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application guide

G U I D E T O L AY I N G BITUMEN POLYMER M E M B R A N E S C O R R E C T L Y B I T U M E N P O LY M E R

Introduction The six golden rules Equipment Transport Loading/Unloading Storage On-site handling Conservation Period of use and climatic conditions for application Concrete substrate: smoothing Concrete substrate: water, ice, curing Concrete substrate: Primer Sheet metal substrate Timber substrate Substrate over old membranes Substrate on concrete road deck Alignment Unrolling at low temperature Surfaces of membranes Flame-laying Avoiding puncturing Filling the joints: what not to do Spot application New system of gluing panels Double- and multiple-layered coverings Flame-laying on vertical surfaces Paint Upstands with metal profile Protected upstand Upstands with finishing flashing Internal corner External corner in double-layer Protruding round element in double-layer Protruding round element in single-layer Horizontal drain in double-layer Horizontal drain in single-layer Roof vent Warnings

Contents

Introduction 

Surfaces of membranes Flame-laying

15 16 16 16 17 18 18 19 19

THE SIX GOLDEN RULES


1.Laying out the sheets 2.Lateral and end overlaps 3.45 cut at end overlap 4.Application 5.Double layer of membrane 6.End overlap of mineral-coated membrane Equipment Transport Loading/unloading Storage On-site handling Conservation Period of use and climatic conditions for application Concrete substrate: smoothing Concrete substrate: water, ice, curing Concrete substrate: primer Sheet metal substrate Timber substrate Substrate over old membranes Substrate on concrete road deck Alignment Unrolling at low temperature

Avoiding puncturing Filling the joints: what not to do Spot application New system of bonding panels Double- or multi-layered membranes

8 9 9 9 10 10

Flame-laying on vertical surfaces Paint

WATERPROOFING DETAILS
Upstands with metal profile Protected upstand Upstands with finishing flashing Internal corner
20 20 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 25 26 27 28 29

11 12

External corner in double layer External corner in double layer Vertical drain in single layer Vertical drain in double layer Round protruding element in double layer Round protruding element in single layer Horizontal drain in double layer Horizontal drain in single layer Roof vent Warnings

12 12 13 13 13 14 15 15

INTRODUCTION
CORRECT EXECUTION OF DETAILS IS AN ESSENTIAL CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL WATERPROOFING. THIS PUBLICATION IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE INSTRUCTIONS TO ENABLE THIS TO BE DONE. THESE SUGGESTIONS CAN BE TRANSLATED INTO PRACTICE ONLY IF THE OPERATOR HAS ALREADY ACQUIRED THE CORRECT BASIC SKILL NECESSARY FOR ACHIEVING PROPER APPLICATION OF WATERPROOF SHEETS. IT IS FOR THIS REASON THAT, BEFORE COMING TO THE HEART OF THE TOPIC, WE WANTED TO SUMMARISE THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CORRECT APPLICATION, IN SIX POINTS WHICH WE HAVE CALLED "GOLDEN RULES" AS THEY ARE VALUABLE FOR ACHIEVING THE BEST RESULTS.

The SIX GOLDEN RULES for CorreCtlY


1.Laying out the sheets 2. Lateral and end overlaps 3.45 cut at end overlap

6 3

7 4 1

5 2

Before laying, the rolls must be unrolled and aligned to lay out the overlaps between the sheets. The sheets must then be rolled up again to proceed with the flamewelding. The end-to-end overlaps of the waterproof sheets must not be arranged along a single line but must always alternate.

At the end overlap, a corner of the membrane measuring 10 cm per side must be cut off at an angle of 45.

DRAIN

The sheets must be arranged with overlaps as in tiling a roof, i.e. always starting the overlaps at the drains or the downpipes.

Lateral: these are the joints that run in the direction of the length of the sheets. They must be welded with great care until a trickle of melted mixture about 1 cm wide can be seen coming out along the line of the overlap. The lateral overlaps must have a width not less than 10 cm. End:this refers to the joint along the shorter side of the sheet. This, too is a point which requires close attention. The membrane must be melted until mastic runs out in the process of overlapping. The overlapped part should be not less than 15 cm wide. Sheets reinforced only with polyester non-woven fabric laid in semi-adhesion, in proximity to the end overlap, must be glued to the substrate in complete adhesion for a strip at least one metre wide.

