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Excerpts from

Sri Gopala-campu,
(First-campu),which deal with Krishna's pastimes with gopis
By Jiva Goswami

Seventeenth Purana Venu-shikshamisha-preyasi-bhiksha Playin the !lute an" #allin the Gopis 1. Then, as before, at the glorious evening assembl , eager !adhu"antha said# $fter Krishna had "illed %henu"asura, Krishna's activities attracted the gopis, $s a lotus bud grows da after da and begins to blossom, so the gopis longing to attain Krishna grew da after da . &ecause 'adha is most e(alted of all the gopis, )er name is lin"ed with *ord Krishna's name and The are called together b the words 'adha-!adhava. +. 'adha and Krishna earned to meet, ga,e at each other, and embrace. -ome people opposed these desires and struggled to thwart them. -till, 'adha and Krishna were overcome with passionate love for each other. $lthough The lived far awa from each other, The had fallen deepl in love. .. Fallen in love, 'adha and Krishna were li"e two glistening mirrors. The were reflected in each other's thoughts. /. $gain and again The secretl ga,ed at each other. 0hen Krishna saw 'adha )e was filled with bliss. 0hen 'adha saw Krishna -he was filled with bliss. 1. The teenage gopis earned to attain Krishna, but )e was difficult to attain. Then autumn passed. The month of !argashirsha (2ovember%ecember came, and the oung gopis went to their husbands' houses. 3. $gitated at heart, 4urnamasi said that the mothers and fathers of the teenage gopis were not at all happ to give their daughters to husbands other than Krishna. 5ndeed, that action filled them with sorrow. Fearing the censure of others for departing from religious customs, and concealing the true wishes of their hearts, with e es withered with sorrow, the gave their daughters to husbands other than Krishna. 6. To the gopis'mothers and fathers 4aurnamasi said, 78ou are all aloof and indifferent, but we must follow our religious duties and return these girls to

the homes of their husbands.7 9. )onoring the gopis parents, who had become angr , thin"ing themselves dishonored, 4aurnamasi, who was glorious li"e a goddess, accepted the parents' wishes. :. The glorious teenage gopis were thus sent to the homes of the men who thought themselves their husbands. Their faces covered b the edge of their garments, the girls were honored with great respect. 1;. &elieving 4aurnamasi's promise to them, the teenage gopis were confident the would attain what the desired and would be protected from what the did not desire. -tead in their determination, the gopis traveled on the pathwa s. 0ith her own potenc 4aurnamasi covered them, protected them, concealed their true e(alted identities, and brought success to their endeavors. $fterwards she situated them in their homes. 5n this wa the gopis were situated in their so-called husbands' homes. 11. &ecause the could not associate with Krishna, the teenage gopis considered their own bodies to be li"e prison cells. )ow could these gopis attain happiness in their parent's homes< These gopis cursed the homes of their mothers-in-laws. Those homes the considered to be li"e bla,ing fires. 1+. &ecause Krishna was far awa , these gopis felt all pleasant things to be horrible. $n thing unpleasant was to them li"e being thrown into a pit of sna"es. 1.. 0hen the gopis were settled in their new homes, 4aurnamasi visited them. To dispel their doubts and made them stead , she taught them, 70hen ou thin" it is right to brea" the rules of ordinar propriet , ou should without doubt flee from our homes. 8ou should be rapt in a trance meditation, and, at the appropriate times ou should be willing to flee from our homes.7 1/. )aving gone from their parents' homes to live in the homes of their mothers-in-law, the gopis felt the had left the palaces of "ings to reside in the homes of their enemies. 11. 0hen the were thwarted, their desire increased. The gopis who had fallen in love with Krishna sighed with sighs that seemed to have become a single gentle bree,e. 13. *i"e flames from the best of "indling, the desire to embrace Krishna burned in their hearts. =arefull the concealed those flames. 16. That -ri 'adha is the best of the gopis is described in these words# )ow can 5, who live onl for )is sa"e, ever abandon Krishna, whose splendor eclipses the nectar light moon, whose glories ma"e the devotees alwa s stunned with ecstatic love, whose heart alwa s melts with compassion, who has become the moonli"e goal of a host of ca"ori-li"e girls with graceful e ebrows< $fter bloc"ing ! honor, the code of religion itself now wal"s on the pathwa of sin. 19. -ri Krishna's thoughts are given in these words# $las, 'adha, who is the onl ob>ect of ! thoughts and who is ! ver life, is under the control of another. 0hen it thin"s of this, ! heart faints unconscious. 1:. ?n how man da s did Krishna, rapt in thin"ing of 'adha, wipe the

tears from )is reddish e es< +;. Krishna's earning to meet with 'adha is described in these words# Thin"ing, 7)ow it is thoughts that >ump over the code of religion have now become ! dearest friend<7 Krishna sent )is splendid glance with a message for 'adha. +1. The teenage gopis will later sa (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;..1.+)# 7! dear Krishna, 8ou are the life and soul even of the lotus flower that grows on the water of la"es made transparent b the clear rains of autumn. $lthough the lotus flowers are so beautiful, without 8our glance the fade awa . -imilarl , without 8ou, we are also d ing.7@ ++. The great devotees thin" Krishna's sidelong glance on them is the final result of following the scriptures. $haA The teenage gopis thought Krishna's sidelong glance on them was li"e the attac" of a weapon. +.. %a and night flames of love for Krishna burned in the teenage gopis' hearts. The sight of Krishna at morning and sunset brought happiness that was li"e ghee being poured on that fire, ghee that doubled the flames. +/. 0hen )e departed Bra>a for the forest and when )e returned from the forest to Bra>a, Krishna, glorious li"e the moon, e(changed glances with Bra>a's people. $t those times 'adha became glorious li"e the star $nuradha shining on a full-moon night among Krishna's assembled gopibeloveds. +1. Krishna's departure for the forest in the morning is described in these words# )olding their hands, Krishna pretends to >o"e with )is gopa friends while )e casts half-half croo"ed amorous glances at the teenage gopis. )e pla full hugs )is gopa friends. $haA 0ith the music of )is flute )e sends secret messages to the gopis. +3. The teenage gopis will later sa (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;..1.1;)#78our smiles, 8our sweet loving glances, the intimate pastimes and confidential tal"s we en>o ed with 8ouCall these are auspicious to meditate upon, and the touch our hearts. &ut at the same time, ? deceiver, the ver much agitate our minds.7@@@ +6. Krishna's return from the forest at sunset is described in these words# 0hen Krishna returns to Bra>a, the gopis lovingl ga,e at the lotus flower of )is face, which is encircled b the blac" bees of )is curl hair and covered b dust raised b the cows' hooves. 0hen the blac" bees of the gopis e es send glances to meet the lotus flower of Krishna's face, the gopis at once find themselves caught in the trap Kamadeva has set for them. +9. The gopis will later sa (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;..1.1+)# 7? Krishna, when 8ou return from the pasturing ground with the animals, we see 8our face covered b 8our curl hair and dusted b the hoof-dust of the cows. 0e see 8our mildl smiling face, and our desire to en>o 8ou increases.7@ +:. %a after da Krishna and the gopis competed in this game of mutual glances. %a after da the gopis' longing to associate with Krishna increased more and more. 0hen springtime arrived the gopis ver passionatel earned to associate with Krishna. .;. The following words describe the gopis' condition on the sunset of the

da the demon 4ralamba was "illed (Srimad-Bhagavatam 1;.1:.13)#7The oung gopis too" the greatest pleasure in seeing Dovinda come home, since for them even a moment without )is association seemed li"e a hundred ages.7@@@. .1. The meaning of these words is e(plained in the following verse# )ow can an one have the power to describe the bliss the gopis felt when the saw Krishna< 5t is possible onl to understand a slight part of that bliss. 5n Krishna's absence the gopis felt ever moment to be li"e a hundred ugas. 5n the same wa , in Krishna's presence a hundred ugas becomes for them li"e a single glistening moment. .+. 5f, separated from Krishna, the gopis felt ever moment li"e a hundred ugas, then we fear to tr to "now how the measured their da s and nights. ... 0hen the summer, with its dawns that loo"ed li"e red roses finall somehow came to an end, multitudes of thundering monsoon clouds delighted the peacoc"s. ./. Filled with passionate longings, the gopis were alwa s rapt in tal"ing of Krishna. Then splendid monsoon clouds and lightning brought a great dar"ness. .1. From summer was born hot weather that was uncomfortable for the teenage gopis who had fallen in love with Krishna. 70ith the coming of the monsoon season this hot weather will end,7 the gopis decided. The decided that the weather would certainl change. .3. !eanwhile the gopis made a second monsoon with the tears from their e es. The dar" monsoon cloud of Krishna appeared in their hearts, and the flooding rains of their tears moc"ed the ordinar monsoon outside. .6. To the gopis who passionatel longed for Krishna's association, the peacoc"s' e(tended tails glistened li"e Kamadeva's half-moon arrows. .9. &ecause the bring coolness and man other benefits, the monsoon rains pacified the gopis' hearts. -till, the gopis were contrar . The hated and feared the monsoon rains. $hA The friend was considered an enem A $hA $hA 0h does destin move in that wa < .:. The gopis loc"ed up in their homes when the tried to go to Krishna thought in their hearts, 7Krishna, who, as it rains and rains during the monsoon season pla s with )is gopa friends amongst the tree-roots, dates, and fruits, who, sitting on a roc" at the water's edge, en>o s pastimes of eating ogurt and other foods for lunch, and who calls the cows from far awa , has bro"en our hearts.7 /;. %uring the terrible monsoon season, when their abilit to see Krishna became stopped, Krishna's gopi beloveds, who delighted ever one, whose e es were graceful and pla ful li"e khajana birds, and who in their hearts had attained a great glor of pure love for Krishna, were now plunged in the great dar"ness of despair. /1. The gopis spo"e these fearful words# 7The clouds proudl thunder. 0ith lightning-bolt teeth the chew up the ground.7 /+. $hA )ow surprising are the man wa s of loveA This seemingl

unfavorable situation of separation from Krishna became favorable, for it nourished the love the gopis, who all praise -ri 'adha, felt for Krishna. /.. 0atching the monsoon rains, 'adha thought# 7? lightning flash, how man austerities did ou perform in the past< 4lease tell that to !e. ? friend, ou must have performed man austerities, for ou alwa s en>o pastimes with the monsoon cloud, who so closel resembles Krishna's glorious chest.7 //. Tal"ing to a gopi-friend, 'adha accidentall revealed )er heart and then tried to pretend -he meant something different than what -he actuall said. That is seen in the following conversation# 'adha# $haA *oo"A Embracing the dar" monsoon cloud, the restless lightning flash en>o s man pastimes. Dopi-friend# %o 8ou remember 8our amorous pastimes with Krishna< 'adha# 2oA 2oA 5 am describing the monsoon season. /1. )ere is another li"e conversation# 'adha# 0hen the monsoon clouds come, then a great opulence of green (hari) grass meadows fills the e es. Dopi-friend# ? 'adha, do 8ou long after )ari< 'adha# 2oA 2oA Krishna hates the glor of the green grasses. /3. The sweetness of the peacoc"s' graceful dancing alwa s delights peacoc"-feather-crowned Krishna. The peacoc" does not as" wh Krishna has now forgotten to wear )is peacoc"-feather-crown. Translator's note# ?vercome with feelings of separation from 'adha, Krishna now neglects )is appearance, pa ing no attention to graceful garments and ornaments. /6. 0hen the unfavorable monsoon season departed, the $utumn came. This is described in the following words# The gopis thought, 7$utumn will come now. 2ow the s"ies will be clear.7 -till, the gopis hearts did not become clear. Their hearts became twice as dar" with passionate love for Krishna. /9. 2o longer seeing the rain clouds and lightning that -he saw before, 'adha was tormented b flames of sorrow. Translator's note# The dar" rain clouds and ellow lightning reminded 'adha of Krishna's dar" form and ellow garments and thus brought )er some solace. 2o longer seeing the things that reminded )er of Krishna, 'adha became sorrowful. /:. 0ith their fingernails 'adha and Krishna each wrote a stan,a on a new leaf. The bree,e carried 'adha's stan,a to Krishna and Krishna's stan,a to 'adha. 1;. 'adha's stan,a was# 7The lightning flashes, who consider the monsoon clouds their ver life, must have performed man pious deeds in their past lives, for the are alwa s seen with their beloved clouds and the are never seen without them.7 11. Krishna's stan,a was# 75n Brindavana the glistening moon has now come out from behind the clouds, and a swan now pla s with a blue lotus. $lasA %estin is cruel, for 5 do not see ! beloved an where.7

