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WAS PERICLEAN ATHENS REALLY DEMOCRATIC? Democracy can today be regarded as t e o!

er" e#m$ng#y dom$nant c#a$mant to #eg$t$mate %o#$t$ca# a&t or$ty "or#d"$de' T e term democracy ($rst a%%eared o!er )*+,, years ago $n Herodot&sH$story* a!$ng been estab#$s ed $n t e At en$an c$ty.state by /#e$st enes so nat&ra##y $n s&c a #ong #$(e t$me t e "ord as ta0en on d$!erse mean$ngs' To t e gree0s* demokratia "as 1a state $n " $c s&%reme contro# 2$s3 e4erc$sed by a genera# assemb#y o( a## t e c$t$5ens6' 7($e#d % )8,9 Most %o#$t$ca# t eor$sts today "o&#d agree t at democracy o&g t to mean a system o( ma0$ng %o#$t$ca##y $m%ortant dec$s$ons t at g$!es e!erybody a((ected by t ese a&t or$tat$!e#y e:&a# r$g ts $n ma0$ng t em' 7Hy#and9 Ho"e!er* as Robert Da # %o$nts o&t* t e "ord as come to mean d$((erent t $ngs to d$((erent %eo%#e at d$((erent %#aces and t$mes' 7Da # %;9 Indeed many modern sc o#ars "o&#d arg&e t at democracy as ne!er* $n(act* e4$sted< t at $t osc$##ates bet"een an em%$r$ca# attem%t at a %ract$ca# %rocess and $dea# !a#&es $n t e (orm o( t eoret$ca# &to%$a' Sartor$ ma0es t e d$st$nct$on bet"een -%rescr$%t$!e democracy- and -descr$%t$!e democracy-* yet asserts t at " at democracy $s cannot be se%arated (rom " at $t s o&#d be' 7Sartor$ %%;.+* =;9 >o##o"$ng (rom t $s* I am &s$ng Da #-s cr$ter$a (or a democrat$c %rocess as t e standard (or " at a democracy o&g t to be* as I be#$e!e t ese to be broad $n sco%e* s%ec$($c $n c aracter and "$de#y acce%ted $n contem%orary #$bera# c$rc#es' I %ro%ose to ?&4ta%ose At en$an Democracy $n t e age o( Per$c#es "$t t ese ($!e standards " $c I ta0e to be a4$omat$c $n order to $##&strate t e (act t at t e !ery ($rst attem%t at democracy does not* $n (act* corres%ond "$t " at I be#$e!e to a democrat$c %rocess by today-s $nter%retat$on' T e ($rst re:&$rement t at Da # sets o&t $s e((ect$!e %art$c$%at$on . t at a## members a!e 1e:&a# and e((ect$!e o%%ort&n$t$es (or ma0$ng t e$r !$e"s 0no"n6' 7%;@9' I "o&#d most de($n$te#y regard t $s as be$ng t e case $n Per$c#ean At ens* and $ndeed t e rad$ca# nat&re o( t $s democracy $s s&c t at $t as no co&nter%art today* nor as $t ad t ro&g o&t $story' 7Sartor$ I )+)9 T e (act t at d$rect c$t$5en %art$c$%at$on too0 %#ace bot $n ?&d$c$a# and #eg$s#at$!e (&nct$ons o( an assemb#y* "$t so!ere$gn %o"er $s testament to t $s' C$t$5en $n!o#!ement $nc#&ded 1determ$nat$on o( t e agenda by t e Co&nc$# o( >$!e H&ndred* t e debate and dec$s$on $n t e assemb#y* to t e $m%#ementat$ons o( %o#$c$es by t e Aoards o( Mag$strates and t e %o%&#ar B&r$es6' Eac member ad e:&a# r$g ts o( attendance* !ot$ng and s%eec * "$t se#ect$on by t e &n:&est$onab#y (a$r met od o( #ot' Any norma# ad&#t At en$an c$t$5en "o&#d a!e been sooner or #ater #$0e#y to s%end a day act$ng as ead o( t e o(($c$a# e4ec&t$!e body' 7D&nn % )C,9' T $s act$!e c$t$5en ro#e &ndo&bted#y amo&nts to e((ect$!e %art$c$%at$on' Da # o#ds t at (or a democrat$c %rocess to be sat$s(actory* e!ery member m&st a!e an e:&a# and e((ect$!e o%%ort&n$ty to !ote* "$t a## !otes co&nted as e:&a#' 7% ;@9 T $s too $s most de($n$te#y t e case $n At en$an Democracy " ere a#most a## :&est$ons "ere %&t on t e agenda o( t e Assemb#y to be !oted on' and decrees dra(ted on#y $n t e case o( $g #y &ncontent$o&s $ss&es' A## !otes "ere co&nted e:&a##y and $n t e case o( content$on a reco&nt "as ta0en'7Bones % ==89' A## dec$s$ons "ere made by a s$m%#e ma?or$ty $n b$g assemb#$es &s&a##y o( se!era# t o&sand' E!ery %art$c$%ant ad t e r$g t bot to !ote and to s%ea0 $n t e Co&nc$# and $n t e Assemb#y* "$t no d$st$nct$ons o( %r$!$#ege* c#ass or %ro%erty re:&$rements' 7Hansen9 Aga$n* Per$c#ean At ens meets t e mar0' En#$g tened &nderstand$ng $s t e t $rd o( t e cr$ter$a t at Da # %ro%osesD 1W$t $n reasonab#e #$m$ts as to t$me* eac member m&st a!e e:&a# and e((ect$!e o%%ort&n$t$es (or #earn$ng abo&t re#e!ant and a#ternat$!e %o#$c$es and t e$r #$0e#y conse:&ences'6 7%;@9 T $s $s seconded by Sartor$< 1c#ear &nderstand$ng $s a ma?or cond$t$on o( be a!$ng democrat$ca##y6'7%C9 W $#e $t $s d$(($c&#t to determ$ne t e e4act e4tent o( $nd$!$d&a# 0no"#edge and "$sdom t"o and a a#( m$##enn$a ago* "e can be (a$r#y certa$n t at At en$ansE 0no"#edge and &nderstand$ng o( $ss&es "as s&(($c$ent to sat$s(y t $s re:&$rement' Per$c#es $mse#( states t at 1e!en t ose " o are most#y occ&%$ed "$t t e$r o"n b&s$ness are e4treme#y "e## $n(ormed on genera# %o#$t$cs6 7Per$c#es %=C@9 S&c "as t e t$me de!oted to %&b#$c ser!$ce* I ($nd $t e4treme#y %robab#e t at t $s "as $ndeed t e case' I "o&#d a#so

add t at t e o%enness res&#t$ng (rom 1a s%ontane$ty o( debate and d$sc&ss$on t at %ar#$amentary democracy #ac0s today6 7Sartor$ )++9 ma0es $t $g #y #$0e#y t at At en$an c$t$5ens %ossessed a certa$n #e!e# o( en#$g tened &nderstand$ng' Da #Es (o&rt cr$ter$on ma$nta$ns t at t e democrat$c %rocess re:&$red by t e t ree %reced$ng cr$ter$a $s ne!er c#osed* $n ot er "ords* t at members m&st a!e t e cont$n&a# r$g t to dec$de o" and " at matters are to be %#aced on t e agenda' 7%;89 >$n#ey a(($rms t $s "as t e case $n Per$c#ean At ens by ca##$ng t e Assemb#y1t e cro"n o( t e system6* assert$ng t at t e r$g t and %o"er to ma0e a## %o#$cy dec$s$ons "$t (e" #$m$tat$ons $n %recedent or sco%e #ay t ere$n* "$t #a"s and dec$s$ons based ent$re#y on con!