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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of this project report would not have been possible with out the help and guidance of many SPRL personnel. I avail this opportunity to convey my gratitude to them while presenting this report. I extend my deep sense of gratitude and heartfelt appreciation to my project guide Mr. B.M. Verma for their valuable guidance, deep routed interest, inspiration and continuous encouragement throughout the period of the project. I am thankful to all SPRL employees who came in my contact during the vocational training for their coordinal, cooperative and supportive attitude toward me. I feel privileged to express my deep regards and gratitude to Mr. Arvind Kumar (Asst. Engineer) and to all other staff members of Shriram Piston & Rings Limited, the names of whom could not be mentioned here and who directly or indirectly helped me in accomplishment of this project,

PUSHPENDRA UPADHYAY

INDEX
1-COMPANY PROFILE OVERVIEW TO SRP LOCATION OF SRP QUALITY OBJECT ACHIEVMEANT IN TERM OF QUALITY 2-INTRODUCTION OF PISTON PISTON IN IC ENGINE PISTON ASSEMBLY 3-MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOUNDRY PIN BORING CNC TURNING DRILLING GRINDING REAMING PIN FITTING & INSPECTION 4-HEAT TREATMENT 5-DEFECTS 6-DESINGN CONSIDERATION

COMPANY PROFILE
SHRIRAM PISTONS: GHAZIABAD Shriram Piston & Rings Ltd. (SPRL) is one of the largest and most sophisticated manufacturers of Precision Automobile Components i.e. Piston, Piston Rings, Piston Pin and Engine valve in India. The product are sold under brand name USHA/SPR in the markets. SPRL Manufacturing unit is located at Meerut Road in Ghaziabad (25 km from Delhi). The plant has been recognized as one of the most modern and sophisticated plant in North India in the field of Automobile the Production capacity of the plant is as under Piston Pin Rings Engine Valve : : : : 14.05 million per year Actual Production in 2012-2013 11.35 million per year 66.07 million per year 27.02 million per year

The company has technical collaboration withi. ii. iii. iv. M/s. Kolbenschmidt, Germany to produce pistons. M/s. Riken Corporation, Japan for Piston Rings. M/s. Fuji Oozx, Japan for manufacturing of Engine Valve. M/s. Honda Foundary, Japan for Technical Support.

The company supplies its products to several Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) likes- Ashok Leyland, Tata Cummins, Tata Motors, Maruti Suzuki, Mahindra & Mahindra, Tafe Tractors, SML (Swaraj), Kirloskar Oil Engine, Bajaj Auto, Honda Siel Cars, Honda Scooter, International Tractor, Standard Combine in addition to all the Honda Joints Ventures in India. SPRL is also supply to its product to international OMEs like Renutt, Nissan, Ford & Riken etc. At Shriram Piston & Rings Ltd. Quality is an integrated part of whatever we do, which is reflected in the companys quality policy-

COLABORATORS:

PISTONS RINGS

KOLBENSCHMIDT RIKEN CORPARATION FUJIOOZX

GERMANY JAPAN JAPAN

ENGINE VALVE

CLASSIFICATION OF THE PREMISES: The company premises is classified in to three parts:

P.T.E. C.A.A. R&D

PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING COMMERCIAL ADMINISTRATION & ACCOUNTS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

SPR is the Largest Exporter of Pistons of India and has been recognized as an EXPORT HOUSE by the Government of India.

COMPANY POLICIES: The policies which are followed by the SPR are given follow: SPR 5 S POLICIES In this policies there are five words starting from latter S on which company pay more attention S S S S S SHIT-SUKE SEIKETSU SEISO SEITEN SEIRE DISCIPLINE CLEANLINESS CLEANING ARRANGEMENT PROPER SELECTION

SPR TDM POLICY Zero Failure, Zero Defects & Zero Accident Through Introduction Of TDM, With Participation Of All Employment

Maximum Profit Through Improvement OF Overall Equipment Efficiency, Reduction In Cost & Increase In Customer Satisfaction SPR QUALITY POLICY TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENT SPR ENVIRONMENT POLICY Contionual Improvement In Environment Performance Through Prevention, Monitoring & Control of Pollution & Improving Environmental Bench Marks for Sustainable Growth of Company Operation.