1+. & destin , 'adha and Krishna obtained each other's stan,as. $gain and again The embraced the stan,as. The wept. The each made the stan,a a >ewel ornament pressed against Their desolate golden hearts. 1.. 5n autumn the waters, lilies, lotuses, and moonlight all Fuic"l blossom with glor . &ut the gopis' hearts, e es, faces, and glistening teeth all become dar"ened with passionate love for Krishna. )ow can the gopis tolerate this terrible situation< 1/. (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;.+;./1)# 70hen there are ample blooming flowers in the gardens of the forest, the fresh aromatic bree,e gives a great relief to the person who has suffered during the summer and rain seasons. Gnfortunatel , such bree,es could not give an relief to the gopis because of their hearts' dedication to Krishna. 4eople in general might have ta"en pleasure in that nice autumn bree,e, but the gopis, not being embraced b Krishna, were not ver satisfied.7@ 11. Krishna's handsomeness, dar" splendor, sweetness, and flood of nectar pastimes all seemed li"e deadl poison to Krishna's gopi-beloveds now unable to touch )is bod . 13. Ever one "nows the bree,e that carries the fragrance of Krishna's bod is the ver life of all the worlds. )owever, the emaciated gopis suffering in separation from Krishna considered that bree,e to be li"e a shower of swiftl fl ing arrows. 16. $lthough their longings to associate with Krishna had attained the highest summit of intensit , the gopis did not reveal them to an one. The gopis all affirmed, 75 would never do an thing to brea" the rules of religion.7 Krishna also affirmed the same thing. Torn b attraction to Krishna and b hesitation also, the gopis were tormented. 19. -eeing no other wa to conFuer the gopis, who were all afraid of the arrows of )is flirting glances, Krishna began to pla )is flute. 1:. )earing Krishna pla the flute, the gopis said (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;..1.1/)# 7Krishna "nows how to pla the flute. )e composes )is own songs, and to sing them )e puts )is flute to )is mouth. 0hen )e pla s, either in the morning or in the evening, all the demigods li"e *ord -hiva, &rahma, 5ndra, and =andra bow their heads and listen with great attention. $lthough the are ver learned and e(pert, the cannot understand the musical arrangements of Krishna's flute. The simpl listen attentivel and tr to understand, but become bewildered and nothing more.7@ 3;. $t first Krishna and )is elder brother, &alarama, again and again pla ed graceful duets on Their flutes. 31. $s )e too" care of the cows in the splendid forest, with )is man glorious Fualities Krishna filled )is gopa friends with wonder. $ccompanied b )is elder brother, da after da )e practiced pla ing the flute, displa ing )is supreme s"ill. $t this time the full glor of )is form became manifested before the teenage gopis. 3+. 5n this wa Krishna manifested the glor of )is form to the far-awa gopis. The natural glor of the gopis' love for Krishna then became manifested.

3.. From hearing the sound of Krishna's flute, the gopis could infer the e(istence of all )is other virtues. 5n this wa it is seen that Krishna's gopibeloveds were actuall great philosophers learned in logic and inference. 3/. -eparated from Krishna, and their hearts anointed with the oil of love for )im, the suffering gopis became dr and withered. &ut now that autumn had come, the gopis were not as sorrowful as the had been before. 31. 'adha's friends included *alita, Bisha"ha, and others. =andravali's friends included -haib a, 4adma, and others. The declared their friendship in their hearts. $lso, although onl in a concealed wa , and carefull mentioning &alarama also, the began to tal" about Krishna. 33. The gopis sang the following song. $ Son ramo ramanuja iti yugalam krita-nata-veshataya patu rajati gayati sakhi-gana-yugalam $s Their friends sing, &alarama and )is ounger brother Krishna e(pertl dance. sarasa-rasalaja-pallava-tallaja-pallavitamala-shirsham nava-yauvana-vana-bijankuram iva dharayad atanu-cikirsham Their splendid heads are crowned with beautiful mango flowers. Their amorous desires are li"e a new sprout rising from a seed in the forest of Their fresh outhfulness. vanchita-pinchavali-parilanchita-mani-nicayancita-kesham dadhad iva hari-dhanur-anugata-taravali-valitambuda-lesham %ecorated with man beautiful >ewels and peacoc" feathers, Their hair is li"e small dar" clouds with stars and rainbows. valayita-nava dalad-utpala-karnika-karna-yugadbhuta-shobham latika kasav iti vismaya-kriti-madhukriti-vinihita-lobham Their wonderfull beautiful curling ears are li"e the whorls of newl blossomed lotus flowers. 0hen the bumblebees see these flower-ears, The become filled with desire to drin" their hone . The become struc" with wonder and sa # 70hat vine has borne these flowers<7 hasta-kamalam abhi kamala-vighurnana-ramana-kala-ramaniyam madhupa-ganam prati madhu-kana-varshanam akrita yata kamaniyam

Their reddish hands are handsome, gracefull moving lotus flowers that shower drops of nectar on the bumblebees. mala-mala-parimala-vali-vali-vapur-ali-valita-sadesham ali-jhankriti-nuti-kolahala-vaha-bahula-kutuhala-vesham $ttracted b the sweet fragrance of Their flower garlands, the bu,,ing bees offer a great tumult of >ubilant pra ers. sitam asitam vapur asitam pitam vasanam yasya ca gitam tad idam yadi gokulam anu gokulam ayati tadagham atitam Their glorious forms are light and dar" and Their splendid garments are also light and dar". 5f The follow the surabhi cows into Do"ula Billage, then all our sufferings will end. 36. For the purpose of causing the people there to fall in love with )im, Krishna sta ed in the area around Do"ula. 39. -urrounded b Their friends and cows, the two brothers, Krishna and &alarama, are now seen in the land of Bra>a. The are the best ob>ect of vision for all beings that have e es. Their faces are li"e graceful lotus flowers. Their flute-music is splendid. Their e es are filled with restless glances. 3:. This is seen in the following words of $ gopi# ? gopi-friend, when pla ful Krishna returns to Bra>a with )is friends and cows, )e casts glances at us from the corners of )is e es. Those arrow-glances have now wounded our hearts.7 6;. 5n the e es, the most glorious e es, of a girl, a supremel saintl and respectable girl, stands the flute-pla er Kamadeva-Krishna, who is indeed Kamadeva )imself. 61. Krishna made the gopis graduall aspire more and more to attain )is association. Draduall )e dispelled their sh ness. $lthough )e was alread the master of all arts, )e had )is brother &alarama teach )im how to pla the flute. The moment )e was taught, Krishna produced the most enchanting melodies on )is flute. 6+. Fearful that the ma accidentall reveal their love for Krishna, the goddess li"e vra>a-gopis said of Krishna and &alarama# 7=arr ing ropes and stic"s, pla ing in the forest, protecting the cows, and en>o ing other li"e pastimes, Krishna and &alarama pla Their flutes. Their flute melodies ma"e moving beings stunned and motionless and unmoving beings filled with restless activit . The two brothers have reversed the natures of the living beings.7 6.. The gopis also said#7 Krishna and &alarama change the nature of ever living being. Krishna especiall has uprooted the nature of us gopis.7 6/. $s Krishna and &alarama pla ed enchanting melodies on Their flutes, Krishna thought, 7$haA 5 have enchanted and attracted the gopis. Especiall 5 have attracted the gopi named 'adha. The living entities ta"e

birth in various species of life. Draduall 5 teach them the spiritual truth. Eventuall , when the earn to hear them, 5 will pla m flute melodies so their hearts can hear.7 61. Krishna thought in this wa . Then )e wished to test the responses of the different living entities. First )e brought the lower living beings under )is spell. Then, one b one, )e brought the higher beings under )is spell. Finall )e made the gopis' hearts wild with bliss. 63. The cows' response when for the first time the hear Krishna's flute melodies is described in these words# 4retending to be the music of a flute placed to Krishna's mouth, a shower of nectar falls. 0ith the tongues of their ears, the cows drin" that shower of nectar. Their actual tongues are stunned. The have stopped eating grass. Their onl thought is, 70hat is that< 0hat is that< 0hat is that< 0hat is that<7 66. The gopis said# 7& hearing the melodies of Krishna's flute, we gopis attain a condition li"e that of the cows when the hear Krishna's flute. -till, there is a difference between us and the cows. The cows respond b ga,ing in Krishna's moonli"e face at ever moment. 0e gopis cannot ga,e at Krishna's face in that wa . 5n what uga will we be able to alwa s ga,e at )is face<7 69. & pla ing melodies on )is flute, Krishna enchants and attracts the various forest creatures. 5t is said# 0hen Krishna pla s )is flute the birds and beasts of the forest are all enchanted. 6:. The gopis said# 7The fame of Brndavana forest is spread over the entire earth. 4lacing on it their glor of the touch of )is lotus feet, Krishna en>o s pastimes in Brndavana. )earing the music of Krishna's flute, the peacoc"s and other forest creatures assemble together and dance. 5ndeed, the have transformed Brndavana forest into a great dancing arena.7 9;. The gopis also said#7 0e gopis have no power to describe the sacred glor of Brndavana forest. The peacoc"s and other creatures who reside in Brndavana forest, creatures who perform great pious deeds at ever moment, are worth of being worshiped b us gopis. 0e gopis are onl householders living in our houses. 0e do not live in Brndavana forest. 0e are ver wretched. ?f what good are we< The forest creatures can ga,e at Krishna as much as the li"e, but us gopis cannot even ga,e on )is shadow.7 91. ?n another da the does leave their mates and run to Krishna. $s was the previous verse, this verse is spo"en b a gopi# 7? gopi-friend, how wonderful this isA )earing the sweet music of Krishna's flute, the does have become enchanted. $bandoning their stag mates, the run to Krishna. 0ith sidelong glances the lovingl worship Krishna.7 9+. The gopis also said# 7& birth we are women. !an virtuous people honor us will all respect. ?ur husbands are famous in Bra>a for their sincere affection for Krishna. These does are not li"e us at all. $ccompanied b their husbands, the freel approach Krishna. Fie on us impious gopisA 5n no wa are we as fortunate as these does.7 9.. -eeing some birds attracted b Krishna's flute-music, the gopis said#