$ct$on* not c&stom' 7>$n#ey % +,9 T e Assemb#y "as (ree (rom any contro#s t at can b$nd members o( %ar#$ament s$nce t ey e#d no o(($ces* and t &s o%$n$ons and act$ons "eren-t s&b?ect to t reats o( $m%eac ment or to re"ards o( e#ect$on' 7>$n#ey %++?9 In add$ton to a c$t$5enEs ab$#$ty to %&t (or"ard a :&est$on (or t e agenda* t ey ad (&rt er %o"ers* as Bones e4%#a$ns< 1$(* as o(ten* t e co&nc$# made a noncomm$tta# %robo&#e&ma any c$t$5en co&#d mo!e a decree on t e s&b?ect $n t e assemb#y* and t at $( t ey made a de($n$te recommendat$on* any c$t$5en co&#d %ro%ose amendments* an a#ternat$!e mot$on or o&tr$g t re?ect$on'6 7Bones %% ==F.=),9 Once more* Per$c#ean Democracy "ent to start#$ng #engt s to ens&re t e democrat$c %rocess o%erated accord$ng#y' T &s (ar* Per$c#ean Democracy as* $n my !$e"* sat$s($ed a## t e re:&$rements (or a democrat$c %rocess as set o&t by Da #' G% to t $s %o$nt* democracy $n t e At en$an c$ty.state $s a mode# e4am%#e' Ho"e!er* Da #Es ($(t re:&$rement $s not met' He states t at 1a##* or at #east most* ad&#t %ermanent res$dents s o&#d a!e t e (&## r$g ts o( c$t$5ens t at are $m%#$ed by t e ($rst (o&r cr$ter$a'6 Hree0 democracy $n t e ($(t cent&ry AC doesnEt e!en come c#ose to t $s' A#t o&g many At en$an $dea#s $n(#&enced modern %o#$t$ca# t $n0$ng* t e modern #$bera# not$on t at &mans are $nd$!$d&a#s "$t r$g ts "as &n eard o( $n At ens' 7He#d9 T e d$!$s$on o( t e %o%&#at$on $nto t ree c#ear#y d$st$nct gro&%s< 7c$t$5ens* res$dent (ore$gners and s#a!es9 " $#e not Ic#ass soc$etyE %er say* rendered t e state an e4c#&s$!e comm&n$ty o( c$t$5ens by b$rt r$g t on#y* and o( ma#e c$t$5ens at t at* (or "omen "ere a#so e4c#&ded (rom %o#$t$ca# act$!$ty 7Hansen9' W $#st c$t$5ens engaged toget er $n adm$n$strat$on* m$#$tary* #a"ma0$ng* ?&ry* re#$g$on* t ey a#so engaged $n t e s&r!e$##ance and contro# o( t e ma?or$ty " o %#ayed no %art' As He#d %&t $t 1#egendary democracy "as $nt$mate#y connected "$t " at one m$g t ca## t e -tyranny o( c$t$5ens-6 7He#d %' =F9 Res$dent (ore$gners* or met$cs* des%$te be$ng on a e:&a# (oot$ng as traders and art$sts* %ay$ng ta4es and ser!$ng $n t e m$#$tary* ad no %o#$t$ca# r$g ts and "ere (orb$dden to marry At en$ans' Nor* e4ce%t $n e4ce%t$ona# cases* co&#d t ey o%e to become an At en$an c$t$5en' 7Hansen9 >&rt ermore* t ere e4$sted bet"een 8,*,,, J =,,*,,, s#a!es $n Per$c#ean At ens J one and a a#( t$mes t e n&mber o( act&a# c$t$5ens' 7Andre"es9 >or t ese $nd$!$d&a#s* " o co&#d be e$t er %&b#$c %ro%erty or %r$!ate %ro%erty* any (orm o( (reedom and #$berty "as com%#ete#y absent' O( c$t$5ens* a%%ro4$mate#y ($(ty %ercent "ere e4c#&ded on t e bas$s o( gender . ab&ndant e!$dence s&ggests t at 1At en$an men e#d an e4ce%t$ona##y #o" !$e" o%$n$on o( "omenEs ca%ac$ty (or ?&dgement6' 7Roberts9

