From the BERT/THROUGHPUT menu, select BERT RESULT.
A. Press ENTER to start the BERT.
Note: Refer to Section 6.2 for interpretation of the results.
7. Instead of conguring each test set individually, you may congure test set 1 for
loopback mode and congure test set 2 for the BERT, using steps 4 and 5. For
loopback mode conguration, refer to Section 5.
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GigE Module
3.2 Layer 2 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT)
In a Layer 2 environment, as shown in Figure 6, you can run a BERT between two
test sets. Layer 2 devices (switches) keep track of MAC address information in order
to forward trafc to the appropriate port, therefore each test set has to be congured
with valid source and destination MAC address.
1. Connect PORT 1 to the circuit as in Figure 6.
If you are using an 850 nm optical transceiver, use the SA561 patch cord.
If you are using either a 1310 or 1550 nm optical transceiver, use the SA562
patch cord.
Test Set 1
Test Set 2
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
Layer 2
Device
(Switch)
Layer 2
Device
(Switch)
Figure 6 Layer 2 BERT Setup
2. Turn on each test set. Each test set automatically negotiates with the link partner
device to bring the link up. Refer to the screen header or the module LEDs for
information on the status of the port.
3. From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select CONFIGURATION, and congure
and congure each test set as follows:
OPERATION: P2P_P2P
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MTT-50
START-UP: MENU or CONFIG
For Ethernet use, select CONFIG (the test set will boot up on the BER test
conguration screen).
For other applications, select MENU (the test set will boot up on the module
main menu screen).
PORT: 1, or as required.
AUTO-NEGO: ENABLE (recommended setting)
MEDIA: As required
AUTO-NEGO: ENABLE (recommended setting)
PAUSE: ENABLE (recommended setting)
4. Press ESC, then from the BERT/THROUGHPUT menu, select BERT CONFIGU-
RATION.
A. Congure - # OF STREAM: 1
B. Highlight #1, then press EDIT (F1).
5. On the STREAM #1 CONFIGURATION screen, set:
LAYER: LAYER 2
MAC & TYPE: as required; follow up be conguring the MAC & TYPE parameters
as required; see Section 6.1.1.1.
MAC addresses should follow this rule:
MAC address source of test set 1 equals the MAC address destination of
test 2.
MAC address source of test set 2 equals the MAC address destination of
test set 1.
VLAN #: Enter a number only if VLAN tagging is required on your network, oth-
erwise keep this value at zero.
PAYLOAD: Select the test pattern for the BER test.
FRAME LENGTH: Select the appropriate frame length.
TRAFFIC SHAPING: Select the required type of trafc shaping.
A. Press EDIT (F4) to set the trafc shaping parameters.
B. Press SAVE (F4) when done.
Note: Refer to Section 6.1.1 for details on these settings.
6. Press ESC, then from the BERT/THROUGHPUT menu, select BERT RESULT.
Press ENTER to start the BERT.
See Section 6.2 for interpretation of the results.
7. Instead of conguring each test set individually, you may congure test set 1 for
loopback mode and congure test set 2 for the BERT using steps 4 and 5. For
loopback mode conguration, refer to Section 5.
17
GigE Module
3.3 IP Throughput Layer 3 BERT-Indirect Routing
In a Layer 3 environment, as shown in Figure 7 where the test sets are located in
different networks, indirect routing through a gateway must be used. In this case,
you will run an IP Throughput test. This conguration is referred to as indirect rout-
ing because test set 1 cannot transmit trafc directly to test set 2; trafc is being
routed by the gateway(s).
1. Connect PORT 1 to the circuit as in Figure 7.
If you are using an 850 nm optical transceiver, use the SA561 patch cord.
If you are using either a 1310 or 1550 nm optical transceiver, use the SA562
patch cord.
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
Test Set
1
Test Set
2
Network
Layer 3
Device
(Router)
Layer 3
Device
(Router)
Figure 7 Layer 3 BERT-Indirect Routing Setup
2. Turn on each test set. Each test set automatically negotiates with the link partner
device to bring the link up, if Auto Negotiation is enabled on the CONFIGURA-
TION screen. Refer to the screen header or the module LEDs for information on
the status of the port on each module.
3. From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select CONFIGURATION.
A. Congure each test set as follows:
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MTT-50
OPERATION: P2P_P2P
START-UP: MENU or CONFIG
PORT: As required
MEDIA: As required
AUTO-NEGO: ENABLE (recommended setting)
PAUSE: ENABLE (recommended setting)
ASYM PAUSE: ENABLE (recommended setting)
B. Press ESC.
4. In the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select ADVANCED FEATURES > IP CON-
FIGURATION.
5. In the IP CONFIGURATION window, select either DHCP or STATIC, as described
in Section 8.1.
A. When the connection is successful (IP UP), press ESC.
If IP UP is not displayed in the header, check the entered IP address.
6. Select PING TEST from ADVANCED FEATURES
7. At the DESTINATION IP line, enter the IP address of the remote test set (Test
Set 2), in order to verify end-to-end connectivity.
If PING: PASS is displayed, press ESC.
8. From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select BERT/THROUGHPUT> BERT CON-
FIGURATION, and enter the test parameters; see Section 3.2.
Make sure to congure the IP Type and Header info; see Section 6.1.1.2.
9. When ready, press ENTER to start the test and view the results. Refer to Sec-
tions 8.2 for interpretation of the results.
19
GigE Module
3.4 Loopback Mode Applications
The loopback feature is particularly useful when running a dual ended test, it allows
controlling the tests (BERT/Throughput measurements) from one test set (test set
2), while having the remote test set (test set 1) looping back the test frames.
Test Set 1 is setup for manual loopback
or as a responder.
Test Set 2 is setup to transmit and receive.
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
Network
Figure 8 Loopback Mode
There are two possible congurations for the loopback feature:
Manual Mode: The test set will loopback incoming frames as soon as this mode
is selected.
Controller/Responder Mode: A test set set up as a controller will send a loop up
command to a test set set up as a responder. The responder will loop all incoming
frames. The responder will continue looping until it receives a loop down frame
from the controller.
Note: There is no standard looping code for Ethernet; the test set uses Sunrise Tele-
com proprietary loop up and loop down frames. Hence this setup requires Sunrise
Telecom equipment at both ends of the circuit.
In both manual or controller/responder modes, the test set will adapt the loopback
mechanism to your network conguration as follows:
20
MTT-50
If the network confguration is similar to the one depicted in Figure 5, the loop-
back should be congured for Layer 1. In this conguration, the looped test set
will retransmit the incoming frames without modifying them.
If the network confguration is similar to the one depicted in Figure 6, the loopback
should be congured for Layer 2/3. In this conguration, the looped test set will
retransmit the incoming frames and swap the source and destination MAC and
IP address elds.
Notes
Layer 2/3 loopback mechanism will loop all incoming unicast traffc and discard
multicast and broadcast, keep-alive and IP checksum error trafc. Pause frames
will be processed without looping back.
Use caution when using loopback mode because some network equipment may
not allow the loopback of some unicast frames.
21
GigE Module
3.5 Monitor Mode
Monitor mode can be used in the following congurations:
Pass Through mode, the test set is inserted between two devices, and monitors
the frames in both directions as in Figure 9.
PORT 1 Tx
PORT 1 Rx
PORT 2 Tx
PORT 2 Rx
Device 1
Receive
Transmit
Device 2
Receive
Transmit
Figure 9 Pass Through Mode Connection
Splitter mode, the test set is inserted between two devices using splitters. In this
mode you can insert and remove the test set without interrupting the trafc as
in Figure 10.
PORT 1 Rx
PORT 2 Rx
Device 1
Receive
Transmit
Device 2
Receive
Transmit
Splitter
Splitter
Figure 10 Splitter Mode Connection
Note: In monitor mode (Pass Through or using a splitter), the module is nonintrusive,
and will not generate trafc (BER or PING testing).
22
MTT-50
Congure a Monitor Test
Turn on the test set, press MODULE 1.
From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select CONFIGURATION. 2.
Set: OPERATION: MONITOR 3.
Press ESC to return to ETHERNET MAIN MENU. Make sure that the link is up 4.
on Ports 1 and 2. Refer to the header of the LCD screen for information on the
status of the ports, as well as the LEDs on the module.
From the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, select STATISTICS to view the statistics 5.
on the trafc.
3.5.1 Monitor Mode Statistics
Monitor statistics are available when OPERATION is set for MONITOR in ETHER-
NET MAIN MENU > CONFIGURATION. Remember you can switch to results for
the other port on the MAIN MENU.
There are three statistics screens available, shown in Figures 11, 12.and in the call
out on the next page. To display the screens, use ; the scroll bar at the right of
the screen indicates the screen.
STATISTICS Screen F-Keys
STOP/START (F3): Stop monitoring, press again to restart monitoring.
PRINT (F1): Print of all three screens through the serial port of the test set. Refer
to your test sets Users Manual for further information.
STORE (F2): Save all screens; see Section 11.
18: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX MONI TOR I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX MONI TOR I P UP
ST: 13: 59: 30 ET: 00: 11: 20
STOP
PRI NT STORE START
Ports Status Banners
Scroll bar; use keypad
keys to scroll.
F-keys: Press STOP
(F3) to access the next
group of keys.
STATUS

PORT 1:
NO ERRORS
PORT 2:
NO RX DATA
Figure 11 Monitor Status Screen
23
GigE Module
Monitor STATUS Results
ST: Start Time of the measurement.
ET: Elapsed Time of the measurement; time since the test started.
PORT 1: Displays the status of PORT 1: NO ERRORS, SIGNAL LOSS, SYNC
LOSS, or ERROR DET.
PORT 2: Displays the status of PORT 2: NO ERRORS, SIGNAL LOSS, SYNC
LOSS, or ERROR DET.
Press to display the STATISTICS screen:
STOP
STATI STI CS
PORT 1 PORT 2
SI GNAL AS : N/ A N/ A
SI GNAL OFF: N/ A N/ A
SYNC AS : N/ A N/ A
SYNCH OFF : N/ A N/ A
CRC ERRORS: 0 0
UTI L: 10% 10%
RX : 100 Mbps 100 Mbps
#RX : 8, 924, 754 8, 926, 754
18: 50: 45 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX MONI TOR I P UP
P2: 1000BX/ F- DPLX MONI TOR I P UP
Figure 12 Monitor Statistics Screen
The STATISTICS screen reports the following information for each port.
SIGNAL AS: N/A
SIGNAL OFF: N/A
SYNCH AS: N/A.
SYNCH OFF: N/A.
CRC ERRORS: Count of CRC errors since the start of the measurement.
UTIL: Percentage of bandwidth utilization.
RX: Received rate in kbps or Mbps.
#RX: Number of frames received since the start of monitoring.
The EVENTS screen reports on major test events, such as link up
or down.
STOP
EVENTS
2009- 04- 23 PG: 1/ 1
18: 50: 45 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX MONI TOR I P UP
P2: LI NK DOWN MONI TOR
ST: 06: 46: 13 ET: 00: 09: 49
Monitor Events
24
MTT-50
4 Ethernet Conguration
Select CONFIGURATION from the ETHERNET MAIN MENU to set up the ports
and tests.
RJ 45
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
CONFI GURATI ON
OPERATI ON : P2P_P2P
START- UP : CONFI G
PORT : 1
MEDI A : 10/ 100/ 1000BT
AUTO- NEGO. : ENABLE
PAUSE : DI SABLE
1000BX
Figure 13 Conguration Screen
Congure the following:
OPERATION: Select the testing mode.
Options: P2P_P2P (F1), MONITOR (F2), MGT_P2P (F3), C_28/29 (F4)
P2P_P2P: Both active ports are in Point-to-Point mode.
P2P_P2P is used for BERT/Throughput and PING/IP applications. The unit -
can reply to ARP requests.
Monitor: Both active ports are in MONITOR mode; used for monitoring applica-
tions. Follow the instruction to restart the link.
In MONITOR mode, no other test (e.g. RFC2544) may be selected from the -
main menu.
MGT_P2P : Port 1 is running in management mode, and Port 2 is running Point-
to-Point mode.
Firmware upgrades can also take place through the MGT port.
Compatible testing with MTT-28/-29 modules.
A maximum of eight streams can be congured on MTT-50; each stream -
must have its own MAC/IP addresses.
EtherType II frame type. -
Single or dual - VLANs with 0x8100 and 0x88A8 TPIDs respectively. If VLAN
tags are selected, they must have same values across all streams.
VLAN editing options match -28/29 : EDIT(F1), NONE(F2), SINGLE(F3), -
MORE(F4), Q-in-Q(F3),
PORT1/ 2
16: 50: 45
P1: LI NK- DOWN I dl e
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P

ETHERNET MAI N MENU

CONFI GURATI ON
LOOPBACK
BERT/ THROUGHPUT
RFC2544
ADVANCED FEATURES
MEASUREMENTS SETUP
VI EW/ STORE/ PRI NT
PROFI LES
Main Menu
25
GigE Module
Only 2e31-1 and 2e23-1 PRBS Normal - patterns are available.
Sequence number can be selected by itself, without Timestamp. -
START-UP: Set the screen or function which loads at test set start up.
Options: CONFIG (F1), MENU (F2),
CONFIG: The CONFIGURATION screen is shown on start up.
MAIN MENU: The ETHERNET MAIN MENU screen is shown on start up.
PORT: Switch to the CONFIGURATION screen for the other port, via F-keys.
MEDIA: Select the Ethernet standard.
F1: RJ45, 10/100/1000 BT
F2: 1000BX
AUTO-NEGO.
Options: DISABLE (F1), ENABLE (F2) 1000BX ONLY
If Auto-Negotiation is enabled (N/A 100FX), PAUSE is advertised to the link
partner.
After changing this setting, press RESTART (F4).
If you select DISABLE, set the INTERFACE and MODE parameters.
Note: Upon completion of the auto-negotiation information ex change, the arbitra-
tion process determines the highest common mode and enables the appropriate
functions.
INTERFACE: RJ-45 only. Choose the connection speed.
Options: 10BT (F1), 100BT (F2)
10BT: The local device will attempt to link up at 10 Mbps.
100BT: The local device will attempt to link up at 100 Mbps.
1000BT: The local device will attempt to link up at 1000 Mbps.
MODE: RJ-45 only. View the half-duplex or full-duplex Ethernet mode.
Options: H-DPLX (F1), F-DPLX (F2)
H-DPLX: The local device will attempt to link up in half-duplex mode; data can-
not be transmitted and received at the same time.
F-DPLX: The local device will attempt to link up in full-duplex mode; data can
be transmitted and received at the same time.
PAUSE
Options: DISABLE (F1), ENABLE (F2)
After any change to this setting press RESTART (F4) to restart the link.
ENABLE: The local device intends to stop upon reception of pause fow control
packets.
DISABLE: The local device does not intend to stop upon reception of pause
fow control packets.
Note: Make sure to hit RESTART to restart the link whenever you change the
conguration.
Note: When 1000BX
is selected, a
LASER banner ap-
pears in the header
when the laser is on.
26
MTT-50
5 Loopback Testing
Use these screens to automatically loopback incoming trafc when P2P_P2P is set
as the OPERATION mode in the CONFIGURATION menu. Select LOOPBACK in
the ETHERNET MAIN MENU. Loopbacks are useful performing:
BERT, described in Section 6.
RFC2544 tests, described in Section 7.
The trafc loopback feature provides a manual mode, a controller mode, and a
responder mode.
MODE: Select the loopback operating mode.
Options: MANUAL (F1), RESPOND (F2), CONTROL (F3)
Note: When MODE is being congured, the test set will loose the connection be-
tween itself and the Layer 2 or Layer 3 switch momentarily. Once the connection is
back, SIGNAL and FRAME LEDs are green, allow enough time (45 seconds) for
the switch to learn the MAC address of the loopback test set before it can respond
to a loop-up command and start looping back trafc.
MANUAL: Press START (F4) and the test set will immediately start looping the
incoming trafc on PORT 1.
In CONTROL mode, press START (F4) and the test set acts as a con troller. The
test set is responsible for sending loop up/loop down commands to a remote
test set congured as a responder.
In RESPOND mode, press START (F4) and the test set and the test set will act
as a responder. It will scan incoming trafc for a loop up command; WAITING,
MAC ADDRS and IP ADDRS (Address) are displayed. As soon as loop up com-
mand is received, the test set will switch to loopback mode and it will loop back
all incoming trafc on PORT 1. The incoming trafc will be looped as follows:
If Layer - 1 loop up command is received, the test set will retransmit the in-
coming frames without modifying them.
If Layer 2/3 loop up command is received, the test set will retransmit the -
incoming frames, and swap the source and destination MAC and IP address
elds if applicable.
The responder will remain in loopback mode until it receives a loop down frame,
or ESC is pressed on the test set.
27
GigE Module

MANUAL
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
LOOPBACK
MODE : RESPOND
I P ADDRES: 192. 168. 1 . 250
RESPOND CONTROL START
LAYER1
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
LOOPBACK
MODE : CONTROL
COMMAND: LOOP- I P
FORMAT : LAYER 2/ 3
MAC SRC: 00- D0- DD- 00- 00- 00
MAC DST: 00- D0- DD- 00- 00- 00
VLAN: DI SABLE
I P SRC: 192. 168. 1 . 250
I P DST: 0 . 0 . 0 . 0
LAYR2/ 3 START
MANUAL
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
LOOPBACK
MODE : MANUAL
FORMAT : LAYER 2/ 3
RESPOND CONTROL START
Configure the loopback,
then press START (F4)
Loopback Results
LAYER 2/ 3 MANUAL
LOOPBACK TEST I N PROGRESS
DO NOT DI STURB
WAI TI NG. . . .
LOOPBACK. . .
MAC ADDRS: XX- XX- XX- XX- XX- XX
I P ADDRS: XXX. XXX. XXX. XXX
LOOPBACK VERI FI CATI ON
- - - SUCCESS
- - - FAI LED
Figure 14 Loopback Con guration Screens
Notes
There is no standard looping code for Ethernet. The test set uses Sunrise Tele-
com proprietary loop up and loop down commands.
Layer 2 and Layer 3 loopback mechanism will loop all incom ing unicast traffc
except for keep-alive frames, and discard multicast and broadcast trafc. The
Layer 3 loopback mechanism will only discard multicast and broadcast trafc
based on Layer 2 addresses.
Use caution when using loopback mode because network equipment may not
allow the loopback of unicast frames.
28
MTT-50
5.1 MANUAL Mode Testing
Manual Mode Conguration
FORMAT: Choose the test layer.
Options: LAYER 1 (F1), LAYER 2/3 (F3)
In MANUAL mode, the FORMAT setting determines how the test set will loop
back the incoming trafc.
Layer 1: The test set will retransmit the incoming frames without modifying
them.
Layer 2/3: The test set will retransmit incoming frames and swap the source and
destination MAC and IP address elds, as applicable.
IP ADDRS: View the source IP address of the test set. The IP Address is set in
IP Conguration under Advanced Features
Manual Mode Results
In MANUAL mode, press START (F4) to load the software to begin looping incom-
ing trafc. During the download, the Ethernet link will be closed. It will reopen at
the end of the download.
The screen will report LAYER X MANUAL LOOPBACK TEST IN PROGRESS DO
NOT DISTURB. Press STOP (F4) to end the test.
5.2 RESPOND Mode Testing
RESPOND Mode Conguration
IP ADDRS: View the source IP address of the test set. The IP Address is set in IP
Conguration under Advanced Features.
RESPOND Mode Results
Press START (F4) to begin. The test set reports WAITING and the MAC and IP
addresses while awaiting a loop frame.
In order to receive valid Loop Up/Down commands from the remote end, the
MAC and IP addresses are displayed, to aid in conguring the command to
send.
29
GigE Module
5.3 CONTROL Mode Testing
CONTROL Mode Conguration
Note: The loop-up and loop-down commands must have valid MAC and IP addresses
of the far end unit in order to reach it successfully.
COMMAND: Select the type of frame to send after pressing START (F4).
Options: LOOP-UP (F1), LOOP-DN (F2)
LOOP-UP: Send a loop up command to a remote responder (test set).
LOOP-DN: Send a loop down command to a remote responder (test set).
FORMAT: Select the test layer; the setting determines the format of the loop up
and loop down commands.
Options: LAYER 1 (F1), LAYR 2/3 (F2)
The loop-up and loop-down commands must have valid MAC and IP address-
es of the far end unit in order to reach it successfully.
Layer 1
The test set retransmits the incoming frames without modifying them. -
The test set can transmit a Layer 1 loop up or loop down command to a re- -
mote test set congured as a responder. Upon receiving the Layer 1 loop up
command, the remote test set will retransmit unmodied incoming frames.
Layer 2/3
The test set - retransmits incoming frames and swaps the source and destina-
tion MAC address elds.
The test set can transmit a Layer 2/3 loop up or loop down command to a -
remote test set congured as a responder. Upon receiving the Layer 2/3 loop
up command, the remote test set will retransmit the incoming frames and swap
the source and destination MAC and IP address elds, as applicable.
CONTROL Mode with LAYER 2 or LAYER 3 Format
How to Edit a MAC or IP Addresses
Cursor to the address line.
Use <- (F2) and -> (F3) to move within the line.
Use the SHIFT and number keys to enter the digits.
MAC SRC: View the local MAC address.
MAC DST: Set the remote MAC address.
Enter the MAC address (hardware address) of the remote test set (responder)
manually, or
press DEFAULT (F 1), to have the test set use a unique default MAC address
based on its serial number.
30
MTT-50
VLAN: Select if the loop up and down commands need to carry a VLAN tag.
DISABLE (F1), ENABLE (F2)
If enabled, manually enter the TPID, ID, CFI and PRI data using the SHIFT and
number keys. For further information on TPID and ID, see # VLAN in Section
6.1.1.
Mode: CONTROL, Format: LAYER 2/3 Settings
In addition to the Layer 2 settings, congure the following.
IP SRC: View the local IP address
View the local IP address (network layer address) of the test set.
IP DST: Enter the IP address.
Manually enter the IP address (network layer address) of the remote test set
(responder) using the SHIFT and number keys.
Start the Control Mode Test
When ready, press START (F4). The test set will be placed in controller mode. It
will send a loop up or loop down frame.
When the loop up command is transmitted, the test set will verify that the remote
test set (responder) is properly looped up. During this time, the test set screen
displays: LOOPBACK VERIFICATION PLEASE WAIT.
If the loop up is successful, the test set screen displays: LOOP-UP SUCCESS-
FUL
If loop up is not achieved, the test set screen displays: LOOP-UP FAILED
When a loop down command is transmitted, the test set will verify that the remote
test set (responder) is properly looped down. During this time, the test set screen
displays: LOOP-DOWN VERIFICATION PLEASE WAIT.
If the loop down is unsuccessful, the test set screen displays: LOOP-DOWN
SUCCESSFUL.
If the loop down is successful, the test set screen displays: LOOP-DOWN
FAILED.
31
GigE Module
This page has been intentionally left black.
32
MTT-50
6 BERT/Throughput Testing
This menu screen contains:
BERT CONFIGURATION
BERT RESULT
ERR INJECTION
Notes
Additional conguration items are located in MEASUREMENTS SETUP; see
Section 10 .
MTT -50 must be in P2P_P2P, MGT_P2P OPERATION, or C_28/29 mode for
Throughput testing.
To change the port you are seeing results for, use the PORT1/2 (F1) key.
The unit will reply to ARP requests.
33
GigE Module
6.1 BERT Conguration
Set the number of streams for the test. After you have set this, press ENTER To go
directly to the results screen, or press EDIT (F1) to congure the test streams.
EDI T
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
BERT CONFI GURATI ON
# OF STREAM : 4
#1 MAC- VLAN3
#2 MAC- I P
#3 Layer 1 Fr amed
#4 Layer 1 Fr amed
Figure 15 BERT Conguration Screens
# OF STREAM: Select the number of Ethernet trafc streams to test.
Options: 1-8; Use the SHIFT and number keys to choose.
To copy the conguration used on the other port, press COPY P1/P2 (F1).
Congure the streams themselves, then press Save (F4). See the following pa-
rameters.
Stream Conguration
To edit a stream, cursor down to it, then press EDIT (F1). See the following sec-
tion.
6.1.1 Stream Conguration
Figure 16 shows an overview of the steps for conguring streams, if you were to
use all stream elements. Make sure to just use the elements (e.g. VLAN tags) which
apply to your setup.
C_28/29 Mode Note
A maximum of eight
streams can be congured
on MTT-50; each stream
must have its own MAC/IP
addresses.
34
MTT-50
EDI T
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
BERT CONFI GURATI ON
# OF STREAM : 4
#1 MAC- VLAN3
#2 MAC- I P
#3 Layer 1 Fr amed
#4 Layer 1 Fr amed
EDI T
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
2. Press EDIT (F1) to edit the setup for each
stream element.
Note: Edit the IP HEADER here.
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 VLAN
#VLAN : 3
VLAN #1 :
TPI D: 9999 CFI : 0
I D: 4096 PRI : 0
VLAN #1 :
TPI D: 8100 CFI : 0
I D: 1 PRI : 0
VLAN #1 :
TPI D: 1000 CFI : 0
I D: 2 PRI : 0
AUTOFI L
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 MAC & TYPE
FRAME TYPE : ETHERNET I I
TYPE : 0800
MAC SRC : 00- D- - DD- 00- 00- 00
MAC DST : 00- 00- 00- 00- 00- 00
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 MPLS
# MPLS : 3
MPLS #1 :
LABEL : 0 EXP: 0
S: 1 TTL: 1
MPLS #1 :
LABEL : 0 EXP: 0
S: 0 TTL: 2
MPLS #1 :
LABEL : 0 EXP: 0
S: 0 TTL: 3
AUTOFI L
AUTOFI L
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P & HEADER
I P SRC : 192. 168. 1 . 250
I P DST : 192. 168. 1 . 0
GATEWAY : 0 . 0 . 1 . 0
SWAP HEADER ARP AUTOFI L
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
TCP/ UDP
PROTOCOL : UDP
PORT SRC : 0
PORT DEST: 255