Y laYing BituMen polYMer MeMBranes


4.Application 5.Double layer of membrane
SECOND LAYER

6.End overlap of mineralcoated membrane

AREA TO BE TORCHED

SUPPORT

MINERAL-COATED SURFACE

Connecting the membrane to the substrate must be carried out as follows: in complete adhesion. The torching of the mixture of the rolls must heat the membrane and the substrate at the same time, concentrating on the roll. in semi-independence. Laying in semiindependence is performed by using the special Index specific membranes (PERFOBASE, VAPORDIFFUSER, DIFFUSER ALU, TECTENE REROOF BASE STRIP EP, MINERAL TECTENE REROOF STRIP EP), onto which the subsequent layers are bonded in complete adhesion; in independence. The membrane is unrolled "dry" onto the substrate, flamebonding only the overlaps. In this case, the waterproof membrane must always be ballasted (with flooring, gravel, soil etc,). The bonding operations will be facilitated if the sheets are wound around a rigid plastic tube (HDPE, 12cm, length 97cm) which will prevent ovalisation of the roll during laying, particularly in summer. At the same time, the pressure exerted on the roll will be uniformly discharged over the entire contact surface with the support, also facilitating the release of the melted mixture along the overlap lines, ensuring that the membrane is perfectly welded; For the choice of system and for details of laying, the reader is referred to the publications "Technical Specifications.

If laying a second layer is specified, it must be laid so as to straddle the overlap of the previous layer and must be bonded in complete adhesion. The burner flame must also heat the membrane already laid.

Whereas the lateral overlaps require adhesion zones free of grit, at the end overlaps the mineral-coated surface must be heated with a certain persistence so that melting consequently takes place over an area corresponding to the width of the overlap, with consequent melting of the bituminous mastic underneath. Once the membrane compound which will form the overlap has been melted, this will enable the two edges to be welded perfectly.

EQUIPMENT

P R O PA N E GAS CYLINDER Use only propane gas cylinders.

BURNER Various lengths of burner may be used depending on the job to be done

RIGID HDPE CORE To avoid ovalisation of the rolls during laying

CONNECTING HOSES WITH P R E S S U R E REGULATOR

COMPASS for cutting the membranes into circular shapes

T SQUARE For cutting uniform strips of membrane DELFINO KNIFE Aluminium knife

TRANSPORT
The pallets are covered with a sheet of very thick heat-shrink polythene, but long journeys on uneven roads and sharp braking can cause the rolls to tip up. This problem can be avoided by running ropes through the rows of pallets, crosswise to the width of the bed of the lorry. The ropes must be properly tight and suitably protected so that they do not leave marks on the rolls.

ROPES

LOADING/UNLOADING
INDEX membranes and thermal insulation are produced in such a way as to resist the mechanical stresses to which they can be exposed in laying. During handling, however, the material must be treated with care to avoid the rolls being crushed and prevent contact with sharp or pointed objects. In low temperatures, violent impacts must be avoided as they can break the membranes and separate the insulating panels from the Thermobase.

NO!

STORAGE

YES!

NO!

The material should be stored under cover. The rolls whether covered or uncovered must remain in a vertical position on a smooth, flat surface, except for those provided with a rigid core or tube, which can tolerate a horizontal position for a limited time. Under cover, the panels can be stacked in two layers with lengths of timber between the layers to spread the weight. Rolls of Thermobase are stored upright in the same way as the membranes, with the exception of rolls with a selvedge which should be arranged horizontally.

ON-SITE HANDLING
Keep on site only the rolls strictly necessary for laying during the day. Set the rolls upright on a smooth, flat surface. Use a crane to lift the rolls onto the roof, keeping the pallet complete and intact and using suitable lifting gear. If the packs have to be opened and the rolls lifted loose, use suitable lifting gear with the crane and in any event set the rolls upright after lifting. Do not use ropes to tie and lift the rolls.

NO!

CONSERVATION
It is advisable to store the pallets in a dry place, sheltered from the sun. In the summertime, because of the greenhouse effect, pallets with heat-shrink wrapping exposed to the sun quickly reach a temperature of around 70C and this causes progressive blackening from the top downwards of the talc coating or mineral granules on the rolls, until the point where the coils on the roll stick together or at any rate take on an unpleasant aesthetic appearance. In the case of membranes reinforced with polyester non-woven fabric, the heat also causes the ends of the rolls to begin to shrink and thus wrecks the membrane. It should also be borne in mind that exposure to heat, as is wellknown, causes progressive and predictable loss of flexibility, but if what happens naturally in use happens instead to material still on the roll, it is possible that cracking problems or difficulty unrolling the material may occur. In winter the rolls should be stored for 24 hours at a temperature above +5C before laying. Avoid leaving the rolls in the open overnight. Only the rolls which will be applied during the day should be brought onto the site. A good rule is always to "rotate" the stock and not to keep rolls for more than 12 months.

