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SISTEMA DE COBERTURA DE AERADORES ( Campnulas ) ( Sistema patenteado )

EVITA CONTAMINAO AMBIENTAL REDUZ CUSTOS DE MANUTENO NA PLANTA ELIMINA ODOR REDUZ RUDOS EVITA EMANAO DE VOLTEIS

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com

A Tch-Technion Consultoria, vem apresentar a Vsas. um sistema desenvolvido que visa complementar os aeradores existentes em vossa planta fabril, melhorando a performance dos mesmos e eliminando a formao dos aerossis e outros efeitos gerados durante o tratamento de efluentes.Apesar das vantagens obtidas pelo uso de aeradores em tratamento de efluentes, em algumas aplicaes podem ocorrer alguns efeitos secundrios como : Gerao de odor - comum em estaes de tratamento a ocorrncia de mau odor pela digesto microbiana de matria orgnica, emanao de volteis presentes no efluente a ser tratado e at mesmo em funo da prpria composio do efluente a ser tratado. Com a aplicao das campnulas os vapores e fontes geradoras de odor ficam contidas no interior das campnulas evitando sua disperso no meio. Formao de aerossis ou hidrossis, so gotculas de lquido formadas durante a formao do splash gerado pelo aerador em funcionamento. Hoje de conhecimento que estas gotculas apesar de pequenas carregam em seu interior microorganismos que em alguns casos podem ser patognicos e que entram em contato no s com os operadores da estao, mas de forma geral com toda a comunidade existente nas proximidades da estao (dependendo da velocidade do vento uma gotcula de aerossol pode ser carregada a at 800 metros de distncia). A tecnologia oferecida evita a emanao e disperso dos aerossis que acabam ficando contidos no interior das campnulas .

Fig. 1 - Detalhe do mecanismo de gerao de aerossis

Mecanismos de formao de aerossis

Fig. 2 - Formao de aerossis por disperso 2

Fig. 3 - Formao de aerossis por condensao

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com

Corroso ambiental dependendo das caractersticas do efluente a ser tratado e pela emanao de elementos volteis pode ocorrer corroso na estao e em equipamentos em geral. O sistema oferecido elimina as fontes que provocam este efeito pela conteno dos vapores.

Figs. 4 e 5 - Corroso em partes metlicas e instalaes devido emanao de gases volteis

Necessidade complementar de oxignio o crescimento da planta fabril e incremento na produo industrial demandam tambm um crescimento nas plantas de tratamento de efluentes. Geralmente este crescimento implica em grandes investimentos, principalmente quando a necessidade de oxignio no totalmente atendida. Assim sendo a tecnologia que est sendo oferecida permite a converso de seus aeradores para trabalhar com oxignio puro sem nenhum custo complementar. O sistema fornecido com as duas opes de trabalho, dependendo da necessidade do cliente podendo tanto trabalhar com ar convencional ou oxignio puro, permitindo que esta mudana seja efetuada com uma simples manobra de vlvulas.

Sistema de fornecimento de oxignio puro ( opcional)

Sistema de Fornecimento de ar convencional

Figura 6 - Sistemas de alimentao de ar / O2 3

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com

Facilidade de montagem - O sistema montado com a planta em pleno funcionamento. A interrupo do tratamento, limita-se apenas a poucas horas na bacia onde a campnula est sendo montada. Desta forma se houver mais de um aerador funcionando na estao, a parada ser efetuada naquele que vai receber a campnula. O sistema prmontado fora do tanque de aerao e transportado para ser fixado nas plataformas. Todo o fechamento dos gomos efetuado com parafusos, porcas e arruelas em ao inoxidvel AISI 304. Segurana estrutural - O sistema montado em perfis laminados em ao carbono no protegidos por tinta anti corrosiva que garante a superfcie da estrutura por mais de 5 anos sem problemas de corroso. Ainda para evitar vibraes que venham afetar a construo, as coberturas so dotadas de amortecedores de vibrao que isolam a estrutura existente da cobertura em balano.

Fig. 7 - Sistema sendo montado com a planta funcionando

Fig.8 - Detalhe dos amortecedores de vibrao

A campnula dotada de sistema de abatimento de espuma, o qual ameniza o crescimento da espuma junto s paredes da cobertura.

Fig.9 - Detalhe dos bicos aspersores em volta da campnula 4

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com

A Tch-Technion possui tambm uma verso de campnula que pode ser aplicada a aeradores flutuantes, garantindo seu funcionamento com as mesmas caractersticas e benefcios apresentados pelo sistema aplicvel a aeradores fixos. A campnula fornecida para aeradores flutuantes possui sistema de flutuao prpria. O sistema fornecido opcionalmente com corrimos e possui tratamento em sua base com pintura antiderrapante para permitir a movimentao de operadores sem risco de acidentes. Desta forma a Tch-Technion garante que sua estao de tratamento de efluentes ir trabalhar de forma limpa, segura e com boa eficincia.
Fig.10 - Representao esquemtica da campnula para aeradores flutuantes

COMPARE AS DUAS SITUAES NA MESMA ESTAO E NOTE A DIFERENA

Fig. 11 - Estao funcionando antes da colocao das campnulas

Fig. 12 - A mesma estao funcionando aps a colocao das campnulas

SOLICITE A VISITA DE UM REPRESENTANTE NOSSO SEM NENHUM COMPROMISSO

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com

ANEXOS

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com PRINCIPAIS INSTALAES LATICINIO DANONE

REVAPREFINARIA DO VALE DO PARAIBA

Av. Onze de Junho, 686 - Sala 43 - Vila Clementino - So Paulo - Brasil - Fone:55(11)3313-3916 - e-mail: tch@tchsistemas.com RECAPREFINARIA DE CAPUVA

OXITENOUNIDADE TREMEMB

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A partir da primeira instalao experimental no Laticnio Danone, e preocupados com o impacto das emisses atmosfricas, a REVAP decide aps visita a este primeiro cliente, implantar o sistema nos tanques de aerao. Este trabalho trouxe benefcios no relacionamento da Refinaria com a comunidade vizinha. O sucesso da implantao do sistema e a repercusso perante a comunidade e os rgos de controle ambiental, originou esta matria na Gazeta Mercantil, no caderno de Balano Ambiental de 16 de outubro de 2000.

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 2 of 5

Inventors:
Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio (BR)

Application Number:
EP20010890006

Publication Date:
07/17/2002

Filing Date:
01/10/2001

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Assignee:
Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio (BR)

International Classes:
B01F3/04; B01F3/04; B01F13/00; B01F13/00; B01F15/00; B01F15/00; C02F1/74; C02F1/74; C02F3/14; C02F3/16; C02F3/26; C02F3/26; (IPC1 -7): C02F3/14; B01F3/04; C02F3/16; C02F3/26

European Classes:
B01F3/04C6C2; C02F3/16; C02F3/26

Domestic Patent References:


EP0521241Apparatus for enriching waters with oxygen.

Foreign References:
6145815 GB1512225A 4096215 System for enhanced gas dissolution having a hood positioned over the impeller with segregating rings Device for applying gas to a liquid

Other References:
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 018, no. 542 (C-1261), 17 October 1994 (1994-10-17) -& JP 06 190391 A (MASASHI TSUCHIDA), 12 July 1994 (1994-07-12)

Claims:
1. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment, to be preferably adapted to superficial aerators in effluent treatment, characterized in that basically a chamber (11) in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber (12) of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance (13) provided in the cover (11). 2. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1, characterized in that a direct contact between the liquid and the cover walls (11) is avoided, that the gas is enclosed, avoiding its contact with the air before it is dissolved, that the area of contact of the liquid gas is large enough to permit oxygen dilution in the effluent and that the mix is sufficient to dilute the gas. 3. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as a mechanic seal, are provided. 4. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11),

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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 3 of 5

such as a sealing system, are provided. 5. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as rubber rings, are provided. 6. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a relief valve controlling pressure with a spring. 7. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a counterweight. 8. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supply. 9. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a manual spheric valve, or similar permitting relieving the pressure through an opening in it. 10. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a timer that periodically interrupts the oxygen supply by pre-adjustments.