70e thin" the birds in this forest must be great sages and Krishna must be their guru. 5f this were not so, then wh would this birds silentl listen as Krishna pla s on )is flute<7 9/. 5n the following words the gopis describe these birds as sann asis# 7Krishna is a great sage in the center, and the birds around )im on all sides are also great sages. These bird-sages have no material desires.7 91. ?n another da some demigoddesses become attracted b the music of Krishna's flute. The gopis describe them in these words# 7$s the flew nearb in their airplanes, the goddesses were attracted b the music of Krishna's flute. Da,ing at the splendid charming handsomeness of Krishna's form, the were all enchanted. 2ever had the seen or heard of an one handsome li"e )im. $s the ga,ed at )im, their braids and all else became disheveled and undone. 0ere an of them not attracted<7 93. ?f these demigoddesses the gopis also said# These demigoddesses were completel enchanted b Krishna's flute-music. 0ho are we poor souls that we are so fortunate as to have ta"en birth as girls in Krishna's land of Bra>a<7 96. Krishna's flute music ma"es the unconscious beings and the beings whose consciousness is worthless attain full spiritual consciousness. These powerless beings then >ump over their previous unconscious state and being to move and wal". 99. 5n this verse the gopis describe the activities of the rivers when the hear Krishna's flute-music# 7)earing Krishna's flute-music, the rivers become stunned. 0ith blossoming currents and the >angling warbling of swans and other birds, the wild with bliss waves approach Krishna. 0ith the arms and hands of their waves the place a circle of lotus flowers at Krishna's feet.7 9:. ?f the rivers the gopis also said#7$hA $hA 5f, abandoning their courses, the rivers, who are all the ocean's wives, swiftl flow and meet Krishna, then what are we poor gopis in comparison to them< The must have performed man pious deeds. 0e are not their eFual in the slightest wa . That is wh it is right that we give up our bodies and thus renounce the happiness's and distresses of this world.7 :;. ?n another da the gopis describe the clouds with these words# 7The rain cloud is Krishna's friend. This is so not onl because the have the same dar" splendor, but also because the are ali"e in man other wa s and also because the alwa s help each other. Thus when Krishna pla s mallara-raga melodies on )is flute, the clouds come and shades )im from the burning sunlight.7 :1. The gopis also sa #7$haA *oo"A Even though it is ver cool, and even though sta s above all else, with great love in its heart the rain cloud carefull serves Krishna with its shade and its nectar rains. Fie on us wretched gopis ver proud of ta"ing shelter of Krishna alone and "eeping )im alone in our life's breathA 0e are wretched because, even without serving Krishna we somehow remain alive in this world.7 :+. $haA Even though it is made of roc"s, and even though it has ta"en

birth as a hill, Dovardhana is filled with bliss. This the gopis affirm in the following words# 7Dlorious Dovardhana )ill is the best of Krishna's servants. Krishna and &alarama climb it to pla their flutes on its summit. 0ith the touch of Krishna and &alarama's lotus feet, Dovardhana feels bliss and manifests man s mptoms of ecstas beginning with the standing erect of the blades of grass that are the hairs on its bod . 5ts entire bod it offers in the service of Krishna's friends and cows.7 :.. 75 have heard that the grass on its slopes are Dovardhana )ill's bodil hairs standing erect in ecstas . 5f ou do not believe that, then loo" for ourself. )earing the music of Krishna's flute, Dovardhana )ill glistens with ecstatic love. Krishna's footprints decorate Dovardhana )ill. =ertainl the bear witness to Dovardhana )ill's glor .7 :/. The gopis also said#7 5f one boldl earns to follow the path of the great souls, one should loo" and see that path is splendidl manifest on the slopes of Dovardhana )ill.7 :1. Thin"ing of the gopis, !adhu"antha was overcome. )is heart was agitated. )e spo"e bro"en words in a c cho"ed voice. )e covered his face with his garment. Filled with sorrow, he wept. Then he repeated the following m sterious words spo"en b 'adha# :3. 7This flute must have performed man pious deeds in its past lives, for even though he is male, he shamelessl drin"s the nectar of Krishna's lips, nectar that is the gopis' propert , and as it drin"s, the flute loudl sings. 0hen it is satisfied that it has drun" enough, the flute vomits out a host of noisil flowing rivers of nectar, rivers of nectar that ma"e the trees bloom with man flowers and weep with blissful tears of dripping hone .7 :6. 'adha also said# 75 pra that 5 ma attain the bod of a flute. 5 do not pra to attain the bod of a saintl teenage girl. $s a flute 5 will thirstil en>o man blissful rare pastimes of drin"ing the nectar of Krishna's lips. 5f, as a flute, 5 become an inanimate ob>ect, a being without life or consciousness, then at least 5 will be free of the sorrows 5 feel separated from Krishna.7 :9. 'adha also said# 7? shar" of Krishna's earrings, ou alwa s "iss Krishna's chee"s. ? flute, ou alwa s lic" Krishna's lips. ? flower-garland, ou alwa s embrace Krishna's bod . 8ou are all fortunate. %estin is "ind to ou. $lasA 5 am not fortunate. %estin is not "ind to !e. That is wh 5 earn to attain good fortune li"e ours.7 ::. 'adha also said#7 The nec"laces of pearls, diamonds, and >asmine flowers never leave Krishna's chest. 0hat are we in comparison to these fortunate beings. $las, we are onl girls overcome with Kamadeva's desires.7 1;;. 'adha again said# 75f dar" Krishna does not give )is association to others, then 5 will not burn in flames of sorrow. $lasA )ow can 5 bear to watch while Krishna fearlessl hugs )is gopa friends<7 1;1. 5n this wa Krishna's flute-music conFuered all the people of Bra>a and made them all fall in love with Krishna. 5n this wa 5 have described the pastimes of earl morning. Folding his palms, !adhu"antha again said# ?

'adha, no one can understand the desires in 8our beloved Krishna's heart. 1;+. The evening's narration was thus concluded. Ever one returned to their homes.

%wenty-thir" Purana %he &asa-'ance Be ins 1. $t the beginning of his description of the rasa-dance, the author (-rila Hiva Dosvami) spea"s the following vow and pra er# 5n this m poem 5 have boldl revealed the conversation *ord Krishna en>o ed with )is beloved gopis in a secluded place, a conversation that is a great secret, a conversation that is a whirlpool of nectar. 2o other narration is more glorious and e(alted. 2o other narration is better to be placed on the worth devotees' ears. %escribing *ord Krishna's nighttime pastimes, !adhu"antha spo"e to -nigdha"antha, whose voice was sweet with poetic words. Folding his palms, !adhu"antha began b sa ing, 7The rasa dance pastime too" its birth in the middle of the night. 2ow 5 will describe its cause, nature, and meaning.7 )earing these words, and loo"ing at !adhu"antha, ever one >o full said, 70ell spo"en. 8our words are glorious. These pastimes are a great flood of nectar. 5f ou stop our description in the middle and do not carr it to the end, then the flood of nectar will be stopped, chec"ed from reaching its highest point. Therefore, if ou will, please describe the entire pastime. %o not stop until ever thing is described.7 !adhu"antha >o full said# 0hen the rasa dance sought to ta"e its birth, -ri Krishna's face made the bewilderment of love grow ver strong within the moon-faced gopis. -ri Krishna's e es made restless movements manifest in the doe-e ed gopis' e es, and -ri Krishna's handsome form bro"e into pieces the peaceful composure that rested in the circle of slender and graceful gopis. 0hen the rasa dance sought to ta"e its birth, -ri Krishna's face became more charming than the moon, -ri Krishna's e es attracted the lotuse ed gopis, -ri Krishna's glorious handsomeness, which glistening dar" monsoon clouds earn to attain, brought the gopis delight from the first moment the were able to touch it, and -ri Krishna, who is more handsome and glorious even than *a"shmi's lover 2ara ana, became li"e an ornament gracing a great host of gopi-goddesses. $fter, b 4aurnamasi's arrangement, the pastime described in -rimad&hagavatam 1;.+1.16 (where some pulinda girls find -ri Krishna's footprints mar"ed with "un"uma from a gopi's breasts) was concluded,

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-ri Krishna became completel attracted to -ri 'adha. Thirsting after )er compan , )e thought, 7$hA )ow can 5 meet 'adha in a secluded place<7 & -ri 'adha's merc one of the pulinda girls, wandering in the forest and anointed with -ri 'adha's "un"uma, spo"e the following words to red-lotus-e ed -ri Krishna# 7? Krishna, 8ou defeated even Kamadeva, whose arrows bring so man sorrows. ? Krishna, 5 do not "now how 8ou create such melodies in 8our flute, which is, after all, onl a dr stic" pierced with man holes.7 Then the forest-goddesses spo"e the following words from the s" # 7Thin"ing 8our flute, a flute born in a glorious famil of bamboos, a flute that is a dr stic" pierced in man places b a hot iron rod, is his dear friend, in order to please 8ou, ? *ord Krishna, with his arrows Kamadeva now grievousl wounds a certain saintl gopi, a gopi whose bod is withered (because of separation from 8ou).7 0ildl wandering in the forest, forest-flower-garlanded -ri Krishna saw written in "un"uma on a dar" tamala tree the following words# 7Tormented b Kama's flames, m heart rapt in thin"ing of Krishna's glorious handsome form, and rapt in the sweet fragrant of love that flows from Krishna's flute, 5 see Krishna's dar" effulgence in ever direction. -omehow 5 must have attained Krishna. &ut then, 5 have not attained )im at all.7 -eeing these words, -ri Krishna thought, 74erhaps -ri 'adha wrote these words. &orn in a pious famil , -he carefull conceals the passionate love -he feels for !e. Therefore 5 will now ta"e shelter of ! flute music, music that will "ill 'adha efforts to conceal )er love.7 Tormented b the absence of the nectar that bears the name 'adha, Krishna could not be peaceful. $gain and again )e pla ed )is flute. Feeling a great thirst for the nectar 'adha, Krishna passed the monsoon season. )is thirst grew and grew. 5n this wa half the -arat season passed. !adhu"antha continued# Krishna's flute-music attracted -ri 'adha. -he became ver agitated. -he trembled. -he staggered as -he wal"ed. 'ising from )er sitting place, -he too" two or three steps. Then -he left the house. Then -he wal"ed far on the forest path. Filling ever direction, -ri Krishna's flute music attracted -ri 'adha. 5 bow m shoulders. The hairs of m bod stand erect with bliss. 5 alwa s offer m respectful obeisances to -ri 'adha and to -ri Krishna's flute, which again and again fulfill -ri Krishna's desire. 0hen the monsoon season came, -ri Krishna thirsted to test the power of )is flute music. )e waited for the right opportunit . 0hen )e saw the beautiful glor of the -arat season had come, )e thought, 75f saintl 'adha >oins ! associates in ! pastimes, then 5 will also attain a host of man beautiful gopis. $t the appropriate time 'adha will bring !e, who control all, under )er control. Then 5 will ga,e at )er, and -he will ga,e at !e. Thus 5 will bring 'adha under ! control. 5 will have the power to remove the anguish of separation -he feels. 5 will remove the obstacles

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that stand between -ri 'adha and !e. Thin"ing in this wa , and suddenl seeing an auspicious omen, -ri Krishna said, 7$hA 2ow something auspicious will come. Fate has placed before ! e es the sight of two "han>ana birds pla ing on a lotus flower. This means that the face of beautiful-e ed 'adha will soon come before !e. $fter seeing that auspicious omen, the flutist Krishna pla ed )is flute again and again for an entire month, beginning with the full-moon da . The sweet sound of Krishna's flute made the >asmine flowers burst into bloom in the -arat season. $gain and again ga,ing at the beautiful glistening nights, &alarama's brother, Krishna, decided to en>o amorous pastimes with the gopis. The pla ful full moon suddenl arrived to bring pleasure to -ri Krishna. Ta"ing )is cows with )im, forest-flower-garlanded Krishna, who en>o s pastimes in the forest, returned to Bra>a. $t sunset )e ascended the rooftop balcon and watched the sun set and the effulgent full moon rise. Embraced b feelings of ecstatic spiritual love, -ri Krishna thought# 75s that the rising circle of the moon, or is it a great circle of red "un"uma, or is it Kamadeva's face red with passionate anger< 75s that the moon anointed with red "un"uma nectar, or is it the face of -ri 'adha rising in the s" , -ri 'adha who has >ust come from the 8amuna's forests< *oo"ing at the moon, -ri Krishna thin"s, 7=ome from afar, and now rising in the east, the full moon, its face alwa s anointed with red "un"uma, on some prete(t teaches !e, a pla ful teenage bo , how to en>o amorous pastimes. This glistening moon now ma"es ever thing auspicious. -ri Krishna then imagined the moon spo"e to )im, sa ing, 75 am the moon. 5 delight the goddesses of the directions, who are m beloved consorts. 5 bring auspiciousness to the people.7 -ri Krishna then addressed the moon, 7? moon, wh do ou now ma"e obstacles for !e, the lover of the supreme goddess of fortune<7 -ri Krishna thought, 72ow destin is favorable. $uspicious moonlight fills the directions. & going southeast, 5 will attain auspiciousness. 75 see in direction after direction the moon fill the forest with delightful reddish light. This is an auspicious omen for !e. %estin will bring auspiciousness to !e. 7)owever, if this reddish moon is actuall the angr face of Kamadeva, whose arrows are ver powerful, then that is also an auspicious omen, an omen that will destro all ! fears. 775f the glorious effulgence that fills this forest actuall comes from -ri 'adha, then 5 will wal" in the direction of that effulgence. 5n that wa auspicious bliss will enter ! heart. 7$hA $s ! heart thin"s of going in that direction, ! right e e begins to tremble and seems almost to dance. From that auspicious omen 5 "now that 5 will soon dance with ! gopi beloveds.7 $fter thin"ing in this wa , intelligent -ri Krishna placed four cowherd