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period of use and CliMatiC Conditions for appliCation


Some types of product carry a symbol of a sun or a pine-tree printed on the strip at the bottom of the packaging, to identify the period of use for which the membrane was made and in which it is advisable to use the product. It is advisable to apply membranes with the sun symbol during the summer months, and those with the pine-tree during the winter. Failure to comply with the recommended application period does not reduce the efficiency of the finished membrane, but creates drawbacks and disadvantages when laying, such as excessive softness of the winter membrane when applied in the summer, and excessive stiffness and difficulty in unrolling the rolls of the summer product when used in the winter. The products should therefore be applied in favourable atmospheric conditions. Rain, frost, snow and high humidity can interfere with the adhesion of the membrane to the substrate and at the overlaps. With temperatures below +5C it is very likely that there will be ice on the surface to be covered, and the rolls will be more difficult to unroll. As a result, moisture trapped between the membrane and the substrate can give rise to the formation of bubbles. In these conditions it is better not to apply the material. In summer, in hot countries, and especially when it is being laid over thermal insulation, it is advisable to apply the material in the coolest part of the day, avoiding the hours in the middle of the day when the sun is at its hottest.

RAIN SNOW DAMP

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CONCRETE SUBSTRATE: SMOOTHING


The substrate must be smooth and flat, free from cracks. The surface must be smoothed with a trowel and any cracks or dips must be filled with mortar. Any roughness must be removed, as must any remains from building work, such as nails, metal sheets, timber etc.

CONCRETE SUBSTRATE: WATER, ICE, CURING


Before application the substrate must be clean and dry. In the case of concrete and hollow-core substrates it is advisable to allow a curing period of 8 days to 3 weeks, depending on the season, before laying.
WATER

ICE

CONCRETE SUBSTRATE: PRIMER


After carrying out the operations specified in the previous paragraphs, spread the bituminous adhesion primer INDEVER in the areas where the membrane is to be anchored (see Technical Specifications). The primer has the very important function of preparing the receiving surface and increasing adhesion. The bitumen polymer membranes must not be applied until the primer is completely dry: about 8 hours.

PRIMER

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SHEET METAL SUBSTRATE


If the membrane is to adhere to sheet metal (see Technical Specifications no. 6), spread INDEVER primer and wait for it to dry before moving on to laying the membrane.

PRIMER

TIMBER SUBSTRATE
MEMBRANE

On timber boarding, sheets of bitumen paper or ROLLBASE should be nailed down with large-headed nails to protect the timber from the burner flame. The membrane should then be fixed with complete adhesion.
NAIL

PAPER FELT

ROLLBASE

SUBSTRATE OVER OLD MEMBRANES


If the condition of the old membrane allows it to be retained, it can be used as a substrate (see Technical Specifications no. 3). First, however, remove unstable and perished parts, separate any protective sheet metalwork and flatten any bubbles etc. Apply a coat of INDEVER primer before fixing the membrane.
PRIMER BUBBLE

13

SUBSTRATE ON CONCRETE ROAD DECK

The intended use of the structure necessitates a solution involving complete adhesion and the use of membranes of 4-5 mm thickness reinforced with heavyweight polyester non-woven fabric. Complete adhesion, however, exposes the membrane to the risk of the formation of bubbles of vapour which could lift the membrane if laid on decking which is still damp, or laid in adverse climatic conditions. When covering road decks, therefore, it is important to create a smooth substrate, to wait for poured concrete to cure completely, to take the moisture condition of the substrate into account, to use INDEVER AUTOSTRADE primer over the entire surface, and to flamebond the membrane as uniformly as possible avoiding leaving areas not adhering properly which are a potential site of bubbles, especially near the overlap between sheets of membrane. According to some experts, using membranes self-protected with white mineral or painting the membrane with lime seems to reduce the phenomenon. If, however, bubbles do appear before the road asphalt is laid, these must be repaired. (Beware of anti-evaporating materials [curing agents] which may be present on the concrete surface of the deck, as they can interfere with the adhesion of the membrane and the primer).

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ALIGNMENT
Unroll the roll and align it, overlapping the edge on the neighbouring sheet. Rewind it bit by bit towards the centre and begin flame welding. Take great care over the alignment, referring to "Golden Rule" no. 1.

UNROLLING AT LOW TEMPERATURE


At low temperatures avoid impacts and violent unrolling which could damage the membranes themselves. Unroll carefully and not by kicking the roll.

NO!