Description:
The present report refers to a conversion installation system of effluent treatment and, specifically, to a constructive system to be adapted to superficial effluent treatment aerators in a way to create a watertight area of pure oxygen injection and dissolution which, diluted in liquid means, will promote the required treatment. The goal of the present invention is to allow the conversion of effluent treatment installations that were initially projected to deal with superficial aerators into an installation that allows the usage of systems of pure oxygen injection to obtain remarkable efficiency levels in the dissolution of this gas in liquid means. It is known that the traditional superficial aeration process views obtaining, through splash action, a dissolution of the oxygen found in the air (in a concentration of 21 %) in the liquid means to be treated, to allow an oxidation of this means achieving an OBD (oxygen biological demand) and an OCD (oxygen chemical demand), in foam activated process (live bacteria forming established flakes that need O2 to get energy to be fed). The biological processes that use pure oxygen demand high implementation costs due to the necessity of installing new and specific equipments to such technology. In any process where oxygen must be used to remove OBD or OCD, a high area of liquid gas is necessary and this is the reason why there is a splash in conventional aerators, so that a better

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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 4 of 5

incorporation of oxygen, due to the microbubbles of liquid formed, is allowed. Another important factor for the gas dissolution is that the splash promotes a vigorous mix to dilute the oxygen in liquid means. Therefore, nowadays it is possible to view the process of effluent treatment through superficial aerators that present as a main basis of work the dissolution of oxygen found in the air and the biological process that uses pure oxygen. The first process presents inferior efficiency levels if compared to the second one, because this last one uses pure oxygen, which is ideal for the effluent treatment to have excellent results. Despite the efficiency of the second process, it is also known that if it is applied directly in aerators of pre-existing surfaces, it will bring the need for large investments in new installations, such as water treatment plants, because if this is not done the project will not work out. Then, the goal of the present invention is to provide the conversion of effluent treatment installations to be applied in previously installed surface aerators, including pure oxygen injection to promote, with total efficiency, a chemical/biological effluent treatment process. This goal is basically achieved through the placement of a cover above the liquid level where the surface aerator is installed, so that this cover encloses the pure oxygen that is injected in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen, which, by the splash action, will promote a slow gas absorption that will be immediately incorporated and mixed to the liquid means. A conversion installation system according to the invention is essentially characterized in that basically a chamber in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance provided in the cover. Preferred embodiments of the invention are defined in the dependent subclaims. For a better comprehension, the system will be described in detail, with references to the attached drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a kind of fixed surface aerator, containing the inventive system; and Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a type of floating surface aerator, also presenting this invention. According to the enclosed illustrations, a fixed or floating surface aerator for effluent treatment 10 receives the adaptation of a cover device 11 that may have cylindrical or square shape, depending on the necessity or features of the biological reactor, without material restrictions, if it is compatible with the effluent to be treated and with pure oxygen. This cover 11 is placed above the liquid level and it internally defines a conditioning chamber 12 for the pure oxygen injected through a superior entrance 13 in the cover. Means of total sealing of the cover 11 are provided to avoid loss of the injected air - this sealing can be done by means of a mechanic sealing system, rubber rings or other similar ways. Being formed this way, the chamber 12 encloses the pure oxygen in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen that, through the splash action, permits the gas to be slowly absorbed and immediately incorporated and mixed in the liquid means. To implement this system it is necessary to observe the following factors : the gas must be enclosed to avoid its contact with the air before it is dissolved; the contact area of the liquid gas must be large enough to permit the oxygen dilution in the effluent, and the mix must be sufficient to dilute the gas.

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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 5 of 5

To place the cover 11 it must be taken into consideration the fact that the liquid cannot be in direct contact with the cover walls, because it would cause the growth of droplets, forming a film and damaging the gas utilization. Controlling pressure in the interior of the chamber 11 is important to avoid a variation of the liquid column in its interior and, this control can be done in several ways, such as: through the relief valve, controlling the pressure with a spring, counterweight or any other means that permit relieving the pressure in the interior of the chamber, or through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supplying; or through a manual spheric valve, or similar, that permits relieving the pressure through a timer that stops the oxygen supplying by preadjustments. The system of oxygen pressure control can be fixed in the chamber 11 or in a remote way, being placed in the supplying oxygen panel. Depending on the installing features, perilous area, discharge control or any other that might be necessary, specific control devices as a manometer, thermometer, process controller can be used. It must be understood that this system can also be applied in other situations, independent of effluent or water treatment, whenever it is necessary to dissolve any gas in liquid means, provided that there is a mixture system and a saturate chamber with the gas to be dissolved.

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EP1223148 22.08.2002 1223148 Vorrichtung zur Sauerstoffeinspritzung und -Auflsung in Abwasser Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio, So Paulo, BR Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio, 04041-003 Sao Paulo, BR derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, TR EN 10.01.2001 018900068 17.07.2002

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Beschreibung[en] The present report refers to a conversion installation system of effluent treatment and, specifically, to a constructive system to be adapted to superficial effluent treatment aerators in a way to create a watertight area of pure oxygen injection and dissolution which, diluted in liquid means, will promote the required treatment. The goal of the present invention is to allow the conversion of effluent treatment installations that were initially projected to deal with superficial aerators into an installation that allows the usage of systems of pure oxygen injection to obtain remarkable efficiency levels in the dissolution of this gas in liquid means. It is known that the traditional superficial aeration process views obtaining, through splash action, a dissolution of the oxygen found in the air (in a concentration of 21 %) in the liquid means to be treated, to allow an oxidation of this means achieving an OBD (oxygen biological demand) and an OCD (oxygen chemical demand), in foam activated process (live bacteria forming established flakes that need O2 to get energy to be fed). The biological processes that use pure oxygen demand high implementation costs due to the necessity of installing new and specific equipments to such technology. In any process where oxygen must be used to remove OBD or OCD, a high area of liquid gas is necessary and this is the reason why there is a splash in conventional aerators, so that a better incorporation of oxygen, due to the microbubbles of liquid formed, is allowed. Another important factor for the gas dissolution is that the splash promotes a vigorous mix to dilute the oxygen in liquid means. Therefore, nowadays it is possible to view the process of effluent treatment through superficial aerators that present as a main basis of work the dissolution of oxygen found in the air and the biological process that uses pure oxygen. The first process presents inferior efficiency levels if compared to the second one, because this last one uses pure oxygen, which is ideal for the effluent treatment to have excellent results. Despite the efficiency of the second process, it is also known that if it is applied directly in aerators of pre-existing surfaces, it will bring the need for large investments in new installations, such as water treatment plants, because if this is not done the project will not work out. Then, the goal of the present invention is to provide the conversion of effluent treatment installations to be applied in previously installed surface aerators, including pure oxygen injection to promote, with total efficiency, a chemical/biological effluent treatment process. This goal is basically achieved through the placement of a cover above the liquid level where the surface aerator is installed, so that this cover encloses the pure oxygen that is injected in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen, which, by the splash action, will promote a slow gas absorption that will be immediately incorporated and mixed to the liquid means. A conversion installation system according to the invention is essentially characterized in that basically a chamber in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance provided in the cover. Preferred embodiments of the invention are defined in the dependent subclaims. For a better comprehension, the system will be described in detail, with references to the attached drawings, in which:

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IPC A B C Tglicher Lebensbedarf Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren Chemie; Httenwesen

D Textilien; Papier E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen

G Physik H Elektrotechnik

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Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a kind of fixed surface aerator, containing the inventive system; and Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a type of floating surface aerator, also presenting this invention.

According to the enclosed illustrations, a fixed or floating surface aerator for effluent treatment 10 receives the adaptation of a cover device 11 that may have cylindrical or square shape, depending on the necessity or features of the biological reactor, without material restrictions, if it is compatible with the effluent to be treated and with pure oxygen. This cover 11 is placed above the liquid level and it internally defines a conditioning chamber 12 for the pure oxygen injected

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through a superior entrance 13 in the cover. Means of total sealing of the cover 11 are provided to avoid loss of the injected air - this sealing can be done by means of a mechanic sealing system, rubber rings or other similar ways. Being formed this way, the chamber 12 encloses the pure oxygen in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen that, through the splash action, permits the gas to be slowly absorbed and immediately incorporated and mixed in the liquid means. To implement this system it is necessary to observe the following factors :

the gas must be enclosed to avoid its contact with the air before it is dissolved; the contact area of the liquid gas must be large enough to permit the oxygen dilution in the effluent, and the mix must be sufficient to dilute the gas.

To place the cover 11 it must be taken into consideration the fact that the liquid cannot be in direct contact with the cover walls, because it would cause the growth of droplets, forming a film and damaging the gas utilization. Controlling pressure in the interior of the chamber 11 is important to avoid a variation of the liquid column in its interior and, this control can be done in several ways, such as: through the relief valve, controlling the pressure with a spring, counterweight or any other means that permit relieving the pressure in the interior of the chamber, or through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supplying; or through a manual spheric valve, or similar, that permits relieving the pressure through a timer that stops the oxygen supplying by pre-adjustments. The system of oxygen pressure control can be fixed in the chamber 11 or in a remote way, being placed in the supplying oxygen panel. Depending on the installing features, perilous area, discharge control or any other that might be necessary, specific control devices as a manometer, thermometer, process controller can be used. It must be understood that this system can also be applied in other situations, independent of effluent or water treatment, whenever it is necessary to dissolve any gas in liquid means, provided that there is a mixture system and a saturate chamber with the gas to be dissolved.

Anspruch[en] 1. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment, to be preferably adapted to superficial aerators in effluent treatment, characterized in that basically a chamber (11) in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber (12) of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance (13) provided in the cover (11). 2. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1, characterized in that a direct contact between the liquid and the cover walls (11) is avoided, that the gas is enclosed, avoiding its contact with the air before it is dissolved, that the area of contact of the liquid gas is large enough to permit oxygen dilution in the effluent and that the mix is sufficient to dilute the gas. 3. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as a mechanic seal, are provided. 4. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as a sealing system, are provided. 5. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as rubber rings, are provided. 6. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a relief valve controlling pressure with a spring. 7. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a counterweight. 8. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supply. 9. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a manual spheric valve, or similar permitting relieving the pressure through an opening in it. 10. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a timer that periodically interrupts the oxygen supply by pre-adjustments.