SWAP
Configure the streams*.
1. Press EDIT (F1) to edit a stream.
Note: Use AUTOFIL (F1)
to configure an element for
multiple streams.
FI XED
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
MPLS #1 AUTOFI L
ACTI ON : FI XED
STREAM : FROM CU
START FROM:
LABEL: 1
EXP : 0
TTL : 2
I NCR DECR RANDOM
SAVE
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : BURST
BANDWI DTH #1 : 50 %
DURATI ON #1 : 100 %
BANDWI DTH #2 : 99 %
DURATI ON #2 : 2 s
* Go to the ETHERNET MAIN MENU > PROFILES and save this configuration
as a profile if youll want to use it again.
STREAM #1 CONFI GURATI ON
LAYER : LAYER 3
MAC & TYPE : Et her net I I
VLAN # : 3
MPLS # : 0
I P & HEADER : I Pv4
TCP/ UDP : NONE
PAYLOAD : 2e31- 1
FRAME LENGTH : 76
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : CONST
Figure 16 Stream Conguration Overview
To congure the test stream(s), on the BERT CONFIGURATION screen, highlight
a stream, then press EDIT (F1).
35
GigE Module
EDI T
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 CONFI GURATI ON
LAYER : LAYER 3
MAC & TYPE : Et her net I I
VLAN # : 3
MPLS # : 0
I P & HEADER : I Pv4
TCP/ UDP : NONE
PAYLOAD : 2e31- 1
FRAME LENGTH : 76
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : CONST
Figure 17 Stream Conguration
Fill in the Stream Table Automatically
As you congure each parameter, you will often nd an AUTOFIL F-key.
AUTOFIL (F1): Automatically congure multiple streams at one time. This applies to
the MAC SRC, MAC DEST, VLAN, MPLS and IP parameters. An AUTOFIL screen
appears.
FI XED
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
MPLS #1 AUTOFI L
ACTI ON : FI XED
STREAM : FROM CU
START FROM:
LABEL: 1
EXP : 0
TTL : 2
I NCR DECR RANDOM
Figure 18 Autol Streams
36
MTT-50
AUTOFIL Conguration
ACTION: Set how the settings will be determined.
Options: FIXED (F1), INCR (F2), DECR (F3), RANDOM (F4)
FIXED: The MAC/VLAN settings will be identical for all applicable streams. Apply
the Fixed value to the current stream, from the current stream, or from the rst
stream in the Stream Table.
INCR: The MAC/VLAN settings will increase by one each time. Choose to apply
the Incremented value starting with the current stream, or with the rst stream
in the Stream Table.
DECR: The MAC/VLAN settings will decrease by one each time. Choose to apply
the Decremented value starting with the current stream, or with the rst stream
in the Stream Table.
Stream: Choose which streams autol will be affect.
Options: CURRENT (F1), FROM CU (F2), ALL (F3)
CURRENT: Only the selected stream selected will be affected. The Increment
and Decrement options will have the same effect as Fixed.
FROM CU: The changes will affect the currently selected stream, and all those
that come after it in the Stream Table.
ALL: The changes will affect all streams, beginning with the rst stream in the
Stream Table.
Step Size: Determine the step between each MAC address.
This only applies to Increment and Decrement.
START FROM: Enter the address to start implementing the changes from.
Press SAVE (F4) to save your changes. New parameters may appear. Con-
gure them, press SAVE again, then ESC to the STREAM CONFIGURATION
screen.
Stream Conguration, Continued
LAYER: Set the frame format used for the BERT.
Options: LAYER 1 (F1), LAYER 2 (F2), LAYER 3 (F3)
See Section 3 to determine the test adapted to your network. As seen in Figure 17,
the conguration screen presented depends on the test layer.
LAYER 1: The BERT will be performed at the Layer 1 (physical layer) of the OSI
reference model. The test frame conforms to the format shown in Figure 19.
Test
Pattern
CRC
4 bytes
64 to 11,000 bytes
Figure 19 Layer 1 Frame
37
GigE Module
LAYER 2: The BERT will be performed at the Layer 2 (data link layer) of the OSI
reference model. The test frame conforms to the format shown in Figure 20.
Optional
VLAN
Tags
48 bytes
Test
Pattern
MAC
Destination
Address
6 bytes
CRC
4 bytes
64 to 11,000 bytes
MAC
Source
Address
6 bytes
Type/
Length
2 bytes
Figure 20 Layer 2 Frame
LAYER 3: The BERT will be performed at the Layer 3 (network layer) of the OSI
reference model. The test frame conforms to the format shown in Figure 21.
Optional
VLAN
Tags
48 bytes
Test
Pattern
MAC
Destination
Address
6 bytes
CRC
4 bytes
64 to 11,000 bytes
MAC
Source
Address
6 bytes
Type/
Length
2 bytes
IP
HEADER
20 bytes
Figure 21 Layer 3 Frame
MAC & Type: Select the Ethernet standard to operate under.
Options: Ethernet II, 802.3
Press EDIT (F1) to select a different Ethernet standard. You will enter the STREAM
MAC & TYPE screen.
VLAN: Enter the number of VLAN tags, if required.
Options: 0-3
If VLAN tags are used, press EDIT (F1) to congure the CFI, PRI, and ID and
TPID. Congure each VLAN. AUTOFIL (F1) is available.
- TPID: 0x8100 is the standard IEEE 802.1Q/802.1P value.
- CFI: The CFI should almost always be set to 0 to be compatible with Eth-
ernet switches.
- ID: Enter the VLAN ID for each stream, per IEEE 802.1P.
Options: 0-4095
- PRI: Enter the User Priority (0-7)for each stream, per IEEE 802.1P.
Press ENTER to return to the BERT CONFIGURATION. -
MPLS: Enable MPLS labels if required.
There may be 1, 2, or 3 MPLS labels. Enter the number of labels, and the label
parameters appear. Press AUTOFIL (F2) or use the shift and number keys to
congure the labels. The process is the same as for VLAN.
C_28/29 Operation Notes
When in C_28/29 OP-
ERATION mode, there are
conguration differences:
EtherType II frame type.
Single or dual VLANs with
0x8100 and 0x88A8 TPIDs
respectively. If VLAN tags
are selected, they must
have same values across
all streams.
VLAN editing options
match MTT-28/29 options:
EDIT(F1), NONE(F2),
SINGLE(F3), MORE(F4),
Q-in-Q(F3),
Only 2e31-1 and 2e23-1
PRBS Normal patterns are
available.
38
MTT-50
Label: Enter up to seven digits for the next hop label.
Exp: Enter a number from 0-7.
S: Enter a one-digit number for the bottom of Stack label.
TTL: The Time to Live label will expire at the conclusion of this number of time-
to-live hops.
IP & HEADER: IP is set at version 4.
Press EDIT (F1) to confgure the address and header parameters.
See Section 6.1.1.2 for details
TCP/UDP: Determine if TCP or UDP are part of the Ethernet frame or not.
Press EDIT (F2) to edit TCP/UDP parameters.
PROTOCOL: Select the TCP (F1) or UDP (F2) frame element.
PORT SRC: Enter the source port address.
PORT DST: Enter the destination port address.
Use SWAP (F2) to exchange the SRC and DEST addresses if required.
Payload: Select the test pattern.
Options: 2e31-1, 2e23-1, 2e30-1 C, 2e31-1 C, 1111, 0000, or USER
See Section 6.1.1.3 for details.
Note : 2e31-1 C and 2e23-1 C PRBS patterns can be selected to run compatible
BER/Throughput test with Ethernet testers from other vendors.
FRAME LENGTH: Enter a Frame Length.
Options: 48-1100; default is 64 bytes
Note: Minimum frame length is 68 bytes when one VLAN is enabled.
TRAFFIC SHAPING: Select the type of trafc shaping.
Options: CONST (F1), RAMP (F2), BURST (F3)
Press EDIT (F4) to select the parameters of the traffc shaping.
See Section 6.1.1.4 for details.
Press SAVE (F4) when youre done with the congurations.
39
GigE Module
6.1.1.1 MAC & Type Conguration
Press EDIT (F1) at MAC & TYPE on the STREAM #X CONFIGURATION screen to
access this conguration, in a LAYER 2 or 3 setup.
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 MAC & TYPE
FRAME TYPE : ETHERNET I I
TYPE : 0800
MAC SRC : 00- D0- DD- 00- 00- 00
MAC DST : 00- 00- 00- 00- 00- 00
Figure 22 MAC and Type Conguration
MAC & Type: Select the Ethernet standard to operate under.
Options: Ethernet II, 802.3
Press EDIT (F1) to set the details on the STREAM #X MAC & TYPE screen.
STREAM X MAC & TYPE Parameters
TYPE: Opt to use an ether type, or not.
Options: 802.3 (F1), ETH. II (F2)
802.3: IEEE 802.3 frame with or without LLC/SNAP header.
ETH. II : Ethernet Type II frame, where the Type eld can take different 2-byte
hexadecimal values. For example, the hexadecimal value of 0x0800 correspond
to the Ethernet Type value of IPv4.
MAC SRC: Enter the MAC Source address.
MAC DST: Enter the MAC Destination address.
Set the MAC Source and Destination addresses to the appropriate values.
Press ENTER or ESC to return to the stream conguration.
40
MTT-50
6.1.1.2 IP & HEADER Conguration
Press EDIT at the IP & HEADER line on the STREAM #X CONFIGURATION screen
to access the IP parameters, in a LAYER 3 setup.
AUTOFI L
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P & HEADER
I P SRC : 192. 168. 1 . 250
I P DST : 192. 168. 1 . 0
GATEWAY : 0 . 0 . 1 . 0
MASK : 0 . 0 . 0 . 0
SWAP HEADER ARP
SELECT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P HEADER
VERSI ON - I Pv4
HEADER LENGTH - 2O byt es
TYPE OF SERVI CE : 00011100
I DENTI FI ER : 00000
TTL : 255
PROTOCOL : 4 - I P
FRAGMENT OFFSET : 1520
FRAGMENT FLAG : 1

TCP UDP I P
Choose a Protocol
on a new screen.
Figure 23 IP and IP Header Conguration
IP & HEADER
IP SRC and IP DST: Enter the new IP address source and destination pairs.
Confgure both the Sources and the Destinations.
Use Swap (F2) to exchange the addresses between the Source and Destination
if they are entered in the wrong elds.
The IP address is the network layer address that identifes the source and des-
tination of the test frames.
GATEWAY: Specify the gateway addresses.
Leave the gateway value as 000.000.000.000 to indicate no gateway.
MASK: Specify the subnet mask.
Enter the subnet mask directly.
IP HEADER
Press Header (F3) on the IP & HEADER screen to bring up the IP Header Congu-
ration screen (bottom of Figure 23). Use it to determine the IP header format. See
RFC 791 for technical details.
41
GigE Module
Version: The MTT -50 uses IP Version 4; the standard predominantly used today.
IP Header Length: Number of 32-bit (4-byte) words forming the header.
The IP header is set at 20 bytes.
Type of Service: Enter the type of service directly in the eld.
Leave it at 0 if you are unsure of what to select.
See RFC 1349 and RFC 2474 for technical detai ls.
Identier: Enter the identier bits: 0000-FFFF.
Time to Live (TTL): Enter the time to live. 64 and 128 are commonly used.
Options: 0-255
PROTOCOL: Select the type of upper layer protocol tag.
Options: SELECT (F1), TCP (F2), UDP (F3), IP
SELECT: Choose a protocol from a list.
TCP/UDP/IP: The default for the selected protocol appears. Editing this eld will
only input the value in the IP Header eld, it will not add the upper layer header
information.
The assigned values are maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) and are available on the web at www.ianan.org/assignments/protocol-
numbers.
Commonly used values include 6 (TCP) or 17 (UDP).
Note: The protocol value selected is simply the number placed into the IP header
and does not indicate the proper datagram or payload of the payload. For example,
setting the Protocol eld to 001, which indicates an ICMP payload, does not create
an ICMP payload in the test trafc. This can cause problems with network elements
who look at the Protocol eld and attempt to process the non-existent protocol
payload.
Fragment Offset: Enter the position of the fragment in the original datagram. Leave
at 0 if you are unsure of what to select.
Options: 0-4095
Fragment Flag: Click the Edit button to bring up the Fragment Flags conguration
window.
Leave Reserved at 0 if you are unsure of what to select.
Options: 0-255
42
MTT-50
6.1.1.3 Pattern Conguration
Press EDIT at the PAYLOAD line on the STREAM #X CONFIGURATION screen
to access the payload test pattern parameters. Press APP ALL (F2) to apply the
conguration to all of the test streams.
SELECT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
STREAM #1 PATTERN
PATTERN : 2e31- 1
TYPE : NORMAL
SEQUENCE #: ENABLE
TI ME STAMP: DI SABLE
SUNRI SETAG: ENABLE

APP ALL
SELECT
11: 50: 45
P1: LI NK- UP I dl e
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e
TEST PATTERN
2e31- 1 2e23- 1
2e31- 1C 2e23- 1C
1111 0000
USER 0000
0
PATTERN: USER
Figure 24 Congure the Payload
Pattern: Select a test pattern to perform a BERT with. Not all of the patterns listed
are available for all congurations.
Options: 2^31-1, 2^23-1, 2^31-1 C, 2^23-1 C, 1111, 0000, USER
See Section 13.2 for pattern denitions.
Press SELECT (F1) to go to the TEST PATTERN screen, shown in the bottom
of Figure 24, to choose a different test pattern. After selecting a pattern, press
SELECT (F1) to return to the STREAM #X PATTERN screen.
User: Enter the four-byte test pattern in hexadecimal format.
2e31-1 C and 2e23-1 C PRBS patterns can be selected in 1000 BX MEDIA
mode to run compatible BER/Throughput test with Ethernet testers from
other vendors.
TYPE, NORMAL/INVERT: The MTT GigE will transmit the selected test pattern
inverted (1s and 0s reversed) or normally (not inverted).
Sequence #: A sequence number is inserted in the payload of each frame. The
sequence number will allow you to detect the number of lost frames, latency check-
ing, and other important information.
43
GigE Module
Note: If you ENABLE the SEQUENCE#, the TIME STAMP will be enabled as
well.
TIME STAMP: A time stamp is inserted into the payload of each frame. This is
enabled or disabled with the SEQUENCE# parameter.
In C_28/29 mode, TIME STAMP is disabled.
SUNRISETAG: Select for maximum usefulness of proprietary tagging.
In P2P_P2P mode, SUNRISETAG is enabled.
In C_28/29 mode, SUNRISETAG is disabled.
This provides the best functionality in independent stream measurement, and
error injection, to meet Carrier class Ethernet service testing.
Important Notes
Tags are a Sunrise Telecom proprietary feature. A frame loss can only be detected
when the BERT is running between two Sunrise Ethernet testers (STT or MTT)
with the sequence number tags enabled on each side.
Select 2e31-1 C and 2e23-1 C PRBS patterns to run compatible BER/Throughput
tests with Ethernet testers from other vendors.
To see a PDV (packet delay variation; aka one way delay) result, set SEQUENCE
# and TIME STAMP both to ENABLE.
MTT -50 measures the time it takes for each test frame to pass through the DUT.
The value reported for latency only applies when the far end is in loopback mode
and the Time Stamp tags are enabled.
C_28/29 Mode Notes
EtherType II framing
O nly 2e31-1 and 2e23-1 PRBS Normal patterns are available.
TIME STAMP is not available; hence, PDV is not available,
44
MTT-50
6.1.1.4 Trafc Shaping Conguration
Select a trafc shaping method on the STREAM #X CONFIGURATION screen, then
press EDIT (F4) to access the trafc shaping parameters.
Constant Trafc Conguration
Trafc is transmitted at a constant rate (from .1% to 100.00% bandwidth) for the
entire duration of the test.
SAVE
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : CONST
I PG : 751343. 94 ns
BANDWI DTH : 000. 1
Shi f t
Figure 25 Constant Trafc Shaping
Bandwidth: Enter the percentage of bandwidth which will be constantly lled di-
rectly in the eld.
IPG: View the gap size.
IPG (ns): The interpacket gap (IPG), also known as the inter-frame gap, is the
delay between successive frames.
45
GigE Module
Ramp Trafc Conguration
The trafc is transmitted at a variable rate from Start Bandwidth (between 0.1%
and 100%) to Stop Bandwidth (between 0.1% and 100%), with increments of Step
Size (between 0.1% and 100%).
SAVE
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : RAMP
START BANDWI DTH : 50 %
STOP BANDWI DTH : 100 %
STEP : 5 %
STEP DURATI ON : 2 s
Shi f t
Figure 26 Ramp Trafc Shape
Start Bandwidth: Enter the bandwidth percentage the MTT GigE will start transmit-
ting at the beginning of the test.
Stop Bandwidth: Enter the bandwidth percentage where the MTT GigE will stop
ramping.
After transmitting at this bandwidth (e.g. 100%) for the determined Step Duration,
the unit will continue transmitting frames at this maximum rate.
Step: Enter the bandwidth percentage the unit will increase each step up.
Step Duration: Enter the number of seconds the MTT GigE will transmit each
bandwidth step.
Options: 2 to 999 s (seconds)
46
MTT-50
Burst Trafc Conguration
With Burst trafc, trafc is transmitted at a variable rate. Trafc is transmitted at
Burst 1 Bandwidth rate (from 0.1% to 100.0%) for Burst 1 Duration seconds, then
at Burst 2 Bandwidth rate (from 0.1% to 100.0%) for Burst 2 Duration seconds.
Gigabit Ethernet has a minimum burst of 0.01%. This sequence is repeated for the
duration of the test
SAVE
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG
TRAFFI C SHAPI NG : BURST
BANDWI DTH #1 : 50 %
DURATI ON #1 : 100 %
BANDWI DTH #2 : 99 %
DURATI ON #2 : 2 s
Figure 27 Burst Trafc Shaping
Bandwidth#1/2: Enter the bandwidth rate of the burst the MTT GigE will transmit.
Duration #1/2: Enter the number of seconds the rst or second burst of trafc will
last. .
s (F1) Options: Set Duration of the burst from 2-999 seconds.
47
GigE Module
6.2 BERT/Throughput Results
In a BERT Throughput test, the MTT GigE takes statistics on frames and looks for
pattern synchronization and bit errors for each stream.
To view screens, use keys to page up and down, using the scroll bar at the right
for reference. Each screen contains the following:
Time of day
P1/P2: Port 1/2 LINK UP or LINK DOWN, test status
- LINK UP: Link synchronization and auto-negotiation are completed.
If auto-negotiation is disabled (Section 4 ), it reports the synchronization process
is successfully completed.
- LINK DOWN: Link synchronization and auto-negotiation processes were not
successfully completed. The test set is not ready to transmit/receive data.
- Across from the link status, view the test status: BERT, RFC2544, IDLE.
ET: Elapsed Time of the test.
ST: Start Time of the test.
RT: Remaining Time of the test, or CONTINU for continuous.
NEXT
17: 01: 13
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX BERT I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e
ET: 00: 01: 13
ST: 17: 00: 00 RT: CONTI NU
AGGREGATE STATI STI CS
NO ERRORS
TX OFF
TX RX
LI NE RATE : 471. 3 kbps 100. 00kbps
DATA RATE : 76. 19kbps 76. 19 kbps
UTI L : 83. 75 % 0. 01 %

STOP - MORE-
CLEAR CONFI G - MORE
BERT Status Banner
Scroll bar; use keypad keys
to scroll.
F-keys: Press -MORE- (F4) to
access the next group of keys.
Press to page down from to
the next aggregate results.
Press NEXT (F1) to view
per individual stream results.
View
individual
Stream
results.
17: 01: 13
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX BERT I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e
ET: 00: 01: 13
ST: 17: 00: 00 RT: CONTI NU
STREAM 1 STATI STI CS
NO ERRORS
TX RX
LI NE RATE : 99. 9 kbps 100. 00kbps
DATA RATE : 76. 61kbps 76. 19 kbps
UTI L : 78. 9% 75. 01 %