SURFACES OF MEMBRANES
The part of the sheet which has to melt is the bottom face, which is embossed with a pattern of squares and coated with a thin film of FLAMINA. When the flame is applied, the FLAMINA melts, indicating the exact melting point. The upper face of the membrane is covered with talc screen-printed in spots. This treatment serves to ensure that the coils separate properly, even at high temperatures.

TALC DOTS EMBOSSING

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FLAME-LAYING
Bitumen polymer-based waterproofing membranes are thermo-adhesive and this property is exploited to adhere them to the substrate and the overlaps without the addition of other materials such as solvents, adhesives etc. It is sufficient to heat the sheet with a propane gas burner flame to make the sheet adhesive. As the heating proceeds, the Flamina film retracts and the talc-coated face darkens until it takes on a bright appearance and any embossing flattens out, the surface becomes shiny and the membrane is ready for adhesion to the substrate and on the overlaps. The trademark INDEX is printed in white on the Flamina film so that its disappearance indicates its correct retraction during flaming. Flame heating must bring about retraction of the film and flattening of the embossing, but heating the membrane any further can damage the polyester reinforcement (which melts at 260C) causing it to retract, undulate, curl or in the most serious cases to puncture. Insufficient heating, on the other hand, can cause insufficient adhesion to the base, between the layers or on the overlaps.

AVOIDING PUNCTURING

NO!

Use suitable footwear to avoid perforating the waterproofing membrane.

FILLING THE JOINTS. WHAT NOT TO DO


Filling the joints with a trowel, spatula or other tool has been shown over time to be a more harmful than advantageous. First of all, the reinforcement of the membrane is affected, weakening it; also, the upper protective layer is removed and the reinforcement is left exposed. Often the operator tends to carry out a perfunctory weld on 10 cm of overlap and then rely almost completely for the seal of the membrane on giving it a "good filling", not taking into account that the adhesive strength of 1 or 2 cm of filling is insufficient for sealing the joint. In short, it is a waste of time to do a useless job twice on the overlap. It is quicker and safer to carry out the welding correctly the first time, while unrolling the roll, releasing the stream of melted mixture once to make a permanent job.
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SPOT APPLICATION
VAPORDIFFUSER is the waterproofing bitumen polymer with its lower face provided with thick "bitumen nails" which allow spot adhesion to bare surfaces whether concrete or made up of old and damaged bituminous membranes and avoids giving rise to bubbles which can affect the seal of the membrane over time. VAPORDIFFUSER is flame-bonded to the substrate.
(For more information please see the relevant technical sheet).

VAPORDIFFUSER

MELTING AREA

PERFOBASE is the perforated sheet which, when laid dry on a substrate previously treated with Indever primer, enables the next membrane to be flame-bonded by uniformly distributed spots. Alternatively, it is possible to unroll the membrane and melt it in alternate spots only, distributing the adhesion areas uniformly. Particular care must be taken when welding the end overlaps.

PERFOBASE

17

NEW SYSTEM OF BONDING PANELS

THERMAL INSULATION

HEAT-RESISTANT THERMAL INSULATION PROMINENT is the draining and waterproofing bitumen polymer membrane for use as a vapour barrier, with a textured upper surface which enables heat-resistant insulating panels to be glued to it without recourse to melted oxidised bitumen. PROMINENT should be flame-bonded to the substrate in complete adhesion.
(For more information please see the relevant technical sheet).

PROMINENT

THERMAL INSULATION

HEAT-SENSITIVE THERMAL INSULATION TECTENE BV is the bitumen polymer membrane provided with selfadhesive strips for bonding expanded polystyrene insulating panels. TECTENE BV should be bonded to the substrate in complete adhesion. If held in place for a sufficient length of time, the flame-activated adhesive enables expanded polystyrene panels to be bonded even with temperatures close to zero.
(For more information please see the relevant technical sheet).

TECTENE BV

DOUBLE- OR MULTI-LAYERED MEMBRANES


PA RT I C U L A R CHANNEL FAULTY JOINT FAULTY JOINT

WATERPROOF COVERING LEAK

When the waterproofing membrane is made up of two or more layers, it is essential that these should adhere well to each other. There is no justification for a less careful laying procedure merely because the membrane consists of several layers: it runs the same risks as bad laying with a single layer membrane. If the layers do not adhere well to each other, water which gets past the last layer will find its way in through the innumerable "channels" which form between the layers following careless and hasty laying, until it finds, even some distance away, a faulty joint in the layers below and thus causes a leak. The security of a multi-layered membrane is ensured exclusively by the complete adhesion between the layers which make it up.