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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents


European Patent Application EP1223148 Kind Code: A1

Abstract:
Conversion installation system of effluent treatment to be adapted to superficial aerators in effluent treatment to create a watertight area of injection and dissolution of pure oxygen which, diluted in liquid means, will promote the required treatment. It is proposed that basically a chamber (11) in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber (12) of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance (13) provided in the cover (11).
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Inventors:
Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio (BR)

Application Number:
EP20010890006

Publication Date:
07/17/2002

Filing Date:
01/10/2001

View Patent Images:


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Export Citation:
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Assignee:
Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio (BR)

International Classes:
B01F3/04; B01F3/04; B01F13/00; B01F13/00; B01F15/00; B01F15/00; C02F1/74; C02F1/74; C02F3/14; C02F3/16; C02F3/26; C02F3/26; (IPC1 -7): C02F3/14; B01F3/04; C02F3/16; C02F3/26

European Classes:
B01F3/04C6C2; C02F3/16; C02F3/26

Domestic Patent References:


EP0521241Apparatus for enriching waters with oxygen.

Foreign References:
6145815 GB1512225A 4096215 System for enhanced gas dissolution having a hood positioned over the impeller with segregating rings Device for applying gas to a liquid

Other References:
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 018, no. 542 (C-1261), 17 October 1994 (1994-10-17) -& JP 06 190391 A (MASASHI TSUCHIDA), 12 July 1994 (1994-07-12)

Claims:
1. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment, to be preferably adapted to superficial aerators in effluent treatment, characterized in that basically a chamber (11) in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber (12) of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance (13) provided in the cover (11). 2. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1, characterized in that a direct contact between the liquid and the cover walls (11) is avoided, that the gas is enclosed, avoiding its contact with the air before it is dissolved, that the area of contact of the liquid gas is large enough to permit oxygen dilution in the effluent and that the mix is sufficient to dilute the gas. 3. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11),

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1223148A1.html

8/22/2009

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent Applicati... Page 3 of 5

such as a mechanic seal, are provided. 4. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as a sealing system, are provided. 5. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as rubber rings, are provided. 6. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a relief valve controlling pressure with a spring. 7. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a counterweight. 8. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supply. 9. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a manual spheric valve, or similar permitting relieving the pressure through an opening in it. 10. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a timer that periodically interrupts the oxygen supply by pre-adjustments.

Description:
The present report refers to a conversion installation system of effluent treatment and, specifically, to a constructive system to be adapted to superficial effluent treatment aerators in a way to create a watertight area of pure oxygen injection and dissolution which, diluted in liquid means, will promote the required treatment. The goal of the present invention is to allow the conversion of effluent treatment installations that were initially projected to deal with superficial aerators into an installation that allows the usage of systems of pure oxygen injection to obtain remarkable efficiency levels in the dissolution of this gas in liquid means. It is known that the traditional superficial aeration process views obtaining, through splash action, a dissolution of the oxygen found in the air (in a concentration of 21 %) in the liquid means to be treated, to allow an oxidation of this means achieving an OBD (oxygen biological demand) and an OCD (oxygen chemical demand), in foam activated process (live bacteria forming established flakes that need O2 to get energy to be fed). The biological processes that use pure oxygen demand high implementation costs due to the necessity of installing new and specific

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1223148A1.html

8/22/2009

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent Applicati... Page 4 of 5

equipments to such technology. In any process where oxygen must be used to remove OBD or OCD, a high area of liquid gas is necessary and this is the reason why there is a splash in conventional aerators, so that a better incorporation of oxygen, due to the microbubbles of liquid formed, is allowed. Another important factor for the gas dissolution is that the splash promotes a vigorous mix to dilute the oxygen in liquid means. Therefore, nowadays it is possible to view the process of effluent treatment through superficial aerators that present as a main basis of work the dissolution of oxygen found in the air and the biological process that uses pure oxygen. The first process presents inferior efficiency levels if compared to the second one, because this last one uses pure oxygen, which is ideal for the effluent treatment to have excellent results. Despite the efficiency of the second process, it is also known that if it is applied directly in aerators of pre-existing surfaces, it will bring the need for large investments in new installations, such as water treatment plants, because if this is not done the project will not work out. Then, the goal of the present invention is to provide the conversion of effluent treatment installations to be applied in previously installed surface aerators, including pure oxygen injection to promote, with total efficiency, a chemical/biological effluent treatment process. This goal is basically achieved through the placement of a cover above the liquid level where the surface aerator is installed, so that this cover encloses the pure oxygen that is injected in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen, which, by the splash action, will promote a slow gas absorption that will be immediately incorporated and mixed to the liquid means. A conversion installation system according to the invention is essentially characterized in that basically a chamber in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance provided in the cover. Preferred embodiments of the invention are defined in the dependent subclaims. For a better comprehension, the system will be described in detail, with references to the attached drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a kind of fixed surface aerator, containing the inventive system; and Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a type of floating surface aerator, also presenting this invention. According to the enclosed illustrations, a fixed or floating surface aerator for effluent treatment 10 receives the adaptation of a cover device 11 that may have cylindrical or square shape, depending on the necessity or features of the biological reactor, without material restrictions, if it is compatible with the effluent to be treated and with pure oxygen. This cover 11 is placed above the liquid level and it internally defines a conditioning chamber 12 for the pure oxygen injected through a superior entrance 13 in the cover. Means of total sealing of the cover 11 are provided to avoid loss of the injected air - this sealing can be done by means of a mechanic sealing system, rubber rings or other similar ways. Being formed this way, the chamber 12 encloses the pure oxygen in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen that, through the splash action, permits the gas to be slowly absorbed and immediately incorporated and mixed in the liquid means. To implement this system it is necessary to observe the following factors : the gas must be enclosed to avoid its contact with the air before it is

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1223148A1.html

8/22/2009

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent Applicati... Page 5 of 5

dissolved; the contact area of the liquid gas must be large enough to permit the oxygen dilution in the effluent, and the mix must be sufficient to dilute the gas. To place the cover 11 it must be taken into consideration the fact that the liquid cannot be in direct contact with the cover walls, because it would cause the growth of droplets, forming a film and damaging the gas utilization. Controlling pressure in the interior of the chamber 11 is important to avoid a variation of the liquid column in its interior and, this control can be done in several ways, such as: through the relief valve, controlling the pressure with a spring, counterweight or any other means that permit relieving the pressure in the interior of the chamber, or through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supplying; or through a manual spheric valve, or similar, that permits relieving the pressure through a timer that stops the oxygen supplying by preadjustments. The system of oxygen pressure control can be fixed in the chamber 11 or in a remote way, being placed in the supplying oxygen panel. Depending on the installing features, perilous area, discharge control or any other that might be necessary, specific control devices as a manometer, thermometer, process controller can be used. It must be understood that this system can also be applied in other situations, independent of effluent or water treatment, whenever it is necessary to dissolve any gas in liquid means, provided that there is a mixture system and a saturate chamber with the gas to be dissolved.

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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 1 of 5

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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents


European Patent Application EP1223148 Kind Code: A1

Abstract:
Conversion installation system of effluent treatment to be adapted to superficial aerators in effluent treatment to create a watertight area of injection and dissolution of pure oxygen which, diluted in liquid means, will promote the required treatment. It is proposed that basically a chamber (11) in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber (12) of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance (13) provided in the cover (11).
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Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 2 of 5

Inventors:
Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio (BR)

Application Number:
EP20010890006

Publication Date:
07/17/2002

Filing Date:
01/10/2001

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Assignee:
Bacicurinski, Bernardo Mauricio (BR)

International Classes:
B01F3/04; B01F3/04; B01F13/00; B01F13/00; B01F15/00; B01F15/00; C02F1/74; C02F1/74; C02F3/14; C02F3/16; C02F3/26; C02F3/26; (IPC1 -7): C02F3/14; B01F3/04; C02F3/16; C02F3/26

European Classes:
B01F3/04C6C2; C02F3/16; C02F3/26

Domestic Patent References:


EP0521241Apparatus for enriching waters with oxygen.

Foreign References:
6145815 GB1512225A 4096215 System for enhanced gas dissolution having a hood positioned over the impeller with segregating rings Device for applying gas to a liquid

Other References:
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN vol. 018, no. 542 (C-1261), 17 October 1994 (1994-10-17) -& JP 06 190391 A (MASASHI TSUCHIDA), 12 July 1994 (1994-07-12)

Claims:
1. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment, to be preferably adapted to superficial aerators in effluent treatment, characterized in that basically a chamber (11) in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber (12) of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance (13) provided in the cover (11). 2. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1, characterized in that a direct contact between the liquid and the cover walls (11) is avoided, that the gas is enclosed, avoiding its contact with the air before it is dissolved, that the area of contact of the liquid gas is large enough to permit oxygen dilution in the effluent and that the mix is sufficient to dilute the gas. 3. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as a mechanic seal, are provided. 4. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11),

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1223148.html

8/22/2009

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 3 of 5

such as a sealing system, are provided. 5. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that means of total sealing of the chamber (11), such as rubber rings, are provided. 6. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a relief valve controlling pressure with a spring. 7. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a counterweight. 8. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supply. 9. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a manual spheric valve, or similar permitting relieving the pressure through an opening in it. 10. Conversion installation system of effluent treatment according to any of the claims 1 to 5, characterized in that a pressure control is placed in the interior of the chamber (12), avoiding the variation of the liquid column in its interior, and that this control is done through a timer that periodically interrupts the oxygen supply by pre-adjustments.