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bo s headed b %ama, and other cowherd bo s also, bo s blissful with a great wealth of spiritual love, bo s whose "insmen thought were sleeping in their homes, as guards at the entrances to the forest. Ta"ing )is flute with )im, -ri Krishna pla full wal"ed to a secluded place b the 8amuna's ban"s. 0hile going there, -ri Krishna thought, 7That (moon) cannot be the face of angr Kamadeva. 5t shines too brightl . 2either can it be the race of 'adha pining for !e, for it is mar"ed with dar" spots and other flaws.7 -ri Krishna again thought of the moon, 7To dispel the dar"ness of night, the moon has come. 'ising over the eastern mountain, the moon fills the whole world with a festival of >o . 75mitating -ri 'adha's face, the moon shines ver brightl . -till, if the moon onl pretends to be -ri 'adha's face, then wh is ! heart so overcome when 5 see it<7 5n )is thoughts, -ri Krishna said to the moon, 7! lord, ? moon with nectar ra s of light, do not be proud, thin"ing, '! glorious light has no peer in all the worlds.' $fter all, our moonlight is not in an wa eFual to the glorious effulgence of -ri 'adha's ten toenails.7 $s -ri Krishna thought in this wa , the four cowherd-bo guards wal"ed on the pathwa s to their stations. -ri Krishna )imself went to an elevated court ard in the eastern part of Bra>a. )e placed the flute to )is mouth. $s )e was about to pla , )e thought, 7First 0e should bring 'adha here. 5 see that without )er all is useless. 0hen -ri 'adha comes, the man other beautiful gopis will also come. This 5 "now in ! heart. )ow shall 5 ma"e certain that this auspicious event will occur< 78es. 8es. $s some are archer's e(pert at firing arrows, so 5 am e(pert at pla ing the flute. ! flute music will enter -ri 'adha and attract )er. There is no other wa . Thin"ing of this goal, 5 will pla on ! flute.7 5n that wa -ri Krishna thought. 5magining that )e saw the gopis illumined b the bright moonlight, -ri Krishna thought, 7? moon, ? master of the plants, ou onl torment troubled persons li"e !e. 8ou will not cure Gs of ?ur troubles.7 $t that moment, seeing the moon in a slightl different wa , Brinda-devi thought, 7$hA $hA =overed b the smo"e rising from the flames of the gopis' tears, gopis tormented b separation from Krishna, the blind moon is now dar", dar" li"e a smo"e-dar"ened mirror.7 The moon was soon overcome b the presence of a host of doe-e ed gopis. Then -ri Krishna, glorious li"e a sun with hundreds of ra s of light, was manifest in the east. The gopis were ver eager to see Krishna. The autumn moon cleared the beautiful-e e browed gopis' path to -ri Krishna. -riI Krishna's sweet flute-music at once attracted the gopis to )im. 0ith great love creating a great sweetness of man ragas and melodies, -ri Krishna pla ed glorious music on )is flute. The great love -ri Krishna felt manifested in )im the ecstatic s mptoms described in these words# Tears streaming from )is e es down )is nec",

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the hairs of )is bod erect, and )is bod trembling, -ri Krishna, overcome with feelings of separation from -ri 'adha, pla ed beautiful, sweet, auspicious melodies on )is flute. The raga -ri Krishna pla ed is described in these words# Entering the gopis' hearts, the raga -ri Krishna pla ed was li"e passionate spiritual love personified. 2o one had ever tasted an thing so sweet. Even nectar could not be compared to it. -ri Krishna's flute music became letters and words, words that said, 7? 'adha, ? girl whose face is li"e nectar from the nectar-effulgent moon, ? girl li"e a springtime madhavi-vine blossoming with a flood of sweetness, 5 love 8ou eternall , and 8ou eternall love !e. The thought of 8our glorious virtues ma"es ! heart burst with bliss.7 -ri Krishna, who is e(pert at pla ing flute melodies li"e fl ing arrows, and who is the best of the wise, aware that )e had, with the arrow of )is flute melod , perfectl wounded -ri 'adha's heart, proceeded to send flute-messages to the other gopis. )e pla ed a flute melod that became the following words# 7? gopis, please accept the sugar-cand of ! flute songs, cand that is ver difficult to attain. ? dear gopis, that ou have conFuered !e is ver embarrassing to !e. Therefore 5 reFuest that ou please be "ind to !e.7 0hen -ri Krishna, arra ed in ellow garments, pla ed melodies on )is flute, the melodies at once entered the gopis' ears. 'apt in thin"ing of those melodies, the gopis were ver strongl attracted. The were overcome. ?vercoming all obstacles, the gopis, ran and met Krishna. The stood before )im, face to face. 5t was not otherwise. 0ith glistening e es listening to -ri Krishna's flute-music, the gopis forgot their household duties. -urging rivers of tears flowing from their e es. the ran to glorious and effulgent -ri Krishna, the master of their lives. The glistening moon gave hundreds of sublime happiness's to the lotus flowers, lotus la"es, and lotus-e ed girls of Do"ula. -ome saintl gopis were forcibl stopped b their husbands. Those gopis also attained -ri Krishna's association. That is confirmed b the words of the sage -u"adeva. 5n his heart -nigdha"antha thought# 5n the 4adma 4urana, Gttara"handa, it is said some sages engaged in sadhana-bha"ti desired to become li"e the supreme goddesses of fortune who are -ri Krishna's wives and beloveds, goddesses who have -ri 'adha as their leader. $ttaining forms li"e those goddesses, the sages attained -ri Krishna's association. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;.+:.11) it is said# 7The gopis did not "now that Krishna is the -upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead. The accepted )im as a beautiful bo and considered )im to be their paramour. -o how was it possible for them to get freed from the material condition >ust b thin"ing of a paramour<7@ 2ow we will consider the answer to this Fuestion. 5n 4adma 4urana, Gttara-"handa, it is said# 7Those sages too" birth as girls in Do"ula.

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$ccording to their desire, the attained the association of -ri Krishna. & associating with )im, the attained liberation from the ocean of repeated birth and death.7 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;.....9) it is said# 7The gopis' husbands felt no >ealous or hatred for Krishna.7 )ere we ma note that these husbands were not at all aware of Krishna's activities. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;.3..1) it is said# 75n spite of being envious of Krishna, 4utana attained salvation because she gave her mil" to )im to drin".7@ 5n this wa the Fuestion raised in -rimad-&hagavatam 1;.+:.11 is answered. Thus it is seen that attracted to Krishna brings the greatest benefit. The gopis did not "now that -ri Krishna is the -upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead, the all-pervading -uper soul. $lthough at first the thought of )im as their paramour, in the end the thought of )im as their husband, >ust as 4utana at first thought to "ill Krishna, but at the end had the thoughts of Krishna's affectionate nurse. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;.+:.1.) it is said# 7-ishupala was alwa s envious of Krishna, and because of his env , Krishna "illed him. -ince Krishna is the -upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead, -ishupala gained salvation simpl b seeing )im. 5f an envious person can get salvation simpl b concentrating his mind on Krishna, then what to spea" of the gopis, who are so dear to Krishna and alwa s thin"ing of )im in love<7@ &ecause the are eternal associates of -ri Krishna and because their love for )im is ver great, the gopis are ver glorious and e(alted. -till, no one can sa that the eternall dear gopis' conception of -ri Krishna as their paramour in -ri Krishna's pastimes manifest (pra"ata) on this earth is a praiseworth conception. -ri 'adha and the other gopis are the eternal wives of -ri Krishna. Their conception of )im as their paramour is not at all praiseworth . )owever, their eternal love for )im bro"e apart the impediment that was their conception of )im as their paramour. Thus the Fuic"l understood that )e is their eternal husband. Thus other forms, forms as -ri Krishna's wives, waited for them in the future. $fter thin"ing these thoughts, -nigdha"antha said aloud, 7Then< Then<7 !adhu"antha said# 0hen the heard -ri Krishna's sweet flute-music call their names, the girls of Bra>a, their e ebrows gracefull curved, became >o ful. Their bodies blossomed with >o . -ri Krishna's sweet flute music had the power to arouse their amorous desires, wh would that flutemusic not have the power to ma"e the gopis blossom with >o < The gopis are described in the following song# sa-tvara-prasara-vat tv asattva-dhama-hayini sarva-gurv-aharya-kuta-varanati-yayini 0hen the gopis heard the sound of Krishna's flute, the Fuic"l left their lifeless homes. 0hen their elders bloc"ed the door, the left an wa .

natham ekam anv aneka-dara-sampad-arpini ogha-mogham anv ananta-bhakta-loka-tarpini Thin"ing Krishna her onl husband, each gopi offered )im opulence and happiness as if she were not one, but a host of wives. Each gopi pleased )im as if she were a limitless multitude of devoteeservants that eclipsed the ocean. lola-keshashaivalanci-karna-pura-cakrini pushpa-jata-nishprapata-shubhra-phena-cakrini 5n that ocean of gopis, the seaweed was curling loc"s of hair, the whirlpools were graceful earrings, and the white foam was flower-ornaments. ucchalan-navina-mina-netra-nira-gatrini agrimadhva-matra-patra-sammukhanuyatrini $s the ran on the path to meet Krishna, their limbs were currents of water and their e es were swimming oung fishes. manda-tala-bahu-nala-pani-padma-shalini accha-bala-kacchapanga-vatsa-janma-jalini The lotus flowers there were the gopis' hands and the lotus stems were their graceful arms. The beautiful oung turtles were their breasts. juti-duti-krit-katira-tira-dhira-gamini uru-bhuruhali-pata-samprapata-kamini 0ith Fuic"l moving hips the ran to the 8amuna's ban"s. The wished to enter the great forest. kanci-kanci-kankanadi-shinja-dambha-sanjini prayasas tu hamsa-sangha-shabditanu-ranjini Their tin"ling bracelets, bells, and other ornaments sounded li"e the warbling of swans. turna-turna-ghurnanadi-sankulanga-nartini purna-purna-bhava-gurna-jadya-jata-vartini Their frantic running was dancing. Their limbs were stunned with ecstatic love.

vesha-vastra-sannivesha-cancalatva-bhangini tat-tad-artha-vaiparitya-kari-vega-sangini 5n haste the put their garments and ornaments in the wrong places. yan-nimittam atma-sarva-sanga-bhanga-bhavini yatra sarva-nama-rupa-vismritish ca bhavini The bro"e all ties to their relatives at home. 5n the ecstas of love for Krishna, the forgot the names and forms of their relatives. shyama-dhama-sushthu-ramam etam atra sad-dhavam sindhu-tulyam uttarangad-angam ashu madhavam There was their eternal husband, Krishna, who was li"e a splendid dar" ocean with cresting waves. purva-purva-bhinna-yatir uttarapta-sangatih apagali-sammitapa seyam ali-samhatih The gopis were li"e man rivers meeting the ocean of Krishna. 19 and 1:. 5n a beautiful forest where the glorious 8amuna flows, a forest splendid with hosts of blossoming flowers, glorious with bees and cuc"oos, pleasant with fragrant bree,es, glistening in the moonlight, and filled with all spiritual virtues, the gopis assembled in a >ewel-mosaicpaved court ard. 0hen the ga,ed on -ri Krishna, who was pla ing man wonderful, colorful, and sweet melodies on )is flute, )is form glorious li"e a dar" monsoon cloud, )is garments beautiful li"e lightning, )is form glistening li"e a great >ewel, )is form li"e that of a splendid transcendental Kamadeva. 3;. The gopis surrounded Krishna on ever side. Their hearts earned to embrace )im. The loo"ed li"e golden flower-vines entwined around a dar" tamala tree. 31. $ccompanied b her friend the flood of sweet fragrance, the girlmessenger of -ri Krishna's flute-music respectfull invited the beautifule e browed gopis to meet with -ri Krishna. Traveling on a long path, the gopis were brought to Krishna. $gain and again the devotedl tasted the sweet nectar of )is handsomeness. $lthough the tasted it repeatedl , the never felt satiated. The never wished to stop tasting

3+. 3..