COMPANY COLLABORATORS: KOBENSCHMIDT AG COMPANY PROFILE This company was founded in 1910. The company is world 2nd number Pistons manufacturer. It has 6600 employees in 7 German Plants. The company exports is products to 120 countries. The diameter range of Pistons in 20mm-66mm RIKEN CORPORATION COMPANY PROFIE This company was established in 1972. This is the undisputed would ladder in Piston & Rings. Riken holds more then 86%. Its Piston Rings range to 200mm to 640mm square daimeter. Beside Pistions Rings, they also in manufacturere. Precision cast Riken. Other Engineer Section PISTONS INSERTS, PRE- COMBUSTION CHAMBER, ROCKERARM TAPPET etc. HONDA FOUNDRY COMPANY PROFILE The company was founded in December 1963. It is affiliated to Honda Motor Company. The monthly production of company is 7,20,000 Nos, Poistons. It is fully automatic Piston casting. It is fully automatic Piston machining. The main customers of company are HONDA MITSUBISHI

NIPPON DENSO SANDAN CORPORATION Other products of company are Intake Manifolds Cylinder head FUJI OOZX COMPANY PROFILE It is the largest engine valve manufacturer in Japan. The production of company is over 75 lakhs (7.5 million/valve/month) Fuji Oozx have six plants in Fujisawa one fully automatic State-Of -The Art plant at shizuka. It has joint ve3ntures located in USA, Thailand, south Korea and Taiwan besides technical collaboration with SPR India. OE of the company are all Japanese vehicles/Engine manufacturers including Toyota, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Honda, Isuzu, Suzuki, Hino etc.

Total Customer Satisfaction Through Quality Management and Continuous Improvement Quality Objects: 1. Organization which is sensitive and interactive to the needs of customers. 2. Continuous upgrading of quality and process to meet changing needs of customers. 3. Optimization of return on investment by Continuous improvement Technology Devlopment Cost reduction effort Effective use of all resources Harmonious and safe working condition

4. Works to the international norms of Quality and Management The company has successfully practiced the best work ethic and technology along with the TPM & Kaizen approach and harmony through team work.

Achievement in terms of Quality: The company received the ISO-1990 certified from RWTUV, Germany in 1994 . Technology from the collaborates was supplemented with in-house effort and implementing world class effort. The company received QS-9000 certified from TUV, Germany in 1999. The company received ISO-14001 certified in year 2001. SPR received the TS-16949 certified in 2003. The company received OHSAS -18001 certified in year 2003. Green rating award by CII, U.P. Pollution Board & World Bank in 2004. Best foundary award from Institute of India Foundrymen in year 2003. The company received TPM excellence award in 2004. Received Diamond Award- overall best performance in QCDDM, Outstanding performance in cost, Bronze Award for delivery, Gold Award for5S from Honda Siel Cars Ltd in 2006. The company received the Best Vendor Award from Maruti Suzuki for 4 consecutive times, Best Suppliers Performance award from Tata Cummins Ltd for 3 consecutive year . Excellence Award in Export by Government of India. Excellence Award in Productivity by ACMA in 2007-08. Excellence Award in Quality by Honda Scooters and Motor Cycles Ltd. Excellence Award in Technology by ACMA in 2007-08. Excellence Award in Manufacturing Excellence Award by ACMA in 2007-08. Received

INTRODUCTION:
A piston is an important component of reciprocating engine helps to convert energy obtained by the combustion of fuel in cylinder into useful mechanical power. It is like a disc which reciprocates within a cylinder. It is either moved by the fluid or it moves the fluid which enters the cylinder A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. The piston of an internal combustion engine is acted upon by the pressure of the expanding combustion gases in the combustion chamber space at the top of the cylinder. This force then acts downwards through the connecting rod and onto the crankshaft. The connecting rod is attached to the piston by a swivellinggudgeon pin (US: wrist pin). This pin is mounted within the piston: unlike the steam engine, there is no piston rod or crosshead (except big two stroke engines). The pin itself is of hardened steel and is fixed in the piston, but free to move in the connecting rod. A few designs use a 'fully floating' design that is loose in both components. All pins must be prevented from moving sideways and the ends of the pin digging into the cylinder wall, usually by circlips. Gas sealing is achieved by the use of piston rings. These are a number of narrow iron rings, fitted loosely into grooves in the piston, just below the crown. The rings are split at a point in the rim, allowing them to press against the cylinder with a light spring pressure. Two types of ring are used: the upper rings have solid faces and provide gas sealing; lower rings have narrow edges and a U-shaped profile, to act as oil scrapers. There are many proprietary and detail design features associated with piston rings. Pistons are cast from aluminium alloys. For better strength and fatigue life, some racing pistons may be forged instead. Early pistons were of cast iron, but there were obvious benefits for engine