NEXT TX OFF STOP - MORE-
Figure 28 BERT Results
Remember you can
view screens for each port
by pressing PORT1/2 (F1)
in main menus.
48
MTT-50
BERT Banner
As you can see in Figure 28, a status banner appears above the statistics. It displays
a summary of the status of the test. It can be:
NO ERRORS: Test is successful.
NO BERT TRAFFIC: Seconds containing no BERT traffc.
NO RX DATA: No data received.
ERROR DET: Errors detected.
PAT LOSS: No pattern synchronization has been acquired or there has been
pattern synchronization, but it is now lost.
The Aggregate screen displays information on received errors, and presents frame
statistics. Both the specic count of the error and the average rate at which the error
was received may be displayed for each type of error. Frame statistics are shown
for both the transmit direction and the receive direction, as appropriate.
For both the Transmit and Receive directions, view the Total number of frames
transmitted/received, the Frames Per Second, and the Minimum, Maximum and
Average Frame Rates. Results are aggregate totals since the beginning of the test,
for all test streams and live trafc.
Stream x Statistics displays results for the individual stream.
In Monitor Test Mode, only Receive Statistics appear.
There are several screens of results. Use the arrow keys ( ) to scroll through the
statistics screens. Press the NEXT F-key to see statistics for an individual stream.
Results F-Keys
NEXT (F1): Scroll between the AGGREGATE STATISTICS and the STREAM x
STATISTICS screens.
TX ON/OFF (F2): Start the transmission of test frames as congured in the BERT
CONFIGURATION screens, Section 6.1. Press again to stop transmitting.
STOP/START (F3): Stop measurements when they are underway; start taking
measurements when they have been stopped, resetting ET and RT. While stopped,
STORE is available.
-MORE- (F4): See the next set of F-keys.
CLEAR (-MORE-, F1): Reset all counts to 0 and start counting anew.
CONFIG (-MORE-, F3): Shortcut to the BERT CONFIGURATION screen; Section
6.1.
STORE (-MORE-, F2): Save measurement results. This key only appears when a
test has stopped. See Section 11 .
49
GigE Module
Aggregate Statistics
The rst screen of statistics gives an overview of the test. Counts are shown for both
the transmitted (TX) and received (RX) sides. Not all statistics apply for all layers.
Line Rate Bit rate, based on the current utilization.
Data Rate Bit rate of the Ethernet frames, ignoring the frame gap,
preamble, and SFD. The data rate is always less than
the line rate.
Utili Bandwidth as a percentage of maximum trafc rate
(minimum frame gap).
Note on Utilization, Line Rate, Data Rate, Frame Rate on Ethernet
The relationship between the Line Rate, Utilization, and Frame Rate of
Ethernet networks is based upon the frame size. In addition to these values,
the MTT and STT test sets display the Data Rate, which is a refection of
the efciency of the network.
Line Rate is a refection of the utilization. A 100BASE-T interface is ca-
pable of supporting 100 Mbps, but if you only use 7.63%, your Line Rate
will show 7.63 Mbps.
Data Rate is based on of the actual frames being transported on the net-
work. It ignores the gap between frames and preamble that accompanies
each frame. If you use longer frames, your Data Rate will increase. As you
will always have bits that are wasted in the frame gap and preambles,
your Data Rate will always be lower than your Line Rate.
On the SunSet MTT -50 the Data Rate is displayed on the rst AGGRE-
GATE STATISTICS screen, below the Line Rate. On the STT Metro module,
the value is shown as TX Data Rate and Data RX Rate on the Summary
tab of the Measurement window, below the Line Rate.
The frame gap cannot be smaller than 12 bytes. The preamble (including
start of frame deliminator) is always 8 bytes. That means at 100% utiliza-
tion, there are 20 bytes that are wasted for each frame. If you use 64-byte
frames, your maximum Data Rate will be 100 Mbps x 64 bytes / 84 bytes
= 76.19 Mbps. If you use 1518-byte frames, your maximum Data Rate will
be 100 Mbps x 1518 bytes / 1538 bytes = 98.70 Mbps.
Frame Rate is a function of utilization and the frame size. On the STT and
MTT, the frame size specied by the test set includes the MAC header,
payload, and frame check sequence (FCS). It does not include the pre-
amble or the frame gap, so 20 bytes must be added to the frame size when
calculating the Frame Rate. For 100 Mbps running at 100% utilization and
64-byte frames, the frame rate is (100,000,000 bits/second) / (8 bits/byte)
x (84 bytes/frame) = 148809.5 frames/second (fps). For 1518-byte frames,
the Frame Rate drops to 8127.4 fps.
Note: The line encoding can be ignored for LAN rates because it is trans-
parent to the calculations. In Gigabit Ethernet, the actual bit rate at the
physical layer is 1.125 Gbps, refecting the additional bit rate needed to
carry the 8B/10B encoding. Likewise, 10GE LAN has a physical rate of
10.3125 Gbps. In the case of 10GE WAN, the payload rate is the physical
rate, so the 64B/66B encoding must be incorporated into the calcula-
50
MTT-50
tions The following table assumes 100% utilization and frame gaps of
12 bytes.
Data Rate (Mbps) Frame Rate (fps)
64 bytes 1518 bytes 64 bytes 1518 bytes
10M 7.6190 9.8700 14880.9524 812.7438
100M 76.1905 98.6996 148809.5238 8127.4382
1000M 761.9048 986.9961 1488095.2381
81274.3823
10GE LAN 7619.04762 9869.96099 14880952.38095 812743.82315
10GE WAN 7081.29247 9173.33555 13830649.35065 755380.06857
Table 3 Line, Data and Frame Rates
Bit Count of number of bit errors since the beginning of the
test.
Bit Rate Transmitted and received bits per second.
CRC Count of CRC (frame check sequence) errors since the
beginning of the test.
CRC RATE Average CRC (frame check sequence) error rate since
the start of the test.
COL Count of collisions since the start of the test (reported
N/A in full-duplex mode).
Collisions are likely to happen if more than one device
is transmitting simultaneously on an half-duplex
network.
RUNTS Number of undersized/fragments frames received.
PATL Count of pattern loss occurrences since the start of the
test.
#SYMBOL Count of 8B/10B SYMBOL errors since the start of the
test.
#Disparity Count of disparity errors since the start of the test.
#LOST FRAMES Number of Lost Frames in the incoming trafc. This
measurement is only available if the optional sequence
number is enabled in the BERT conguration screen (on
the local and remote test sets).
#IPCheckSum Count of header IP checksum errors. N/A Layer 1/2.
#DUPLICATE Count of duplicated frames.
FRM INTERVAL Frame interval is reported as a minimum, maximum,
average and variance in micro seconds.
FRM PDV Minimum, maximum and average Packet Delay Varia-
tion. Available on the individual Stream Statistics screen
only.
51
GigE Module
#NoBertTrafc Count of non-test frames received
FRM Interval MIN Minimum time interval between two received consecu-
tive frames throughout the elapsed time of the test in
microseconds.
Fr ame I nt er val
MAX
Maximum time interval between two received consecu-
tive frames throughout the elapsed time of the test in
microseconds..
Fr ame I nt er val
AVG
Average frame interval throughout the elapsed time of the
test in microseconds.
Fr ame I nt er val
Var
Maximum frame interval variation throughout the elapsed
time of the test (MAX-MIN).
Frames Number of received/transmitted frames.
FPS Transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per second.
Min Minimum transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per
second since the beginning of the test.
Max Maximum transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per
second since the beginning of the test.
Avg Average transmitted (TX) and received (RX) frames per
second over the duration of the test.
#VLAN TAG Count of frames containing VLAN tags; N/A Layer 1.
# 1 VLAN Count of frames containing 1 VLAN tag; N/A Layer 1.
# 2 VLAN Count of frames containing VLAN 2 tags; N/A Layer 1.
# 3 VLAN Count of frames containing VLAN 3 tags; N/A Layer 1.
#MPLS Count of frames containing MPLS labels; N/A Layer 1/2.
#TCP Count of frames with TCP protocol; N/A Layer 1/2/3.
# UDP Count of frames with UDP protocol; N/A Layer 1/2/3.
%VLAN TAG Percentage of frames containing VLAN tags; N/A Layer
1.
%MPLS Percentage of frames containing MPLS tags; N/A Layer
1/2.
%TCP Percentage of frames with TCP protocol; N/A Layer
1/2/3.
%UDP Percentage of frames with UDP protocol; N/A Layer
1/2/3.
#<= 64 Number of frames with a length of 64 bytes or fewer.
#65-127 Number of frames with a length of 65-127 bytes.
#128-255 Number of frames with a length of 128-255 bytes.
#256-511 Number of frames with a length of 256-511 bytes.
#512-1023 Number of frames with a length of 512-1023 bytes.
#1024-1518 Number of frames with a length of 1024-1518 bytes.
Frame Interval Note
The time between the start
of one frame and the start
of the next frame. The
frame interval increases as
the frame size increases.
However, as the effect of
frame size is usually very
small compared to the
duration of trafc problems,
the frame interval is use-
ful for measuring service
disruptions.
52
MTT-50
#>1518 Number of frames received that are greater than 1518
bytes.
Frames that are considered #>1518 include jumbo
frames (1519 bytes or more, with no VLAN tag) and
VLAN tagged frames 1518 bytes or greater. For example
a 1518 byte frame with a VLAN tag added becomes a
1522 byte frame, which falls in this category.
# Broadcast Number of Layer 2 broadcast frames transmitted and
received; N/A Layer 1.
#Multicast Number of Layer 2 multicast frames transmitted and re-
ceived. N/A Layer 1.
Typically, a multicast frame is a frame that is in-
tended for multiple devices on the network. They
use a special 24-bit prex of 01-00-5E for the destination
MAC address eld; but any frame with an odd value in the
rst byte of the destination address is counted as a mul-
ticast frame
x1-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
x3-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
x5-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
x7-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
x9-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
xB-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
xD-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
xF-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx
where x can be any value, 0 to F.
#Unicast Number of Layer 2 unicast frames transmitted and re-
ceived; N/A Layer 1.
#KEEPALIVE Number of Layer 2 keep alive frames; having identical
Source and Destination addresses; N/A Layer 1.
%MULTICAST Percentage of Layer 2 multiframes which are multicast
frames; N/A Layer 1.
%UNICAST Percentage of Layer 2 unicast frames; N/A Layer 1.
%KEEPALIVE Percentage of Layer 2 keep alive frames; N/A Layer 1.
Note: - - means this value is not available in current conguration. For example,
when we set the test layer at 2 in stream1, the UDP value would show - - in stream1
result page.
Events are shown on the Event Log, if there are any to be reported (e.g. CRC Er-
rors).
53
GigE Module
6.3 Error Injection
Enter ERR INJECTION from the BERT/THROUGHPUT menu to inject errors into
the test payload. Error injection is used to insert defects into the trafc generated
by the test module. This function is only available in the BERT/THROUGHPUT test
mode when a test is underway.
1. To inject an error, you must rst start the measurement and transmit trafc.
2. Next, select the streams to inject errors into. Selected streams are highlighted
in red.
The default stream number is stream #1.
To inject errors on more than one stream, press SEL ALL (F4). All active streams
will be highlighted.
To deselect a stream, cursor to it, then press UNSEL (F1).
BI T
18: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX BERT I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX BERT I P UP
ERROR I NJ ECTI ON
CRC I P CSUM SEL ALL
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
TYPE : BI T
MODE : MANUAL
RATE : 1 each t i me

Figure 29 Error Injection
3. Congure the error injection method:
TYPE: Select the type of error to inject during a BERT, when ERR INJ is pressed.
Options: BIT (F1), CRC (F2), IP CHECKSUM(F3), SEL ALL (F4)
Bit Error: Bit error in the frame payload/pattern. Pattern bit errors are inserted
before the FCS/CRC is calculated, and therefore do not cause an FCS/CRC\
error, or cause the frame to be dropped.
CRC: FCS (Frame Check Sequence) error injection.
IP Checksum: IP Checksum error. Layer 3 only.
SEL ALL: Errors will be inject on all streams.
Press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to select the number of errors to inject
during a BERT, when ERR INJ is pressed.
54
MTT-50
Mode: Select the error injection method.
Options: BURST, RATE
BURST: Inject a selected number of errors. Set the number of errors (1-999) at
the COUNT line.
RATE: Injects the specifed number of errors per second continuously.
Press the ERR INJ chassis key to inject errors.
A red ERR-INJ banner appears when errors are being injected.
Note: Remember to press the Stop button when you have been injecting errors
at a rate, and want to stop.
4. Press ERR INJ.
Remember if you are injecting at a RATE to stop injecting errors when you are
done testing.
55
GigE Module
This page has been intentionally left blank.
56
MTT-50
7 RFC2544 Testing
RFC2544 is an automated test which will transmit a variety of frame lengths at
different frame rates to nd the optimal performance of the DUT. In an NE stress
test, tests are performed incrementally for each frame size. The unit can respond
to ARP requests during testing.
Enter RFC2544 from the ETHERNET MAIN MENU.
PORT1/ 2 YES NO Save
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX BERT I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
RFC2544/ NE TEST
NE TEST : YES NO
DUAL PORT: YES NO
FRAME FORMAT
FRAME LENGTH
TEST SEQUENCE
USER THRESHOLD
RUN TEST
Select to perform a NE TEST, or not.
Select to perform RFC2544 testing on
both ports, or not.
Configure each following screen, from
this menu or by pressing NEXT (F4)
in each screen.
Figure 30 RFC2544/NE Test Menu
7.1 RFC2544/NE Test Conguration
To congure the RFC2544 test, return to this menu to go to each next step (e.g.,
cursor down to FRAME LENGTH and press EDIT), or press NEXT on one of the
list items to go directly to that screen (e.g., on the FRAME FORMAT screen, press
NEXT (F4) to go to FRAME LENGTH).
Press SAVE (F4) to save the test conguration as a prole to reuse later.
First, set up the main menu items.
NE TEST: Determine the type of RFC2544 test to perform.
Select YES (F2) to perform an NE (Network Element) test, or select NO (F3) to
perform a standard RFC2544 test.
RFC2544 tests include latency and throughput. See Test Sequence following.
An NE test stresses an NE throughput and/or latency at different test rates, which
you dene, and gives the result for each one.
DUAL PORT: Determine if both ports are running back to back in the RFC2544
testing.
FRAME FORMAT: See Section 7.1.1.
FRAME LENGTH: See Section 7.1.2.
TEST SEQUENCE: See Section 7.1.3.
57
GigE Module
USER THRESHOLD: See Section 7.1.3.
RUN TEST: See Section 7.1.5
7.1.1 RFC2544 Frame Format Conguration
Highlight FRAME FORMAT on the RFC2544/NE TEST screen, then press EDIT
(F2) to congure the frame.
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
RFC2544 FRAME FORMAT
LAYER : LAYER 2
MAC SRC : 00- D- - DD- 00- 00- 00
MAC DST : 00- 00- 00- 00- 00- 00
ETHER TYPE: AA00
VLAN ENABLE
TPI D: 8100 CFI : 0
I D : 1 PRI : 1
PATTERN: 2e31- 1 NORMAL
NEXT
Test parameters arise from the
LAYER selection.
Press NEXT (F4) to go to the next
setup screen.
Laser
Figure 31 RFC2544 Frame Format Screen
LAYER: Select the test frame format. For further information on frame layers, refer
to Section 6.1.
Options: LAYER 2 (F2), LAYER 3 (F3)
For Layer 2, you may edit MAC SRC, MAC DST and VLAN.
For Layer 3, IP SRC, IP DST, and GATEWAY may be edited in addition to the
Layer 2 settings. See Section ?? for details.
MAC SRC and MAC DST: Enter a MAC address source (local hardware address)
and a destination MAC address (remote device hardware address).
ETHER TYPE (LAYER 2 only): Enter the Ether Type value.
Options: DEFAULT (F1), EDIT (F2)
DEFAULT: If used, the frame will be an IEEE 802.3 frame without LLC/SNAP
header.
EDIT: If the ETHER TYPE feld is edited, the frame will be an Ethernet Type II
frame, where the Type eld can take different 2-byte hexadecimal values. For
example the hexadecimal value of 0x0800 correspond to the Ethernet Type value
of IPv4.
VLAN: Determine if VLAN tags are used.
Options: ENABLE (F1), DISABLE (F2)
If VLAN tags are used, congure the CFI, PRI, and ID and TPID.
- TPID: 8100 is the standard IEEE 802.1Q/802.1P value.
58
MTT-50
- CFI: The CFI should almost always be set to 0 to be compatible with Eth-
ernet switches.
- ID: Enter the VLAN ID for each stream, per IEEE 802.1P.
Options: 0-4095
PRI - : Enter the User Priority (0-7) for each stream, per IEEE 802.1P.
IP SRC and IP DST: Enter a IP address source and a destination IP address.
GATEWAY: Specify the gateway address if required.
If a gateway is used, enter the address.
PATTERN: Select the test pattern. Not all patterns are available for all modes.
Options: 2^31-1, 2^23-1, 2^31-1 C, 2^23-1 C, 1111, 0000, USER
Press SELECT (F1) to choose a different test pattern.
See Section 6.1.1.3 for details.
7.1.2 RFC2544 Frame Length Conguration
To select an Ethernet frame length, cursor ( ) to the required length, and select
YES (F2). If a frame length is selected (YES), the RFC2544 test sequence will be
executed for this frame length.
If a frame length is not selected (NO), the RFC2544 test sequence will skip this
frame length.
Each frame length is also editable by keypad.
Note: The maximum bre port frame length allowed is 12,000; the maximum RJ45
port frame length is 11,000.
Highlight FRAME LENGTH on the RFC2544/NET TEST screen, then press EDIT
(F2) to access this frame length screen.
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
RFC2544 FRAME LENGTH
NEXT
68 : YES - NO
128 : YES - NO
256 : YES - NO
512 : YES - NO
1024 : YES - NO
1280 : YES - NO
1518 : YES - NO
4096 : YES - NO
YES NO
Cursor down to each line/frame size.
Select YES to test that frame length.
Select NO to not test that frame
length.
Figure 32 RFC2544 Frame Length Screen
When nished, press NEXT (F4).
59
GigE Module
7.1.3 RFC2544 Test Sequence Conguration
Use the RFC2544 TEST SEQUENCE screen to select a sequence then choose
whether or not to run it. Press YES (F2) or NO (F3), or press EDIT (F4) to congure
the selected test.
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
RFC2544 TEST SEQUENCE
EDI T YES NO
Choose to perform a test (YES) or not
(NO).
Each test has its own setup screen;
press EDIT (F4) to go to that setup.
THROUGHPUT : YES - NO
LATENCY : YES - NO
PDV : YES - NO
FRAME LOSS RATE: YES - NO
BACK TO BACK : YES - NO
USER THRESHOLD : YES - NO
Figure 33 RFC2544 Test Sequence Setup
Press EDIT (F4) to congure the highlighted RFC 2544 test.
After a test has completed, press SAVE (F4) to save the test sequence as a prole
for future use.
THROUGHPUT: Determine the maximum frame rate that has no lost frames.
NEXT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
THROUGHPUT TEST CONFI GURATI ON
STARTI NG RATE: 10 %
STOP RATE : 100%
STEP SI ZE : 10 %
DURATI ON : TI ME
2 seconds
EDI T
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
THROUGHPUT TEST CONFI GURATI ON
STARTI NG RATE: 10 %
RESOLUTI ON : 1%
DURATI ON : FRAME
1000 f r ames
RFC2544 Throughput Setup
RFC2544 NE Throughput Setup
Figure 34 RFC2544/NE Throughput Test Conguration
STARTING RATE: Set the rate at which frames will begin being transmitted.
100% is a good starting rate for a standard RFC test and is recommended in
RFC 2544. If the expected throughput rate is less than 100% of the line rate, we
recommend setting the Starting Rate to a value close to the expected rate.
For NE testing, select the rate applicable to your setup.
60
MTT-50
STOP RATE (N/A RFC2544): Set the rate at which frames will stop being transmit-
ted.
RESOLUTION (N/A NE TEST): The resolution of the Throughput Bandwidth is set
at 1%. This determine how precise a measurement is.
The search algorithm will continue until the step between two consecutive tests
is lower than this specied resolution.
DURATION: Set the duration of each step of the search algorithm.
TIME Options: 1-999 seconds
FRAME Options: 1,000 - 1,000,000 frames
Notes
RFC2544 specifes a default resolution of 10%. This means if the true throughput
rate of the DUT was 98.5%, the test would report 90%. In most cases, higher
precision is required, hence the default for the MTT GigE is set to 1.0%.
Make sure to set the Starting and Stop Rates when confguring a NE test.
ESC to the TEST SEQUENCE screen, or press NEXT (F4) to congure the next
RFC 2544 test.
LATENCY: Measure the time it takes for the test frame to pass through the device
under test. The latency of each frame is measured.
NEXT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
LATENCY TEST CONFI GURATI ON
BANDWI DTH : THROUGHPUT
REPETI TI ONS : 5
DURATI ON : TI ME
120 seconds
BANDWIDTH Notes
A THROUGHPUT test has a
100% default bandwidth.
For a CUSTOM Setup,
enter any value of bandwidth.
THRUPUT CUSTOM
Figure 35 RFC2544 Latency Test Conguration
BANDWIDTH (N/A NE TEST)
THRUPUT: The latency test will be done at the Throughput bandwidth as determined
during the Throughput test.
CUSTOM: Enter the bandwidth between 100 and 1% at which the test will be
performed.
REPETITIONS: Set the number of repetitions taken for averaging.
The RFC 2544 recommendation is 20 repetitions.
DURATION: Set for how long each frame size will be transmitted for.
61
GigE Module
ESC to the TEST SEQUENCE screen, or press NEXT (F4) to congure the next
RFC 2544 test.
PDV : Packet Delay Variation is the difference in end-to-end delay between se-
lected packets, with any lost packets ignored.
NEXT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
PDV TEST CONFI GURATI ON
BANDWI DTH : THROUGHPUT
REPETI TI ONS : 5
DURATI ON : TI ME
120 seconds
A PDV test has a 100% default
bandwidth.
For a CUSTOM Setup,
enter any value of bandwidth.
THRUPUT CUSTOM
Figure 36 PDV Test Conguration
BANDWIDTH (N/A NE TEST)
THRUPUT: The latency test will be done at the Throughput bandwidth as determined
during the Throughput test.
CUSTOM: Enter the bandwidth between 100 and 1%.
REPETITIONS: Set the number of repetitions taken for averaging.
ESC to the TEST SEQUENCE screen, or press NEXT (F4) to congure the next
RFC 2544 test.
FRAME LOSS RATE: Generates a graph that shows the frame loss rate as a
function of the frame rate.
The test begins at the starting rate (usually 100%), sends a number of frames,
and then calculates the frame loss rate as a percentage based on the following
equation:
[(Input count output count ) x 100]/(Input count)
Example: If 10,000 frames were sent, but only 9800 were received, the frame loss
rate would be:
[(10000 - 9800) x 100]/(10000) = 2.00%
After calculating the frame loss at a given throughput rate, the throughput is reduced
by the specied step size (no greater than 10%) and repeated.
Congure the following from Figure 35:
START RATE: Determine the starting point for the test.
Options: 1.0-100%
62
MTT-50
STEP SIZE: Determine the step for the next bandwidth to be tested.
Options: 1-100%; 10.00% is typical
After testing at a frame rate, the test will reduce the frame rate by the specied
step size.
Smaller step sizes will greatly increase the overall duration of the test while
increasing the resolution.
DURATION: Determine the step duration.
Options: 1-999 seconds
ESC to TEST SEQUENCE, or press NEXT (F4) to congure the next test.
BACK TO BACK : Determine the maximum number of frames which can be sent
at 100% bandwidth, with minimum inter-frame gap, before a frame is lost. It is
also called burstability.
NEXT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
BACK TO BACK CONFI GURATI ON
MAX BANDWI DTH: 100. 0%
DURATI ON : 10 seconds
MAX DURATI ON : 20 seconds
REPETI TI ONS : 5
RESOLUTI ON : 100 f r ame( s)
This RFC2544 test runs until the
difference between the most
recent pass and fail test results
are presented either within the
specified number of frames.
Figure 37 RFC2544 Back to Back Conguration
MAX BANDWIDTH: Enter the Maximum Bandwidth used during testing.
Options: 1-100%
DURATION: Enter the amount of time the frames will be sent initially.
Options: 2 to the MAX DURATION setting in seconds
MAX DURATION: Enter the longest amount of time, in seconds, the frames will be
sent back-to-back. In a perfect network, the duration is innite, so the maximum
duration is used to place a realistic cap on the time it takes to run the test.
Options: 2-100 seconds
REPETITIONS: Dene the number of times that each step is repeated.
Options: 1-50
RESOLUTION
FRAME(S): 1- 999,999
After the initial test, if at least one frame is lost, the test will start searching again,
until the burst length is found with the resolution specied with this setting.
63
GigE Module
ESC to the TEST SEQUENCE screen, or press NEXT (F4) to congure the next
RFC 2544 test.
7.1.4 User Threshold
For each frame length, you can adjust the Throughput threshold and the Latency
threshold. Use to select a eld to edit. Use <- (F2) and -> (F3) to move the
cur sor within the digit value.
Scroll right and left within a frame
line with the <- and -> F-keys,
then use the SHIFT and number
keys to change the digits.
Press NEXT (F4) to return to the
TEST SEQUENCE screen
Figure 38 RFC2544 User Threshold Conguration
The Length column shows frame sizes in bytes. The default frame sizes are based
on RFC 2544, but all are user-congurable. They can be used to test frame sizes
that are outsized, such as a jumbo frame.
Notes
When testing with VLAN and/or MPLS tags, 64 bytes is no longer a proper frame
length; it will be reset to 68 bytes automatically. However, it can be checked and
tested (though you will see a warning message).
These thresholds have no direct effect on the RFC2544 Throughput or Latency
results. They are intended to go beyond the RFC 2544 standards
THROUGHPUT: This threshold can be adjusted between 1-100%.
If the result of the throughput test is below the throughput threshold then the test
will fail.
If the result of the throughput test is above or equal to the throughput threshold
then the test will pass.
LATENCY: This threshold can be adjusted between 0.00001 ms and 99 seconds.
If the result of the throughput test is below or equal to the latency threshold then
the test will pass.
NEXT
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
USER THRESHOLD
LENGTH THROUGHPUT LATENCY
68 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
128 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
256 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
512 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
1024 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
1280 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
1518 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
4096 100. 00% 0. 10000 ms
<- - >
64
MTT-50
If the result of the throughput test is above the latency threshold then the test
will fail.
When nished, press NEXT (F4) to return to the RFC2544 Test Sequence Selection
Screen, as shown in Figure 33.
7.1.5 Run Test
When ready to start testing, press ESC to return to the RFC2544/NE TEST menu screen,
select RUN TEST. The RFC2544 TEST STATUS (shown next) screen appears. Press
START (F4) to being testing. The status of the test sequence appears.
STOP
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544 I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
RFC2544 TEST STATUS
DONE THROUGHPUT
>>>> LATENCY
N/ A PDV
- - - - FRAME LOSS RATE
N/ A BACK TO BACK
TEST STATUS
DONE = Finished
>>>> = Test in progress
---- = Test will proceed.
N/A = Does not apply in the test
setup.
Figure 39 RFC2544 Test Status Screen
Measurements are performed only if there is a loop, a loopback plug, or another
test set in loopback at the far end. To congure the test set for loopback, see Sec-
tion 5.
At any time during the test, press STOP (F4) to stop the sequence. The progress
of a sequence can be viewed by selecting it then pressing ENTER.
To save the results: Press YES (F4) when prompted at the end of the test. Results
are saved in a .csv le, for use in a database program.
To view the results: Press ENTER while a test is running to see the live results.
RESTART (F4) is available if you need to start the test over again.
Once the test has completed, ESC to the ETHERNET MAIN MENU, then enter
VIEW/STORE/PRINT; the latest test result is highlighted when you enter the screen.
Press VIEW (F1).
To save the test sequence: Once you have run a test, return to the RFC2544/NE
TEST menu screen, and press SAVE (4) to save the test setup as a prole.
65
GigE Module
RFC2544/NE Test Results
In the VIEW/STORE/PRINT screen, the latest test result is highlighted when you
enter the screen. Press VIEW (F1). Save RFC2544 tests at their conclusion. They
are saved as .csv les.
On the RFC2544 VIEW RESULT MENU screen, select to view the TEST CONFIGU-
RATION, or the TEST RESULTS. Press ENTER to make a selection.
On the RFC2544 TEST STATUS screen, highlight a test, then press ENTER to view
the data. Here is an overview of the RFC2544 results screens.
Throughput Measurement
LOG provides a PASS/FAIL STATUS of each frame length and its RATE.
TABLE provides the frame lengths THROUGHPUT and STATUS (PASS/FAIL,
depending on the USER THRESHOLD screen settings).
GRAPH displays a bar graph of the frame length in a percentage.
THROUGHPUT F-keys
TABLE (F1): Display the table view.
GRAPH (F1 or F2): Display the graph view.
LOG (F2): Displays the log view.
START/STOP/RESTART (F4): Restart the test; press again to stop testing.
12: 03: 43
TABLE LOG START
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
THROUGHPUT GRAPH
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
64 256 1024 1518 4096
LENGTH=128 THROUGHPUT=100. 00%
12: 03: 43 12: 03: 43
TABLE GRAPH START