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FLAME-LAYING ON VERTICAL SURFACES


INDEX membranes have excellent resistance to sliding under heat and do not slip even when fixed vertically to concrete surfaces. Using the flame to heat both the membrane and the surface to which it is to adhere will result in tenacious adhesion without the need for mechanical fixings. The material's grip is produced by cooling, when the mixture in the melted layer returns to the solid state. It can happen in the summer months that both the membrane and the entire substrate are so hot that it takes a long time for sufficient cooling to occur for the material to get a grip on the vertical surface and become self-supporting. The operator must therefore control the heating carefully and in the summer months will have to support the sheet manually a little longer till it has begun to get a grip, in other words till it has cooled down. If this is not done, a sheet which is still too hot will not remain attached to the wall and will fall down. It is therefore important to wait for cooling to take place and not to give in to the temptation to reheat a sheet which has become detached because the operator did not wait long enough, otherwise it will never cool and he will never succeed in making it adhere to the vertical surface. To summarise: on vertical surfaces the sheet and the substrate must be heated and the membrane must be supported until it has cooled down enough to be self-supporting.

PAINT
Spread the protective paint using a roller, taking care to apply two coats at right angles to each other. For detail work, use a brush. The presence of uneven areas on the roof, leading to the formation of puddles, can locally cause the paint to lift. Do not paint areas of the membrane which are perpetually immersed in water (For more information see Technical Specifications no. 12). Painting over a mineral-covered membrane ensures considerably longer life than on a smooth membrane.

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WATERPROOFING DETAILS

UPSTANDS
If a recess has not been provided for a membrane in a vertical wall, a nailed and sealed profile must be fitted as an end finish for the membrane bonded to the wall. Along the perimeter of the roof and on the flat the membrane should be bonded completely to the substrate.

SILICONE SEALANT

DRIP

Upstand with metal profile

10 cm

7 cm

PRIMER

RENDERING NAILED MESH

Protected upstand

7 cm

10 cm

If, however, the upstand is prepared so as to house the membrane, the membrane must be bonded into its housing which will then be covered with metal mesh to provide a key for the mortar.
(For more information see Technical Specifications nos. 1 and 2).

SLIDING LAYER

PRIMER

Protected upstand

10 cm 7 cm

If the waterproofing membrane comes up to the top of perimeter walls, it must then be covered with a nailed flashing.

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INTERNAL CORNER
1 2 3

1st layer

2nd layer

10

11

12

21

EXTERNAL CORNER
1 2

Double layer

10

22

EXTERNAL CORNER
1 2

Single layer

23

VertiCal drain
1 2

Single layer

Double layer

24

PROTRUDING ROUND ELEMENT


1 2

Double layer

1 cm 1 cm

Single layer

1 cm 1 cm

25

HORIZONTAL DRAIN
1 2

Double layer

15 cm 15 cm

26

HORIZONTAL DRAIN
1 2

Single layer

15 cm 15 cm

27

ROOF VENT
1

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WARNINGS
Very often damage which prejudices the integrity of the membrane is caused by the wrong use of the roof by unspecialised personnel (aerial fitters, sheet metal workers, glaziers etc.) operating on the roof after the work by the waterproofing technician is completed. It is as well to call the Client's attention to this problem and to make them aware of the advisability of having the waterproofing technician present as advisor any time that there are plans for alterations to the original use of the roof, or non-routine maintenance, aerial fitting, erection of advertising signs, roof metalwork, air conditioning systems etc. MAINTENANCE The lifespan of waterproofing work is a direct function of careful skilled maintenance. It is advisable to arrange periodically for inspection of the membrane, paying particular attention to checking the functionality of the auxiliary works, flashings, drainage outlets, overflow pipes etc, and taking care to remove leaves, moss and other vegetation which could overload the drainage system. TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS To provide useful help to designers and fitters, INDEX has produced a series of publications called "Technical Specifications. In these publications we try to resolve as far as possible all problems in laying the membranes, taking account of all phenomena which cause problems when working in various fields. QUALITY CONTROL SLIP Each roll product is accompanied by a numbered quality control slip.

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Associate of GBC Italia

Advanced systems and products for waterproong, thermal and acoustic insulation, asbestos cement slab reclamation, restoration of masonry and concrete, laying paving and coatings

Via G. Rossini, 22 - 37060 Castel DAzzano (Verona) - Italy tel. 045.8546201 - fax 045.518390 - email: index@indexspa.it Technical Sales Information email tecom@indexspa.it
1/2013ing

INDEX S.p.A.

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