Description:
The present report refers to a conversion installation system of effluent treatment and, specifically, to a constructive system to be adapted to superficial effluent treatment aerators in a way to create a watertight area of pure oxygen injection and dissolution which, diluted in liquid means, will promote the required treatment. The goal of the present invention is to allow the conversion of effluent treatment installations that were initially projected to deal with superficial aerators into an installation that allows the usage of systems of pure oxygen injection to obtain remarkable efficiency levels in the dissolution of this gas in liquid means. It is known that the traditional superficial aeration process views obtaining, through splash action, a dissolution of the oxygen found in the air (in a concentration of 21 %) in the liquid means to be treated, to allow an oxidation of this means achieving an OBD (oxygen biological demand) and an OCD (oxygen chemical demand), in foam activated process (live bacteria forming established flakes that need O2 to get energy to be fed). The biological processes that use pure oxygen demand high implementation costs due to the necessity of installing new and specific equipments to such technology. In any process where oxygen must be used to remove OBD or OCD, a high area of liquid gas is necessary and this is the reason why there is a splash in conventional aerators, so that a better

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1223148.html

8/22/2009

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 4 of 5

incorporation of oxygen, due to the microbubbles of liquid formed, is allowed. Another important factor for the gas dissolution is that the splash promotes a vigorous mix to dilute the oxygen in liquid means. Therefore, nowadays it is possible to view the process of effluent treatment through superficial aerators that present as a main basis of work the dissolution of oxygen found in the air and the biological process that uses pure oxygen. The first process presents inferior efficiency levels if compared to the second one, because this last one uses pure oxygen, which is ideal for the effluent treatment to have excellent results. Despite the efficiency of the second process, it is also known that if it is applied directly in aerators of pre-existing surfaces, it will bring the need for large investments in new installations, such as water treatment plants, because if this is not done the project will not work out. Then, the goal of the present invention is to provide the conversion of effluent treatment installations to be applied in previously installed surface aerators, including pure oxygen injection to promote, with total efficiency, a chemical/biological effluent treatment process. This goal is basically achieved through the placement of a cover above the liquid level where the surface aerator is installed, so that this cover encloses the pure oxygen that is injected in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen, which, by the splash action, will promote a slow gas absorption that will be immediately incorporated and mixed to the liquid means. A conversion installation system according to the invention is essentially characterized in that basically a chamber in the format of a cover device is enclosed, placed above the level of the liquid to be treated and defining internally a watertight chamber of pure oxygen conditioning injected through a superior entrance provided in the cover. Preferred embodiments of the invention are defined in the dependent subclaims. For a better comprehension, the system will be described in detail, with references to the attached drawings, in which: Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a kind of fixed surface aerator, containing the inventive system; and Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a type of floating surface aerator, also presenting this invention. According to the enclosed illustrations, a fixed or floating surface aerator for effluent treatment 10 receives the adaptation of a cover device 11 that may have cylindrical or square shape, depending on the necessity or features of the biological reactor, without material restrictions, if it is compatible with the effluent to be treated and with pure oxygen. This cover 11 is placed above the liquid level and it internally defines a conditioning chamber 12 for the pure oxygen injected through a superior entrance 13 in the cover. Means of total sealing of the cover 11 are provided to avoid loss of the injected air - this sealing can be done by means of a mechanic sealing system, rubber rings or other similar ways. Being formed this way, the chamber 12 encloses the pure oxygen in its interior, creating a rich atmosphere in oxygen that, through the splash action, permits the gas to be slowly absorbed and immediately incorporated and mixed in the liquid means. To implement this system it is necessary to observe the following factors : the gas must be enclosed to avoid its contact with the air before it is dissolved; the contact area of the liquid gas must be large enough to permit the oxygen dilution in the effluent, and the mix must be sufficient to dilute the gas.

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP1223148.html

8/22/2009

Device for the injection and dissolution of oxygen in water effluents - Patent EP12231... Page 5 of 5

To place the cover 11 it must be taken into consideration the fact that the liquid cannot be in direct contact with the cover walls, because it would cause the growth of droplets, forming a film and damaging the gas utilization. Controlling pressure in the interior of the chamber 11 is important to avoid a variation of the liquid column in its interior and, this control can be done in several ways, such as: through the relief valve, controlling the pressure with a spring, counterweight or any other means that permit relieving the pressure in the interior of the chamber, or through a pressure controller that receives a sign of overpressure above a determined value and sends another sign to a solenoid valve that interrupts the oxygen supplying; or through a manual spheric valve, or similar, that permits relieving the pressure through a timer that stops the oxygen supplying by preadjustments. The system of oxygen pressure control can be fixed in the chamber 11 or in a remote way, being placed in the supplying oxygen panel. Depending on the installing features, perilous area, discharge control or any other that might be necessary, specific control devices as a manometer, thermometer, process controller can be used. It must be understood that this system can also be applied in other situations, independent of effluent or water treatment, whenever it is necessary to dissolve any gas in liquid means, provided that there is a mixture system and a saturate chamber with the gas to be dissolved.

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Efluentes

Contaminao Ambiental por Emisses de Aerossis, Volteis e Odor Provocados por Aeradores
Bernardo Mauricio Bacicurinski; Engenheiro mecnico; especialista em meio ambiente; scio-gerente da Technion Consultoria

Resumo

Formao de aerossis
s aerossis podem ser definidos como partculas slidas ou lquidas suspensas em um meio gasoso (Cetesb, 1978). As partculas, de tamanho varivel entre 0,001 a 1000 m, so estveis no mnimo por alguns segundos e, em certos casos, podem permanecer suspensas por um ano ou mais. A palavra aerossol surgiu por volta de 1920, em analogia ao termo hidrossol, designao utilizada para definir uma suspenso lquida estvel. Apesar da expresso aerossol ser popularmente utilizada com referncia a produtos pressurizados em embalagem tipo spray, o conceito cientfico mais abrangente, incluindo nesta terminologia uma gama de fenmenos entre os quais fumaa, poeira, nvoa, neblina ou nuvem. (Cavinato, 1991) Os aerossis so produzidos por dois mecanismos principais: condensao e disperso. Nos produzidos por condensao, como neblinas e fumos, as partculas slidas formam, freqentemente, agregados frouxos decorrentes da coagulao de um grande nmero de fragmentos de forma esfrica ou cristalina regular.

altamente difundido o uso de aeradores convencionais para tratamento de efluentes domsticos e industriais que, pela gerao de gotculas de lquido, conseguem incorporar oxignio captado do ar, permitindo a oxigenao do meio para oxidao qumica de resduos, alm de fornecer o oxignio necessrio para respirao dos microorganismos em processos de lodos ativados ou mesmo nos processos de lagoas aeradas. Apesar dos benefcios obtidos com a aplicao de tal tecnologia, os aerossis formados no processo transportam a grandes distncias (dependendo da velocidade do vento) microorganismos patognicos, comprometendo no s a sade dos operadores da estao de tratamento, mas expondo, tambm, toda a populao local contaminao pela absoro de vrus e bactrias pelo trato respiratrio. Outros tipos de efeitos decorrentes da atividade de aeradores a difuso de volteis e emanao de odores no meio ambiente.

Fotos: Technion

Aerossis produzidos por condensao.

Os aerossis produzidos por disperso resultam da desintegrao mecnica de materiais lquidos ou slidos, originando partculas com grande variao de aspecto e tamanho, podendo estar isolados ou constituir aglomerados irregulares. Nos corpos dgua, a emisso de aerossis por disperso ocorre freqentemente, seja por respingos ou por bolhas de ar que, produzidas por ondas, quedas de gua e corredeiras, se rompem na superfcie lquida. Durante o processo de aerao, a quantidade de gua aerolizada pode variar de 0,1 a 2 porcento do volume de gua movimentado pelo splash. As partculas de aerossol aderem firmemente a qualquer superfcie de contato, sendo esta uma das propriedades que distingue os aerossis das
Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial

48

Efluentes
entre 104 e 107 bactrias por ml de efluente. A maior parte destas bactrias constituda pelo grupo coliformes, habitantes tpicos do intestino humano e de outros animais homeotermos. Esses microorganismos so eliminados com as fezes em grande quantidade (estima-se que cada pessoa seja responsvel pela eliminao de 400 a 500 bilhes de coliformes por dia). A bactria coliforme, salvo raras excees, no provocam doenas, mas, quando excretadas por uma pessoa doente, ela vem acompanhada por microorganismos patognicos, entre os quais virus, bactrias, protozorios e vermes. por esta razo que a presena de coliformes utilizado como padro de controle de qualidade de guas, sendo indicador da presena de fezes na gua. Pesquisas recentes indicam que a transmisso do SARS (Sndrome Respiratria Aguda) ocorre por uma mutao gentica do Coronavirus, e pode ser transmitida pelo contato com pessoas contaminadas e mesmo atravs do trato respiratrio transportado pelo ar ou por gotculas de aerossis contendo patognicos. Esta sndrome foi Bactrias Constituio dos efluentes Os esgotos costumam ser classificados, de acordo com sua origem, em dois grupos principais:
Sanitrios e Industriais

Aerossis produzidos por disperso

molculas gasosas. As partculas slidas ou lquidas, ao entrarem em contato umas com as outras, normalmente se aderem, formando agregados na forma de complexos coloidais. Os mtodos de coleta de aerossis se baseiam no conceito de foras de adeso das partculas a uma superfcie, sendo estas afetadas pelo tipo de material, aspereza e contaminao da superfcie, umidade relativa, temperatura, durao do contato e velocidade inicial de contato.