THROUGHPUT TEST LOG
LENGTH RATE STATUS
64 100. 00% PASS
128 100. 00% PASS
256 50. 00% FAI L
512 55. 00% FAI L
1024 100. 00% PASS
1280 100. 00% PASS
1518 100. 00% PASS
4096 100. 00% PASS
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
GRAPH LOG START
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
THROUGHPUT TEST TABLE
LENGTH THROUGHPUT STATUS
64 100. 00% PASS
128 100. 00% PASS
256 50. 00% FAI L
512 55. 00% FAI L
1024 100. 00% PASS
1280 100. 00% PASS
1518 100. 00% PASS
4096 100. 00% PASS
Figure 40 RFC2544 Throughput Measurement Screens
66
MTT-50
In the TABLE screen, top right in Figure 40, use to see all of the data.
In the GRAPH screen, bottom of Figure 40, the cursor is the triple vertical line. In
this example its located at the LENGTH = 128 with a THROUGHPUT = 100.00%.
Move the cursor to show details of other LENGTHs using .
NE test results include the throughput status for each frame rate, with Pass or
Fail STATUS result.
When done viewing press ESC.
Latency Measurement
This table reports the RATE at which the LATENCY test was performed. It is re-
ported as a percentage, the LATENCY in milliseconds (ms) and a PASS/FAIL
STATUS is reported as determined
by the setti ngs i n the USER
THRESHOLD screen (Fi gure
41).
Figure 41 Latency Table Screen
PDV Measurement
This table reports the RATE at which the PDV test was performed. It is reported as
a percentage, and the PDV in milliseconds (ms).

Figure 42 PDV Table Screen
RESTART
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
LATENCY TABLE
LENGTH RATE LATENCY STATUS
64 100. 00% 0. 00444ms PASS
128 100. 00% 0. 00065ms PASS
256 100. 00% 0. 02095ms PASS
512 100. 00% 0. 02095ms PASS
1024 100. 00% 0. 02095ms PASS
1280 100. 00% 0. 02095ms PASS
1518 100. 00% 0. 02079ms PASS
4096 100. 00% 0. 02082ms PASS
RESTART
15: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
PDV TABLE
LENGTH RATE PDV
64 100. 00% 0. 00003ms
64 100. 00% 0. 00003ms
64 100. 00% 0. 00003ms
64 100. 00% 0. 00003ms
64 100. 00% 0. 00003ms
67
GigE Module
Frame Loss Rate
GRAPH RESTART
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544 I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
FRAME LOSS TABLE
LENGTH RATE LOSS
64 100. 00% 0. 00%
64 90. 00% 0. 00%
128 100. 00% 0. 00%
128 90. 00% 0. 00%
256 100. 00% 0. 00%
256 90. 00% 0. 00%
512 100. 00% 0. 00%
512 90. 00% 0. 00%
1024 100. 00% 0. 00%
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544 I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
LENGTH = 64
FRAME LOSS GRAPH
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
0% 25% 50% 75% 100%
RATE = 30. 00% LOSS = 0. 00%L=64
RESTART TABLE I NC DEC
Figure 43 Frame Loss Screens
Use these screens to observe any frame loss. The left screen in Figure 43 presents
the data as a table. Use to view the entire table.
While in the TABLE screen, press GRAPH (F1) to view a graph of the frame loss
for each programed frame length.
Use INC (F2) and DEC (F3) to view a graph of each frame length. The view
length is indicated at the LENGTH line near the top of the screen.
Use to cursor to the RATE and LOSS of each percentage.
Back To Back
Observe the maximum number of frames that can be sent at 100% bandwidth, with
minimum inter-frame gap, before a frame is lost. In both screens
TABLE RESTART
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544 I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
BACK TO BACK TEST LOG
PASS: FAI L:
LENGTH #FRAMES STATUS
64 14880952 PASS
128 8445945 PASS
256 4528985 PASS
512 2349624 PASS
1024 1197318 PASS
1280 961538 PASS
1518 812743 PASS
RESTART LOG
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544 I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX RFC2544- P I P UP
LENGTH = 64
BACK TO BACK TEST TABLE
64 128
Mi n 14880952 8445945
Max 14880952 8445945
Avg 14880952 8445945
256 512
Mi n 4528985 2349624
Max 4528985 2349624
Avg 4528985 2349624
Figure 44 Back To Back Screens
The left LOG screen, shown in Figure 44, presents the data as a log. Use to
view the entire log.
Press TABLE (F1) in the LOG screen to view a table of the results showing the Min,
NE Note
In NE mode, the Frame
Loss results include a
Mbps column, indicating
the rate.
68
MTT-50
Max, and Avg values of all repetitions. For example. If only one repetition was selected
per frame length, then the Min, Max, and Avg values should be the same.
Use to view the entire table.
69
GigE Module
This page has been intentionally left blank.
70
MTT-50
8 Advanced Features
This menu is available when the ETHERNET MAIN MENU CONFIGURATION screen
is set to P2P_P2P OPERATION. The menu contains:
IP CONFIGURATION
PING TES T
TRACE ROUT E
ARP SCA N
VLAN SCA N
WEB ACCESS TES T
CABLE TES T
VOIP FEATURE S
8.1 IP Conguration
After turning up the Ethernet link, select IP CONFIGURATION from the ADVANCED
FEATURES menu. IP features provides advanced IP connectivity analysis, expert
PING testing with statistics, trace route testing, and ARP and VLAN scans.
Notes
For IP features, the module uses its default unique MAC address based on the
serial number of the test set chassis.
To enter numbers, press SHIFT and use the numeric keys. If available, use <-
and -> to move the cursor.
Remember to press APPLY (F4) after making confguration changes.
Congure the IP connection. Enter the proper protocol used by the circuit, as well
as the necessary IP addresses. Figure 45 shows the two types of IP screens.
EDI T
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P CONNECTI ON/ STATUS
I P TYPE : STATI C
LOCAL I P : 192. 168. 1 . 250
GATEWAY : NONE
SUBNET : 192. 168. 1 . 251
DNS SERVER : 192. 168. 1 . 1
VLAN: ENABLE : P: 0 VI D: 0
14: 30: 14
Static connection in place;
press EDIT to change the IP TYPE.
EDI T
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
LENGTH = 64
I P CONNECTI ON/ STATUS

I P TYPE : DHCP
VLAN: DI SABLE
DHCP : PASS
LOCAL I P : 192. 168. 001. 250
DHCP SERVER: 192. 168. 001. 022
GATEWAY : 192. 168. 001. 001
SUBNET MASK: 255. 255. 255. 001
LEASE TI ME : 24: 00: 00
14: 30: 14
DHCP connection in place.
Figure 45 IP Connection and Status Screen
71
GigE Module
IP TYPE
Options: STATIC (F1), DHCP (F2)
Static IP management means that the IP address is fxed to the terminal. This
address must be known for successful testing. Enter it in the LOCAL IP eld.
DHCP: Use Dynamic Host Confguration Protocol to obtain an IP address from
a DHCP server.
Upon selecting DHCP, the LOCAL IP setting disappears; the IP address will
dynamically be assigned from the network.
If the IP TYPE has already been set, press EDIT (F4) to reselect, then press
APPLY (F4) to conrm the change of IP TYPE.
LOCAL IP (N/A DHCP): Specify the IP address of the circuit to be tested.
GATEWAY (N/A DHCP): Specify the gateway address.
Press USE (F1) if a gateway is used, then enter the address.
When the IP TYPE is set to STATIC, and a gateway is used, the F1 key will show
as ARP. Press ARP, and the system will send ARP command to the gateway. If
ARP passes, IP will be UP; if it fails, IP will be DOWN.
SUBNET MASK (N/A DHCP): Specify the subnet mask.
LEASE TIME: Time (in HH:MM:SS) of the IP address allocation
DNS SERVER (N/A DHCP): Specify the Domain Name System Servers address.
VLAN: Select if outgoing packets need to carry VLAN tag.
Options: ENABLE (F1), DISABLE (F2)
If enabled, enter the TPID, CFI, ID (VLAN ID) and PRI (priority) parameters. For
further information on VLAN; see # VLAN in Section 6.1.
IP Status
Once the IP CONFIGURATION screen is congured, press APPLY (F4). The cur-
sor disappears in the parameter elds. If the connection is successful, IP UP is
displayed in the header, IP DOWN is displayed if not.
To disconnect or change parameters, press EDIT (F4).
EDI T
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P CONNECTI ON/ STATUS
I P TYPE : STATI C
LOCAL I P : 192. 168. 1 . 250
GATEWAY : 155. 155. 1 . 1
SUBNET : 192. 168. 1 . 251
DNS SERVER : 192. 168. 1 . 1
VLAN: DI SABLE
ARP : PASS
14: 30: 14
72
MTT-50
8.2 Ping Test
Ping testing veries connectivity to the far end network. When a ping message is
received, routers acknowledge the message by sending an echo response back.
Some routers may disable ping functions and will not reply to echo requests.
Select PING TEST from the ADVANCED FEATURES MENU screen to access the
ping test setups.
START
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
ST: 00: 00: 00 ET: 00: 00: 00
LOCAL I P : 192. 168. 001. 250
PI NG TEST
DESTI NATI ON I P: 24. 116. 136. 2401
#PI NGS: 10 PI NG LEN: 64
PI NG/ SEC: 1
PI NG : i n pr ogr ess
Sent : 0 Round Tr i p ( ms)
Recv d : 0 Cr nt : 0
Unr each: 0 Avg : 0
Mi ssi ng: 0 Max/ Mi n: 0/ 0
14: 30: 14
Save or use a previously
saved address.
GATEWAY <- - > STOP
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX PI NG I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
ST: 12: 00: 00 ET: 00: 00: 09
LOCAL I P : 192. 168. 001. 250
PI NG TEST
DESTI NATI ON I P: 24. 116. 136. 240
#PI NGS: 9 PI NG LEN: 64
PI NG/ SEC: 1
PI NG : PASS
Sent : 10 Round Tr i p ( ms)
Recv d : 10 Cr nt : 3
Unr each: 0 Avg : 3
Mi ssi ng: 0 Max/ Mi n: 4/ 3
14: 30: 23
SELECT
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P LI ST
I P ADDRESS
1. 192. 168. 001. 250
2. 024. 116. 136. 240
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

14: 30: 14
DELETE EDI T
STORE
- >
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
I P LI ST
S
I P: 150. 0 . 0 . 0

<-
Enter a new address to keep.
Ping Test Setup Ping Test Results
14: 30: 14 Shi f t
Save the new address; return to list.
Figure 46 PING Test Screens
Reference Figure 46 for the following parameters:
ST: When START (F4) was pressed.
ET: Time elapsed since START (F4) was pressed.
LOCAL IP: Displays the LOCAL IP entered in CONFIGURATION, if static IP TYPE
was selected. It displays the dynamically assigned address if DHCP has been se-
lected in CONFIGURATION.
DESTINATION IP: Enter a Destination IP address.
To select from a list, press LIST (F1) and see IP DST in Section 6.1.1.2.
73
GigE Module
#PINGS: Select the number of PINGS to send.
Options:1-999999, continuous.
The default value is 10.
PING LEN: Select the PING length to send.
Options: 64-1518 bytes; the default is 64.
If VLAN is enabled the minimum is 68 bytes and the maximum is 1518.
PING/SEC: Denes the number of PINGs to send per second
Options: 1-10
The default is 1.
Note: Only 10 pings/sec can be set for a 64 byte frame length. All other frame lengths
can only be set to 1 ping/sec.
Ping F-keys
GATEWAY/LIST (F1): Access a list of previously saved IP addresses; save the
current IP address, create a new one, or delete a previously saved one on the IP
LIST (GATEWAY; Figure 46).
<- (F2), -> (F3): Move the cursor within an address.
START/STOP(F4): Begin the test; press again to stop testing.
Start the Ping Test
When ready, press START (F4). See the screen on the right in Figure 46.
PING: IN PROGRESS; The test is not yet completed.
PING: PASS; At least one echo response was received.
PING: FAIL; An echo response was not received.
PING: ARP FAIL: The destination IP address or Gateway has not responded to the
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) request.
The rest of the screen displays the statistics of a PING test:
Sent Number of PINGs sent to the network.
Recvd Number of correct echo responses received.
Unreach Number of echo responses with an unreach fag.
Missing Number of echo responses missing.
Round Trip Millisecond delay in three measurements:
Crnt: Current PING round trip delay.
Avg: Average of all round trip delay.
Max/Min: Maximum/Minimum round trip delay.
Note: LIST/GATEWAY (F1)
The F-key shows as LIST
when GATEWAY is set to
NONE in the IP congura-
tion.
It shows as GATEWAY
when the GATEWAY set-
ting is an IP address.
When it is GATEWAY, the
destination set will be the
gateway IP; it is entered/
saved into IP address list
as same as when the F-key
is LIST.
If LIST, the selected IP
will be set (instead of the
gateway IP).
74
MTT-50
8.3 Trace Route
The trace route test determines the route taken by a packets to get across an IP
network. It uses the same ICMP protocols used for ping testing, but does so in a
sequential manner, mapping the hops to the destination device.
START
14: 29: 45
May show as LIST. Save or use a previously
saved address. See PING TEST.
GATEWAY <- - >
14: 30: 14
14: 31: 00
TRACE ROUTE Setup TRACE ROUTE Results
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
ST: 14: 30: 00 ET: 14: 31: 00
LOCAL I P: 024. 116. 139. 240
TRACE ROUTE
DESTI NATI ON I P: 209. 130. 76. 142
PAGE: 1
Hop Type msec Host Addr ess
1 TTL 98 129. 250. 2. 209
2 TTL 124 129. 250. 2. 246
3 TTL 97 129. 250. 5. 253
4 TTL 115 129. 250. 4. 14
5 TTL 162 129. 250. 28. 52


P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX T_ROUTE I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
ST: 00: 00: 00 ET: 00: 00: 60
LOCAL I P : 024. 116. 139. 240
TRACE ROUTE
DESTI NATI ON I P: 24 . 116. 136. 1
PAGE: 1
Hop Type msec Host Addr ess
STOP PAGE- UP PAGE- DN
Figure 47 Trace Route Screens
Trace Route F-keys
GATEWAY/LIST (F1): Access a list of previously saved IP addresses (Section
8.2.).
<- (F2), -> (F3): Move the cursor within an address.
START/STOP(F4): Begin the test; press again to stop testing.
Perform a Trace Route Test
1. Enter a destination IP address. The address LIST (F1) is available. Once the test
is running, this parameter cant be changed unless STOP (F4) is pressed.
2. Press START (F4).
3. Press STOP (F4) to stop the trace. Pressing STOP restarts the trace and resets ET
to zero.
4. Scroll through the results by using PAGE-UP (F1) and PAGE-DN (F2). PAGE #
indicates the page number of the currently displayed screen.
Trace Route Results
ST When START was pressed.
ET Elapsed time since START was pressed.
LOCAL IP Displays the LOCAL IP entered in the IP CONFIGURATION,
if static IP TYPE was selected. It displays the dynamically
assigned address if DHCP was selected in IP CONFIGURA-
TION. If the address has not been assigned, UNASSIGNED
is displayed.
75
GigE Module
DEST I NA-
TION IP
Enter the Destination IP address before pressing START
(F4).
Hop Displays up to 32 router hops.
Type Describes the type of hop. It can be the following types
ECHO The destination IP has responded.
MISS A router or destination IP has not responded.
TTL Time To Live eld of the PING message has been decre-
mented, and successfully passed a router.
msec Duration of a hop in milliseconds.
Ho s t Ad -
dress
Responding routers IP address.
8.4 ARP Scan
Query the network by inputting a single or range (255 maximum) of IP addresses.
The network will then return their corresponding MAC addresses.
START
14: 30: 14
SI NGLE RANGE STOP
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX A_RESOL I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e
ARP SCAN
024. 116. 136. 001
- - > 00- 08- 20- CB- 00- 70
14: 30: 20
14: 30: 30
PRI NT STORE START
14: 30: 40
ARP Test Setup - Single ARP Single Test Results
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e
ARP SCAN
I P RANGE : SI NGLE
I P : 024. 116. 136. 001
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX A_RESOL I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e
ARP SCAN
I P RANGE : RANGE
START I P : 024. 116. 136. 001
END I P : 024. 116. 136. 255

ARP Test Setup - Range ARP Range Test Results
START SI NGLE RANGE
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e
ARP SCAN
S
024. 116. 136. 001
- - > 00- 08- 20- CB- 00- 70
024. 116. 136. 002
- - > NO ENTRY FOUND
024. 116. 136. 003
- - > NO ENTRY FOUND
024. 116. 136. 004
- - > NO ENTRY FOUND
024. 116. 136. 005
- - > STOPPED
in progress
stopped
Figure 48 ARP Scan Screens
76
MTT-50
Setup Parameters; Figure 48
IP RANGE: Select either a single IP or range of address to enter.
Options: SINGLE (F1), RANGE (F2)
IP: Enter a single IP address.
START IP: If RANGE was selected, enter a starting IP address.
END IP: If RANGE was selected, enter a ending IP address.
Start the ARP Scan
When ready, press START (F4). The test set sends an ARP (Address Resolution
Protocol) request to all the devices on the network (with the corresponding IP ad-
dresses that were entered), and receives the ARP replies from these devices. The
ARP replies contain the MAC address information (which is displayed on-screen
as in the two right screens shown in Figure 48.
If RANGE was selected, a page bar indicator may be displayed. If so, use to
view all of the screens.
ARP Scan Result Screen F-keys
PRINT (F2): Print the results using the test sets serial port. See Section 11 and
your test sets Users Manual.
STORE (F3): Save the results, see Section 11.
START/STOP (F4): Starts/stops the query
When nished, press ESC.
77
GigE Module
8.5 VLAN Scan
Scan and report all VLAN IDs observed on the test interface.
After selecting VLAN SCAN, press F4 to start scanning. The screen displays
SCANNING.
Once a VLAN is detected, the VLAN# and ID are presented as shown in Figure
49.
11: 50: 55
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
VLAN SCAN
VLAN TPI D: 8100
VLAN# I D
1 6
2 1
3 3
4 2

STOP START
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e
VLAN SCAN
VLAN #1 TPI D: 8100
VLAN #1 TPI D: DI SABLE
VLAN #1 TPI D: DI SABLE
Figure 49 VLAN Scan Screen
During the scan, press STOP (F4) to stop the scan.
VLAN Scan Results
VLAN# Index of VLAN ID observed.
ID VLAN ID observed.
When nished, press ESC.
78
MTT-50
8.6 Web Access Test
Verify internet connectivity through a HTTP download, as well as up/downstream
rate verication with FTP up/download. Congure the following:
The latency involved with such activities are strongly linked to the capacity and
processing of the servers, so the results may often be less than expected from a
throughput or ping test and may vary depending on the server load at the time of
the test. Press WEB ACCESS SETUP to access the conguration screen.
Web Access Test Setup
To congure the test, select WEB DOWNLOAD or FTP UPLOAD to begin.
PROTOCOL: Select the required protocol.
Options: HTTP/FTP (F1)
HTTP: Download a fle using Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. Uniform Resource
Locator is used to enter a destination domain name if a DNS server is available.
To enter, press URL (F1), then press EDIT (F2) to display a character entry
screen, or press LIST (F1) for the URL/DESTINATION IP list screen.
FTP: Upload or download a fle using File Transfer Protocol. If selected, select
DOWNLOAD and choose whether to transfer the le to or from the test set. If
UPLOAD is is selected, the FILESIZE is displayed (1024).
Entering & Saving an URL Address
1. In the IP ADDR line, select URL
(F1). Conversely, slect IP ADDR
at the URL line for that format.
2. Move the cursor to the entry part
of the URL line and press LIST
(F1). A character entry screen
appears.
3. Press INPUT (F3). The cursor
highlights a and INPUT has
changed to STOP.
4. Use , , , or to move the
cursor to the desired character
and press ENTER to select that
character. The character will ap-
pear in the URL line.
5. Repeat step 4 until nished, then press STOP (F3) to exit the character entry
screen.
If a mistake is made, press STOP (F3) and use or to select the incorrect
character. Then use:
- DELETE (F2) to delete the character.
- INSERT (F1) to add a character to the left of the selected character.
- OVER (F1) to replace the selected character.