balancing if a lighter alloy could be used. To produce pistons that could survive engine combustion temperatures, it was necessary to develop new alloys such as Y alloy and Hiduminium, specifically for use as pistons. A few early gas engines[note 1] had double-acting cylinders, but otherwise effectively all internal combustion engine pistons are single-acting. During World War II, the US submarine Pompano[note 2] was fitted with a prototype of the infamously unreliable H.O.R. double-acting two-stroke diesel engine. Although compact, for use in a cramped submarine, this design of engine was not repeated.

PISTON IN IC ENGINE:
1- The main purpose of the piston of an internal combustion engine is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft through a connecting rod. 2- It is located in a cylinder and is equipped with piston rings to provide a good seal between the cylinder wall and piston.

The meaning of the terms in the above diagram are as follows C: Crankshaft E: Exhaust valve cam shaft I: Scavenge air valve cam shaft P: Piston R: Connecting rod S: Spark plug V: Valves. Red: exhaust, Blue: intake W: Cooling water ducts

Piston Assembly: The main parts in assembly of a piston are as follows: Piston Piston Rings Piston Pin Piston Boss All the parts of the piston are shown in the above figure and they are the major parts involve in the assembly of a piston.

Structure of Piston: 1-Piston crown 2-Ring grooves 3- Piston land 4- Piston skirt

MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

1.

Foundry

The foundry is the beginning of the piston. At the foundry the die is prepared by heating it to operating temperature for approximately one hour. This process allows the die to readily accept the molten material when it is poured. The material used is a 10% silicon content aluminium. The dies used are 5 piece and three piece. These dies are made from cast iron with steel inserts for the gudgeon pin holes and the cores. The cores dictate the placement of the gudgeon pin and can be located to give offset pins or square pins. The process starts by heating the material to 700

degrees Celsius. This is well above the melting point of the aluminium, but below its boiling point. The material is then scooped up with a ladle from the crucible (the pot that holds the molten material). This is then poured into the die through the sprue. The material is then allowed to cool before it is removed from the die and placed into a bin of hot

water. This water is used to facilitate a more even settling of the hot metal. After the castings have had time to cool they are placed into a heat treatment plant overnight. This process tempers the casting and ensures the piston will have improved qualities. After it is removed from the heat treatment the casting has its runner removed. This process takes little time and is fully automated.

2.

Pin Boring

At this stage of the piston manufacturing process the casting has the gudgeon pin hole rough machined and the locating bung machined. This process is where the casting is machined on the base to allow placement of the casting in other machines. This is carried out on a simple lathe. Pin boring is done in conjunction with the bung turning, as one casting is removed from having the bung face machined it is placed on the pin borer. The pin borer is only a rough machining process which allows the reamer to enter the gudgeon hole later.

3.

CNC Turning

Turning of the casting is carried out on CNC (Computer Numeric Control) machinery. This equipment is the most accurate and fastest available for this application with very tight tolerances and extremely fast spindle speeds. The castings are placed in the lathe on a bung and held in place by a solid rod through the gudgeon pin hole. A draw bolt is activated in the chuck which draws the rod toward the chuck and holds the piston in place. The lathe is then started and the machining cycle begun. This cycle is programmed into the lathe in a basic language called G-Code (this code is not the only one available). G-Code has basic commands to tell the lathe to move to certain positions (X, Y,Z co-ordinates), at particular spindle speeds (eg S2500 means spindle speed 2500rpm), at particular feed rates (eg G01; rapid traverse) and other commands such as M01 (repeat programme) and

others. As you can see this is a simple system to learn and implement. After the piston is machined it is removed from the lathe and the part number stamped on the crown (top) of the piston. The piston is now ready for the finishing processes.

4.

