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Democracies are of two types: 1 2 1 2 3 ! % * + . 1 2 3 !

% Unitary Federal single authority States are subordinate to center USA, Australia, Swit erland our Federal Dr" Ambed#ar $ Federal &rofessor 'heare $ (uasi Federal)with strong centrali ing tendency Senate in USA depends on states $ contrary to Federal character &rinciples should be rigid but scope of ,Federal constitution- should be wide Should the court of Federal only if it displays Federal character predominantly Distribution of power between center and states Supremacy of constitution written constitution rigid /udiciary independent

Unity has the following features :

Features of federalism

All the abo0e are present in the 1ndian constitution &ro0isions which affect its Federal character 1 2 3 ! 1 2 3 ! % 2o0ernor 1%%, 1%* &arliament ma#e certain state laws 3ew states $ new boundaries 4mergency pro0isions 55 3%2, 3%*, 3*6 7he longest So0ereign8 &arliamentary Uni(ue blend $ si9 features &ositi0e secularism

Features of 1ndian constitution

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1ndian socialism 4conomic democracy :ther features $ fundamental rights, directi0e principles, fundamental duties

;eaning of fundamental rights" 1ndian constitution 7he general concept <ery basic to ad0ancement of human race All other rights are deri0ed from the rights 7hey are natural human rights $ not positi0e $ not amendable Among the rights $ right to life and liberty $ are the most basic 1 2 3 ! % 1 2 3 =istory of fundamental rights starts from magna >arta ?list of rights $ @ind /ohnA by the people of 4ngland 121! AD Followed by ,bill of rights- 1*.B" 4nglishman were gi0en certain ci0il and political rights" 7hat could not be ta#en away" French ga0e , declaration of the rights of man and citi en- of the French re0olution 1+.B USA incorporated fundamental rights in their constitution , bill of rights- by ten amendments which were beyond the reach of political decisions ;ost democracies after this ga0e constitution sanctity to fundamental rights Cule of law)'elfare state $ not to be transgressed by any authority D stateE After such a long subFugation, people had forgotten the meaning of freedom " and democracy is the best form of go0ernance)the representation of people" 49tent of freedom $the (ualitati0e difference $citi ens of the 2ulf countries and communist countries do not enFoy the same" Fundamental rights in 1ndia &art 111 D article 12 to 3%E ;ane#a 2andhi 0 U:1 1B+. $ Ghagwati / said that the rights to present the 0alues cherished by 1ndians since <edic ages 55dignity 1!51. e(uality 1B522 freedom 2352! e9ploitation 2%52. religion 2B536 cultural 32 constitutional remedies 3eed for fundamental rights