I NSERT DELETE STOP SAVE

URL : www. Sunr i set el ecom. com
a b c d e f g h i j k l m
n o p q r s t u v w x y z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 + - *
/ _ # @! ? $ & . :
www. f t p. . com . net
. or g

11: 50: 45 Laser
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
Figure 50 Web Access Character Entry
79
GigE Module
6. When nished, press STOP (F3), then SAVE (F4) to return to URL LIST selec-
tion screen.
To use an URL address, cursor to it in the URL/DESTINATION LIST screen, and
press SELECT (F4). The selected URL address now is displayed in the URL line of
the WEB DOWNLOAD screen.
To remove an URL address from the list screen, select one and press DELETE
(F2).
The remainder of the conguration is dependent on the type of protocol selected.
8.6.1 HTTP Download Test
Congure the following on the WEB DOWNLOAD screen: Select HTTP as the
PROTOCOL.
DESTINATION IP/URL
Options: LIST (F3)
Enter the URL or IP (use F1 to
switch protocols) address of the
web page to download. See Sec-
tion 8.6 for entry details.
To begin the test, press START
(F4); press F4 again to stop.
As the test progresses the PAGE
DOWNLOAD line will blink an
downloading message. If the
page is successfully downloaded
Pass will show at the PAGE
DOWNLOAD line; if not it will dis-
play FAIL or LINK DOWN.
HTTP Download Results
RESPONSE TIME How long it took to get an initial response, in
seconds.
PAGE DOWNLOAD LINK DOWN / INVALID URL / FAIL / PASS /
STOPPED
Duration Length of time, in ms, it took to upload or down-
load the le. It shows N/A when the test is in
progress.
SIZE Total size of the le in bytes.
Av. Rate Average speed at which bytes were transferred.
HTTP FTP START
11: 50: 45 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e

WEB DOWNLOAD
PROTOCOL: HTTP
URL : www. sunr i set el ecom. com
RESPONSE TI ME : 0. 810 msec
PAGE DOWNLOAD : PASS
DURATI ON: N/ A
SI ZE : 9490 byt es
AV. RATE: 11. 399 Kbyt es/ sec

Figure 51 HTTP Download Web Access
80
MTT-50
8.6.2 FTP Download Test
In the WEB DOWNLOAD screen, set FTP as the PROTOCOL. Congure the fol-
lowing:
IP ADDR/URL: Enter the URL
or IP address of the FTP server.
Use F1 to change the protocol.
Options: LIST (F2)
See Section 8.6 for entry
details.
USERNAME: Ent er t he
USERNAME of the account on
the FTP server.
The default is blank. To change
it, press EDIT (F1) and use the
procedure in Section 8.6.
PASSWORD
Enter the PASSWORD of the ac-
count on the FTP server.
The default is blank.
To change it, press EDIT (F1) and use the procedure in Section 8.6.
FILE: Input the path and the name of the le to download.
Press EDIT (F1) and use the procedures in Section 8.6 to enter it.
When ready, press START (F4); press F4 again to stop.
As the test progresses, the STATUS line will blink an in progress message. If the
le is successfully downloaded the STATUS line will display PASS and the results
are displayed.
FTP Download Results
RESPONSE TIME Time to get a response from the far end, in ms.
STATUS Downloading status: LINK DOWN, FAIL, LOGIN FAILED,
UNKNOWN HOST, FILE NOT FOUND, INVALID URL,
TRANSFER COMPLETE
DURATION Length of time, in ms, it took to upload or download the
le.
SIZE Total size of the le in bytes.
RATE Transfer rate in kbytes per second.
HTTP FTP START
11: 55: 15 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e

WEB DOWNLOAD
PROTOCOL : FTP
URL : www. sunr i set el ecom. com
USERNAME : User 134
PASSWORD : ABc0123
FI LE : gr oup/ passwor ds
RESPONSE TI ME : 0. 810 msec
STATUS : downl oadi ng
DURATI ON: N/ A
SI ZE : 9490 byt es
AV. RATE: 11. 399 Kbyt es/ sec

Figure 52 FTP Download Web Access
81
GigE Module
8.6.3 FTP Upload Test
Select FTP UPLOAD on the WEB ACCESS TEST screen.
DESTINATION IP/URL
Options: LIST (F2)
Enter the URL or IP address
of the FTP server; see Sec-
tion 8.6.
USERNAME: Enter the user
ID of the account on the FTP
server.
Press F1 to edit it, and use the
procedure in Section 8.6.
PASSWORD
Enter the password of your ac-
count on the FTP server.
The default is blank.
Press F1 to edit it, and use the
procedure in Section 8.6.
FILE: Input the path and lename of the uploaded le to the FTP server by pressing
EDIT (F1) and following the procedure in Section 8.6. Alternately, choose a previ-
ously saved le from the LIST (F2).
FILE SIZE: Press SHIFT and use the numeric keypad to enter an expected le
size
Options: 2-999 Bytes or kBytes
The default is 2 bytes.
Run the FTP Upload Test
When ready, press START (F4) to begin. Press F4 again to stop.
As the test progresses, the STATUS line will blink a uploading message. If the le
is successfully downloaded the STATUS line will display TRANSFER COMPLETE,
and the results will be displayed.
SIZE Total size of the uploaded le in Bytes.
TIME Transfer time in msec.
RATE Transfer rate in Kbytes per second
RESPONSE TIME Time to get a response from the far end, in ms..
DURATION Length of time, in ms, it took to upload or download the le.
STATUS Test status: LINK DOWN, PERMISSION DENIED, FAIL, LOGIN
FAILED, UNKNOWN HOST, INVALID URL, TRANSFER COM-
PLETE
SIZE Total size which was transferred. If the test is stopped early, view
the entire transfer size since the start of the test
Av. Rate Average speed at which bytes were transferred.
HTTP FTP START
11: 55: 15 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e

DESTI NATI ON
URL : www. sunr i set el ecom. com
USERNAME : User 134
PASSWORD : ABc0123
TEST SETTI NGS
FI LE : gr oup/ passwor ds
SI ZE : 9490 byt es

Figure 53 FTP Upload Web Access
82
MTT-50
8.7 Cable Test
Use the cable test to measure the length of copper Ethernet cable (meters or feet).
This test requires a responder at the far end; connect the cable under test to the
MTT GigE and to the responder, then press START (F4) to being the test.
View whether the cable is OK, SHORT, or OPEN for each cable Pair. The STATUS
reads TESTING as the measurement is performed.
To perform the test again, escape back to the CABLE TEST screen, and press
ENTER again.
START
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I DLE I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I DLE I P UP
CABLE TEST
1
TEST: LENGTH
14: 30: 14
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I DLE I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I DLE I P UP
CABLE TEST
PAI R LENGTH( METERS) STATUS
1 - 2 2 OK
3 - 6 2 OK
4 - 5 2 OK
7 - 8 2 OPEN
14: 30: 20
METERS
View the length results in
terms of Meters or Feet.
Cable Test Setup Cable Test Results
Connect t he cabl e under t est
por t and pr ess ENTER
FEET
Figure 54 Cable Test
Cable Test Status Results
Testing Measurement is in process.
OK Cable is normal.
OPEN Cable pair is broken.
SHORT Cable pair is shorted.
Cable Test F-keys
METERS(F1): Display the results in terms of meters.
FEET (F2): Display the results in terms of feet.
83
GigE Module
8.8 VOIP Features
VOIP features are an option. If unavailable, the test set will display; OPTION IS
NOT ENABLED. This menu contains:
PROTOCOL SETUP
CALL FEATURES
VQ MEASUREMENTS
8.8.1 Protocol Setup
Congure the following:
PROTOCOL
Options: H.323 (F1), SIP (F2)
Select the protocol to use.
H.323 is an ITU (International
Telecommunication Union)
protocol for packet based mul-
timedia communications.
SIP (Session Initiation Proto-
col) is an IETF (Internet Engi-
neering Task Force) standard
(RFC 3261).
The rest of the conguration is
specic to the selected protocol.
H.323 Protocol Setup
GATEKEEPER: If used, a gatekeeper controls the call routing.
Options: IP ADDR (F1), NONE
(F2)
IP ADDR: Enter an IP address
on the next line; you may save
to, or choose a previously saved
IP address from, the LIST
(F1)
NONE: No gatekeeper i s
used.
PREFERRED CODEC
A list of codecs are tried. The rst
is displayed. In Figure 56, G.711u
is the rst one.
NORMAL
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
FAST
PLACE/ RECEI VE CALLS
PROTOCOL : H. 232
GATEKEEPER : NONE
PREFERRED CODEC: G. 711
CONNECT : FAST
RTP PORT : 50000

MY NUMBER/ ALI AS:
4083638000
AUDI O FI LE DELAY ( SEC) : 0

Figure 55 H.323 Protocol Setup
MOVE UP
13: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P- UP

MOVE DN RESET
PREFERRED CODEC LIST

1:G.711u
2:G.711A
3:G.792A
4:G.723.1-5.3k
5:G.723.1-6.3k
6:G.726-16k
7:G.726-24k
8:G.726-32k
9:G.726-40k
10:G.729ab

Figure 56 Preferred Codec List
84
MTT-50
To Change the Order of the list:
1. Press SELECT (F1). The screen shown in Figure 56 is displayed. Select a codec
to move up or down the list.
2. Press MOVE UP (F1) to move the selected codec up one position; press MOVE
DN (F2) to move the selected codec down one position. Press RESET (F4) to
reset the order to the default.
3. When nished, press ESC to return to the PROTOCOL SETUP screen.
CONNECT:
Select the type of connection.
Options: NORMAL (F1), FAST (F2)
NORMAL: Standard H.323 call setup procedure.
FAST: Fast connect call setup procedure. Note that if either one of the two endpoints
does not support fast connect, the normal connect procedure will be used to setup
a call.
RTP PORT: : Enter the Real-time Transport Protocol.
Options: Any even number, from 1024-65534
Default is 50000.
MY NUMBER/ALIAS: Enter a number for
the test set in the empty line below.
AUDIO FILE DELAY (SEC): Select
the del ay between audi o fi l es i n
transmission.
Options: 0 (F1), 1 (F2), 3 (F3), 5 (F5)
seconds
The test set will transmit audio files/
packets as soon as a call is established.
The les will be sent continuously, with a
delay in between les, and will terminate
when the call ends.
SIP Protocol Setup
PROXY TYPE: Select a method to
determine the proxy server information.
Options: NONE (F1), IP ADDR (F2),
NAME (F3)
NONE: No proxy is used.
IP ADDR: Manually enter an IP Ad-
dress.
NAME: Enter the name of the proxy.
On the line below, select a previ- -
ously saved name from the LIST
(F1), or press EDIT (F2) to enter
a new name. A character entry
screen will be displayed. See
Section 8.6 for details on using
the screen.
SI P H. 323
SELECT
13: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e
PROTOCOL SETUP
PROTOCOL : SI P
PROXY TYPE : I P ADDR
192. 168. 102. 31
REGI STRAR TYPE : NAME
sunr i se. de
AUTHENTI CATI ON : ENABLE
USERNAME: mt t t est
PASSWORD: 54321
REALM : NONE
USER NAME: NONE
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e <
PROTOCOL SETUP
PERFERRED CODEC: G. 711u
SI P PORT : 5060
PROXI Y PORT : 5060
REGI STRAR PORT : 5060
RTP PORT : 50000
MY NUMBER/ ALI AS: NAME
SI PUser 23
MY HOST: I P ADDR
192. 168. 101. 1
AUDI O FI LE DELAY ( SEC) : 0
Figure 57 SIP Protocol Setup
85
GigE Module
REGISTRAR TYPE: Select a method to determine the registrar server
information.
Options: NONE (F1), IP ADDR (F2), NAME (F3)
NONE: No registrar server is used.
IP ADDR: Manually enter an IP Address.
NAME: If selected, move the cursor to the next line and press EDIT (F1) to display
a character entry screen. Use the procedure described in MY NUMBER/ALIAS
to enter a REGISTRAR NAME.
AUTHENTICATION: Specify whether user authentication is required for registration
to the proxy server.
Options: ENABLE (F1), DISABLE (F2)
If enabled, enter a USERNAME and a PASSWORD. Press EDIT (F1) and use
the procedure in Section 8.6 .
REALM: Enter the alphanumeric description dening the protection domain, if ap-
plicable.
USER NAME: Enter the alphanumeric name, if applicable.
Press to congure the remaining parameters.
PREFERRED CODEC: See this item in Section 8.8.1.
SIP PORT: Enter a TCP/UDP port number.
The 5060 default setting is recommended.
PROXY PORT: Enter the proxy port value.
The default is 5060.
REGISTRAR PORT: Enter the registrar port value.
The default is 5060.
RTP PORT: Enter the Real-time Transport Protocol.
Options: Any even number in the range of 1024-50000
The default is 5060.
MY NUMBER/ALIAS: Enter the number or alphanumeric name assigned to the
client/test set.
This is the alias of the client/test set identier (IP address and Port number) that
is registered in the proxy/registrar servers. To create an entry:
1. With the cursor below MY NUMBER/ALIAS, press EDIT (F1).
2. In the character entry screen, press INPUT (F3) and the letter a will be high-
lighted. Press , , , or to choose a character and press ENTER. The chosen
character will appear to the right of the upper cursor entry area. Repeat until
done.
If a mistake is made in the entry:
A. Press STOP (F3) to move out of the character grid and back to the entry.
B. Move the cursor to the incorrect character.
C. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert a
character.
86
MTT-50
D. Press INPUT (F3) to select a new character. Press ENTER to insert the new
character to the left of the cursor.
3. Press STOP (F3) to move out of the character grid and back to the entry.
4. Press SAVE (F4) to save the entry and return to the PROTOCOL SETUP
screen.
MY HOST: Select the format of the host part in the local endpoints SIP address.
Options: NAME (F1), IP ADDR (F2)
NAME: The host part in the endpoints SIP address is in an alphanumeric format.
Use the procedure in MY NUMBER/ALIAS to create it.
IP ADDR: The host part in the endpoints SIP address is an IP address. If used,
enter an IP address.
AUDIO FILE DELAY (SEC): Select the delay between audio files in
transmission.
Options: 0 (F1), 1 (F2), 3 (F3), 5 (F5)
The test set will transmit audio les/packets as soon as a call is established. The
les will be sent continuously, with a delay in between les, and will terminate when
the call ends.
8.8.2 Call Features
There are two versions of the Place/Receive Calls screen, dependent on the
PROTOCOL selected in the PROTOCOL SETUP screen.
PLACE/RECEIVE CALLS Common Features
CALL/HANGUP (F1): When ready to place a call, press CALL. The line under
CALL STATUS will display the signalling messages during the call, such as CALL-
ING, CALL RELEASE, etc. When nished, press HANGUP (F1). Note in order
to make any changes in the setup screens, or to escape from the screen, press
HANGUP (F1).
The following F-key is available during a call:
SPEED (F3): Access a SPEED DIAL list of saved numbers, names, or aliases.
is available in the NUMBER/ALIAS parameter eld of H.323 and in the CALL TO
NUMBER/ALIAS parameter eld of SIP. Up to 10 entries can be saved.
Use this procedure:
1. Use any previously described procedure to make a numeric/ alphanumeric entry
in any eld that displays a SAVE F-key.
2. Press SAVE. The SPEED DIAL list is displayed; note that the CURRENT line
contains the new entry.
3. Press or to select a blank line and press SAVE (F1) to copy the CURRENT
entry to the blank line. If a line with an entry is selected, it will be overwritten.
After an entry is made, two additional F-keys are available:
SELECT (F2): Select an entry from the SPEED DIAL list and press ENTER. The
PLACE/RECEIVE screen is then displayed.
DELETE (F3): Delete a selected entry.
87
GigE Module
H.323 Place/Receive Calls
Setup an H.323 call.
PROTOCOL, CODEC, and
PROXY are displayed in Figure
58, but these settings cannot be
changed in this screen. Instead
change these settings in the
PROTOCOL SETUP screens.
AUDIO FILE: Select an audio
le to transmit.
Press SELECT (F2) and
choose a le from the AUDIO
FILE TYPE list.
ADDRESS TYPE: Select the
type of address to use.
Options: TRANSP (F3), E.164
TRANSP: This address type is selected for direct peer-to-peer calls without a
gatekeeper.
E.164: Phone number addressing, i.e., 408-363-8000.
CALL TO NUMBER/ALIAS: Depending on the ADDRESS TYPE selected, use the
SHIFT key and numeric keypad to make an entry, or press SPEED (F3) to either
add or retrieve from a SPEED DIAL list of numbers or aliases.
SIP Place/Receive Calls
This subsection describes the setup for
SIP.
PROTOCOL, CODEC, and PROXY are
displayed, as shown in Figure 59, but these
settings cannot be changed in this screen.
Instead, change them in the PROTOCOL
SETUP screen.
CALL TO NUMBER/ALIAS: Enter the alias
to dial on the line below this line.
Options: NAME (F3) is the only option.
Press EDIT (more, F1) to display a character
entry screen to enter the name in, or press SPEED (F3) to add or retrieve from the
SPEED DIAL list.
CALL TO HOST: Enter the name or IP address of the host (MTT GigE).
Options: NAME (F3), IP ADDR (F4)
Depending on the selected setting (NAME or IP ADDR) enter a URL/IP address on
the line below this line. You may also press SPEED (F3) to either add or retrieve
from the SPEED DIAL list of numbers or aliases.
11: 50: 45
CALL
>SHOWTI ME DHCP UP<
PLACE/ RECEI VE CALLS
PROTOCOL: SI P
CODEC : G. 711u
PROXY : NONE
CALL TO NUMBER/ ALI AS: NAME
MTT02
CALL TO HOST: I P ADDR
@10 . 10 . 10 . 12
CALL STATUS:
DTMF>
EVENT NAME
Figure 59 SIP Place/Receive Calls
NORMAL
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
FAST
PLACE/ RECEI VE CALLS
PROTOCOL: H. 323
CODEC : G. 711u
GATEKEEPER : 0. 0. 0. 0
AUDI O FI LE : DEFAULT
ADDRESS TYPE: E. 164
NUMBER/ ALI AS:
4083638000
CALL STATUS:
>gat ekeeper Request
DTMF>

Figure 58 H.323 Place/Receive Calls
88
MTT-50
The SIP server (PROXY) domain name should be used if it is manually entered
in the PROTOCOL SETUP screen, otherwise use the SIP/PROXY IP ad-
dress.
NAME: The entry is in an alphanumeric format. Use the procedure described
above.
IP ADDR: The entry is in a numeric format.
CALL STATISTICS Results
REFRESH
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e DHCP UP
STORE
CALL STATI STI CS
ST: 11: 45: 40 ET: 00: 05: 05
MI N MAX
J I TTER: 20 20
PKT TYPE RX TX
RTP: 5016 5016
DTMF: 0 0
SI LENT: N/ A 0
LOST: 0 N/ A
DROPPED: 0 N/ A
REPLAY: 0 N/ A

Figure 60 Call Statistics
ST Start Time of the call
ET Elapsed Time of the call
JITTER MIN/MAX The Minimum and Maximum Jitter values
PKT TYPE Number of (Packet) PKT TYPE received (RX) and
transmitted (TX)
RTP Number of RTP packets received (RX) and transmitted
(TX)
DTMF Number of DTMF digits received (RX) and transmitted
(TX)
SILENT Number of silent packets transmitted (TX)
LOST Number of packets lost
DROPPED Number of packets dropped due to too late to play
REPLAY Number of replayed packets
.
CALL STATISTICS F-keys
REFRESH (F1): Reset all counters in this screen, without ending the call.
STORE (F2): Store the CALL STATISTICS screen.
When nished viewing, press ESC to return to the PLACE/RECEIVE CALLS
screen.
89
GigE Module
EVENT (F2): View any past call events. The screens list events along with their di-
rection (incoming <, outgoing >) that take place during a call. Press or to scroll
through all of the available screens. See Figure 61 for sample EVENT screens.
H.323
CLEAR STORE
12: 50: 45
>SHOWTI ME DHCP UP<
EVENT
16: 31: 33
<CS set up
16: 31: 33
<H. 245 t er mi nal Capabi l i t ySet
16: 31: 33
<H. 245 mast er Sl aveDet er mi nat i on
16: 31: 33
>CS al er t i ng
16: 31: 33
>H. 245 t er mi nal Capabi l i t ySet
16: 31: 33
<H. 245 t er mi nal Capabi l i t ySet Ack
CLEAR STORE
12: 50: 45
>SHOWTI ME DHCP UP<
EVENT
16: 31: 33
>H. 245 mast er Sl aveDet er mi nat i on
16: 31: 33
<H. 245 mast er Sl aveDet er mi n Ack
16: 31: 33
>H. 245 t er mi nal Capabi l i t ySet Ack
16: 31: 33
>H. 245 mast er Sl aveDet er mi n Ack
16: 31: 48
>CS connect
16: 31: 48
<H. 245 openLogi cal Channel
CLEAR
12: 50: 45
>SHOWTI ME DHCP UP<
EVENT
16: 31: 48
>H. 245 openLogi cal Channel
16: 31: 48
<H. 245 openLogi cal Channel Ack
16: 31: 48
>H. 245 openLogi cal Channel Ack
16: 32: 43
>H. 245 endSessi onCommand
16: 32: 43
<H. 245 endSessi onCommand
16: 32: 43
>CS r el easeCompl et e
STORE CLEAR
12: 50: 45
>SHOWTI ME DHCP UP<
EVENT
16: 32: 45
- - - - H. 323 Cal l Ended - - - -
STORE
SIP
CLEAR STORE
12: 50: 45
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I DLE DHCP UP
EVENT
12: 29: 01
< I NVI TE
12: 33: 58
> 180 Ri ngi ng
12: 33: 59
> 200 OK
12: 34: 00
< ACK
12: 34: 00
> BYE
12: 34: 03
< 200 OK
CLEAR STORE
12: 50: 45
>SHOWTI ME DHCP UP<
EVENT
12: 29: 01
- - - - SI P Cal l Ended - - - -
12:50:45
P1:1000BXF-DPLX IDLE DHCP UP
12:50:45
P1:1000BXF-DPLX IDLE DHCP UP
12:50:45
P1:1000BXF-DPLX IDLE DHCP UP
12:50:45
P1:1000BXF-DPLX IDLE DHCP UP
12:50:45
P1:1000BXF-DPLX IDLE DHCP UP
12:50:45
P1:1000BXF-DPLX IDLE DHCP UP
Figure 61 Event Screens
STORE (F2): Store the EVENT screens. An acknowledgement screen appears; the
events are stored in a .csv le, which may be viewed in the VIEW/STORE/PRINT
feature, Section 11,
CLEAR (F4): Clear the list of events.
Press ESC to return to the PLACE/RECEIVE CALLS screen.
90
MTT-50
8.8.3 VQ Measurements
The menu contains:
NON-INTRUSIVE TEST MODE
8.8.3.1 Non-intrusive VQM Test Mode
Congure the following:
METRICS REPORTING: If EN-
ABLED, the ENDPOINT CALL
METRIC screens will be used to
measure voice quality received
from the network interface.
Options: ENABLE (F1), DISABLE
(F2)
TRIGGERED BY: Choose the
triggering method if METRICS
REPORTING is ENABLED.
Options: TIMER (F1), F-KEY
(F2)
TIMER: A Timer trigger is used
when a report needs to be gen-
erated repeatedly in a set time
interval, i.e., refresh the on-screen report in every 5 seconds for 300 seconds.
If used, congure the IN EVERY and FOR settings.
F-KEY: If selected, trigger a report by pressing RPT KEY (F1) in the TERMINATED
CALL METRICS report screen.
IN EVERY: If using the TIMER setting, select a sample time.
Options: I5 to 300 seconds in 5 second increments
Use + (F2) or - (F3) to increment the value,
FOR: If using the TIMER setting, select an end of report sampling time
Options: 5 to 300 seconds in 5 second increments
Use + (F2) or - (F3) to increment the value, or select CALLEND (F1) to end the
report sampling at the end of the call.
VQ MEASUREMENT SETUP F-key
HST RPT (F4): View any terminated call metric reports. See Section 11.
When nished with the conguration, press ESC.
Terminated Call Metrics Results
The TERMINATED CALL METRICS screen is displayed by pressing HST RPT (F4)
in the VQ MEASUREMENT SETUP screen (Figure 62. It reports R-factors and MOS
of the call just ended as well as the range of voice quality scores since the test set
was powered on.
ENABLE DI SABLE HST RPT
10: 06: 45 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP

VQ MEASUREMENT SETUP
METRI CS REPORTI NG : ENABLE
TRI GGERED BY : TI MER
I N EVERY : 5 SEC
FOR : 300 SEC

Figure 62 VQ Measurement Setup
91
GigE Module
TERMINATED CALL METRICS Statistics
CALL PEER: Reports the other party of the call.
For the following ve items, the screen reports the Last, Minimum, Average, and
Maximum values.
LQ-R R-factor value of Listening Quality.
CQ-R R-factor value of Conversational Quality.
MOS-LQ Mean Option Score of Listening Quality.
MOS-CQ Mean Option Score of Conversational Quality.
MOS-PQ An equivalent PESQ MOS score mapping from the R-factor
.
TERMINATED CALL METRICS Screen F-keys:
CLEAR (F1): Erase the current record.
STORE (F2): Store the report. See Section 11 for details.
When nished viewing this screen, press ESC.
92
MTT-50
9 Optical Power Measurement
This screen is displayed only if the plug-in optical transceiver supports this feature.
Some early models of transceiver do not support this feature.
Press ENTER when the feature is highlighted. Results appear.
OPTI CAL POWER MEASUREMENT
WAVELENGTH: 1310 nm
TX POWER : - 1. 9 dBm
RX POWER : - 0. 3 dBm
11: 50: 45 Laser
P1: 1000BX/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: LI NK- DOWN I dl e
SATUR LOS
0. 0 - 30. 0
Figure 63 Optical Power Measurement Screen
Optical Power Measurement Results
WAVELENGTH: 850nm, 1310nm, 1550 nm
TX POWER: Transmitted power value in dBm or HIGH POWER ALARM/LOW
POWER ALARM.
RX POWER: Received power value in dBm.
The bar graph also shows the RX power level on a scale based on receiver sensitiv-
ity. Saturation will be displayed if the received optical power is above the maximum
receiver sensitivity. LOS (Loss of Signal) will be displayed if the received optical
power is below the minimum receiver sensitivity.
93
GigE Module
This page has been intentionally left blank.
94
MTT-50
10 Measurements Setup
Use this screen to set basic parameters for BERT/Throughput, BERT/Loopback,
and IP Throughput measurements.
PORT1/ 2
11: 50: 45
P1: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
P2: 1000BT/ F- DPLX I dl e I P UP
CONTI NU TI MED
MEASUREMENTS SETUP
EVENTS RECORD : ENABLE
TX Aut omat i cal l y : ENABLE
TEST DURATI ON : 10: 0
START : PROGRAM
PROG DATE YMD : 2009/ 10/ 10
PROG TI ME HMS : 00: 04: 30

Figure 64 Measurements Setup Screen
EVENTS RECORD: Choose whether or not to display the EVENTS screen in BERT
testing
Options: DISABLE (F1), ENABLE (F2)
The default is ENABLE; the EVENTS screen is shown.
TX Automatically: Start the transmitter when measurements start, or not.
Options: DISABLE (F1), ENABLE (F2)
When disabled, a TX On F-key appears in tests. Once the measurement is
started, press the TX On to begin sending trafc.
When enabled, the transmitter and measurement begin at the same time. Press
the TX OFF F-key in tests to stop the transmitter.
Having the measurement RX and TX uncoupled allows for more accurate mea-
surements when doing end-to-end testing without a loopback, because you can
control precisely when the transmitter begins.
When troubleshooting, you may nd it easier to pinpoint problems by starting
measurements rst, then starting transmitting.
TEST DURATION: Select continuous or timed testing.
Options: CONTINU (F1), TIMED (F4)
If TIMED is selected, set the test duration from 000:01 through 999:59 at the
YMD and HMS lines.
START: Select the method to begin your test measurements.
Options: Program, Manual
95
GigE Module
Program: Program a specied date and time in the future to begin taking mea-
surements. Once you have selected Program, you must enter the desired date
and time in the next two items.
Manual: You must manually begin the test measurements at the desired time.
PROG DATE YMD: Set the year, month, and day for a TIMED test to start.
Use the numeric keypad to set the date.
PROG DATE HMS: Set the hour, minute, and second for a TIMED test to start.
Use the numeric keypad to set the time of day.
96
MTT-50
11 View/Store/Print
Use this screen to manage, view and print stored results.
To store results, press STORE, or select Yes when prompted, in a results screen.
Access the VIEW/STORE/PRINT screen from the ETHERNET MAIN MENU.
13: 50: 05
Fr ee space: 46419 Kbyt e
Fr ee space: 113745 kbyt e
NAME TYPE LOCK
1. BERT0001 ETH50
2. BERT0002 ETH50
3. RFC_0001 ETH50
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
VI EW/ STORE/ PRI NT
VI EW PRI NT mor e
RENAME UN/ LOCK DELETE mor e
13: 50: 25
> STORED RESULTS
RFC2544 VI EWRESULT MENU
TEST CONFI GURATI ON
TEST RESULTS
PREV PG NEXT PG
13: 50: 15
> STORED RESULTS
FI LE PROPERTI ES
FI LE NAME : RFC_0001
TI ME SAVED: 11: 01: 40
DATE SAVED: 09/ 11/ 09
RESULTS: RFC2544 TEST
PREV PG NEXT PG
13: 50: 30
> STORED RESULTS
RFC2544 VI EWRESULT MENU
DONE THROUGHPUT
DONE LATENCY
N/ A PDV
DONE FRAME LOSS RATE
DONE BACK TO BACK
Highlight to select a file,
then press ENTER to
view the results.
Figure 65 View/Store/Print Menu with View Screens
97
GigE Module
View/Store/Print F-keys
VIEW (F1): View a selected le; see Figure 65 and the subsection following.
PRINT (F3): Print a selected le; see the subsection following.
RENAME (more, F1): Edit the name of a le. See the instructions following.
UN/LOCK (more, F2): Lock and unlock a selected le; see the subsection follow-
ing.
DELETE (more, F3): Delete an unlocked le; see the subsection following.
Saving a Test
1. From any screen with a STORE F-key, press it. The test is saved with a generic
lename as a .csv le. It can be opened with most spreadsheet programs. These
les are stored in the MMC card under RESULT > CSV.
Viewing a Stored Test
1. Cursor ( ) to the desired le to highlight and select it.
2. Press VIEW (F1). The FILE PROPERTIES screen appears, providing an overview
of the test setup.
3. Use PREV PG (F1) and NEXT PG (F4) to scroll up and down through the
screens.
4. When nished, press ESC.
Printing a Stored Test
1. Connect a SunSet printer to the serial port of the test set.
For other types of printers or for more information, refer to the Storing and Print-
ing chapter in the test set users manual.
2. In the VIEW/STORE/PRINT screen, select the le, then press PRINT (F3). The
le will begin printing.
4. When nished, press ESC.
Deleting a Stored Test
1. From the module main menu, select VIEW/STORE/PRINT.
2. Select the desired le, then press DELETE (more, F3). The le is deleted if it is
unlocked.
3. When nished, press ESC.
Locking and Unlocking a Stored Test
1. From the module main menu, select VIEW/STORE/PRINT.
2. Select the desired fle, then press UN/LOCK (more, F2). The fle is locked or
unlocked as indicated to the right of the le name. Refer to the lock icon shown
in Figure 65.
3. When nished, press ESC.
Renaming a Stored Test
1. From the modules main menu, select VIEW/STORE/PRINT.
2. Cursor ( .) to the desired le to highlight it.
98
MTT-50
Press UN/LOCK (more, F2) if the fle is locked as indicated by the lock icon as
in Figure 65.
3. Press RENAME (F1) and a character entry screen like the one shown in Figure
66 is displayed.
I NSERT
11: 50: 45
DELETE STOP SAVE
VI EW/ STORE/ PRI NT
FI LENAME: RFC_0001
A a B b C c D d E e F f
G g H h I i J j K k L l
M mN n O o P p Q q R r
S s T t U u V v Ww X x
Y y Z z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 - _ @! # $ %&

Figure 66 Rename Character Screen
4. Press INPUT (F3). The A character is highlighted and the INPUT F-key has
changed to STOP.
5. Use to select the desired character.
6. Press ENTER to place the desired character in the label. Continue this process
until the FILENAME label is complete. You may enter up to 15 characters. If you
make a mistake in the entry:
A. Press STOP (F3).
B. Move the FILENAME cursor to the incorrect character.
C. Press DELETE (F2) to delete the character or, press INSERT (F1) to insert
a character.
D. Press INPUT (F3) to select a character. Press ENTER to insert the new
character to the left of the cursor.
7. Press SAVE (F4) to Escape the character entry screen and return to the VIEW/
STORE/PRINT screen.
99
GigE Module
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100
MTT-50
12 Proles
Use the Prole function to store commonly used module conguration settings.
The PROFILE LIST screen contains a DEFAULT prole. This prole is based on the
factory standard conguration of this module.
To create other proles:
1. Change the conguration settings in any conguration screen as required.
2. Select PROFILES from the ETHERNET MAIN MENU.
3. Select a blank entry.
4. Press STORE (F2).The settings are saved with a generic lename.
Use this screen to manage proles. The screen and its functions are as follows:
LOAD
11: 50: 45
STORE
RENAME mor e
PROFI LE LI ST
Fr ee space: 113745 kbyt e
FI LENAME LOADED MODULE LOCK
1. DEFAULT NO ETH50
2. P000001 NO ETH50
3. P000002 YES ETH50
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
LOCK DELETE mor e
The DEFAULT
profile cant be
deleted or changed.
locked file
Figure 67 Prole List Screen
RFC2544/NE Test proles may also be saved from within those menus.
PROFILE LIST Screen F-keys
LOAD (F1): Change all conguration settings of the module to match the selected
prole.
The LOADED column changes from NO to YES.
STORE (F2): Save all current conguration screens with a generic lename.
Ten proles can be saved.
The type of module is indicated in the MODULE column.
RENAME (F3): Change the name of a le.
Select a lename, then press RENAME (F3) to change its name.
101
GigE Module
A character entry screen similar to that in Figure 66 is displayed. Use the pro-
cedure in Renaming a Stored File, Section 11, to edit the name.
DELETE (more, F1): Delete a selected unlocked prole.
LOCK/UNLOCK (more, F2): Lock or unlock a selected le.
Lock a prole to prevent changes. The les status is indicated by a lock icon in
the LOCK column. In Figure 67 DEFAULT is locked.
102
MTT-50
13 Reference
13.1 Customer Service
Sunrise Telecom Customer Service is available 24/7. Customer Service performs
the following functions:
Answers customer questions over the phone on such topics as product operation
and repair.
Repairs malfunctioning MTT promptly.
Provides information about product upgrades.
A Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA) Number is required before any product
may be shipped to Sunrise Telecom for repair. Out-of-warranty repairs require both
an RMA and a Purchase Order before the unit is returned. All repairs are warranted
for 90 days.
Please contact Customer Service if you need additional assistance:
Customer Service
Sunrise Telecom Incorporated
302 Enzo Drive
San Jose, CA 95138 U.S.A.
Tel: 1 408 363 8000 or 1 800 701 5208
Fax: 1 408 363 8313
Internet: http://www.sunrisetelecom.com
E-mail: support@sunrisetelecom.com
Sunrise Telecom ofces are located around the world.
SUNRISE TELECOM INCORPORATED
302 Enzo Drive San Jose, CA 95138 U.S.A.
Tel: 1-800-701-5208 Fax: 1-408-363-8313
Internet: http://www.sunrisetelecom.com
E-mail: support@sunrisetelecom.com
SUNRISE TELECOM ATLANTA
3075 Northwoods Circle, Norcross, GA 30071, USA
Tel: 770-446-6086, Fax: 770-446-6850
catvsupport@sunrisetelecom.com
103
GigE Module
SUNRISE TELECOM CHINA
Room 1503, Tower 3 , No.1, Xizhimenwai Street
Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044, CHINA
Tel: +86-10-5830-2220, Fax: +86-10-5830-2239
info@sunrisetelecom.com.cn
SUNRISE TELECOM FRANCE SAS
ZA Courtaboeuf 2 - Immeuble le Ceylan
6 Alle de Londres 91140 Villejust, FRANCE
Tel: +33 (0) 1 6993 8990, Fax: +33 (0) 1 6993 8991
france@sunrisetelecom.com
SUNRISE TELECOM GERMANY
Grabenstrasse 1, 72116 Mssingen GERMANY
Tel: +49 7473 378 2400 Fax: +49 (0) 7473 378 2424
info@sunrisetelecom.de
SUNRISE TELECOM TAIWAN
21, Wu Chuan 3rd Road, Wu-Ku Hsiang
Taipei County, 248, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Tel: +886-2-5578-0788, Fax: +886-2-2298-2575
104
MTT-50
13.2 Test Patterns
Here is a list of standard test patterns the MTT GigE supports.
C indicates CRC error checking is enabled for that pattern.
2^31: Industry-standard 2
31
-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed
from a 31-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up
to 30 zeros in a row.
2^23: Industry-standard 2
23
-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed
from a 23-stage shift register and is not zero-constrained. This pattern contains up
to 22 zeros in a row.
2^20: Industry-standard 2
20
-1 pseudo random bit sequence. This signal is formed
1111: Industry-standard all 1s pattern.
1010: Industry-standard alternating ones and zeros pattern.
0000: Industry-standard all zeros pattern.
105
GigE Module
13.3 Technology Overview
13.3.1 Ethernet Overview
Once the primary delivery mechanism for data across a LAN (Local Area Network),
the utilization of Ethernet has expanded to MAN and WAN (Metropolitan and Wide
Area Networks) to challenge traditional TDM-based technologies such as T-Carrier,
PDH, and SONET/SDH. Its superior cost performance, proven ability to carry packet-
based data, and easy integration into a LAN environment make it a preferred solution
to ATM, Token Ring, and Frame Relay for delivering IP-based services such as VoIP
and IPTV as well as traditional data and internet trafc.
Ethernet interface rates today span from 10 Mbps up to 10 Gbps. Typically, Ether-
net is carried over UTP (unshielded twisted pair) or ber optic cable (single-mode
or multi-mode, depending on wavelength), but other options exist, including thin
coaxial cable.
The original Ethernet standard was for 10M and 100M is referred to as Fast Ethernet.
Most copper Ethernet ports support both 10M and 100M (and even 1000M in some
cases) and they are usually referred to as 10/100M ports or 10/100BASE-T.
Ethernet is controlled by the IEEE 802.3 body of standards, but its historical develop-
ment has also lead to deviations, such as the DIX Ethernet (also known as Ethernet
II), as well as vendor-specic implementations (such as 1000BASE-LH for long-haul
Ethernet). Except where noted, the following refers to IEEE standards.
Name Rate Medium
10BASE-T 10M CAT-3 UTP
100BASE-T/TX 100M CAT-5 UTP
100BASE-FX 100M Multi-mode or single-mode ber
1000BASE-T 1000M CAT-5/5e UTP
1000BASE-SX 1000M Multi-mode ber, 850 nm
1000BASE-LX 1000M Single-mode ber, 1310 nm
1000BASE-ZX 1000M Single-mode ber, 1550 nm
10GBASE-SR 10G LAN Multi-mode ber, 850 nm
10GBASE-LR 10G LAN Single-mode ber, 1310 nm
10GBASE-ER 10G LAN Single-mode ber, 1550 nm
10GBASE-SW 10G WAN Multi-mode ber, 850 nm
10GBASE-LW 10G WAN Single-mode ber, 1310 nm
10GBASE-EW 10G WAN Single-mode ber, 1550 nm
Table 4 Common Ethernet Standards
10G LAN has a line rate of 10 Gbps. 10G WAN encapsulates Ethernet trafc into
an OC-192c/STM-64c frame has thus has a line rate of 9.953 Gbps.
Optical Line Encoding
Before being transmitted across optical ber, the bits of the Ethernet signal are
converted using an encoding scheme known as 8B/10B encoding (for Gigabit Eth-
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ernet) or 64B/66B encoding (for 10 Gigabit Ethernet). A receiving device reverses
the encoding, so that the encoding is completely transparent to the user. Encoding
helps to ensure a balanced transmission of 1s and 0s in the signal which aids in
DC balance and clock recovery
8B/10B encoding takes each block of 8 bits and translated them into a code word
that is 10 bits long. For a Gigabit Ethernet, this means the number of bits transmit-
ted is actually 1.25 Gbps (1 Gbps x 10 bits / 8 bits). With 10 bits, there are 1024
unique code words for mapping 256 possible 8-bit data blocks. Many code words
are not used. Some are reserved for link-level signaling. In many cases, a single
8-bit block can be mapped into one of two code words that are bitwise inverts of
each other. Code words are chosen in such a manner so as the number of 1s and
0s balance out in a process called running disparity. A violation of these rules is
called a disparity error.
Note: The 8 data bits are actually rst broken into 5-bit and 3-bit blocks which
are encoded separately into 6- and 4-bit code words, but for the purposes of this
discussion, thinking of the encoding process as a single step of 8-bits to 10-bits is
sufcient.
64B/66B encoding serves a similar function but uses a different method of mapping
data bits into code words. The 64 data bits (8 bytes) are scrambled, and then a 2-bit
synchronization header is added. For 10GE LAN, the physical line rate is actually
10.3125 Gbps (10G x 66 bits / 64 bits). For 10GE WAN, the encoding is done before
the Ethernet payload is placed side the OC-192c/STM-64c payload envelope.
Ethernet Frames
FCS / CRC
DATA
Type / Length
Source
Address
Destination
Address
SFD
Preamble: 7 bytes
Start of Frame Delimiter: 1 byte
Destination MAC Address: 6 bytes
Source MAC Address: 6 bytes
Data: 46 to 1500 bytes
Frame Check Sequence: 4 bytes
Length of Frame or Type of Data: 2 bytes
Preamble
64 to
1518
bytes
Figure 68 Basic Ethernet Frame
Preceding each frame is a preamble of 7 bytes and a 1-byte SFD (Start Frame
Delimiter). The preamble is a pattern of alternating 1s and 0s (10101010) for all 7
bytes. The SFD has a pattern of 10101011. The preamble allows devices to detect
and synchronize to incoming Ethernet frames; the SFP marks the end of the pre-
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amble. For the purposes of calculating frame lengths, the 8 bytes of Preamble and
SFP are not included.
An Ethernet frame consists of a MAC (Media Access Control ) header, followed by
the frame payload, and ends with a FCS (Frame Check Sequence).
The 14-byte MAC header consists of a 6-byte Destination Address, a 6-byte Source
Address, and a 2-byte Ethertype eld.
The Ethertype eld is either used as a frame length indicator or as protocol indi-
cator, depending on which Ethernet standard is being used. IEEE 802.2 uses the
eld to indicate the frame length (in hex). The DIX or Ethernet II standard uses the
eld to indicate the type of data being transmitted. In most IP-based applications,
the Ethernet II standard is used and the eld is set to an Ethertype of 0x0800 to
indicate an IP version 4 payload.
Ethertype values: http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/ethertype/eth.txt
The minimum payload size is 46 bytes. Frames with fewer payload bytes are con-
sidered undersized. The minimum Ethernet frame size is 64 bytes. The maximum
frame size is 1518 bytes. Frame sizes above 1518, called jumbo frames, are allowed
by some systems, and are an effective means of increasing the efciency of the
network. The presence of VLAN tags changes the effective minimum and maximum
frame sizes (see below).
The FCS is a 4-byte CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) performed over the entire
Ethernet frame. Sometimes the FCS is called the CRC eld. To avoid confusion, it
is sometimes written as the FCS/CRC eld. When an Ethernet device receives a
frame, it performs a CRC calculation and compares it to the frames FCS eld. If they
match, the frame is processed. If they do not match, the frame is discarded. Due
to the limits of the error-checking capabilities of a 4-byte CRC, the largest practical
size for an Ethernet frame is roughly 12,000 bytes.
Note: Because errored frames are discarded, performing a bit error test at the Eth-
ernet layer is very different than for TDM networks. The presence of a bit error that
does not also cause a CRC error is exceedingly rare. In the vast majority of cases,
a bit error translates into a lost frame. For this reason, most Ethernet QoS (Quality
of Service) standards use lost frames as its primary metric and do not rely on bit
error or BER (Bit Error Ratio).
MAC Address
The MAC addresses consist of 6 bytes, written in hexadecimal. The rst three bytes
contain a vendor code, also known as the OUI (Organizationally Unique Identier)
or company_id; the last three bytes contain a unique station ID. Vendor codes are
assigned and administered by the IEEE. The OUI for Sunrise Telecom is 00-D0-
DD. The station IDs are assigned by the manufacturers are often tied to the serial
number of the device.
Vendor codes: http://standards.ieee.org/regauth/oui/oui.txt
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00 - - DD - 01 - 34 - 3A 00 D0 - DD - 01 - 34 - 3A
Assigned by IEEE
to vendor: 3 bytes
User Value
Figure 69 MAC Address Format
Most Ethernet trafc is designated to travel from one station to another specic
station. This is called unicast trafc.
Broadcast Ethernet trafc is sent to all stations on the network; such frames are
given a MAC destination of all-ones: FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF. Because broadcast trafc
is very polluting, it should be avoided whenever possible.
Multicast trafc is sent from one station, but is then directed to a group of stations.
Multicasting is more efcient and more network-friendly than broadcasting. Typical
applications for multicast trafc include IP video delivery and LAN protocols.
Multicast trafc is designated by setting the rst bit of the address to 1. Because the
least signicant bit is transmitted rst, this means the last bit of the rst byte is set to
1; in other words, the byte value is odd. The MAC vendor code used for IP multicast
packets it typically 01-00-5E-xx-xx-xx, as specied by RFC 1112.
Testing Note
Most Ethernet testing is performed with unicast trafc. One tester generates unicast
frames that are received by the far end unit, which is either sending unicast trafc
of its own or looping the frames by swapping the source and destination addresses.
Furthermore, different test streams can be designated by their MAC addresses.
When testing multicast services, some care must be taken. Loopback devices will
not loop multicast (or broadcast) trafc. Also, the use of multicast MAC destination
addresses may cause problems designating test trafc. As shown below, the MAC
addresses sent by a tester do not match the MAC addressed received.
MAC Source MAC Destination
Generated: 00-D0-DD-12-34-56 01-00-5E-00-00-05
Received: 00-D0-DD-AB-CD-EF 01-00-5E-00-00-06
Table 5 Sample MAC Addresses
Thus, when running this test, the test summary will show NO BERT TRAFFIC since
the incoming trafc does not match that sent. Fortunately, all normal trafc statistics
and measurements can be made, with the exception of bit errors and BER.
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Interframe Gap
The gap of time between the end of one frame and the start of the preamble for the
next frame is called the inter frame gap (IFG).
IFG
Ethernet Frame Ethernet Frame Ethernet Frame Ethernet Frame
IFG
Figure 70 IFG
The minimum IFG is 12 bytes, or 96 bit-times. The minimum IFG thus depends on
the interface rate, as follows:
Interface Bit Time Minimum IFG
10M 100.0 ns 9.6 s
100M 10.0 ns 0.96 s
1G 1.0 ns 96.0 ns
10G 0.1 ns 9.6 ns
Table 6 Minimum IFG
To improve efciency, some network elements support frame gaps lower than 12
bytes, but the non-standard implementation is not wide-spread and not generally
recommended.
Frame Size and Efciency
Because each frame is followed by a frame gap and preamble, there is an inher-
ent inefciency built into Ethernet trafc. The percentage of bandwidth lost to the
20 bytes of IPG and preamble is lower for larger frames than smaller frames, as
shown next.
Data size Overhead /
frame
Frames/
second
Total bits lost
(overhead)
% of Bandwidth
Lost
64 Bytes
(512 bits)
160 bits 1,488,095 238,095,238 23 %
128 Bytes
(1024 bits)
160 bits 844,594 135,135,135 13 %
512 Bytes
(4096 bits)
160 bits 234,962 37,593,984 3.7 %
1024 Bytes
(8192 bits)
160 bits 119,731 19,157,088 1.9 %
1518 Bytes
(12144 bits)
160 bits 81,274 13,003,901 1.3 %
Table 7 Frame Rates
Because most Ether-
net trafc carries IP
packets, the IFG is often
called the IPG (Inter Packet
Gap). In fact, the terms
packet and frame tend to be
used interchangeably by
users even though they re-
fer to very distinct entities.
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VLAN Tagging
A virtual LAN (or VLAN) is an independent logical LAN within a physical network.
For example, with in a single enterprise LAN, different divisions may be grouped
within their own VLANs. VLANs provide a secure means of sub-diving networks,
control broadcast domains, and manage user access. VLANs are dened in the
IEEE 802.1p and 802.1q standards.
VLANs are designated by a VLAN tag that is added to the MAC frame after the MAC
source address. The 4-byte tag consists of a 2-byte Tag Protocol Identier (TPID)
and 2-byte Tag Control Information (TCI). The TPID has a value of 0x8100.
Destination
Address
Source
Address
VLAN TAG Type/Length DATA
TPID P
CRC
C VID
- TPID (2 Bytes): Tag Protocol IDentifier; set to 8100 (hex) = 802.1Q used
- P (3 bits): indicates priority level (0 to 7)
- C (1 bit): indicates ordering of the bits of the VLAN ID, set at 0 for Ethernet
- VID (12 bits): VLAN identifier (0 to 4095)
TPID TCID
16 bits: set to 8100 hex 16 bits
User
Priority
CFI VLAN ID
3 bits 1 bit 12 bits
TPID: Tag Protocol Identifier
TCI: Tag Control Information
CFI: Canonical Format Indicator
VLAN: Virtual LAN
Figure 71 VLAN Tag
Note: The TPID can actually be thought of as an Ethertype designation, identifying
the payload as a VLAN. The original MAC frames Ethertype eld is moved to the
inside of the VLAN payload, following the TCI.
The TCI contains the 12-bit VLAN identication, 3-bit priority eld, and 1-bit canonical
format indicator (CFI). The VLAN ID can have a value between 0 and 4095. However,
values 0, 1, and 4095 are reserved and best avoided. The priority eld allows the
network administrator to assign a value from 0 to 7 based on the type of trafc. The
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CFI is always set to 0 for Ethernet trafc.
User Priority Trafc Type
0 Best Effort
1 Background
2 Spare
3 Excellent Effort
4 Controlled Load
5 Video < 100 ms latency and jitter
6 Voice < 10 ms latency and jitter
7 Network Control
Table 8 User Priority
VLAN Membership
Ethernet trafc can be assigned VLAN memberships through several means:
By Port: all trafc through a particular switch port is assigned the same VLAN.
Fast traffc forwarding
Easy to maintain for network administrators
VLAN membership tied to geographic location
By MAC address: Each MAC source address is assigned a specic VLAN ID.
Great fexibility
VLAN lookup tables require manual confguration by network administrators
MAC address lookup takes more processing time
By Protocol: VLAN IDs are assigned based on IP address, or protocol used (such
as AppleTalk).
Great fexibility
Protocol lookup takes more processing time
By Authentication: VLAN IDs are assigned based on authentication credentials or
the result of IEEE 802.1X authentication results.
Improved security
Ideal for wireless connectivity
Stacked VLAN Tags
IEEE 802.1ad amends 802.1q by providing a means to stack multiple VLAN tags for
trafc management and bridging. This technique of placing one 802.1q tag inside
another is often called Q-in-Q.
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DA: MAC Destination Address
SA: MAC Source Address
Etype: Ethernet type/length
Tag: 8021.Q VLAN tag
Data: Customer data
FCS: Frame Check Sequence