Anncio

Contaminao por Microorganismos

Os esgotos sanitrios so constitudos essencialmente de despejos domsticos provenientes de residncias, hospitais ou qualquer edificao que contenha instalaes de utilizao de guas para fins domsticos. A segunda categoria compreende as guas utilizadas para fins industriais, cuja composio extremamente diversificada, dependendo do processo de fabricao. Apesar de apresentar oscilaes quanto concentrao e composio bacteriana, comum obter-se contagem
Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial

Bactrias so os microorganismos mais comuns em efluentes brutos. Bactrias patognicas possuem comprimento variando de 0,4 a 1,4 m e largura de 0,2 a 1,2 m. As bactrias mais comuns em efluentes so: Legionella, Salmonella typhi, Shigella e Vibrio colrico.
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Efluentes
responsvel pela contaminao de 8380 pessoas na China em novembro de 2002, provocando 770 mortes. Vrus
Agentes mais comuns potencialmente infecciosos presentes em efluentes no-tratados
Patognico
Protoz orio Amebas Giardias Balantiduim Coli Criptosporidium Balantidium Coli Toxoplasma gondii Helmintios Ascaris lumbricoides scaris suum Ancylostoma duodenal Necator americanus Ancilostoma Trichuris trichiura Taenia Toxocara canis Himenolepis Nana Emterovirus vermicularis Enterovirus granulosus Bactria Shigella ssp Salmonella (1700 esteretipos) Escherichia coli Yersinia enterocolitica Leptospira ssp Legionella Campilobacter jejuni Vibrio cholerae Vrus Enterovrus (72 tipos, entre os quais plio e novos enterovirus) Hepatitis tipo A Adenovirus (47 tipos) Rotavirus (4 tipos) Parvovirus (3tipos) Norwalk agent Reovirus (3tipos) Astrovirus (5tipos) Calcivirus (2tipos) Coronavirus Coxsackievirus Echovirus Poliovirus

Doena Provocada
Amebise disentrica Giardase (diarria e clica intestinal) Diarria Diarria e febre Diarria Toxioplasmose Ascariose Tosse e dor no peito Ancilostomose Infeco intestinal e duodenal - Ancilostomose Ancilostomosae Diarria, anemia, perda de peso Insnia, anorexia, problemas neurolgicos Febre, desconforto intestinal, dores musculares Taeniasis Diarria Diarria Disenteria baciliar, infeces oculares Diarria forte, enterocolite Diarria Infeco pulmonar grave e enterocolite Infeco generalizada (principalmente rins) Pneumonia, febre Pontiac Infeco intestinal Clera, febre e diarria Diarria e conjuntivite Hepatitis infecciosa Diarria, infeces respiratrias e conjuntivite Nuseas, vmitos, dores abdominais, diarria e febre Eritema infeccioso Gastroenterite, vmitos Infeces respiratrias Diarria Diarria peditrica Infeces respiratrias, febre e diarria Meningites, pneumonia, hepatites, febre, etc. Meningites, pneumonia, hepatites, febre, etc. Poliomielites

Vrus so inativos quando fora de uma clula hospedeira. Quando vinculados a aerossis, possuem a cobertura de protenas que os protege do meio. Sua dimenso pode variar de 0,2 a 0,9 m e, diferentemente de bactrias e protozorios, possuem apenas um cido nuclico (DNA ou RNA).

Protozorio

Transmisso de doenas Doenas podem ser transmitidas a seres humanos diretamente, atravs do contato com a pele, ingesto e inalao de agentes infecciosos, ou indiretamente, atravs do contato com objetos previamente contaminados. A transmisso de doenas atravs de aerossis depende de uma srie de inter-relaes complexas entre o possvel hospedeiro e o agente infeccioso. Estas variveis incluem:
a)

Protozorios comuns em corpos de gua so muito maiores que bactrias e vrus. Para sobreviver s severas condies ambientais, algumas espcies desenvolvem uma capa protetora chamada cysto. Esta capa protege os protozorios de processos comuns de desinfeco, facilitando, assim, a disseminao de doenas. Os principais agentes encontrados em efluentes brutos so Girdia e Cryptosporidium
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concentrao dos agentes infecciosos necessrios para uma infeco inicial (dose infecciosa); c) relao entre o poder de transmisso de doenas do agente infeccioso e a susceptibilidade do hospedeiro doena;
b)

concentrao de microorganismos na gua a ser tratada;

Para que ocorra a infeco por via area, necessria a inalao do agente infeccioso e posterior reteno no trato respiratrio, em local prprio ao seu desenvolvimento. O grau de infectividade est relacionado ao tamanho das partculas e
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Efluentes
D o s es i n f ec c i o s as d e al g u n s ag en t es ap r es en t ad o s
Mic r o o r g an is m o
Echerichia coli
(enteropatognico)

Do s e In f ec c io s a
1 0 6 - 1 0 10 1 0 10 104 102 10 a 102 102 103 20 < 10 1 - 10 1 - 10 1 (estimado) 10 cistos 1 - 10 cistos

Clostridium perfigens Echerichia coli Salmonella


(diversas espcies)

Shigella disinteriasis Shigella tiexnieri Vibrio colrico Entamoeba histolyca Giardia lamblia Vrus diversos Ascaris lumbricoides Helmintios Cryptosporidium Eritamoeba cicli

Fontes: Feachem et al., 1981, e Feachem et al., 1983/Kowal 1985

profundidade de penetrao, bem como dosagem mnima do agente capaz de desenvolver a doena, que se relaciona, entre outros fatos, resistncia da pessoa portadora. Vrios estudos foram realizados para determinar a eficincia das vias respiratrias na eliminao de partculas pela ao ciliar. No que tange especificamente ao de aerossis produzidos em estaes de tratamento de esgotos, podese inferir que, a despeito da maior resistncia de ovos de vermes e cistos de protozorios s condies ambientais, as chances dos mesmos serem inalados e desencadear doenas por essa via de transmisso so consideradas praticamente nulas, o que no

impede que, devido ao grau de disperso no meio, e pelo contato direto com as mos, a pessoa seja contaminada aps a manipulao de alimentos ou mesmo levando a mo a boca. As referncias bibliogrficas tampouco fazem meno a fungos e s possibilidades de veiculao desses seres pelos mecanismos de formao de aerossis em esgotos. Os estudos de aerossis realizados em estaes de despejos domsticos, especialmente em sistemas de lodos ativados, tratam, basicamente, das possibilidades de transmisso de doenas veiculadas por bactrias e vrus. Uma vez certificada a presena desses organismos provenientes dos esgotos no ar, verifica-se que o tamanho apresentado por eles encontra-se na faixa passvel de penetrao no trato respiratrio. No entanto, necessria a inalao de uma dosagem mnima de aerossis para o desenvolvimento da molstia. Em condies favorveis, microorganismos patognicos podem sobreviver por longos perodos em meio lquido, bem como no solo. Fatores que afetam a resistncia dos tais microorganismos incluem o nmero e tipo, composio orgnica do solo (a presena de certos tipos de nutrientes permite uma maior resistncia); umidade (microorganismos possuem maior tempo de vida em solos com maior teor

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Tempo de sobrevivncia de alguns microorganismos em dias, temperatura ambiente de 20 - 30 C


Microorganismos Virusa
Enterovirusb

gua e efluente
<120 mas usual <50 <60 <60 <30 <30 mas mas mas mas usual <30 usual <30 usual <10 usual < 10

Rios
<60 mas usual < 15 <30 mas usual < 15 <30 mas usual < 15 <10 mas usual < 5 <5 mas usual < 2 <10 mas usual < 2

Solo
<100 mas usual <20 <70 mas usual <20 <70 mas usual <20 <20 mas usual <10 <20 mas usual <10

Bactrias
Coliformes fecaisa Salmonella sppa Shigella sppa Vibrio colricoc

Protoz orios
Ent. Histolytica cystos Helmintios <30 mas usual < 15

Ascaris lumbricoides
(ovos) muitos meses <60 mas usual < 30 Muitos meses
a- Em gua salgada, a sobrevivncia viral m enor. Em gua salgada, a sobrevivncia de bactrias sensivelm ente m enor. b- Inclui plio-, echo- e coxvrus. c - A sobrevivncia em m eio aquoso no estava claram ente definida na data da fonte de referncia. (Fonte: Feacham et al., 1983)

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Efluentes
de umidade); pH; ndice pluviomtrico local; nvel de radiao solar (maior incidncia de raios solares so prejudiciais sobrevivncia de microorganismos); e, finalmente, a fauna competitiva local. O grau de sobrevivncia de microorganismos apresenta grandes flutuaes em diferentes condies. Grau de difuso de aerossis sob ao do vento Em experincia realizadas, foram encontrados coliformes fecais carregados entre 90 e 120 metros da fonte de emisso, quando submetidos a uma velocidade do vento de 1,5 m/s, e estimouse que partculas finas poderiam ser carregadas entre 300 a 400 metros da fonte de emisso, quando submetidas a uma velocidade do vento de 5 m/s. Outros estudos revelam uma concentrao de colnias de 485 unidades por metro cbico (CFU/m3) a uma distncia de 21 a 30 metros da fonte geradora. Outro estudo detectou uma concentrao de 37 CFU a 200 metros da fonte geradora (Bausum et al., 1983). Durante estudos em Israel foram coletadas amostras de echovirus 7 coletados a uma distncia de 40 metros da fonte geradora (sprinklers que utilizavam gua coletada de efluente com apenas tratamento primrio) (Teltsch e Katzenelson, 1978). Em estudos realizados no valo de oxidao em Riacho Grande, So Bernardo do Campo - SP foram encontradas partculas emitidas a uma distncia de 40 metros da fonte sob uma ao do vento correspondente a 5 m/s (Cavinato et al., 1999). Disperso de Volteis - VOCs VOCs so formados por materiais gasosos, constitudos por componentes txicos, muitas vezes cancergenos e precursores de ozono. Estes elementos volteis so dispersos no meio pelos seguintes mecanismos: Volatilizao Evaporao Biodegradao Fotodecomposio Volatilizao o mecanismo mais importante de emisso atmosfrica, e ocorre quando molculas de um composto dissolvido escapa para a atmosfera como uma disperso gasosa. O gradiente de volatilizao na interface ar-gua depende da concentrao e das propriedades do componente, caractersticas do efluente e do meio gasoso adjacente ao lquido. A volatilizao pode ocorrer a baixas temperaturas. A biodegradao ocorre pela digesto dos microorganismos, quebrando compostos orgnicos em unidades menores, dependendo o gradiente de decomposio das caractersticas da biota existente no tratamento.