Drilling

The first stages of the finishing process include drilling, slotting, valve and crank relieving. Drilling includes all oil holes in places such as the gudgeon pin bosses and oil ring grooves. Slotting is where slots are placed in the skirt or in the oil ring groove. Valve relieving process is done on a mill and involves setting the machine up for the process, choosing the correct cutter and completing the job. Since there are so many different types of valve reliefs it is impossible to have a specialized machine set up to do one job. Crank relieving is carried out on a specialized machine which scallops the skirt of the piston to the required shape and depth by using two opposed cutters placed on a common shaft.

5.

Grinding

This process involves the final size being machined on the piston. The grinder machines the skirt of the piston only and in the majority of cases is cam ground. Cam grinding ensures the piston will "grow" evenly in the bore of the engine. A perfectly round piston will expand unevenly during use because of the uneven placement of material in the casting (gudgeon pin bosses and ribbing used for strengthening).

6. Deburring and Tin coating: Before coating, the pistons should be thoroughly cleaned to remove any soap or phosphate residue, water spots, machining oil, dirt, etc. picked up during the manufacturing process. For optimum results a mechanical type cleaner (e.g. spray) is recommended. Recommended methods for applying Tin Coating to pistons are either screen print or spray techniques.

7.

Reaming

The final machining process for the piston is that of reaming. This process involves the piston being placed in a bath of oil and reamed at different sizes to reach the final size required. Since

the pin boring process is only rough it is necessary to ream the pin bore a number of times to achieve the surface finish and size required. Reaming is not a fast process and is only partially automated (there are automatic feeds on the reaming machines). Tolerance achieved on the finished reamed surface is 0.4Ra.

8.

Pin Fitting and Final Inspection

At this stage the piston is cleaned, fitted with the appropriate gudgeon pin, stamped with the pistons' oversize and any other marking

HEAT TREATMENT:
Heat Treatment is the controlled heating and cooling of metals to alter their physical and mechanical properties without changing the product shape. Heat Treatment is often associated with increasing the strength of material, but it can also be used to alter certain manufacturability objectives such as improve machining, improve formability, restore ductility after a cold working operation.

MACHINING PROCESS: Machining process involves the following steps Open end bore machining Rough outer diameter turning Grooves forming Semi finish hole boring Circlip grooving oil hole drilling in 3rd groove and skirt Ring grooving and chamfering Final outer diameter turning Deburring and cleaning Tin coating Finish pin hole boring

PIN HOLE BORING: At this stage of the piston manufacturing process, the casting has the gudgeon pin hole rough machined. This is carried out on a simple lathe. The pin borer is only a rough machining process which allows the reamer to enter the gudgeon hole later.

CNC TURNING: Turning of the casting is carried out on CNC machinery. This equipment is the most accurate and fastest available for this application with very tight tolerances and extremly fast spindle speeds. The following operations are performed on this machine: Open end bore machining Rough outer diameter turning Grooves forming

DRILLING AND GRINDING: Drilling includes all oil holes in places such as the gudgeon pin bosses and oil ring grooves. Slotting is done where slots are placed in the skirt or in the oil ring groove. Grinding involves the final size being machined on the piston. Semi finish hole boring Circlip grooving oil hole drilling in 3rd groove and skirt Ring grooving and chamfering

REAMING: The final machining process for the piston is that of reaming. This process involves the piston being placed in a bath of oil and reamed at different sizes to reach the final size required. Since the pin boring process is only rough it is necessary to ream the pin bore a number of times to achieve the surface finish and size required.

PIN FITTING AND FINAL INSPECTION: At this stage the piston is cleaned, inspected by the instruments, fitted with the appropriate gudgeon pin, stamped with the pistons oversize and any other markings, and then sent to dispatch.

Finally, the piston is wrapped and placed in the shipping container with the ring set and sent to the customer.

DEFECTS: Since its a main reciprocating part of engine and hence it creates the problems of unbalancing due to its inertia. Due to friction between wall of the cylinder and piston rings its life becomes short and it generates the unpleasant sound due reciprocating mechanism. To transmit the energy of reciprocating piston, it is connected to a connecting rod and crank mechanism and due to these parts there occurs mechanical losses. The motion of the crank shaft is not smooth, since energy supplied by the piston is not continuous and it is impulsive in nature. To supply the fuel into the cylinder there is need of the valves and valve mechanism and during opening and closing of the valves, mechanical noise occurs and also mechanical vibration.