In +,8 AC* /#e$st enes too0 t e &n%recedented ste% o( t&rn$ng an &norgan$sed ma?or$ty $nto an ent$ty ca%ab#e o( systemat$c %o#$t$ca# agency' 7D&nn )C)9 W $#e a%%rec$at$ng t $s remar0ab#e ac $e!ement* "e m&st a#so recogn$se $ts #$m$tat$ons' T e (act t at t e c$ty "as (ree does not mean t at a## o( $ts %eo%#e "ere' T"o t o&sand years o( "estern c$!$#$5at$on as mod$($ed and enr$c ed o&r !a#&es and t e Hree0 $dea#s o( c$!$#* %o#$t$ca#* ?&r$d$ca#* $nd$!$d&a# and any ot er #$berty "ere %robab#y !ery d$((erent to o&rs'7Sartor$9 >or &s* democracy re%resents %r$nc$%#es t at t e Hree0s "ere %robab#y &na"are o(* a#t o&g $t does occ&r to Ar$stot#e t at 1democracy and demos $n t e$r tr&est (orm are based &%on t e recogn$5ed %r$nc$%#e o( democrat$c ?&st$ce< t at a## s o&#d co&nt e:&a##y6' 7Ar$stot#e Po#$t$cs9 A#t o&g Per$c#ean democracy %enetrated dee% $nto t e #$!es o( t e %eo%#e* $t embraced on#y a t$ny m$nor$ty' T &s* as Hy#and %o$nts o&t* $t $s a 1m$sta0e to conc#&de t at beca&se t ey $n!ented t e "ord and t e system t at $t descr$bed t at "e s o&#d st$## be comm$tted to t $s system " en "e em%#oy t e "ord6' 7Hy#and % ;@9 T e so.ca##ed %o#$t$ca# e:&a#$ty t at e4$sted $n At en$an Democracy "as not $ng more t an e:&a#$ty (or t ose "$t e:&a# stat&s* "$t #$tt#e resemb#ence $n t at res%ect to " at "e term democracy today< t e 1arb$trary &n$(orm$ty o( term$no#ogy $des t e brea0 bet"een ant$:&$ty-s attem%t at democracy and modern re$ncarnat$on6' 7sartor$ % )K=9 Ne$t er $s t at to say t at any o( today-s mode#s #$!e &% to t ese cr$ter$a' As Da # $mse#( %&ts $tD 1No state as e!er %osessed a go!ernment t at (&##y meas&red &% to t e democrat$c %rocess' None $s #$0e#y to'6 7Da # % C)9

Bibliography ANDREWES* A' =FK@' T e Hree0s' LondonD H&tc $nson' AERLIN* Isa$a * =FKF' >o&r Essays on L$berty' LondonD O4(ord Gn$!ers$ty Press' DAHL* Robert* =FF8' On Democracy' L$rg$n$aD Ya#e Gn$!ers$ty Press DGNN* Bo n* =FF)' Democracy* T e Gn($n$s ed Bo&rney' LondonD O4(ord Gn$!ers$ty Press' >IELD* H'C'* =FK+' Po#$t$ca# T eory' Ar$sto#D Met !en' >INLEY* M'I' =FFK' Democracy J Anc$ent M Modern' Ne" BerseyD R&tgers Gn$!ers$ty Press' HANSEN* Mogens Herman* =FF=' T e At en$an Democracy $n t e Age o( Demost enes' O4(ordD Aas$# A#ac0"e##' HELD* Da!$d' ),,K' Mode#s o( Democracy' Cambr$dgeD Po#$ty Press' HYLAND* Bames L' =FF+' Democrat$c T eory . T e P $#oso% $ca# >o&ndat$ons' Manc esterD Manc ester Gn$!ers$ty Press' BONES* A'H'M' =FF+' At en$an Democracy' Aa#t$moreD T e Bo n Ho%0$ns Gn$!ers$ty Press' ROAERTS* Benn$(er To#bert' At en$an E:&a#$tyD A Constant S&rro&nded by >#&4' In Demo 0rat$a . A Con!ersat$on on Democrac$es* Anc$ent and Modern' Eds B' Ober and C' Hendr$c0 Pr$ncetonD Pr$nceton Gn$!ers$ty Press =FFK' SARTORI* H$o!ann$* =FK@' Democrat$c T eory' Ne" Yor0D >reder$c0 A' Praeger' SARTORI* H$o!ann$* =F8@' T e T eory o( Democracy Re!$s$ted' Ne" BerseyD C at am Ho&se' Ar$stot#e M T &cyd$des