to carrier core
Enterprise
CPE
C-Customer C-Customer
S-Carrier
Access
MAC
SA
Tag Etype Tag
Etype
Length
MAC
DA
Etype FCS Data
C-MAC C-Payload Data
C-MAC C-Tag C-Payload Data
C-MAC S-Tag C-Tag C-Payload Data
Figure 72 Stacked VLAN Tags
Stacking VLAN tags is an efcient means of differentiating trafc through a network
backbone, especially when then the user data may itself have VLAN tags. The outer
tag, also known as the service tag or S-tag is distinguished from the customer tag,
or C-tag. The TPID of the C-tag is usually 0x8100, as for normal VLAN trafc. The
TPID of the S-Tag may have a proprietary value, depending on the implementation
by the vendor. Each tag layer has its own priority setting. The priority of the outer
tag allows the network provider to achieve the desired quality of service for the
bridged trafc.
VLAN and Frame Size
Because the minimum payload size for an Ethernet frame is 46 bytes, the presence
of the 4-byte VLAN TPID and TCI pushes the minimum frame size from 64 bytes
to 68 bytes. Likewise, the largest, non-Jumbo frame size increases from 1518 to
1522 bytes. Stacked VLAN tags also increase the minimum and maximum frame
sizes by 4 bytes per VLAN tag.
When a device receives a VLAN tagged frame that is only 64 bytes, and it must
remove the VLAN tag and forward the Ethernet payload, it is left with a frame that
is only 60 bytes long. At this point, the device may simply drop the frame. Some
systems may add 4 bytes of ller at the end of the payload to create a legal 64-byte
frame.
MPLS
MultiProtocol Label Switching architecture was designed to provide a unied data-
carrying service/simple routing for both circuit-based clients and packet-switching
clients providing a datagram service model. Basically, it allows voice, IP, ATM, Frame
Relay and Ethernet services all to be carried on the same network. It can be used
with many types of framing, including Ethernet.
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The Layer 3 label analysis is only just once, when the packet enters the MPLS
domain. After that, labels are just inspected to continue packet forwarding.
Label EXP S TTL
20 bits 3 bits 1 bit 8 bits
Label: Unstructured label value; 20 bits
Exp: Experimental use; 3 bits - used for Class of Service (CoS)
S: Bottom of Stack; 1 bit
TTL: Time To Live; 8 bits
MPLS is sometimes called a Layer 2.5 protocol due to its position and use.
Layer 2 Header Top Label ... Bottom Label Layer 3 Header
Packet
MPLS 4 bytes
data layer network layer
Figure 73 MPLS Structure
The MPLS header contains a stack of one or more labels. A label has four elds:
20-bit label value
3-bit eld for CoS priority (experimental)
1-bit bottom of stack fag. If used, it signifes the current label is the last in the
stack
8-bit TTL (time to live) eld; The Time to Live label will expire at the conclusion
of this number of time-to-live hops.
The Experimental eld can be used to distinguish classes of service, or per hop
behavior, for differing classes of traffc traveling within the MPLS tunnel (AKA
Label Switched Path - LSP). Alternatively, an LSP carrying a single trafc class
uses the label to determine the per hop behavior of the class.
Ethernet Standards & Resources
IEEE Standards
The following 802 standards are available for free download from the IEEE website
at http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/index.html
IEEE 802: Overview & Architecture
IEEE 802.1 Bridging & Management
IEEE 802.2: Logical Link Control
IEEE 802.3: CSMA/CD Access Method
IEEE 802.5: Token Ring Access Method
IEEE 802.11: Wireless
IEEE 802.15: Wireless Personal Area Networks
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IEEE 802.16: Broadband Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks
IEEE 802.17. Resilient Packet Rings
IEEE Registration Authority has a number of public listings available at http://stan-
dards.ieee.org/regauth/publiclistings.html
OUI (Organizationally Unique Identifer) Public Listing
IAB (Individual Address Block) Public Listing
OUI-36 Public Listing
EtherType Field Public Listing
Manufacturer ID Public Listing
LLC (Logical Link Control) Public Listing
Standard Group MAC Address Public Listing
URN (Unique Registration Numbers) Public Listing
IEEE 802.16 Operator ID
Requests for Comments (RFC) Documents
RFC documents are a series of memoranda on internet technologies, techniques,
and innovations. Organized through the Internet Society, RFCs are the best resource
for technical information on these technologies and protocols. Some RFCs become
internet standards through the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force).
All RFCs are available for free online at the RFC Editor: http://www.rfc-editor.org/
rfc.html, but most can be found easily simply by typing the RFC number (such as
RFC 791) into a web browser.
The most common RFCs for Ethernet services testing are:
RFC 768: User Datagram Protocol
RFC 793: Transmission Control Protocol
RFC 791: Internet Protocol
RFC 792: Internet Control Message Protocol
RFC 826: Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol
RFC 2544: Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices
RFC 2889: Benchmarking Methodology for LAN Switching Devices class uses
the label to determine the per hop behavior of the class.
Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)
The Metro Ethernet Forum is an industry alliance which develops technical speci-
cations for carrier Ethernet worldwide. Over a dozen specications are online at
www.metroethernetforum.org.
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13.3.2 IP Overview
IP
Internet Protocol is the language computers on the Internet use to talk to one
another.
* such as TCP or UDP
Source address
Destination address
Data
Version IHL Type of Service Total Length
Identification Flags Fragment Offset