Topics Discussed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Piston Components Designing of Piston Finite Element Analysis FEA Modelling for Temp Distribution Plotting of Temperature Distribution & Conclusion 7. 8. 9. Suggestions for future work Manufacturing of Piston References

A Piston is a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly into a hollow cylinder and moves back and forth under the pressure of a fluid (typically a hot gas formed by combustion, as in many engines), or moves or compresses a fluid, as in a pump or compressor. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. In some engines, the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall. Pistons are commonly made of a cast aluminum alloy for excellent and lightweight thermal conductivity.

Five Key Properties of a Piston: 1. Sufficient thermal conductivity

2. Low thermal expansion 3. High hot strength 4. High strength to weight ratio 5. High resistance to surface abrasion The two main requirements of the piston are as follows: 1. Contain all the fluids above and below the piston assembly during the cycle. 2. Transfer the work done in combustion to the connecting rod with minimal mechanical and thermodynamic losses.

Piston component: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Piston crown Piston pin Piston pin bore Skirt Ring grooves Ring lands Piston rings

The Crown: Is the top most surface of the piston which creates the moving bottom barrier in the combustion chamber. This part of the piston is in contact with incoming airflow, burnt exhaust gasses, and is part of the combustion chamber shape. The Ring lands: Are the reliefs cut into the side profile of the piston where the piston rings sit. The ring lands are typically taller than the ring thickness which allows the rings to move and rotate in the bore. It also allows combustion pressure to contact the entire piston ring top face inside the ringland pressing it down (and out in some designs) improving ring seal. The Skirt: The piston skirt is the extension of the side profile of piston which controls the piston movement in the bore preventing it from wobbling around and controlling the angular forces present on the piston walls from the angular rotation of the crankshaft. The Underside: This part of the piston is exposed to the crank case and houses the wrist pin (connecting the piston to therod) and exposed to the engine oil in 3 ways:

Oil collected by the oil retention ring (the bottom most piston ring) is routed through holes in the side of the piston to the underside to drain back into the crank case.

Oil sloshing around in the crankcase due to the crankshaft counterweights dipping in and out of the oil sump as well as oil forced up through the connecting rod up to lubricate the wrist pin (on forced oil pins).

On engines equipped with oil squirters under the piston, where oil is squirted on the underside to help cool the piston mass for longevity or racing applications, which in some situations may also allow for an overall thinner crown without sacrificing the strength of the piston and while reducing the overall weight of the package.

Piston Design Considerations Pistons are designed with features which perform specific functions during engine operation. The piston head or crown receives the majority of the initial pressure and force caused by the combustion process. The piston pin area is exposed to a significant amount of force due to rapid directional changes. It is also subjected to thermal expansion caused by the transfer of heat from the head to the body of the piston. The piston pin area is subject to more thermal expansion than other areas of the piston. This occurs from the thermal expansion properties of cast aluminum alloy and the mass in the piston pin area.

Some pistons are cast and machined at the factory into a cam ground (elliptical shape). An elliptical shape is an oval shape in which one-half is a mirror image of the other half. These piston shapes provide an advantage in conforming to the ever-changing dimensions of the cylinder bore. The piston is designed to be an elliptical shape when cold. As the engine reaches operating temperature, the piston pin bore area expands more than other thinner areas of the piston. At operating temperature, the piston shape becomes a circular shape, which matches the cylinder bore for improved sealing and combustion efficiency.

Some pistons are designed with a taper, with the smallest diameter of the taper at the piston head. The taper shape compensates for thermal expansion and thermal growth. Thermal growth is the increase in size of a material when heated, with little or no change back to original dimensions. The taper design allows the piston to move freely in the cylinder bore regardless of the heat applied to the piston head.

Some Briggs & Stratton engines use a barrel-shaped piston skirt. The barrel shape provides a smoother transition during directional changes of the piston. The piston rolls into the cylinder

wall when changing direction at the end of a stroke. This reduces noise, spreads the force of the directional change across a greater surface, and reduces side loading on the piston skirt.

Some piston designs have the piston pin offset from centre in the piston. The proper orientation of the piston pin offset is marked by a notch or an arrow on the piston head. The mark on all Briggs & Stratton pistons should be facing or closest to the flywheel on all one- and two-cylinder engines. The offset piston pin design offers a quieter running engine by reducing piston wobble and related noise. This results in truer linear movement of the piston in the cylinder bore.