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Efluentes
Outros aspectos importantes na determinao do grau de volatilizao envolvem o grau de agitao, o tempo de residncia nos tanques de aerao e clarificador e a velocidade do vento na superfcie adjacente ao lquido. De forma geral, e levando em considerao a agitao, pode-se afirmar que o grau de volatilizao maior no tanque de aerao que nos clarificadores para compostos volteis com baixo nvel de biodegradabilidade (Tansel and Eyma, 1999 ). O balano de massa global dos componentes volteis na planta de tratamento pode ser escrito como:
Mi Me + Mdeg + Maer + Mcla + Mclarif + Mads = Macum

Hc = Constante de Henry (Kla)v = Coeficiente volumtrico

de transferncia de massa s-1

Quando Qg desconhecido, pode ser assumida a relao Qg/Q = 5,5. Esta relao tem sido freqentemente utilizada em literaturas (Matter-Muller et al., 1981) para aerao mecnica. O fluxo de massa no clarificador pode ser obtido por:
Mcla = Kvc.Ci,cla.A.cf ,

onde:
Kvc = constante de volatilizao m/s Ci,cla = Concentrao de compostos vol-

teis na entrada do clarificador, mg/l


A= rea do clarificador em m2 cf = Fator de converso de m3 para litros

onde :
M i e deg aer cla clarif

= fluxo de massa mg/s = efluente bruto = efluente tratado = biodegradao = aerador = superfcie do clarificador = clarificado

Para o clarificado, podemos determinar o fluxo de massa como sendo:


Mclarif = Cu.(1-1/Rv).Q,

amnia e compostos orgnicos de enxofre e nitrognio. Industrias que envolvem a gerao de odores indesejveis incluem, entre outras, a produo de plsticos, manufatura de borracha, processos da indstria alimentcia (processamento de carnes e peixes), indstrias de papel e celulose, indstria farmacutica e estaes de tratamento de efluentes, particularmente o processamento e condicionamento de lodo produzido nas estaes. Normalmente, os odores so devidos aos gases formados pela decomposio de matria orgnica. guas residuais de origem industrial possuem odor caracterstico dos produtos que as compe, de forma geral desagradvel, mas bem mais tolervel que guas residuais de origem sanitria e que possuem odor caracterstico de gs sulfdrico (H2S), gerado por microorganismos anaerbios que reduzem os sulfatos a sulfitos.

onde:
Cu = Concentrao de volteis no

Parmetros de estimao O balano de massa do efluente bruto pode ser escrito como:
Mi = Qi . Ci

clarificador ( = Ci,cla )
Rv = Concentrao de volteis no

clarificado na sada do clarificador

onde :
Q = Vazo em l/s C = Concentrao de volteis mg/l

Cabe ressaltar ainda que, alm dos riscos de contaminao, a emisso de volteis responsvel pela maioria dos prejuzos provocados nas instalaes e equipamentos em funo de corroso provocada pelos mesmos. Emanao de Odores Um dos problemas mais comuns encontrados em processos de produo e em estaes de tratamentos de efluentes a formao de odores, principalmente em tratamentos sanitrios, que afetam no s o pessoal operacional envolvido, mas a comunidade existente nas proximidades. Podemos identificar algumas fontes geradoras deste efeito, como a presena de sulfetos, mercaptanas,
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Da mesma forma, para o efluente tratado Me = Qe . Ce, a volatilizao no tanque de aerao pode ser expressa da seguinte forma:
Maer = -Qg.Hc.Ceq { 1-exp((-Kla)v.V/(Hc.Qg))}

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onde:
Ceq = Concentrao de equilbrio do

componente voltil, mg/l


V = Volume do tanque de aerao, l Qg = Fluxo de gs deixando a

unidade de aerao, l/s


Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial

Efluentes
Esgotos domsticos possuem 3-6 mg/l de enxofre e derivados em resduos orgnicos provenientes de derivados de protenas, mais aproximadamente 4 mg/l provenientes de detergentes domsticos e 60 mg/l provenientes de matria inorgnica. Em lagoas facultativas, os odores podem ser produzidos em diversas circunstncias. Freqentemente, sua origem provm da decomposio de massas de algas acumuladas pela ao do vento nas margens das mesmas. Em outros casos, principalmente em lagoas pouco profundas, quando a temperatura da gua elevada, capas de lodo podem flotar do fundo e subir superfcie. Estas massas de resduos orgnicos acabam acumulando nas margens e ficando cobertas de algas cianfilas. Em geral, a atividade bacteriana nestes casos intensa e a gerao de odor inevitvel. O grande desafio dos projetistas, operadores e tcnicos responsveis pelas estaes de tratamento justamente tentar controlar os odores gerados pelas estaes, buscando solues e alternativas que diminuam seu impacto ambiental. A tabela ao lado indica algumas fontes de gerao de odor e suas principais caractersticas.
Fontes de gerao de odor e suas principais caractersticas
Nome do componente Acetaldedo Alil mercaptana Amnia Amil mercaptana n-Butylamina Cloro Dibutyl amina Diisopropilamina Dimetil amina Dimetil sulfeto Difenil sulfeto Etil amina Etil mercaptana Gs sulfdrico ndole Metilamina Metilmercaptana Oznio Fenil mercaptana Propil mercaptana Piridina Escatol Dixido se enxofre Tiocresol Trimetil amina Frmula CH3CHO NH3 CH3(CH2)4SH CH3(CH2)NH2 Cl2 (C4H9)2NH (C3H7)2NH (CH3)2NH (CH3)2S (C6H5)2S C2H5NH2 C2H5SH H2S C6H4(CH2)NH CH3NH2 CH3SH O3 C6H5SH C3H7SH C5H5N C9H9N SO2 CH3C6H4SH (CH3)3N Peso Volatilida- Limite de Limite de mole- de a 25oC deteco reconhecime- Odor caracterstico cular ppm(v/v) ppm(v/v) nto ppm(v/v) 44 17 104 124 73 71 129 101 45 62 186 45 62 34 117 31 48 48 110 76 79 131 64 124 59 Gs Gs 830000 100 Gs 710000 Gs 360 Gs Gs Gs 2000 220000 27000 200 Gs 93000 Gs 8000 Gs Gs 0,067 0,001 17 0,0003 0,0002 0,08 0,08 0,016 0,13 0,34 0,001 0,0001 0,27 0,0003 0,0005 0,0001 4,7 0,0005 0,5 0,0003 0,0005 0,66 0,001 2,7 0,0001 0,0004 0,21 0,0015 37 0,0026 1,8 0,31 0,38 0,001 0,0021 1,7 0,001 0,0047 0,001 0,0015 0,02 0,74 0,05 4,4 Penetrante, peixe Irritante, fruta Desagradvel, alho Penetrante, irritante Podre Desagradvel, forte Azedo, acre, amnia Pungente, sufocante Peixe Peixe Peixe podre Repolho podre Desagradvel Amnia Repolho podre Ovo podre Fecal Peixe podre Repolho podre Penetrante, irritante Alho podre Desagradvel Penetrante, irritante Fecal, nauseabundo Penetrante, irritante CH2:CHCH2SH 74

Benzyl mercaptana C6H5CH2SH

Sistema proposto Foi desenvolvido e patenteado no Brasil um sistema que permite a eliminao completa dos aerossis gerados pelos aeradores fixos (tanto aeradores

verticais, quanto valos de oxidao) e sistemas com aeradores flutuantes. Basicamente, o sistema consiste de uma cobertura, dimensionada especificamente para cada caso, que permite manter a integridade do

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Bibliografia
Bacicurinski B. M. e Mattio J. A.; Eliminao de Odores Utilizando Sistema de Lodos Ativados, Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial 32: pgs 112-117, 2001. Jimnez Rodrigo et al.; Investigation of the Emission of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from a Wastewater Treatment Plant at Lauzane (Switzerland) by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy, Atmospheric Environment, 1999. Tansel Berrin and Eyma Ronald; Volatile Organic Contaminant Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants During Secondary Treatment, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 112: 315-325,1999. Smith James E. and Farrell Joseph B.; Fate of Pathogens During the Sewage Sludge Treatment Process and After Land Application, EPA; 2003. Grabow Willie ; SARS can it be Transmitted by Water, Water21 pp 2125, August 2003. Bacicurinski B. M.; Relatrio de Testes de Campnulas, apresentado Petrleo Brasileiro Petrobrs, REVAP Refinaria do Vale do Paraba, 2000. Bacicurinski B. M.; Relatrio e Manual de Operao das Campnulas, apresentado Petrleo Brasileiro Petrobrs RECAP Refinaria de Capuava , 2001.

