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CHAPTER 12 : OXIDATION AND REDUCTION

REDOX REACTION Definition of oxidation and reduction according to 4 aspects a) Oxidation occurs when there is (i) a gain in oxygen (ii)a loss of hydrogen (iii)a loss of electron (iv)an increase in the oxidation state RUSTING AS A REDOX REACTION Corrosion of a metal is a redox reaction in which a metal is oxidized by losing electrons to form positive ions Metals which are more electropositive corrode faster hen iron corrodes ! the process is also "nown as rusting# $wo conditions for the rusting of iron to occur are -The presence of water -oxygen %rrangement of metals in the descending order in terms of the ease of corrosion# K Na Al Zn Fe Sn Pb Cu Ag Au $he diagram below shows the mechanism of rusting b)Reduction occurs when there is (i) a loss of oxygen (ii)a gain of hydrogen (iii)a gain of electron (iv)a decrease in the oxidation state

$he following table shows the redox process in rusting by stating the electrode and write the half e&uation for each terminal

$erminal % .

'lectrode %node Cathode

(alf)e&uation *e+*e,- - ,e) O, - ,(,O - 4e) + 4O()

Overall redox e&uation in rusting / ,*e(a&) - O,(g) - ,(,O(l) +*e(O() ,(s) 0ame for the rust / 1ron(111) oxide Chemical *ormula for the rust / *e,O2#x(,O! where x varies $hree main ways to prevent rusting -by using protective coating -by forming alloys -by using sacrificial metal $hree metals that can be used in sacrificial protection for an underground iron pipe -magnesium -aluminium -zinc % reagent that is usually used to detect the presence of iron (11) ion in a laboratory experiment# -Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution THE REACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS AND ITS APPLICATION 1n the reactivity series! metals are arranged in the order of their reactivity with oxygen $he metal at the top of the series is the most reactive# $hey burn more vigorously and most quic ly in oxygen! $he more reactive the metal is the more powerful it is as a reducing agent! Reactivity Decreases K Na Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb Cu Very Reactive Unreactive Hg Ag Au

Very

hen metal 3 is heated with an oxide of metal 4 ! metal 3 will displace metal 4 from its oxide if metal 3 is more reactive than metal 4 3 - metal 4 + oxide of 3 - 4 Reactivity Decreases K Na Mg Al C Very Reactive Very Unreactive Zn H Fe Sn Pb Cu Hg Ag Au

1f metal remove oxygen from carbon dioxide ! the metal is more reactive than carbon metal - carbon dioxide + metal oxide - carbon

1f hydrogen is more reactive than the metal oxide ! the metal oxide! the metal oxide will be reduced to metal hydrogen - metal oxide + metal - carbon dioxide $wo application of the reactivity series -to predict the possibility of reactions involving metals -to predict the method of metal extraction from its ore!