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that nectar. -plendid li"e man glistening moons garlanded with stars, the wide-e ed teen-age gopis stood before -ri Krishna, who was li"e a thirst ca"orabird ga,ing at them. Thirst Krishna then thought, 74a ing the price of ! outhful handsomeness, 5 will purchase the crown >ewels that are these girls, the most beautiful girls in the world. These girls are the medicine Kamadeva offers to sure ! troubles. The are glistening beams of moonlight glorious before the two ca"ora-birds of ! e es.7 Each gopi then thought, 7The arrow of -ri Krishna's glance has struc" the arrow of m glance and bro"en it into pieces. That arrow now flies into m heart to brea" apart the chariot of m desires that drive there.7 5n truth the two blac" bees of -ri Krishna's e es dallied for two or three moments amongst the flowering-vines of the gopis. Then those bees flew into the lotus forest of -ri 'adha. There the sta ed. -ri Krishna then thought, 7This girl is the beautiful glorious splendor of beautiful glorious splendor. -ri 'adha's beautiful e es now stand before ! e es.7 )er e es touched b the sight of -ri Krishna, -ri 'adha trembled. The sweet nectar of ecstatic spiritual love arose within )er. -he was tossed to and fro. -he glistened with the intense longing to attain Krishna. The following verse consists of a Fuestion and a repl # 4lease tell me li"e the tears now flowing from the two rising moons of -ri 'adha's e es< The floods of nectar flowing from the lotus-flowers in autumn are perhaps a little li"e them. -tanding before -ri Krishna and wild with delight b hearing )is eloFuent flute-music, the gopis abandoned all sh ness. -till, because the were born in saintl families, the bowed their heads and became silent. The were li"e sages following a vow not to spea". -ri Krishna stood amidst the gopis. 5nto(icated b -ri Krishna's sweet fragrance and the sweet nectar of )is flute-music, the gopis approached )im. 4la full smiling, -ri Krishna stood on the pathwa of their e es. $s were ordinar girls with impure thoughts, the gopis stood before )im. Eager to taste the nectar words that might come from the blossoming flowers of the eager gopis, -ri Krishna, spea"ing an appeal to them, agitated them greatl . -ri Krishna said to the gopis, 7? fortunate and glorious girls, ?ur meeting here is certainl auspicious. -till, 5 am curious to as" wh ou have come here. 8ou must have endured man troubles to come to this place. Therefore 5 place this Fuestion before ou# 0hat ma 5 do to please ou<7 The gopis did not understand -ri Krishna's purpose in spea"ing these words. $gain spea"ing >o"ing words that did not reveal )is true intent, -ri Krishna said# 7$lthough 5 as" Fuestions, ou, li"e silent sages, give no repl . 0h would ou householder ladies do an thing that would not bring

6/. 61. 63.

66.

69. 6:.

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auspiciousness to our homes and families in Bra>a<7 $s the gopis loo"ed at each other with smiling e es, -ri Krishna said to them, 75 am not able to understand our purpose in coming here. 4lease cast awa all sh ness and tell it to !e.7 -eeing the gopis were still too sh to spea", -ri Krishna spo"e the following words, words with a double meaning# 74lease tell !e wh ou have abandoned our household duties. 5 do not understand that. 0ith eager hearts please return to Bra>a Billage. This forest is ver fearsome. This night is ver fearsome. 8ou are surrounded b man fearsome wild creatures.7 )ere the sentence 74lease returns to Bra>a Billage7 ma also be interpreted 74lease do not (na) return to Bra>a Billage7. 5n this wa these words have a double meaning. Then -ri Krishna again spo"e these words, which also have a double meaning# 74ious girls li"e ou should not be so independent, independent li"e prostitutes. $fter ou, ou certainl have mothers, fathers, brothers, husbands, and man other "insmen.7 Then, with a >o"ing smile, -ri Krishna also said# 75 have heard that ou have man children.7 Then -ri Krishna thought, 7The proper understanding of these pastimes is found in the conversation of Brinda and 4aurnamasi, where it is said (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;....+3)# 'Krishna recited various "inds of poetr . )e thus en>o ed the compan of the gopis in the soothing moonlight of autumn. -e( desire is especiall e(cited in the autumn season, but the wonderful thing about Krishna's association with the gopis is that there was no Fuestion of se( desire. The se( impulse was completel controlled.'@ -pea"ing of the obstacles that stood before the gopis, 5 will now spea" clever and pla ful >o"ing words.7 These were -ri Krishna's thoughts. 5n order to en>o pastimes with the gopis, -ri Krishna pla ed )is flute. 2ow -ri Krishna, the crest->ewel of rasi"as, stood before the gopis. The gopis were convinced that -ri Krishna was their husband. ?nl in the tal" of other people was an other idea manifested. The gopis desired -ri Krishna's association, and the association of no one else. The considered the association of an other male an abomination. 5n this wa it is proved that the gopis were completel pure. The thought of -ri Krishna their husband. The did not thin" of )im as their paramour. The gopis had no children of their own. )owever, out of affection, the considered the children of their brothers-in-law to be li"e their own children. The idea that the gopis had children e(isted onl e(ternall . 0hen it was spo"en of, it was spo"en onl as a >o"e. $lthough their "insmen were blind to the gopis' actions, the gopis feared their "insmen would be at that moment searching to find them. 5n this connection, -ri Krishna said to them, 70h do ou fear<7 5n this sentence the compound-word 7tat-tad-bha am7 ma be interpreted as either a shashthi or a pancami tatpurusha-samasa. Te(ts 66 and 69 ma be considered in two wa s# as divided ("handam)

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or as undivided (a"handam). This passage ma be divided into two parts. The first part presents the conception of the gopis as unmarried girls. This is seen in the passage ending with the word 7saha>ah7 (brothers). 5n the second part the faint conception of the gopis as married women is seen in the passage ending with the words 7shru ante tanu>ah7 (5 heard that ou have children). This passage ma also be considered as not bro"en (a"handam) into two parts. This conception is supported b the words 7sarvah prati7 (to all the gopis). Then, pla ing with the meanings of words, -ri Krishna made the gopis' hearts and minds swa to and fro, as if the were riding on a swing. )e said to them, 7$s ou can see this forest is worshiped b the glistening autumn season and b wonderful hosts of flowers. The moon anoints this forest with splendid moonlight. The 8amuna ma"es this forest dance with the pleasant bree,es that flow over its waters. The demigods have placed here all the ingredients needed for ?ur pastimes. -till, if ou do not >oin these pastimes, none of these arrangements will be glorious. Then none of them will be worth of praise. 70hether destin brings auspiciousness or troubles, ou should alwa s perform our famil duties. 8ou should devotedl serve our husbands and ou should also protect and maintain our children, calves, and other dependents. This the scriptures teach. 7=ontinue performing our prescribed duties, even in difficult situations. Then, when ou attain the final fruit of all our pious deeds, ou ma enter the realm of ! blissful pastimes. 5f ou do not wish to enter that realm, then ou should still enter this forest place glistening in the moonlight. 5n this place ou ma perform austerities and pra to attain whatever it is that ou desire.7 Then, as if thin"ing for a moment, -ri Krishna paused and said, 7$hA 5 did not understand. 4lease understand ! situation and forgive all ! senseless tal"ing. ?vercome b the desire to attain amorous pastimes, ou all have come to this place. Gnder this circumstance our great affection for !e is certainl proper. 7The love ou feel for !e is ! presence is not as great as the love 8ou feel when ou pine for !e in ! absence. Therefore, to feel this greatest love ou should now all return to our homes. That is the right thing for ou to do. 75f ou thin" sta ing far awa from !e would not increase our love for !e, then perhaps man obstacles standing in the wa of ?ur meeting would increase our love, for then ou would alwa s pra to attain ! compan .7 For a long time the gopi had earned to attain Krishna. Then the were called b Krishna's flute. 2ow the felt as if the were suddenl bro"en into pieces. 0hen the heard these teasing words from their beloved, the gopis could not decide, 75s Krishna teasing us, or not<7 $t that moment the >angling ornaments decorating the motionless gopis' waists became suddenl silent.

:+. Tormented b the feverish heat of their beloved Krishna's words of re>ection, the lotus flowers of the gopis' hearts began to melt. From those lotus flowers again and again streamed a flood of lotus nectar that, 5 thin", onl pretended to be a torrent of tears. :.. The gopis then thought, 74erhaps we should give up our lives, or perhaps we should fall to the ground before dear Krishna's feet, or perhaps we should be angr with )im, or perhaps we should re>ect )im and return to our homes, or perhaps we should drown ourselves in the 8amuna's dar" waters. Then again, perhaps we should not do an of these things. 4erhaps we should onl see" vengeance b beating on the forehead of harsh and cruel Krishna.7 :/. The gopis were tormented b headaches. Tears flowed down their nec"s. Their hearts greatl trembled. Ever part of their bodies was overcome with the s mptoms of ecstatic love. $s if to attac" and chase awa their cruel beloved, the surrounded )im. Kindness manifest in words from -ri Krishna's mouth was the onl thing that could protect them now. :1. $ night of dar"-colored tears flowed from the gopis' mascara-anointed e es and onto the sunset of the gopis' red-"un"uma-anointed breasts. -ri Krishna then became li"e a glistening full-moon surrounded b a dar"night of gopis, their sh faces downcast. :3. -ighs brea"ing though their charming lips, the petal toes of their lotus feet scratching the ground, and the archer's bows of their e ebrows now bent, the gopis wounded -ri Krishna with the arrow-glances that flew from their e es. :6. $s from a bro"en-open pomegranate man red seeds are manifest, so from the gopis' hearts were now manifest the perfection of their ecstas of love for -ri Krishna. 0ith affectionate words anointed with graceful eloFuence, the gopis e(pressed their doubts. Even toda is sung the song the gopis then sang. :9. $ Son ( imam iva ma kuru punar ativadam bhakta-janan bhaja, muhur itarams tyaja, vibhur iva rahita-vivadam ('efrain) ? Krishna, don't spea" harsh words. )onor 8our devotees. Turn awa from the nondevotees. $s the all-powerful -upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead does, please shun harsh words. pati-putradika,-bhajanam ihadhikam, iti yam vadasi vicaram sa tvayeva hi, tishthatu na tu bahir, iti vimrishamah saram 8ou e(press 8our opinion that service to husband and children and others li"e them is the highest dut for us. 0e thin" the highest dut is this# $ person who sta s alwa s rapt in thin"ing of 8ou does not reside in this e(ternal material world.