Time to Live Protocol* Header Checksum



Options + Padding
Figure 74 IP Packet
To send a message using IP, the computer adds extra information, known as the
IP header, in front of the message, creating an IP packet. The IP header contains
the address of the computer meant to receive the message, as well as the address
of the sender. It is like regular mail: the IP header is the envelope, with the recipi-
ent address and the sender addresses on it, and the message itself is inside. In
this case the addresses are numbers, like 67.34.22.199. The IP packet is sent
to the Internet, over Ethernet, DSL, or PPP.
The computers that make up the Internet itself look at the destination address
in the IP header, and forward the packet on, from one to another, until it gets to
where it is going, just as the Post Ofce forwards envelopes from one sorting of-
ce to the next until it is nally sent out for delivery.
TCP
IP is unreliable: packets can get lost due to faults or overloads in the network.
If a packet does get lost the sender has no way of knowing. TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol) is designed to x this. Nearly everything that happens on the
Internet web browsing, e-mail, instant messaging, etc uses TCP.
TCP adds its own header to the message, saying how much data it has already
sent and how much it has received from the other end. The combination of TCP
header and the actual message is then wrapped in IP and sent to the network,
hopefully to reach the addressed computer - usually after passing through many,
many forwarding computers on the way.
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When the recipient computer receives the TCP message it sends an acknowledg-
ment back. If the original sender sees that acknowledgment, then all is well: the
next message can be sent. If the sender does not get an acknowledgment within a
reasonable time, it sends the message again, repeating this until it knows the mes-
sage has got through, or until it eventually gives up and assumes that the network
is broken.
In reality, TCP acknowledges many messages at a time, while simultaneously send-
ing its own messages. For example, a TCP header might say I have received all
your messages up to number 97, and here is my message number 38.
ICMP and Ping
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), like TCP, uses IP to communicate from
one computer to another. Unlike with TCP, these messages do not carry information
of interest to users; instead they let the computers nd out about one another.
One important type of ICMP message is called echo request. When one computer
wants to check that it can reach another, it sends it echo request ICMP packet, which
asks are you there? When the other end receives that, it sends back a reply, called
an echo response, meaning yes, I am here. This process is called a ping. By send-
ing a series of pings it is possible to learn a lot about the state of the network.
If we send a series of echo requests and never get any echo replies, then something
is broken: perhaps the network itself is down, or perhaps the computer we are trying
to reach has lost its network connection.
If we send a series of echo requests, but only get replies to some of them, then the
network and remote computer are working, but not very well: some IP packets are
getting lost. Even though TCP can compensate for lost packets, there is a limit to
how much it can do and every time a packet gets lost TCP has to send it again,
making the overall network slower. As a rough guide, anything more than about 10%
packet loss will break TCP, and anything more than 1% will tend to make it painfully
slow. A well engineered network should have negligible packet loss.
Each time we send an echo request, we can time how long it takes for the echo
reply to come back. This can tell us something about the quality of the network
connection. For example, if it takes a second for the reply to come back, then there
is a long network delay which probably makes it unusable for some delay-sensitive
applications, such as voice.
Routers
A router is a computer in the core of the network that forwards routes packets
from one part of the network to another. It has multiple network interfaces, each
connected to another router. Every time it receives a packet, a router looks at the
destination IP address in the IP header, consults its internal tables to decide what
to do with the packet, and then forwards it on, usually over a different network in-
terface to a different router.
The backbone of the Internet is made up of thousands of routers, working in collabo-
ration to forward packets from one to another, until they reach their destination.
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Gateways
A gateway is a router that provides access to the Internet for user computers. On
one side it has one or more connections to network of routers that make up the
internet. On the other side it connects to individual computers.
There is no fundamental difference between what a gateway does and what a router
does (and the terms are often used interchangeably). They both take in packets
on one interface, and forward them out of another, according to the destination IP
address. The difference is in their position in the network. Routers live inside the
network, communicating with one another. Gateways live at the edge of the network,
communicating between routers and individual users.
DNS
The DNS (Domain Name System) was created to handle the challenge of both
remembering IP addresses and the fact that computer addresses may change over
time. DNS runs on computers known as Name Servers. They have regularly updated
tables of the names and IP addresses of all known computers on the Internet.
When you type www.google.com into the address bar of your web browser, the rst
thing that happens is that a DNS request is sent to one of the name servers saying
what is the IP address of www.google.com? The name server will reply with the
numerical IP address, such as 208.67.219.230. Your computer will then use that
address in its IP packets to communicate with Googles servers.
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) is the way a computer which is just joining
the Internet can nd its own IP address and other information, such as the IP ad-
dresses of the name server gateway to use.
When the network software is starting up, it sends out a DHCP message in an
IP message which has a special type of destination address called a Broadcast
address. This will be received by all computers connected to the same network
segment and one (or more) of them will reply, giving the IP address that should be
used and other information.
ARP
The ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) allows a networked computer to search for
a computer with a particular IP address. ARP is important on LANs, such as Ether-
net, where there may be many computers attached to the network, but IP packets
should only be sent to one of them.
To nd another computer, an ARP message is sent saying who has IP address
192.168.1.2? All of the computers on the network will see that message, but only
the one with that IP address will respond, saying thats me, at Ethernet address
12:34:56:78:9A:BC. From then on, IP packets for 192.168.1.2 will be sent to Eth-
ernet address 12:34:56:78:9A:BC, so that only that computer will see them: all the
others on the network will lter out those packets.
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13.4 Service Information
In general, handle ber patch cords and connectors carefully. Always replace dust
covers. Keep the optical connectors clean, and make a practice of not looking into
ber ends. The following sections give more specics.
13.4.1 Handling Optical Fiber
An optical ber is a strand of glass about the same diameter as a human hair.
Though it is remarkably durable, careful handling is required to ensure continued
high performance and long life.
Do not pull or kink patch cords, as the glass strand in the middle might become
damaged or broken.
A sharp bend will cause excessive signal loss.
Keep patch cord bend radiuses no less than an inch.
Use specialized optical cable raceways and plenums whenever they are avail-
able.
Dont use tie wraps as you would with electrical cables. Tie wraps will put strain
on the ber. Figure 75 shows the proper method of wrapping and securing ber
patch cords.
There are several types of optical connectors in use today. Figure 75 shows the two
most popular for Ethernet, SC and LC. Figure 76 shows a duplex multi-mode LC
cord. Look closely at the pictures to see the details of the connection mechanism.
SC LC
Figure 75 SC to LC Cord
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Figure 76 Duplex Multi-mode LC Connectors
When using optical connectors, insert or remove the ferrule straight into the
sleeve.
Minimize wiggling the connector as this may loosen the tight t that is required
for the ferrule and sleeve.
For SC connectors, orient the prominent key on the connector body with the slot
in bulkhead adapter. Push the connector in until it clicks. To remove, pinch the
connector body between your thumb and nger, and gently pull straight out.
LC connectors evolved from the basic RJ-45 connector design, and are placed
on and removed in the same fashion as an RJ-45. Simply push the rear prongs
together to release the connector. Listen for the click when you seat the con-
nector.
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13.4.2 Cleaning Optical Fiber
Fiber optic connectors must be kept clean to ensure long life of the connectors and
to minimize transmission loss at the connec tion point.
Precautions
When not in use, always replace dust covers and caps to pre vent deposits and
lms from airborne particles. A single dust particle caught between two connec-
tors will cause signicant signal loss. Dust particles can scratch the polished
ber end, resulting in permanent damage.
Do not touch the connector end or the ferrules, since this will leave an oily de-
posit from your ngers.
Do not allow uncapped connectors to drop on the foor.
How to Clean
Should a ber connector become dirty or exhibit high loss, carefully clean the
entire ferrule and end face.
Special lint-free pads should be used with isopropyl alcohol.
Even though not very accessible, the end face in a bulkhead adapter on test
equipment can be cleaned by using a special lint-free swab, again with isopropyl
alcohol.
In extreme cases, a test unit may require more thorough clean ing at the fac-
tory.
Cotton, paper, or solvents should never be used for cleaning since they may
leave behind particles or residues.
Use a ber optic cleaning kit especially made for cleaning optical connectors,
and follow the directions.
Canned air can do more harm than good if not used properly. Again, follow the
directions that come with the kit.
121
GigE Module
13.5 Abbreviations
Here is a list of abbreviations. Some abbreviations are created by combining two ab-
breviations. For example, AU-NDF is a New Data Flag on the Administrative Unit.
Symbols
10GE - 10 Gbps Ethernet
A
ACT - Activation (in the TCM ACT byte)
ADM - Add/Drop Multiplex
AIS - Alarm Indication Signal; an all-ones signal, which replaces normal trafc signal
when it has a defect (to prevent downstream failures or alarms).
AISS - Alarm Indication Signal Seconds
ALM - Alarm
APS - Automatic Protection Switching
ARP - Address Resolution Protocol; TCP/IP protocol
ARQ - Automatic Repeat Request
AS - Available Second
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
AVE - Average
AVG - Average
B
BERT - Bit error rate testing
bps - Bits per second
BDI - Backward Defect Indication
BI - Backward Indication
BIAE - Backward Incoming Alignment Error
BIP-x - Bit-Interleaved Parity; used as parity code error checking on a Path
BER - Bit Error Rate
BPV - Bipolar Violation
C
CAS- Channel Associated Signaling
Cbit - C-bit Parity Error Count
CBR - Constant Bit Rate
CLR - Clear
CFI - Canonical Format Indicator; VLAN tag element
CONFIG - Conguration
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRC-4/6 - Cyclic Redundancy Check Code - 4/6
CRC-N - Cyclic Redundancy Check-Nth order
CSF - Client Signal Fail (GFP)
CSV - Comma-Separated Values; a le format
CSU - Customer Service Unit
CTRL - Control
CUR- Current
122
MTT-50
D
dB - Decibel
dBm - Decibel ratio of watts to one milliwatt (output power)
DCS - Digital Cross-connect System
DHCP - Dynamic Host Conguration Protocol
DNS - Domain Name System; internet
DOS - Denial of Service
DS - Differential Services for the internet
DS1 - Digital Signal 1
DSCP - Differentiated Services Code Point; IP Header eld
DSX - Digital Signal Cross-connect
DSXMON - DSX Monitor signal
DUT - Device Under Test
DWDM - Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
E
E - Equipment
E1 - 2.048 Mbps signal
EOS - Ethernet over SONET
EOS - End of Sequence
EQP - Equipment
ERR - Error
ERR INJ - Error Injection
ES - Errored Second
ESCON - Enterprise Systems Connection
ESF: Extended Super Frame framing
ET - Elapsed Time
ETH - Ethernet
EXP - Experimental
EUT - Equipment Under Test
EXT - External
F
FAS - Frame Alignment Signal
FCS - Frame Check Sequence.
FEAC - Far End Alarm and Control Channel
FEBE - Far end Block Error (renamed as REI)
FEC - Forward Error Correction
FRAI - Frame Remote Alarm Indication
FREQ - Frequency
G
Gbps - Gigabits per second
GCC - General Communications Channel
GE - Gigabit Ethernet
GFP - Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)
H
HDB3 - High Density Bipolar Three
HEC - Header Error Check (GFP)
HEX - Hexadecimal
123
GigE Module
HO - High Order (as in High Path)
HOVC - Higher Order Virtual Container
HP - High Path
Hz - Hertz
I
IAE - Incoming Alignment Error
IEC - Incoming Error Count
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IFG - Inter-Frame Gap
INTERN - Internal
INJ - Inject
INV - Inverted
IP - Internet Protocol
IPG - Inter-Packet Gap
J
JOH - Justication Overhead
K
kbp/s - KiloBits Per Second
kbps - KiloBits Per Second
L
L - Line
LAN - Local Area Network
LB - Loopback
LCAS - Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
LCD - Liquid Crystal Display
LLC - Logical Link Control; upper sublayer of the OSI data link layer.
LO - Low Order (as in Low Path)
LOA - Loss of Alignment
LOF - Loss of Frame
LOFS - Loss of Frame Second
LOS - Loss of Signal
LOSS - Loss of Signal Second
LP - Low Path
LVL - Level
M
M - Megabits per second
MAC - Media Access Control
MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
MAX - Maximum
Mbps - Megabits per second
MBZ - Must be zero
MEZ - Measurement le; opened with STT
MF - Multi-Frequency
MFAS - MultiFrame Alignment Signal
MI - Management Information (LCAS)
MIN - Minimum
MON - Monitor
124
MTT-50
MPLS - Multiprotocol Label Switching
MS - Multisection
Mux - Multiplex
N
NDF - New Data Flag
NDIS - Network Driver Interface Standard
NE - Network Element
NFAS: Non Frame Alignment Signal
NI - Network Interface
NIC - Network Interface Card
NIU - Network Interface Unit
NV RAM - Non Volatile Random Access Memory
O
OAM&P Operations, Administration, Management and Protection
OChr - Optical channel with reduced functionality
OCC - Optical Channel Carrier
OCh - Optical Channel Layer
OCG - Optical Carrier Group
OCI - Open Connection Indication
ODU - Optical Data Unit
ODTUG - Optical channel Data Tributary Unit Group
OOF - Out Of Frame
OOFS - Out Of Frame Seconds
OCI - Open Connection Indication
OH - Overhead
Oload - Offered Load (RFC2889)
OMS - Optical Multiplex Section
OMU - Optical Multiplex Unit
OOM1 - Out of Multiframe 1 (VCAT)
OOM2 - Out of Multiframe 2 (VCAT)
OOS - OTM Overhead signal
OPS - Optical Physical Section
OPU - Optical Channel Payload Unit
OPUk - Optical Channel Payload Unit-k
OPU1 Payload - 2.488 320 Gbps
OPU2 Payload - 9.995276962 Gbps
OPU3 Payload - 40.150519322 Gbps
OSC - Optical Supervisory Channel
OSI - Open Systems Interconnection; created by the International Organization for
Standardization
OTH - Optical Transport Hierarchy
OTM - Optical Transport Module
OTN - Optical Transport Network
OTS - Optical Transmission Section
OTS-OH - Optical Transmission Section Overhead
OTU - Optical Transport Unit
OTU1 - Optical Transport Unit 1; 2.666057143 Gbps
125
GigE Module
OTU2 - Optical Transport Unit 2; 10.709225316 Gbps
OTU3 - Optical Transport Unit 3; 43.018413559 Gbps
P
P - Path
PAT - Pattern
PAT SYNC - Pattern Synchronization
PCC - Protection Communication Channel
PCM - Pulse Code Modulation
PCM-30(31)/C - PCM with CRC-4 checking enabled
PDH - Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PDU - Protocol Data Unit
PDV - Packet Delay Vsriation
PFI - Payload FCS Indicator (GFP)
PHY - Physical Layer Entity
PJ - Pointer Justication
PJUS - Positive pointer Justication
PLI - Payload Length Indicator (GFP)
PLM - Payload Label Mismatch
PM - Path Monitoring; end-to-end connection monitoring in OTN
PMI - Payload Missing Indication
POH - Path Overhead
POS Packet over SDH/SONET
ppm - Parts per million
PRBS - Pseudo Random Bit Sequence
PSI - Payload Structure Identier
PTE - Path Terminating Element
PTI - Payload Type Identier (GFP)
PTR - Pointer
Q
QoS - Quality of Service
QRS - Quasi Random Signal
R
R - Receive
RAI - Remote Alarm Indication
RARP - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RCV - Receive
RDI - Remote Defect Indication
REC - Record
REF - Reference
RES - Reserved (for future use)
REI - Remote Error Indication
RFC - Request for Comment
RFI - Remote Failure Indication
RS-Ack - Re-Sequence Acknowledge (LCAS)
RS-TIM - Regenerator Section-Trace Identier Mismatch
RT - Remaining Time
RX - Receive
126
MTT-50
S
S - End of Stack
S/N - Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SM - Section Monitoring (for OTN, includes TTI, SAPI, DAPI, etc.)
SES - Severely Errored Second
SF - Super Frame
SFP - Small Form-factor Pluggable transceiver/connector
SIG - Signal
SM - Section Monitoring
SMOH - Section Monitoring Overhead
SNK - Sink (LCAS)
So - Source (LCAS)
SOH - Section Overhead
SQ - Sequence Indicator (LCAS)
SRC - Source (LCAS)
SRDI - Server Remote Defect Indication
SSF - Server Signal Failure (GFP)
STM - Synchronous Transport Mode
STM(-N) - Synchronous Transport Module (-N)
STS - Synchronous Transport Signal (51.840 Mbps); STS-n, where n is a multiple
of the basic rate.
STT - Scalable Test Toolkit
SW - Software
SYLS - Synchronization Lost Seconds
SYNC - Synchronized
T
T - Transmit
T1 - 1.544 Mbps transmission rate
T/S - Time Slot
TC - Tandem Connection
TCM - Tandem Connection Monitoring
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol; part of the IP suite
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing
TE - Terminal Equipment
TERM - Terminated
tHEC - Type HEC (GFP)
THRU - Through
TIM - Trace Identier Mismatch
TM - Terminal Multiplexer
TOS - Type of Service; VLAN tag element
TPID - Tag Protocol Identier; element in the Ethernet header
TS - Timeslot
TTI - Trace Trail Identieridenties the signal from source to destination
TTL - Time To Live
TX - Transmit
TU - Tributary Unit
TU-n - Tributary Unit-n
TUG(-n) - Tributary Unit Group (-n)
127
GigE Module
U
UAS - Unavailable Second
UDP - User Datagram Protocol; part of the IP suite
UI - Unit Interval
UPI - User Payload Identier (GFP)
uS - microsecond
UTP - unshielded twisted pair cabling
V
V - Virtual concatenation path; e.g. STS-2v
V - Virtual Tributary
V - Volts
VC- Virtual Container
VC- Virtual Connection
VCAT - Virtual Concatenation
VCG - Virtual Concatenation Group
VER - Version (a la Sunrise tags)
VLAN - Virtual Local Area Network
W
WAN - Wide Area Network
X
XFP - 10 Gbps Small Form Factor Pluggable hot-swappable and proctocol inde-
pendent transceiver.
128
MTT-50
13.6 Express Limited Warranty
This Sunrise Telecom product is warranted against defects in materials and work-
manship during its warranty period. The warranty period for this product is contained
in the warranty page on http://www.sunrisetelecom.com.
Sunrise Telecom agrees to repair or replace any assembly or compo nent found to
be defective under normal use during this period. The obligation under this warranty
is limited solely to repairing or replacing the product that proves to be defective
within the scope of the warranty when returned to the factory. This warranty does
not apply under certain conditions, as set forth on the warranty page on http://www.
sunrisetelecom.com.
Please refer to the website for specic details.
THIS IS A LIMITED WARRANTY AND THE ONLY WARRANTY MADE BY SUNRISE
TELECOM. SUNRISE TELECOM MAKES NO OTHER WARRANTY, REPR SENTA-
TION OR CONDITION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICU-
LAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.
129
GigE Module
This page has been intentionally left blank.
130
MTT-50
131
Index
Symbols
0000; 43, 59, 105
2^20; 105
2^23; 43, 59, 105
2^31; 105
1010; 105
A
Abbreviations; 122
Acronyms; 122
Address Resolver Screen
END IP; 77
IP; 77
IP RANGE
SINGLE or RANGE; 77
START IP; 77
Advanced Features
ARP Scan; 76
Cable Test; 83
Ping Test; 73
Trace Route; 75
VLAN Scan; 78
Applications; 13
IP Throughput Layer 3 BERT-Indirect Routing; 18
Layer 1 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT); 13
Layer 2 Bit Error Rate Test (BERT); 16
Loopback Mode; 20
Monitor Mode; 22
Monitor Mode-Pass Through & Splitter; 22
ARP
Ethernet Conguration; 72
Replying; 5
Technology; 118
ARP Scan; 76
Autol; 36
AUTOFIL; 36
AUTOFIL Conguration; 37
B
Back To Back Conguration Screen
MAX DURATION; 63
REPETITIONS; 63
RESOLUTION; 63
Back To Back Screens; 68
BERT
Aggregate Results; 48
BERT Conguration; 34
Stream Conguration; 34
BERT Conguration Screens, P2P/LB
TRAFFIC SHAPING
CONST or VIEW; 39
BERT Conguration Screens, P-TO-P
ETHER TYPE; 40
BERT Layer; 37, 38
BERT Pattern
Choose a pattern; 43
User; 43
BERT/Throughput
Error Injection; 54
Results; 48
BERT/Throuput Testing; 33
Burstability; 63
C
C_28/29 Mode Note
Stream Cong; 34
C_28/29 Mode Notes
EtherType II; 38
Ethertype, Patterns, SEQ #; 44
VLAN; 38
Cable Test; 83
Call Features; 87
Call Statistics Screen
ET, ST, JITTER, MIN/MAX, and PKT TYPE; 89
CFI; 38, 59
Cleaning Optical Fiber; 121
Compatible BER/Throughput tests with other Ethernet
testers; 44
Copper Measurement; 83
COPY P1/P2
Copy stream conguration; 34
Customer Service; 103
D
DHCP
Technology; 118
Disposal and Recycling; 2
DNS
Technology; 118
DS1 Frame
SLC-96; 123
E
Enable Sequence Number and Time Stamp for Best
Results; 43
Error Injection; 54
Ethernet Standards & Resources; 114
Ether Type; 58
EtherType II
C_28/29; 38
Events
Statistics; 53
Express Limited Warranty; 129
132
F
Figure
001 SSMTT-50 GigE Connector Panel; 6
002 Front Panel LEDs; 9
003 Menu Tree; 11
004 MTT GigE Main Menu Screen; 12
005 Layer 1 BER Testing Setup; 14
006 Layer 2 BERT Setup; 16
007 Layer 3 BERT-Indirect Routing Setup; 18
008 Loopback Mode; 20
009 Pass Through Mode Connection; 22
010 Splitter Mode Connection; 22
011 Monitor Status Screen; 23
012 Monitor Statistics Screen; 24
013 Conguration Screen; 25
014 Loopback Conguration Screens; 28
015 BERT Conguration Screens; 34
016 Stream Conguration Overview; 35
017 Stream Conguration; 36
018 Autol Streams; 36
019 Layer 1 Frame; 37
020 Layer 2 Frame; 38
021 Layer 3 Frame; 38
022 MAC and Type Conguration; 40
023 IP and IP Header Conguration; 41
024 Congure the Payload; 43
025 Constant Trafc Shaping; 45
026 Ramp Trafc Shape; 46
027 Burst Trafc Shaping; 47
028 Ethernet Aggregate Results; 48
029 Error Injection; 54
030 RFC2544/NE Test Menu; 57
031 RFC2544 Frame Format Screen; 58
032 RFC2544 Frame Length Screen; 59
033 RFC2544 Test Sequence Setup; 60
034 RFC2544 Throughput/NE Test Conguration; 60
035 RFC2544 Latency Test Conguration; 61
036 PDV Test Conguration; 62
037 RFC2544 Back to Back Conguration; 63
038 RFC2544 User Threshold Conguration; 64
039 RFC2544 Test Status Screen; 65
040 RFC2544 Throughput Measurement Screens; 66
041 Latency Table Screen; 67
042 PDV Table Screen; 67
043 Frame Loss Screens; 68
044 Back To Back Screens; 68
045 IP Connection and Status Screen; 71
046 PING Test Screens; 73
047 Trace Route Screens; 75
048 ARP Scan Screens; 76
049 VLAN Scan Screen; 78
050 Cable Test; 83
051 Web Access Character Entry; 79
052 HTTP Download Web Access; 80
053 FTP Download Web Access Screen; 81
054 FTP Upload Web Access Screen; 82
055 H.323 Protocol Setup; 84
056 Preferred Codec List; 84
057 SIP Protocol Setup; 85
058 H.323 Place/Receive Calls Screen; 88
059 SIP Place/Receive Calls Screen; 88
060 Call Statistics Screen; 89
061 Event Screens; 90
062 VQ Measurement Setup; 91
063 Optical Power Measurement Screen; 93
064 Measurements Setup Screen; 95
065 View/Store/Print Menu with View Screens; 97
066 Rename Character Screen; 99
067 Prole List Screen; 101
068 Basic Ethernet Frame; 107
069 MAC Address Format; 109
070 IFG; 110
071 VLAN Tag; 111
072 Stacked VLAN Tags; 113
073 MPLS Structure; 114
074 IP Packet; 116
075 SC to LC Cord; 119
076 Duplex Multi-mode LC Connectors; 120
Files
View/Store/Print; 97
Fragment Flags
IP conguration; 42
Frame Format
RFC2544; 58
Frame Length
RFC2544; 59
FRAME LENGTH:; 39
Frame Loss Rate
RFC2544; 68
Frame Loss Rate Conguration Screen
DURATION; 63
STEP SIZE; 63
Frames
Technology; 107
Frame Size
Technology; 113
FTP Download Test; 81
FTP Download Web Access Screen
FILE; 81
PASSWORD; 81
PROTOCOL; 79
HTTP or FTP; 79
STATUS, SIZE, TIME, and RATE; 81, 82
USERNAME; 81
FTP Upload Test; 82
FTP Upload Web Access Screen
FILE; 82
FILE SIZE; 82
PASSWORD; 82
SIZE. TIME, and RATE; 82
USERNAME; 82
133
G
Gateway
IP Conguration; 41
Gateways
Technology; 118
H
H.323 Protocol Setup Screens
AUDIO FILE DELAY (SEC)
0, 1, 3, or 5 seconds; 85
CONNECT
NORMAL or FAST; 85
GATEKEEPER
IP ADDR and NONE; 84
MY NUMBER/ALIAS; 85
PREFERRED CODEC; 84
RTP PORT; 85
Handling Optical Fiber; 119
HTTP Download Test; 80
HTTP Download Web Access Screen
IP ADDR./URL; 80
PROTOCOL
HTTP or FTP; 79
I
ICMP and Ping
Technology; 117
ID; 38, 59
IEEE Standards; 114
IFG; 110
Indirect Routing
Application; 18
Interframe Gap
Technology; 110
Internet; 79
Invert Pattern
Payload; 43
IP
Technology; 116
IP Connection/Status Screens
DNS SERVER; 72
GATEWAY; 72
IP TYPE
STATIC or DHCP; 72
LOCAL IP; 72
SUBNET; 72
VLAN; 72
IP Dest; 41
IPG
Technology; 110
IP HEADER; 41
IP & Header Conguration
Subnet; 41
IP Overview
Technology; 116
IP Source; 41
IP Throughput Layer 3 BERT-Indirect Routing
Applications; 18
IP Throughput Test Conguration Screen
TEST PATTERN; 39
J
JITTER
Call Statistics; 89
L
LAN; 50
LASER banner; 26
Latency Measurement
RFC2544; 67
Latency results note; 44
Latency Table Screen; 67
Latency Test Conguration Screen
BANDWIDTH
CUSTOM; 61, 62
THRUPUT; 61, 62
Latency threshold
RFC2544; 64
LEASE TIME
IP; 72
LEDs; 8
LEDS
Front Panel; 8
Hardware Port; 8
Link; 13
LIST/GATEWAY F-Key
IP; 74
Loopback
CONTROL Mode Testing; 30
RESPOND Mode Testing; 29
Loopback Conguration Screens
VLAN; 38, 58
Loopback Testing; 27
Looping code; 20, 28
M
MAC Address
Technology; 108
MAC addresses; 17
MAC & Type Conguration; 40
MANUAL MODE Testing; 29
Measurement Monitoring, Statistics Screen
CRC ERRORS; 24
#RX; 24
RX; 24
UTIL; 24
Measurement Monitoring, Status Screen
ET; 24
PORT 1; 24
PORT 2; 24
ST; 24
Measurements Setup; 95
134
Measurements Setup Screen
EVENTS RECORD; 95
TEST DURATION
CONTINU & TIMED; 95
Measure the copper; 83
MEF; 115
Menus; 11
Metro Ethernet Forum; 115
MGT_P2P; 33
Module Panel; 6
Monitor
Pass Through; 22
Splitter; 22
Monitor Mode Statistics; 23
MPLS; 38
End of stack; 39
Ethernet Technology; 113
Experimental eld; 114
TTL; 39
MTT Platform; 5
N
Note on Utilization, Line Rate, Data Rate, Frame Rate on
Ethernet; 50
Notes on the MTT Platform; 5
Notes on Using This Manual; 5
O
one way delay; 44
One way delay; 62
Optical Line Encoding
Technology; 106
Optical Power Measurement; 93
P
packet delay variatio; 44
Pattern Conguration; 43
Patterns
-28/29; 26
Payload
Test Pattern; 43
PAYLOAD
Pattern; 43
PDV; 44, 52
RFC2544; 60
RFC Results; 67
P & HEADER Conguration; 41
Ping Test; 73
Results; 74
PING Test Screen
DESTINATION IP; 73
ET; 73
LOCAL IP; 73
Missing; 74
PING: ARP FAIL; 74
PING: FAIL; 74
PING: IN PROGRESS; 74
PING LEN; 74
PING: PASS; 74
#PINGS; 74
PING/SEC; 74
Recvd; 74
Round Trip-Crnt, Avg, and Max/Min; 74
Sent; 74
ST; 73
Unreach; 74
Place/Receive Calls
Event Screens; 90
SPEED DIAL; 88
PORTS
Physical; 7
Power
Optical; 93
PRI; 38
Prole
RFC2544; 65
RFC2544 test proles; 57
Prole List Screen; 101
Proles; 101
Program a test; 96
Protocol
Fragment Flag cong; 42
Protocol Setup; 84
Protocol tag; 42
Pseudo random bit sequence
Test patterns; 105
Purchase order number; 103
R
Recycling and Disposal; 2
Reference; 103
Technology Overview; 106
Repair; 103
Requests for Comments (RFC) Documents; 115
Results
Aggregate Statistics; 50
ARP Scan; 77
BERT/Throughput; 48
Cable Test Status; 83
CALL STATISTICS; 89
FTP Download; 81
HTTP Download; 80
Looback Control Mode; 31
Loopback Manual Mode; 29
Loopback RESPOND Mode; 29
Monitor Mode; 23
Monitor Mode Statistics; 23
Monitor STATUS; 24
Optical Power Meaurement; 93
PDV Measurement; 67
PING; 74
Ping Test; 74
RFC2544/NE Test; 65
135
Stream; 49
Terminated Call Metrics; 91
TERMINATED CALL METRICS; 92
Trace Route; 75
VLAN Scan; 78
RFC2544
Back To Back; 68
Back to Back Conguration; 63
Back To Back Results; 68
Frame Loss Rate; 68
FRAME LOSS RATE; 62
Frame Loss Screen; 68
Latency Measurement; 67
Latency Table Screen; 67
Latency Test Conguration; 61
Run Test; 65
Test Sequence Conguration; 60
Test Status Screen; 65
Throughput Measurement; 66
Throughput Measurement Screens; 66
User Threshold Conguration; 64
RFC2544/NE
Test Results; 66
RFC2544/NE Test Conguration; 57
RFC2544 Frame Format Conguration; 58
RFC2544 Testing; 57
RJ-45
LEDs; 8
Routers
Technology; 117
S
Saving an URL Address; 79
Selection; 12
Sequence Number; 43
Service Information
Optical cords and connectors; 119
SFP
LEDs; 8
Signal Conguration
IP
Type of Service Parameters; 42
TEST PATTERN
0000; 105
2e20; 105
2e23; 105
1010; 43, 59, 105
SIP Place/Receive Calls Screen
CALL TO HOST
NAME or IP ADDR; 88
CALL TO NUMBER/ALIAS
NAME or E.164; 88
SIP Protocol Setup Screens
AUDIO FILE DELAY (SEC)
0, 1, 3, or 5 seconds; 87
AUTHENTICATION; 86
MY HOST
NAME or IP ADDR; 87
MY NUMBER/ALIAS
NAME or E.164; 86
PROXY PORT; 86
REALM; 86
REGISTRAR PORT; 86
REGISTRAR TYPE
NONE, DHCP, IP ADDR, or NAME; 86
RTP PORT; 86
SIP PORT; 86
USER NAME; 86
SPEED DIAL; 87, 88
Stacked VLAN Tags
Technology; 112
START
Measurement Setup; 95
Statistics
Stream; 49
Stream conguration
COPY Port Cong; 34
Stream Conguration; 34
Autol; 36
AUTOFIL Conguration; 37
IP & HEADER Conguration; 41
MAC & Type Conguration; 40
Pattern Conguration; 43
P & HEADER Conguration; 41
Trafc Shaping Conguration; 45
SUNRISETAG; 44
T
Table
01 Transceivers; 6
02 Cables; 7
03 Line, Data and Frame Rates; 51
04 Common Ethernet Standards; 106
04 Sample MAC Addresses; 109
05 Minimum IFG; 110
06 Frame Rates; 110
07 User Priority; 112
Tagging; 44
TCI
Technology; 111
TCP
Technology; 116
TCP/UDP; 39
Technology
ARP; 118
DHCP; 118
DNS; 118
EoS; 106
Ethernet Overview; 106
Gateways; 118
ICMP and Ping; 117
IP; 116
IP Overview; 116
MAC Address; 108
136
Routers; 117
TCP; 116
VLAN Tagging; 111
Technology Overview; 106
Test Patterns; 43, 105
Throughput Measurement
RFC2544; 66
Throughput Measurement Screens; 66
Throughput Test Conguration Screen
DURATION; 61
TIME STAMP; 44
TPID; 38, 58
Technology; 111
Trace Results Screen
DESTINATION IP; 76
ET; 75
Hop; 76
Host Address; 76
LOCAL IP; 75
msec; 76
ST; 75
Type-ECHO, MISS, and TTL; 76
Trace Route; 75
Results; 75
Trafc Shaping Conguration; 45
Burst Trafc Conguration; 47
Constant Trafc Conguration; 45
Ramp Trafc Conguration; 46
Troubleshooting; 95
TTL; 42
U
User
BERT pattern; 43
V
View/Print Results
Deleting a Stored Test; 98
Locking and Unlocking a Stored Test; 98
Printing a Stored Test; 98
Renaming a Stored Test; 98
Saving a Test; 98
Viewing a Stored Test; 98
View/Store/Print
Files; 97
VLAN
-28/29; 25
VLAN and Frame Size
Technology; 113
VLAN Scan; 78
VLAN Scan Screen
ID; 78
VLAN#; 78
VLAN Tag
technology; 111
VLAN Tagging
Technology; 111
VOIP
SIP Place/Receive Calls; 88
VOIP Features; 84
Call Features; 87
H.323 Place/Receive Calls; 88
PKT TYPE; 89
Protocol Setup; 84
VQ Measurements; 91
Non-intrusive VQM Test Mode; 91
VQ Measurement Setup Screen
FOR; 91
HST RPT; 91
IN EVERY; 91
METRICS REPORTING; 91
TRIGGERED BY
TIMER or F-KEY; 91
W
Warranty; 103
Period; 103
Web Access
IP Test; 79
Web Access Test
FTP Download Test; 81
FTP Upload Test; 82
HTTP Download Test; 80
WEEE; 2