Each piston design must have a provision for returning oil to the oil reservoir and the crankcase. During operation, a significant amount of oil is accumulated in the piston oil ring groove. This oil is returned to the reservoir through piston windows or through a machined channel near the piston pin. Piston windows are a series of small holes machined into the oil ring groove surface of the piston. The oil ring collects excess oil from the cylinder bore. Piston windows allow oil in the oil ring groove to drain into the oil reservoir. Another common method used to return oil to the oil reservoir is through a machined channel near the piston pin. Oil collects in the rear of the oil ring groove and is routed back to the oil reservoir through the channel ending at the piston pin. This provides a path for oil to return to the oil reservoir along the outside surface of the piston when the machined channel is exposed to the oil reservoir at BDC.

Detail Design: Design a cast iron piston for a single acting four-stroke engine for the following Data: Cylinder bore = 100 mm; Stroke = 125 mm; Maximum gas pressure = 5 N/mm2; Indicated mean effective pressure = 0.75 N/mm2; Mechanical efficiency = 80%; Fuel consumption = 0.15 kg per brake power per hour; Higher calorific value of fuel = 42 103 kJ/kg; Speed = 2000 r.p.m. Any other data required for the design may be assumed.

Solution: The dimensions for various components of the piston are determined as follows

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The finite element method has become a powerful tool for the numerical solution of a wide range of engineering problems. Advances in computer technology and CAD systems, has lead to increased use of Fem in research as well as industry as complex problems can be modeled and released with relative ease. 2.4 Basic Steps in the Finite Element Analysis The basic steps involved in finite element analysis consist of the following: 2.4.1 Preprocessing Phase 1. Create and discretize the solution domain into finite elements i.e. subdivide the problem into nodes and elements.

Figure 2.1: Discretisation of real continuum with node and element shown.

2.

Assume a shape function to represent the physical behavior of an element; that is an approximate continuous function is assumed to represent the solution of an element.

3.

Develop equations for all the elements in the mesh. These generally take form: [K]{U} = {F} Where [K] is a square matrix, known as stiffness matrix {U} is the vector of (unknown) nodal displacements or temperature {F} is the vector of applied nodal forces.

4.

Assemble the elemental equations to obtain the equations of the whole problem.Construct the global stiffness matrix.

5.

Apply boundary conditions, initial conditions, and loading.

2.4.2 Solution Phase Solve a set of linear or nonlinear algebraic equations simultaneously to obtain nodal resultsof primary degrees of freedom or unknowns, such as displacement values at different nodes in structural problem or temperature values at different nodes in heat transfer problem. 2.4.3 1. 2. 3. Post processing phase Computation of any secondary unknowns or variables e.g. the gradient of the solution. Interpretation of the results to check whether the solution makes sense Tabular and/or graphical presentation of the results.

PROBLEM: Finite element modelling to analyze the temperature distribution of piston of 4 stroke diesel engine made of two different alloys and then compare their results In our problem we are assuming 3-D piston as 2-D piston and steady state analysis is done.

The purpose of piston is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/orconnecting rod. In a pump, the function is reversed and force is transferred from the crankshaft to the piston for the purpose of compressing or ejecting the fluid in the cylinder. The aim of this work is to compare two different materials for the engine piston: Aluminium Alloy A390-T5 and Ductile Iron 65-45-12 using a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and thus choose the best suited material. Despite low thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength of Ductile Iron 65-45-12, its high density causes high inertial forces on the engine. Although the Aluminium Alloy A390-T5 has a larger thermal expansion, a larger thermal conductivity and a lower mechanical strength at high temperature than ductile iron, due to its lower density it was possible to design a piston meeting all the design requirements and weighting about 66 % less than Ductile Iron piston design.

CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS

The materials chosen for our study are two metallic alloys usually used as substrate material for internal combustion engine pistons.

ALUMINIUM A390-T5

A unique combination of properties makes aluminium one of our most versatile engineering and construction materials. Besides its lower density, it has high resistance to corrosion under the majority of service conditions. A wide range of mechanical characteristics, or tempers, are available in aluminium alloys through various combinations of cold work and heat

treatments.Aluminium and its alloys lose part of their strength at elevated temperatures composition of aluminium alloy is given as:

The

Reference - FEA of two engine pistons made of aluminium cast alloy A390 and ductile iron 6545-12 under service; 5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design; REF: A0319.0006

DUCTILE IRON 65-45-12

Ductile iron 65-45-12 is a high silicon ductile iron intended for use at high temperatures or when a part is subjected to thermal cycling.