::. 5n this wa , the both of them spea"ing words with double meanings, -ri Krishna and the gopis praised each other. 1;;. -ri Krishna said, 75f ou found happiness in our husbands, children, and others li"e them, then the saintl devotees would be pleased. -till, somehow ou girls do not place our desires in our husbands and children.7 1;1. )ere -ri Krishna spea"s words with a double meaning, The words not (na hi) ma refer to the gopis' absence of desire, or it ma also refer to -ri Krishna's forbidding the gopis to desire other things. 1;+. The gopis said, 7? "ing of the eternals, ? "ing of the philanthropists, please fulfill 8our desire. 4lease give happiness to us beautiful girls. 4lease don't throw obstacles in the wa of our en>o ing amorous pastimes with 8ou.7 1;.. 5n this stan,a the upasarga 7anu7 in the word 7anuvardha a7 ma be understood either in the sense of 7fulfilling7 or 7cutting into pieces.7 (Translator's note# Thus the sentence ma be either 74lease fulfill our desire7 or 74lease cut into pieces our desire for an thing but 8ou7.) 1;/. The gopis said, 7?ur hearts find happiness in our household duties. -till, our hearts do not become rapt in thin"ing of those duties. 2ow that we have approached 8our feet, we cannot return to our homes.7 1;1. 5n this stan,a the word 7su"ha-tanu7 ma be an ad>ective modif ing either 7bhavata7 or 7cittam7. The words 7api naddham7 ma mean either 7bound7 or 7unbound7, the word 7na7 ma be used in the sense of 7not7 or it ma be used as a prohibition, and the word 7"ila7 ma be used to mean 7certainl 7 or 7not in truth7. 1;3. The gopis said, 7? master of 8our gopa friends, if 8ou do not, with the running streams of nectar flowing from 8our nectar lips, e(tinguish the flames of passionate love that burn within us, then those flames will certainl leap out and touch 8ou, and then 8ou will also burn with those flames.7 1;6. 5n this stan,a the word 7sva-bhava7 ma mean either 7amorous desire7 or 7self-manifest7. The word 7madrisham7 ma mean either 7people li"e us7 or 7for 8our own sa"e7. 1;9. The gopis said, 7$hA 8our feet delight *a"shmi-devi and bring auspiciousness to the 4ulindi girls. -till, when we see or touch 8our feet, the whole world becomes our enem .7 1;:. 5n this stan,a the word 7apasav a7 means 7pratu"ula7. )ere either of the two meanings of prati"ula ma be accepted. 5n the statement about the 4ulindi girls, the gopis manifest their humbleness. 11;. The gopis said, 7Doddess *a"shmi, who came to see 8ou, was seen in a Tulasi forest in Bra>a. Even though her heart is dedicated to her husband, she still earns, ? Krishna, to bathe in the dust of 8our footprints.7

111. The gopis said, 7Doddess *a"shmi and her companions ma have been seen, but in our hearts we do not desire to see either her or her entourage.7 11+. )ere the word 7api7, as before, ma be understood either as a plaintive appeal or as a word of prohibition. 11.. The gopis said, 7? Krishna, ? destro er of sufferings, please be merciful to us that we ma become passionatel attached to 8our feet. 4lease ma"e us become devoted to 8ou. 4lease ma"e our hearts become filled with wonder at the sight of 8our smiling glance.7 11/. This stan,a has no double meanings. 111. The gopis said, 7? Krishna, whose face is surrounded b curl loc"s of hair, whose earrings are glorious, whose e es are decorated with smiles, and whose glorious chest and arms bring fearlessness, we are 8our maidservants.7 113. )ere the word 7api7 has two meanings, as before. 116. The gopis said, 7? Krishna, hearing 8our beautiful flute-music, the trees, and their new sprouts standing erect, manifest s mptoms of ecstas . ? *ord, if even the trees manifest these s mptoms of ecstas , how much more will the girls of Bra>a feel the ecstas of love as the listen to the music of 8our flute<7 119. 5n this stan,a the word 7"a7 is used either in the sense of 7how much more<7 or in the sense of prohibition. 11:. The gopis said, 7? Krishna whose pastimes remove Bra>a's fears, 8ou must be some glorious demigod. 4lease, even if onl b accident, place 8our hand on the heads of us, 8our maidservants.7 1+;. 5n this stan,a the word 77no7 ma be interpreted to mean 7no7 or 7of us7. 5nterpreted in the second wa , it stands in apposition to 7maidservants7. 1+1. -ri Krishna was unmoved b the gopis' sorrowful laments. Then 'adha fired at )im an arrow-glance from the bending bows of )er e ebrows. 1++. 2ow -ri Krishna was agitated. Kindl )e smiled. )is face was cheerful. 2ow )e revealed )is secret. 5t shone with glistening light. 2ow, to begin )is pastimes, &alarama's powerful but soft-hearted ounger brother, -ri Krishna forcibl drew each one of )is gopi beloveds to )is side. 1+.. $s a povert -stric"en man remains unsatisfied even after attaining great wealth, so -ri Krishna remained unsatisfied even after touching the gopis' fingers, hands, forearms, and arms. 1+/. $lthough 'adha was hidden, surrounded b man thousands of gopis, -ri Krishna clearl saw )er. -he was li"e a crescent moon surrounded b a host of stars. 1+1. 0hen -ri Krishna touched )er, -ri 'adha, splendid li"e a crescent moon, became filled with wonder. 1+3. The gopis embraced -ri Krishna, and -ri Krishna embraced -ri 'adha. The pla full >o"ed and smiled. The were filled

with bliss. $s the various bhavas (ecstasies) culminate in stha i-bhava, so the gopis' past pious activities and fervent desires in their previous births now brought them to meet -ri Krishna in )is pastimes. 1+6. -h l glancing at Krishna, the forest-flower-garlanded gopis >o"ed amongst themselves, sa ing, 7Timid girls become afraid when glistening lightning pla s with a dar" monsoon cloud. ? gopi friends, wh do ou smile and >o"e< %o ou not see the great wonder of monsoon cloud and lightning that stands before us<7 1+9. The impersonalist atmarama sages renounced the bliss of &rahman reali,ation when the smelled the sublime fragrance of -ri Krishna. Dlorious -ri Krishna, who is alwa s filled with bliss, now en>o ed blissful pastimes with the gopis. 1+:. &ringing his description to its conclusion, !adhu"antha said# ? 'adha, at that moment 8our gopi friends glanced at 8our face. 0ith their own e es the saw the e(alted nectar pastimes 8ou en>o ed at that moment.

%wenty-fourth Purana Sri &a"ha-saubha ya-shravana-saubha yam %he Goo" !ortune of Sri &a"ha 1. -nigdha"antha said# 5t is briefl said in -rimad-&hagavatam# 7$s the moon, graceful with blac" mar"s resembling a deer, is surrounded b a host of stars, so magnanimous, infallible Krishna, the splendor of )is >asmine-flower teeth glistening in )is broad smiles, was surrounded b man gopis, their faces blossoming with affectionate glances.7 +. The first line of this stan,a is, with its literar ornaments, described in the following words. 0hen beloved Krishna's hand touched them, the gopis thought this must be Krishna's hand. Then the clearl saw Krishna standing before them. .. The second line is described in these words# 0ith unblin"ing e es millions of gopis ga,ed at their beloved Krishna. The were ver glorious. =asting pure nectar glances, Krishna e(panded into man forms. 0ho can describe )is pastimes< /. $s a lion casts a bac"ward glance (simhavalo"a-n a a) the second and third lines of the stan,a are described in these words# From direction after direction the gopis ga,ed at Krishna. Krishna ga,ed bac" at ever gopi. $t the same moment the two e es of Krishna ga,ed at the two e es of each gopi. These were Krishna's activities. 1. The second half of the stan,a is described in these words# The poets sa Krishna was li"e a moon shining among the man stars of the gopis.

-miling, splendid, pla ful Krishna and the gopis were more glorious than the moon and the stars. 3. Then, e(pertl spea"ing man >o"ing words, Krishna boldl and forcibl en>o ed pastimes with the gopis. The gopis' bodices and other garments were now in disarra . -miling and tears of bliss in )is e es, Krishna ga,ed at the gopis' bodies. 5n this wa )e en>o ed pastimes. 6. 5n this wa Krishna felt great bliss. 0ith )is glorious handsomeness )e passionatel attracted the gopis to come with )im into the forests b the 8amuna's ban". 9. Ho ful Krishna pulled the gopis to )is right side. The were li"e glistening moons at )is side. :. Krishna en>o ed pastimes of touching the outhful gopis, who followed )im, left )im, and, filled with passionate desires, secretl met )im again in secluded places. 1;. -ee"ing happiness's unattainable in an other wa , all-glorious forest flower-garlanded Krishna wandered in a beautiful forest filled with delicate glorious flowers and restless fl ing blac" bees. 11. Krishna and the gopis sang man songs. The could see each other's spiritual glories. The became the glorious blissful abode of the heart's desires fulfilled. Kisses, embraces, and all that follow brought hundreds of thousands of blisses to Krishna and the gopis. 1+. -rila -u"adeva Dosvami gives the following description (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;.+:.//)# 7-inging songs, glorified in song, wearing a vai>a anti garland, leading hundreds of beautiful gopis, and decorating the forest with )is glories, Krishna wandered in the forest.7 1.. The songs Krishna and the gopis sang are described b -ri 4arashara !uni in these words (Bishnu 4urana)# 7Krishna sang songs glorif ing the moon, the moonlight, and the lotus la"e. The gopis sang Krishna's names again and again.7 1/. Krishna and the gopis sang# vidhur ayam agatavan sharadam prati samprati itavan vidhur atha na hi bhavatih prati madhava jaya gokula-vira jaya jaya krishna hare 7The moon has entered the autumn season. -till, the moon has not approached ou.7 7? !adhava, all glories to 8ouA ? hero of Do"ula, all glories to 8ouA ? Krishna, ? )ari, all glories to 8ouA7 11. kumudakara-calanam na bhaved iti seyam kaumudikagad idam unneyam keshava jaya sharma-sharira jaya jaya krishna hare 7The moon cannot personall come here, so the

brilliant moonlight has come in its place.7 7? Keshava, all glories to 8ouA ? handsome Krishna, all glories to 8ouA ? )ari, all glories to 8ouA7 13. kusuma-vani madhupair iyam ancati kantim mama bhavatishu prathataytu kantim shyamala jaya harda-sharira jaya jaya krishna hare 7This beautiful flower-garden filled with bumblebees has aroused ! desire for ou.7 7? dar"-comple(ioned Krishna, all glories to 8ouA ? %eit of amorous love, all glories to 8ouA ? Krishna, ? )ari, all glories to 8ouA7 16. pushpita-kunja-caye vrindacita-shobha bhavad-anugataye kila krita-lobha mohana jaya samvidi dhira jaya jaya krishna hare 7Brinda-devi has made these flower groves ver beautiful. 5 earn to follow ou into these groves.7 7? charming *ord, all glories to 8ouA ? hero in the arts of amorous love, all glories to 8ouA ? Krishna, ? )ari, all glories to 8ouA7 19 and 1:. The songs of Krishna and the teenage gopis are described in the following confidential words spo"en b -rila -u"adeva Dosvami (-rimad&hagavatam 1;.+:./1-/3)# 75n this wa both the *ord and the gopis reached the cool sand ban" of the 8amuna where there were lilies and lotus flowers. 5n such a transcendental atmosphere, both the gopis and Krishna began to en>o one another. 0hile the were wal"ing on the ban" of the 8amuna, Krishna would sometimes put )is arms around a gopi's head, breast, or waist. 4inching one another and >o"ing and loo"ing at one another, the en>o ed. 0hen Krishna touched the bodies of the gopis their lust to embrace )im increased. The all en>o ed these pastimes.7@ +;. The glorious gopis' desire to en>o with passionate Krishna did not become slac"ened as The wandered and wandered in the forest. +1. $s the gopis' passion did not slac"en, Krishna glanced at the 8amuna, flowing as it moved the hands that were its waves. Krishna also glanced at the sand riverban", which glistened gloriousl as if its sand were splendid waves of cooling camphor. %a after da )e had seen both river and riverban". ++. The all-glorious full moon beautifull shone on the sand riverban". The splendor was almost too much for the e es to bear. +.. The sand riverban" was beautiful as if it had been painted on canvas b an e(pert artist's brush. There fragrant lotus bree,es blew from the 8amuna.