Estao trabalhando antes da implantao do sistema (esquerda) e a mesma estao trabalhando aps a implantao do sistema (direita)

splash, sem mudar as caractersticas de mistura, portanto, a suspenso de slidos, e ainda permite (caso haja a necessidade de aumentar a capacidade de tratamento da estao e/ou sua eficincia) transformar a estao, que inicialmente trabalhava com ar convencional, para oxignio puro. Caso no seja necessria a transformao, o sistema dotado de soprador que insufla a quantidade de ar necessria para obter a eficincia necessria de tratamento. O custo desta transformao sensivelmente inferior ao de uma reforma total, e pode ser executado com a estao em pleno funcionamento, sem provocar nenhuma interrupo no processo de tratamento inicial e

causar, assim, transtornos para o processo industrial. Outra vantagem do sistema desenvolvido a eliminao de odores, conteno de volteis e reduo sensvel do nvel de rudos. Medies de campo efetuadas por cromatografia permitiram detectar uma reduo de 70% na emisso de volteis nos tanques de aerao aps a implementao do sistema. O sistema foi desenvolvido com materiais de alta resistncia em parceria com fornecedores nacionais, garantindo, assim, um sistema seguro e duradouro, sem praticamente nenhum custo adicional de manuteno durante a vida do mesmo, por se tratar de um equipamento esttico.

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Eliminao de odores

Eliminao de odores utilizando Sistema de Lodos Ativados


Bernardo M. Bacicurinski engenheiro mecnico, especialista em Meio Ambiente, diretor tcnico da Technion Consultoria Jos Alfredo Mattio engenheiro qumico, gerente de Mercado Meio Ambiente da Air Liquide Brasil

Introduo
Um dos problemas mais comuns encontrados em processos de produo e em estaes de tratamentos de efluentes a formao de odores, principalmente em tratamentos sanitrios que afetam no s o pessoal operacional envolvido, mas a comunidade existente nas proximidades. Podemos identificar como algumas fontes geradoras deste efeito a presena de sulfetos, mercaptanas, amnia e compostos orgnicos de enxofre e nitrognio. Indstrias que envolvem a gerao de odores indesejveis incluem, entre

outras, a produo de plsticos, manufatura de borracha, processos da indstria alimentcia (processamento de carnes e peixes), indstrias de papel e celulose, indstria farmacutica e estaes de tratamento de efluentes, particularmente o processamento e condicionamento de lodo produzido nas estaes. Normalmente, os odores so devidos aos gases formados pela decomposio de matria orgnica. guas residuais de origem industrial possuem odor caracterstico dos produtos que as compe, de forma geral desagradvel, mas bem mais tolervel que guas residuais de origem

sanitria e que possuem odor caracterstico de gs sulfdrico ( H2S), gerado por microorganismos anaerbios que reduzem os sulfatos a sulfitos. Esgotos domsticos possuem 3-6 mg/l de enxofre e derivados em resduos orgnicos provenientes de derivados de protenas, mais aproximadamente 4 mg/l provenientes de detergentes domsticos e 60 mg/l provenientes de matria inorgnica. Em lagoas facultativas os odores podem ser produzidos em diversas circunstncias. Freqentemente, sua origem provm da decomposio de massas de algas acumuladas pela ao do vento nas margens das mesmas.

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Eliminao de odores
Em outros casos, principalmente em lagoas pouco profundas, quando a temperatura da gua elevada, capas de lodo podem flotar do fundo e subir superfcie. Estas massas de resduos orgnicos acabam acumulando nas margens e ficando cobertas de algas cianfilas. Em geral, a atividade bacteriana nestes casos intensa e a gerao de odor inevitvel. O grande desafio dos projetistas, operadores e tcnicos responsveis pelas estaes de tratamento justamente tentar controlar os odores geN o m e do co m po n e n te Acetaldedo Ali l mercaptana Amni a Ami l mercaptana Benzyl mercaptana n-Butylami na C loro D i butyl ami na D i i sopropi lami na D i meti l ami na D i meti l sulfeto D i feni l sulfeto Eti l ami na Eti l mercaptana Gs sulfdri co ndole Meti lami na Meti lmercaptana Ozni o Feni l mercaptana Propi l mercaptana Pi ri di na Escatol D i xi do se enxofre Ti ocresol Tri meti l ami na 114

rados pelas estaes, buscando solues e alternativas que diminuam seu impacto ambiental. A tabela abaixo indica algumas fontes de gerao de odor e suas principais caractersticas:

Sistema P roposto Proposto


Como mostrado na tabela acima, a maior parte das substncias geradoras de odor gasosa sob presso atmosfrica ou possui alta volatilidade. A volatilidade mostrada na tabela
Vo la tilida de a 2 5 o C ppm (v /v ) Gs L im ite de de te c o ppm (v /v ) 0,067 0,001 Gs 17 0,0003 0,0002 93000 Gs 8000 0,080 0,080 0,016 0,13 Gs 830000 100 Gs 710000 Gs 360 Gs Gs Gs 2000 220000 27000 200 Gs 0,34 0,001 0,0001 0,27 0,0003 0,0005 0,0001 4,7 0,0005 0,5 0,0003 0,0005 0,66 0,001 2,7 0,0001 Gs 0,0004

por partes por milho (ppm[v/v]) e igual presso de vapor. O peso molecular destas substncias geralmente se encontram em valores entre 30 a 150. Normalmente, baixo peso molecular de um componente, implica alta presso de vapor e maior potencial de emisso na atmosfera. Substncias com alto peso molecular so normalmente menos volteis e assim menor seu potencial de emisso atmosfrica. Tradicionalmente os odores so tratados utilizando trs processos, sendo:
L im ite de re co n h e cim e n to ppm (v /v ) 0,21 0,0015 37 0,0026 1,8 0,31 0,38 0,001 0,0021 1,7 0,001 0,0047 0,0010 0,0015 0,020 0,74 0,050 4,4 Penetrante, pei xe Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial

F rm u la C H3C HO C H2:C HC H2SH NH3 C H3(C H2)4SH C 6H5C H2SH C H3(C H2)NH2 C l2 (C 4H9)2NH (C 3H7)2NH (C H3)2NH (C H3)2S (C 6H5)2S C 2H5NH2 C 2H5SH H2S C 6H4(C H2)NH C H3NH2 C H3SH O3 C 6H5SH C 3H7SH C 5H5N C 9H9N SO2 C H3C 6H4SH (C H3)3N

P eso m o le cu la r 44 74 17 104 124 73 71 129 101 45 62 186 45 62 34 117 31 48 48 110 76 79 131 64 124 59

O do r ca ra cte rs tico Irri tante, fruta D esagradvel, alho Penetrante, i rri tante Podre D esagradvel, forte Azedo, acre, amni a Pungente, sufocante Pei xe Pei xe Pei xe podre Repolho podre D esagradvel Amni a Repolho podre Ovo podre F e ca l Pei xe podre Repolho podre Penetrante, i rri tante Alho podre D esagradvel Penetrante, i rri tante Fecal, nauseabundo Penetrante, i rri tante

Eliminao de odores
Biolgico - Biofiltros, biotecnologia; Qumico Lavadores de gases (scrubbers), oxidao; Fsico Condensao, filtros de carvo ativo.

O tratamento biolgico para abatimento de odores tem ganhado importncia nos anos 90, no s pelo baixo custo apresentado para implementar o sistema, mas pela boa eficincia apresentada. Neste processo, o aproveitamento de reatores biolgicos (lodos ativados) vem crescendo ano a ano e uma boa opo para estaes que j possuem estes sistemas. Os mecanismos de difuso do gs no meio lquido compreendem os seguintes mecanismos:

c Oxidao Biolgica Consiste na digesto de componentes por microorganismos ativos no floco e que foram inicialmente adsorvidos. Estes mecanismos so seguidos de digesto biolgica promovida pelos microorganismos existentes no reator biolgico. Os gases so recolhidos em sua fonte de gerao e transferidos por sopradores a dutos que transportam e injetam estes gases dentro do reator biolgico.
O Turboxal um oxigenador superficial compacto com alta eficincia de transferncia, que pode ser utilizado para a transferncia do oxignio ao meio lquido e tambm do gs a ser tratado

Performance de remoo de odores utilizando lodos ativados:

Como limitao da tcnica, c Absoro Dissoluo do gs no pode-se apontar: meio lquido. Componentes responsveis pela gerao de odor so sistema. O grau de inibio depen1. aumento de carga orgnica no reinjetados na forma de gs no meio de da concentrao de H2S introator biolgico; lquido. Elementos solveis em 2. a introduo de sulfetos (dependuzido, da composio e gua (tais como gs sulfdrico) so dendo da quantidade) no reator biaclimatao da biomassa existenabsorvidos pelo lquido. A capaolgico, inibe a nitrificao e pode te no tanque, da temperatura na cidade de absoro do gs funprovocar bulking (lodo fofo) no o da rea de contato qual estes gases so inE fici n cia N v e l de ca rga S u b s t n cia R e fe r n cia s das bolhas, tempo de de re m o o ( g/k g-M L S S /d ) troduzidos, que podem contato e o coeficiente BTEX* afetar no s a solubili>99 15-17 BTEX/l/d Bi elefeldt et al.., 1997 de difuso do gs. dade do gs mas tamH2S 96 7 Fukuyama et al.., 1986 c Adsoro Componenbm o crescimento de H2S 95 15 tes com baixa solubilimicroorganismos. 35 0,2 l/l dade so adsorvidos Sulfeto de dimetila 3. Em reatores que pos33,9 0,059 l/l dentro do floco. Alguns Disulfeto de carbono suem aeradores, o 99 <15 componentes com alto H2S splash levantado pode 99 <9 peso molecular e baixa (CH3)2S permitir que gases vosolubilidade so fisica- Trimetilamina 99 168 lteis sejam liberados mente adsorvidos dentro Monoetilamina 99 192 e, neste caso, o aumendo floco biolgico, que Isopropanol to de odor inevitvel, 99,5 94 deve estar numa concenou seja, mesmo sendo Kasakura e 96 trao de 100 a 2.000 Amnia Tatsukawa, 1995 injetado no interior do mg/l no meio lquido. tanque de aerao, esMeti lmercaptana 99 c Condensao Elemen- Metil disulfeto tes gases tm a tendn98 tos volteis a altas temcia de serem Mi stura de gases** 92,6 - 93,7 Oppelt et al.., 1999 peraturas condensam succionados pelo 99,9 em contato com o meio H2S splash e liberados para BTEX - gs contendo Benzeno, Tolueno, Eti lbenzeno e Xi leno lquido que est a tem- * a atmosfera. ** Mi stura de gases contendo Benzeno, C loroetano, C lorofrmi o, Eti lbenzeno, Hexano, Tolueno, 1,2,4peraturas mais baixas. Trimetilbenzeno , Acetato de vinila, M-xileno, O-Xileno, P-xileno.
116 Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial

Eliminao de odores
Figura 1 Figura 2

Referncias Bibliogrficas:
- Cha Samuel S. Measuring Volatile
Organic Compounds and Odors Industrial Water - May/June 2000- pg 32 - 36 Browker Robert P.G. et al Odor Control In Wastewater Treatments Plants- Water Enviroment Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers - 1995 Browker P.G. Robert Activated Sludge Diffusion - Water Enviroment and Technology - February 1999 - pg 30-35 Browker P.G. Biological odour control by diffusion into activated sludge basisns - Water Science and Technology - Vol 41 No 6 pp 127- 132 Arnold David L.B. Control of Odour Emissions With Ozone - Chemistry and Industry - January 1997 Gloyna F. Ernest Estanques de Estabilizacin de Aguas Residuales - Organizacin Mundial de la Salud Ginebra - 1973

Figura 3

Processos e T ecnologias Tecnologias


O aumento de carga no reator biolgico pode ser compensado pelo aporte necessrio de oxignio ao sistema e tambm pelo ajuste da concentrao de microrganismos adequada nova situao (ajuste da relao F/M no reator). Apropriados para intervir rapidamente em sistemas com carga de choque frequente e na estabilizao do oxignio dissolvido no meio lquido, os processos a oxignio puro podem garantir a performance do processo, bem como a mistura tima requerida para a operao (fig.1). Sistemas combinados tambm podem trazer bons resultados, transformando-se os aeradores convencionais para sistemas fechados com campnulas onde o gs a ser tratado introduzido a baixa presso e posteriormente dissolvido no lquido (fig.2).
Revista Meio Ambiente Industrial

Neste caso, evita-se o efeito de emisso de gases no prprio reator biolgico, ou seja, a utilizao de campnulas evita a emisso de gases pelo splash do aerador, promovendo um abafamento destes. Este tipo de tecnologia pode ser aplicada tanto em aeradores fixos como flutuantes. A utilizao de campnulas no s evita a emisso de elementos volteis, como permite, pelo aproveitamento das caractersticas de mistura dos aeradores, injetar oxignio puro com excelente eficincia de dissoluo. Nos casos onde a corrente de gs a ser tratada excede a carga mxima de projeto da estao, pode-se utilizar uma etapa intermediria de oxidao, onde o gs absorvido em meio lquido e oxidado parcialmente com oznio at atingir os nveis exigidos para que a corrente lquida seja ento submetida oxidao biolgica no sistema de lodos ativados (fig. 3). Recomenda-se, no entanto, um trabalho experimental em escala piloto para investigar e avaliar os possveis efeitos de cargas de choque e possveis perodos de aclimatao necessrios para a estabilizao do processo.

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Voc Biotreatment Through Wastewater Recirculation In Tubular Reactor Complemented By Activated Sludge Reactor(AE-2a-3)
Presented on June 17th, 2009 No comments Presented by D. Saggese,1 B. M. Bacicurinski,2 B. N. V. Martignoni,1 T. Tanaka3; 1 Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2Tch Technion, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 3Petrobras, Maua, Brazil Access abstract and paper for this title

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Wood Consumption And Emissions For Residential Combustion(AT-1b)


Presented on June 17th, 2009 No comments Presented by C. Wu,1 R. Piva2; 1Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul, MN, 2 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station, St. Paul, MN Access abstract and paper for this title

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AE-2a-3.502 Voc Biotreatment Through Wastewater Recirculation In Tubular Reactor Complemented By Activated Sludge Reactor D. Saggese,1 B. M. Bacicurinski,2 B. N. V. Martignoni,1 T. Tanaka3; 1Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2Tch Technion, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 3Petrobras, Maua, Brazil Wastewater Biologic Treatment can be source of emissions and odors in case of fail or when the operational protocol is neglected, but it can also be successfully applied as source of new biologic treatment of emissions and gaseous odors of API tanks. Volatile Organic Compounds emitted by API tanks can be biologically treated through two steps in the activated sludge reactor. The first is the low solubility gas adsorption on the biologic flake superficial area, followed by the VOC microbial biodegradation. Depending of the biota decomposition gradient and considering reactor aerobic conditions, it will break down hydrocarbons in lower chains followed by the oxidation of the organic gas to more stable compounds as water and carbon dioxide. The challenge in this gas/liquid treatment consists in the gas and vapors capture and transport to the activated sludge treatment unit. The proposed system allows VOC to be incorporated in the liquid fase through the cycle effluent recirculation formed by a tubular reactor, where the process starts. Risks inherent to the VOC transport are eliminated and the circulating liquid is taken from the WBT activated sludge reactor and the mix VOC/Liquid returns to it to finalize the biologic treatment. This process presents the advantage in using the existing WBT, low capital costs and is able to treat different sources of VOC from the Wastewater Treatment Plant without incorporating new cost to the system. A 1 m /h Pilot Plant of the VOC Biotreatment through Wastewater Recirculation in Tubular Reactor complemented by Activated Sludge Reactor process is installed in Capuava Refinery of Petrobras, Mau/SP, Brazil, to treat biologically high BOD effluent. In this plant, tests of biological degradation of VOC extracted from the API are planned. The results will show the impact on the activated sludge system, maximum capacity of VOC biologic degradation, and maximum toxicity that the system is able to handle without disturbing the running existing treatment.
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TQS - Palestra IE - 06/12/2001 - Sistema de Potencializao e Cobertura para Aeradores Mecnicos em Pro
Seg, 03 de Dezembro de 2001 09:54

Diviso de Engenharia de Segurana Diviso de Gerenciamento de Empreendimentos Diviso de Estudos Ambientais Diviso de Engenharia Sanitria Diviso de Informtica

Sistema de Potencializao e Cobertura para Aeradores Mecnicos em Processos Biolgicos


Expositor:

Eng. Bernardo M. Bacicurinski - Engenheiro mecnico, Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, 1981; - Diretor Tcnico da Technion Consultoria; - Trabalhou como professor universitrio na Universidade So Francisco; - Detentor de 3 patentes, sendo uma internacional em sistemas de diluio de gs em meio lquido, com nfase em tratamento de efluentes; - Trabalhou no centro de pesquisas da Praxair- White Martins no desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias.

Abordagem:
tradicional em tratamento de efluentes, em processos de lodos ativados a utilizao de aeradores mecnicos para fornecimento de oxignio necessrio para promover oxidao qumica de resduos industriais, e respirao de microorganismos existentes no meio a ser tratado. O sistema de aerao sem dvida o mais eficiente para aplicao em reatores biolgicos e lagoas de aerao. Apesar dos benefcios apresentados, surge atravs deste sistema a gerao de odores, emanao de aerossis (bolhas de lquido que carregam em seu interior microorganismos muitas vezes patognios e que podem alcanar distncias superiores a 500 metros da fonte de gerao).

A Technion desenvolveu e patenteou tecnologia que permite proteger o ambiente sem provocar perda de eficincia nos aeradores mecnicos e permite ainda transformar o sistema para trabalhar com oxignio puro sem custos adicionais.

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TQS - Palestra IE - 06/12/2001 - Sistema de Potencializao e Cobertura para Aeradores Mecnicos em Pro
Seg, 03 de Dezembro de 2001 09:54

Assim sendo a tecnologia apresentada pode ser aplicada para soluo dos seguintes problemas: 1. Gerao de odor. 2. Formao de aerossis 3. Corroso ambiental 4. Necessidade complementar de oxignio 5. Abordagem: 6. Introduo 7. Formao de aerossis 8. Principais microorganismos existentes em efluentes e doenas transmitidas 9. Outros problemas decorrentes da emanao de aerossis 10. Soluo apresentada

Inscries:
Inscries gratuitas pelo tel. 5574.7766 r. 215/220. Data: 06/12/01 (Quinta-feira) - Horrio: 19h Local: Instituto de Engenharia Av. Dr. Dante Pazzanese, 120 V. Mariana

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