Table 2. Composition of ductile iron 65-45-12 in percentage of weight of each element

Reference - FEA of two engine pistons made of aluminium cast alloy A390 and ductile iron 6545-12 under service; 5th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design; REF: A0319.0006

It is important to calculate the piston temperature distribution in order to control the thermal stresses and deformations within acceptable levels. The temperature distribution enables us to optimize the thermal aspects of the piston design at lower cost, before the first prototype is constructed. As much as 60% of the total engine mechanical power lost is generated by piston ring assembly. The piston skirt surface slides on the cylinder bore. A lubricant film fills the clearance between the surfaces.

The small values of the clearance increase the frictional losses and the high values increase the secondary motion of the piston. Most of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine pistons are made of an aluminum alloy which has a thermal expansion coefficient, 80% higher than the cylinder bore material made of cast iron. This leads to some differences between running and the design clearances. Therefore, analysis of the piston thermal behavior is extremely crucial in designing more efficient enginne

In this work, two material alloys are used in thermal analysis of piston 1. Aluminium alloy 2. Cast iron alloy

DETAILS OF ENGINE ARE GIVEN AS[3]: Bore=64.2 mm Stroke=111.1 mm Swept volume=500cc Piston diameter=54mm Connecting rod length=239mm

MATERIAL PROPERTIES:

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY PISTON :

Thermal conductivity(w/mk)=131.4 Poissons ratio=.33 Density at 20 degree Celsius(kg/m3 )=2730 Thermal Expansion Coefficient (100-300C)/(1/C)=2e-005 Specific Heat Capacity at 100C /(J/kg K) =963

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CAST IRON ALLOY PISTON:

Thermal conductivity(w/mk)=50 Poissons ratio=.33 Density at 20 degree Celsius(kg/m3 )=7100 Thermal Expansion Coefficient (100-300C)/(1/C)=1.28e-005 Specific Heat Capacity at 100C /(J/kg K) =963

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS :

Boundary condition on piston under crown and inner walls of the piston Skirt Film coefficient(w/mm2 k) =.000584 Bulk temperature(k) =300

Boundary condition on piston crown surface: Film coefficient(w/mm2 k) =.000334 Bulk temperature(k) =925

Boundary conditions on piston ring groove lands: Film coefficient(w/mm2 k) =.001111725 Bulk temperature(k) =393

Boundary condition on piston ring groove lands: Film coefficient(w/mm2 k) =.00044469 Bulk temperature(k) =393

Applying heat flux:

Applying heat flux on upper left side as 0.

METHODOLOGY:

Start ANSYS

PREFERENCE:

1. 2.

Select thermal as individual discipline. Select h-method as structural discipline.

PREPROCESSING:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Define the material properties. Define element type. Create areas through keypoints. Specify meshing controls/Mesh the areas to create nodes and elements.

SOLUTION:

1. 2.

Specify boundary conditions. solve

POSTPROCESSING:

1. 2.

List the results of temperature distribution. Plot the results of temperature distribution.

EXIT:

Plotting of Temperature Distribution

The result of temperature variation for aluminium alloy will be plotted as:

The result of temperature variation for cast iron alloy will be plotted as:

Comparison of temperature distribution on aluminium alloy piston and cast iron alloy piston

CONCLUSION:
Although the piston appear to be a simple part, it is actually quite complex from the design and manufacturing stand point. The efficiency and economy of the engine primarily depends on the working of the piston. So the working of the piston be more efficient. It must operate in the cylinder with minimum friction and should be able to withstand the high explosive force developed in the cylinder and also withstand very high temperature ranging from 2000 C to 2800 C during operation. To avoid the wear and unpleasant sound between cylinder walls and piston rings, piston rings should manufactured with wear resistant materials like cast iron and steel. Lubrication problems should b avoided between cylinder walls n piston by providing oil grooves accurately. Finally, the piston should be as strong as possible, however, its weight should be minimized as far as possible in order to reduce the inertia due to its reciprocating mass.