+/. Dlancing at this beautiful scene, Krishna e(panded into man forms. -tanding beside each gopi, )e en>o ed man pastimes. $ small part of this great secret is revealed here. +1. The amorous pastimes of Krishna and the gopis are described in these words# Krishna e(tended )is arms to embrace the gopis, but )e could not embrace them for long. 0h was that< )e was so overcome with bliss )e no longer had firm control over )is arms. +3. Krishna and )is gopi beloveds had no power to stop embracing each other. The were li"e a tree and a flowering vine. The tree and vine have no power to abandon their embrace. +6. $s The wandered from place to place, Krishna and )is gopi beloveds passionatel embraced. ?vercome with intense pleasure from those embraces, Krishna and the gopis fell unconscious. ?nl Their intense desire to en>o more amorous pastimes revived them. Thus The became li"e sleepers becoming again awa"e. +9. Then one gopi, as she withdrew to a secluded place, tugged -ri Krishna's hand. ?n the prete(t of reciprocating that aroused gopi's touch, -ri Krishna touched )er also. +:. -ri Krishna said to another gopi, 70h do 8ou hide 8our face< 2one of 8our gopi friends followed 8ou here. $hA 5s that a swarm of blac" bees about 8our face<7 -pea"ing these words, -ri Krishna, on the prete(t of wiping awa a swarm of blac" bees, stro"ed the blac" hair of that gopi's head. .;. $gain and again )is attempts to touch another gopi were re>ected. -till, infallible Krishna touched that gopi's belt. Fearless supplicants are seen to act in that wa . .1. Embarrassed, another beautiful gopi tried to tightl cover )erself with )er garments. Krishna's hand -he pushed awa . -till, on the prete(t of wiping dust awa , Krishna touched )er bodice. .+. 7? girl with the restless e es, 5 see that 8our blossoming breasts cannot bear even the slightest gentlest touch. The touch of ! talon fingernails will bring no pain to 8our breasts.7 -pea"ing these words, -ri Krishna smiled. ... -ri Krishna became li"e a blac" bee drawn to the lotus flower of another gopi's face. )e became li"e a lion poised to attac" the elephant's bulging forehead of that gopi's breasts. To arouse that gopi's amorous desires, were Krishna's actions not right< ./. 5n his boo" the sage 4anini affirms that right actions, which are fit sub>ects for discussion, are of one "ind, and wrong actions, which are not fit for discussion, are of two "inds. .1. The gopis began to thin" their beloved Krishna, who is the most e(alted of all persons, was subordinate to them and under their control. The became ver proud. $s citi,ens flee from a countr where man different proud "ings vie for power, so Krishna fled from the gopis. )e disappeared from their sight. .3. Krishna thought, 7The have forgotten that 5 am supreme. 5 am the

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supreme en>o er. -till these gopis thin" the are not different from !e. Even 'adha thin"s -he is eFual to !e. -he thin"s -he is the crest >ewel of all goddesses. -till, 'adha has come here to fulfill ! desire. $hA 2ow will be a great festival to please !e. ?n this glorious full-moon autumn night the nectar of the rasa dance will soon manifest its full and perfect glor . The nectar of the rasa-dance will now reveal the true glor of these gopis. &ecause these glorious gopis are proud, 5 will be a little indifferent to them. 5n this wa 5 will transform them into ! maidservants. Ta"ing all-glorious 'adha with !e, 5 will disappear.7 Thin"ing in this wa , and acting to arrange certain events in the future, to each gopi beloved, each gopi beloved now languid in hand, foot, and other limb, -ri Krishna said, 7%rawn b the >ingling of our an"lets, here 5 stand, though we should not sta here long. 8earning to en>o pastimes with ou, 5 followed ou, but 5 thin" ou are now fatigued. 5 eagerl searched for ou. 2ow is not the time for ou to be fatigued.7 $fter spea"ing these words, -ri Krishna suddenl disappeared. $ccompanied b -ri 'adha, )e Fuic"l departed. $fter a moment the felt Krishna's absence to be unbearable. Each gopi stood up wandered here and there searching for Krishna. -ingling and in pairs, the graduall met each other. Tal"ing amongst themselves, the vowed to find Krishna. Doing here and there, the searched for the path Krishna had ta"en. Dathering together, the gopis thought of searching for their beloved Krishna. $lasA The had no power to find him. %istressed, the gopis were rapt in thin"ing of Krishna. !editating in this wa , each gopi thought the other gopis were in truth *ord Krishna. Thin"ing this, the gopis embraced each other. ?verwhelmed with love for Krishna and the thirst to attain Krishna, the gopis thought the had become *ord Krishna, the protector of all. -omehow the gopis returned to e(ternal consciousness. To protect their lives, the sang the glories of *ord Krishna's pastimes, beginning with )is childhood pastimes. ?vercome with love for )im, the hugged each other. *onging to find Krishna, and wandering here and there, the gopis as"ed Fuestions of the trees and vines. The gopis acted li"e madwomen. Filled with thoughts of Krishna, and singing songs glorif ing )is pastimes, the gopis were overcome with love for Krishna. Then a great wonder fell upon them. ?vercome with thoughts of )im, each fair-limbed gopi thought she had become dar" Krishna )imself. -a ing, 7Even now 5 thin" of )im. Thin"ing of )im, 5 feel that ma heart burns in flames of sorrow.7, ah, ah, the gopis, overwhelmed with feelings of separation from *ord Krishna, as"ed Fuestions of the trees. The said, 7$h, Krishna has bro"en m heart.7 The sang man songs. !an fears maddened their hearts. Then the imitated the ferocious horrible demons.

/1. 5n this wa the gopi became rapt in thin"ing of these pastimes of *ord Krishna. $pproaching each other, the as"ed man Fuestions. Then the slowl departed from that place. 'apt in as"ing Fuestions, the departed. /3. Thin"ing the trees filled with blooming flowers were moc"ing them and laughing, and the trees with bowed-down branches were turning proudl turning their faces awa from them, and the trees covered with bu,,ing bees were angril critici,ing them, the gopis as"ed them about Krishna and then Fuic"l departed. /6. Then the gopis as"ed Fuestions of the earth, sa ing, 7? earth, what austerities did ou perform to attain the touch of -ri )ari's feet< 5s it because *ord Trivi"rama stepped on ou or because and *ord Baraha hugged ou that the bladesJ of grass that are the hairs of our bod stand now erect with bliss< /9. 7&ecause ou are "nown as '4rithvi' (the e(pansive one) and 'Kshama' (the all-tolerant one), and because the touch of -ri Krishna's feet fills ou with bliss, we approach ou to as" for news of Krishna.7 /:. $s the wandered here and there, as"ing Fuestions of the trees and other beings, the gopis hugged -ri Krishna's fragrance carried b a bree,e, a bree,e, a bree,e li"e the life's breath of all the worlds. 0ith wise and affectionate hearts, -ri 'adha's gopi-friends approached a doe. Filled with love and >o , the gopis acted in a wonderful wa . 1; and 11. The gopis said to a doe (-rimad-&hagavatam 1;..;.11-1+), 75t appears that Krishna, who is the -upreme 2ara ana )imself, must have passed through this wa along with )is companion *a"shmi, the goddess of fortune. ?therwise, how is it possible that the aroma of )is garland, which is smeared with the red "un"uma from the breast of the goddess of fortune can be perceived in the bree,e blowing here< 5t appears that The must have passed through here and touched our bodies, and thus ou are feelings so pleasant and are loo"ing toward us with s mpath . 0ill ou "indl , therefore, inform us which wa Krishna has gone< Krishna is the well-wisher of Brindavana. )e is as "ind to ou as to us. Therefore after leaving us )e must have been present in our compan . ? fortunate trees, we are thin"ing of Krishna, the ounger brother of &alarama. 0hile passing through here, with one hand resting on the shoulder of the goddess of fortune and the other hand whirling a lotus flower, )e must have been ver pleased to accept our obeisances, and )e must have glanced at ou with great pleasure.7@ 1+. The first three lines of these two stan,as ma be paraphrased, 7? ou with glorious e es, li"e us human girls ou have also ta"en shelter of the land of Brindavana. 8ou are happ in the same wa we human girls are happ . Therefore we are not unli"e each other. 0e are friends.7 0ith hearts glistening with >o , the gopis spo"e these words. Then the gopis said the word 7pri a a7, which here means, 7*ord Krishna was embraced b )is most-glorious beloved.7 Then the gopis spo"e the word 7drisham7, which here means, 70hat has come before us< The sight of the

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handsomeness of 8our bod fills our e es with the most sublime bliss.7 2e(t, the reason wh these amorous pastimes are glorified is given in the passage beginning with the word 7"anta7. The passage beginning with the word 7"unda-sra>ah7 means, 7The >asmine-garland worn b *ord Krishna, the tila"a mar"ing of the ro al d nast of Do"ula, has a sweet fragrance unattainable in an other place, a sweet fragrance swiftl carried b the bree,e. 0hat is that garland's nature< &ecause of the supreme spiritual purit of *ord Krishna's gopi-beloved and because *ord Krishna )imself earns to attain it, that garland is the abode of sublime spiritual glor . &ecause it is touched b the limbs of *ord Krishna's gopibeloved, that garland is smeared with the "un"uma that anointed that gopi's breasts. &ecause it alwa s embraces that gopi's breast, that garland is gloriousl fragrant. This we "now for certain. From the sight of *ord Krishna, >o was born. 2ow, from *ord Krishna's absence, the thirst to attain )im became manifest. The gopis thought Krishna and )is gopi-beloved must have met. The gopi then >o full offered respectful obeisances to these particular pastimes of *ord Krishna. Thin"ing the great and graceful trees bowed down with man leaves and flowers were li"e menservants in *ord Krishna's palace, the gopis offered respectful obeisances, and then, spea"ing the passage beginning with the words 7bahum7, proceeded to describe man of *ord Krishna's pastimes. The udasina (neutral) gopis said, 74lease as" these vines# 4reviousl , when the were embraced b the trees, the did not burst into blooming flowers. &ut now, b the touch of 4utana's enem Krishna, the are suddenl covered with blossoming flowers. This shows the wonderful power of Krishna's fingernails and toenails. $t this the gopis were filled with wonder. Then, -ri Krishna's supremel graceful and glorious lotus-footprints were scattered before the unbelieving e es of these and the other gopis. -eeing these footprints, the gopi made the following con>ecture# 7$cting li"e a silent sage, the earth gave no repl . The earth paused, thought, and then, b revealing Krishna's footprints bearing the flag, lotus, and other auspicious mar"s, wrote the words, 'Krishna came this wa .'7 $ little further on another set of footprints was manifested beside the first. The gopis then saw another set of footprints. -tep b step, these prints were different than the first. The were smaller and made a more gentle depression. The were not as narrow at the e(tremities. The were mar"ed with the flag and other auspicious mar"s. The were at the left of the first set of footprints. The gopis thought 7)ere Krishna's footprints are mingled with the footprints of some doe-e ed gopi. 0h were )er footprints not here before< Krishna must have held )er to )is chest, carried )er, and set )er down in this place. $mong all the thieves in this world, Krishna is

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famous as the most e(pert thief that steals the most precious treasure. 7?n the left and right this couple's footprints touch. 5 thin" The must have wal"ed with Their arms about each other's shoulders. )earing these words of the sadharani gopis, 'adha's gopi-friends again spo"e, 7*i"e two wild elephants The must have en>o ed man glorious pastimes That festival of unchained wild pastimes in this secluded forest place nourishes the bliss we feel now.7 Then 'adha's gopi friends again said, 70e must understand that this particular gopi must have served Krishna with greater affectionate love than ourselves. &ecause of this, although )e has left us, )e could not leave )er compan . )e has ta"en )er along with )im.7@ This verse ma be e(plained in the following words# 5n this verse the word 7ana a7 means 7b a supremel moral girl7. 7ishvarah7 means 7)e who is the master of the eternal spiritual potenc and is the master who accepts the devotional service offered b the devotees7, and 'aradhitah7 means 7worshiped in a wa that never ends and can never be stopped.7 This ishvara is not a mere demigod. )e is -ri )ari, the master of di"palas that control the directions. This ishvara is neither the destro er -iva nor the creator &rahma. *ord )ari is sva am bhagavan, the -upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead from whom all avataras are manifest. 5t is not otherwise. *ord )ari (Krishna) is not )imself e(panded from an other form of Dodhead. The wonderful features of *ord Krishna are causeless. The have no origin. !anifesting the splendor of )is spiritual Fualities and handsome spiritual form, -ri Krishna forcibl enters ever person's heart. )e will never leave us. 2either have we the power to shun )im. )is attitude to us is alwa s that of love. )e never hates us. The festival of amorous pastimes )e en>o ed with the gopis in a secluded place was an e(pression of )is spiritual love for them. )e en>o ed blissful and glorious pastimes in the gopis' compan . )e did not en>o those pastimes alone. The gopis said, 7Even when Krishna abandoned us, we were filled with wonder at )is glorious spiritual Fualities. 0e did not turn on )im and hate )im.7 0e thin" in the following wa # The girl named 'adha is glorious and fortunate. The creator &rahma created )er with e(traordinar names, Fualities, and beaut . %estin certainl favors )er. &ecause -he is rapt in worshiping (radh) *ord Krishna, -he is called 'adha (the worshiper). )er name ma be interpreted 7-he who worships Krishna7 or 7-he who is worshiped b Krishna7. The 2iru"ti confirms this e(planation. The udasina gopis then spo"e these words describing -ri 'adha# 7$hA *oo"A &rahma, -iva, and *a"shmi place on their heads the glorious dust touched b invincible -ri Krishna's lotus feet. *et us praise the good fortunate of all who have seen this dust.7 Then, one of 'adha's rivals spat out the following words, which were li"e a great coil of smo"e from the growing fire of env burning within her# 7? saintl girl, loo"A The footprints of this wic"ed-hearted girl no longer

follow *ord Krishna's delightful footprints, That girl must have been ver bold. First -he sipped the nectar of *ord Krishna's lips, nectar we all find to be delightful, and then -he suddenl disappeared.7 3:. To these words -ri 'adha's gopi friends gave the following repl # 7$haA 0h are 'adha's footprints mar"ed with auspicious signs no longer visible here< ? gopi-friends, )olding )er to )is chest, dear Krishna must have begun to carr )is delicate-limbed beloved.7 6;. To those words, -ri 'adha's rivals gave this repl # 7*oo"A For a long time amorous Krishna carried that gopi on )is chest. 0hen )er garments and other things became disarra ed, )e became aroused. )ere )is footprints are pressed ver deepl . )ere are sprin"led drops of )is perspiration, drops mi(ed with "un"uma and flower-garland fragments. )ere )e pushed aside the vines as )e wal"ed on the path.7 61. To these words -ri 'adha's friends replied, 7)ere the footprints become faint. )ere, averse to )er beloved, the beautiful gopi must, with gracefull bent "nees, rested on -ri Krishna's thighs.7 6+. Then -ri 'adha's rivals said, 7)ere amorous Krishna must have rearranged amorous 'adha's flower crown when it became disarra ed and begun to fall apart.7 6.. Then the also said, 7These croo"ed footprints on path after path reveal -ri -ri 'adha and Krishna's pastimes, pastimes that stand be ond the boundar of ordinar sh ness and modest . 6/. 75n this place the gopis, Brinda-devi, and Brinda's associates decorated the gatewa leading to the vine-palaces. The all earned to see -ri -ri 'adha and Krishna enter through that gate. 61. 7Brinda-devi arranged that the forest here was filled with sweet flowers endowed with sweet pollen. 8earning to gather that sweet pollen, a host of blac" bees became the guards stationed at that gatewa . 5f an unauthori,ed person tried to enter there, the fl ing bees at once attac"ed with the arrows of their stingers. 63. 7$s the blac" bees long praised the glories of that place, and as the trees and plants swa ed to and fro, the gopis entered and ga,ed at that wonderful, unprecedented, sublime place. 66 and 69. 7The cuc"oos cooed the fifth note. The bees hummed deep sweet notes. -tirred b the bree,e, the orchestra of leaves rustled glorious music. The peacoc"s gracefull danced. $lso present were the devotees full of love for the divine couple, the couple who glisten li"e a dar" cloud and a glistening lightning flash. That place was filled with man wonderful and colorful flowers, with man glorious couches, with man fans and camara whis"s, with bo(es filled with fragrant betel nuts, with cups filled with camphor, sandal, and aguru, and with secluded flowervine cottages. The gopis sang the glories of this place. 6:. 75n this place a great host of flowers was placed at -ri -ri 'adhaKrishna's feet. 'eclining on a couch, 'adha and Krishna were served with massages. 5n that place are fans, camara whis"s, swings, fragrant betel nuts, and man other ob>ects for the divine couple's en>o ment.

9;. 70h do ou as"< 8ou "now Krishna abandoned me >ust as )e abandoned ou. Kuic"l go to that place and find Krishna. These birds and other fl ing creatures earn to carr me there as the fl . $hA 0ho will accept me now that 5 am overcome with sorrows< 91. 7This bed anointed with mus" and sprin"led with drops of "un"uma is now in disarra . 5t bears all the signs of its demise. $ll m friends tal" amongst themselves of its end. )ow can it not be on the verge of destruction<7 9+. 'ecalling a pastime of 'adha and Krishna, another gopi said, 70hen 'adha was startled b the gopis' sudden tumultuous entrance through the forest grove's gatewa , )er lover, Krishna, franticall tried to cover )er with )is own garment. )e did not succeed. 9.. 7%isarra swallowed up 'adha's struggle to adorn )erself with garments and ornaments when with upraised ears -he heard the gopis' tumultuous arrival. Frantic struggle swallowed up -ri 'adha )erself. $t that moment, ta"ing )is beloved 'adha with )im, -ri Krishna suddenl disappeared. 9/. 2ow this description will be considered. *ord Krishna is not an ordinar lust teenage bo . 2or are the gopis ordinar lust teenage girls. To refute the idea that The are a lust bo and lust girls, some e(planations will here be given. 91. *ust persons all have bodies of dead material energ , bodies li"e those of wal"ing corpses. *ord Krishna, however, has a spiritual bod of intense bliss. The gopis, who are headed b 'adha, are )is glorious spiritual potencies. 93. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;.3;./1) Kueen 'u"mini describes the e(ternal material bod of the conditioned souls in these words# 7$ man within this world is >ust a dead bod . 5n fact, superficiall the living entit is covered b this bod , which is nothing but a bag of s"in decorated with beards and moustaches, hairs on the bod , nails on the fingers, and hairs on the head. 0ithin this decorated bag there are bunches of muscles, bundles of bones, and pools of blood, alwa s mi(ed up with stool, urine, mucus, bile, and polluted air, and en>o ed b various "inds of insects and germs. $ foolish woman accepts such a dead bod as her husband and, in sheer misunderstanding, loves him as her dear companion. This is onl possible because such a woman has never tasted the ever-blissful flavor of 8our lotus feet.7@ 96. 5t is also said in the scriptures# 7The s llable '"rish' refers to eternal e(istence, and the s llable 'na' refers to spiritual pleasure. These two s llables combine to form the name of *ord Krishna, who is the $bsolute Truth.7 99. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam it is said# 7The -upreme Truth has a humanli"e form.7 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;.1/.++) it is also said# 7? *ord Krishna, 8our form is of eternal spiritual pleasure and eternal spiritual "nowledge.7 9:. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;..+.1;) it is said# 7-urrounded b the gopis, who were now relieved of their sorrows, *ord Krishna, who is the infallible

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-upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead, en>o ed man pastimes. Thus the -upreme *ord en>o ed with )is spiritual potencies.7 &hava (ecstatic spiritual love) is not the same as material lust. 4rema (pure spiritual love) is more glorious even than bhava. 4rema is described in the following words. The earning to meet, meeting, embraces, "isses, and other amorous activities of -ri -ri 'adha-Krishna seem e(actl li"e those of ordinar amorous couples. )owever, -ri -ri 'adha-Krishna's amorous pastimes are free of an impurit or imperfection. The are all-glorious, all-blissful, and all-auspicious. The amorous activities of other couples are not li"e 'adha-Krishna's pastimes. The are merel the conditioned soul's selfish struggle to please himself. The gopis, who are the goddesses of prema personified, will later declare (in -rimad-&hagavatam 1;..1.1:)# 7%ear Krishna, certainl 8ou "now how much we are saddened when 8ou go out of Brindavana village to tend the cows in the forest. )ow we are afflicted simpl to thin" that 8our soft lotus feet are being pric"ed b the dr grass and the tin stones in the forest. 0e are so attached to 8ou that we alwa s thin" simpl of 8our lotus feet.7@ -ometimes it is said that prema (pure spiritual love) is under the domain of lust. -uch statements are metaphors onl . The are not factuall true. That is the conclusion of the smriti-shastras. For this reason is given the following famous description of the spiritual benefit attained b hearing of -ri -ri 'adha-Krishna's pastimes of prema. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;..../;) it is said# 75f a person hears from the right source of the pastimes of Krishna, who is Bishnu )imself, and the gopis, who are e(pansions of )is energ , he will be relieved of the most dangerous t pe of disease, namel lust. )e will be elevated to the highest position of spiritual life.7@ That spiritual path of prema alwa s brings newer and newer bliss to the mahat (e(alted), mahattara (ver e(alted), and mahattama (most e(alted) souls that strive to follow it. *ater in -rimad-&hagavatam (1;./6.19) -ri Gddhava will declare# 7$mong all the living entities who have accepted the human form of life, the gopis are super e(cellentl successful in their mission. Their thought is thoroughl absorbed in the lotus feet of Krishna. Dreat sages and saintl persons are also tr ing to be absorbed in meditation upon the lotus feet of Krishna, who is !u"unda )imself, the giver of liberation, but the gopis, having lovingl accepted the *ord, are automaticall accustomed to this habit. The do not depend on an oga practice. The conclusion is that one who has attained the gopis' condition of life does not have to ta"e birth as *ord &rahma or be born in a brahmana famil or be initiated as a brahmana.7@ Thirsting to engage in a prema relationship, -ri Krishna places )imself under the control of )is devotee. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;..+.++) )e tells the gopis# 75 cannot repa our continual love for !e, even

throughout the lifetimes of the demigods in the heavenl planets. 5t is impossible to repa ou or show gratitude for our love. Therefore please be satisfied with our own pious activities. 8ou have displa ed e(emplar attraction for !e, overcoming the greatest difficulties arising from famil connections. 4lease be satisfied with our highl e(emplar character, for it is not possible for !e to repa our debt.7@ :6. The gopis' other transcendental virtues ma be inferred from the following words of -rimad-&hagavatam (1.19.1+)# 7$ll the demigods and their e(alted Fualities, such as religion, "nowledge, and renunciation, become manifest in the bod of one who has developed unallo ed devotion for the -upreme 4ersonalit of Dodhead, Basudeva.7@ :9. 5t is also said# 7Though learned and intelligent, materialistic philosophers cannot understand even a single atom of the philosoph revealed in the limitless rasa-shastras. $ll their activities of being plunged in an ocean of love are dull and pathetic in comparison to -ri Krishna's amorous pastimes with the gopis, pastimes filed with glorious splendor.7 ::. $mongst all the gopis -ri 'adha is the most glorious. )er glories are wonderful and e(traordinar . -he is referred to in these words of -rimad&hagavatam (1;..;.+9)# 70e must understand that this particular gopi must have served Krishna with greater affectionate love than ourselves. &ecause of this, although )e has left us, )e could not leave )er compan . )e has ta"en )er along with )im.7@ 1;;. =onsidering all these e(planations, 5 have come to the following conclusion# Even though )e is self-satisfied, and even though )is ever desire is alwa s fulfilled, -ri Krishna alwa s en>o s blissful pastimes with -ri 'adha. )e is the abode of perfect love for -ri 'adha. 5 thin" )is pastimes with )er ma"e the activities of a lust bo and girls in this world seem pathetic and insignificant. 1;1. -ri Krishna is self-satisfied (atmarama). )is form is filled with transcendental bliss. )is ever desire is alwa s fulfilled. )e bears the auspicious mar"ings of supreme opulence. )e is the e(traordinar beloved of millions of gopis. -till, )e abandons the compan of a great host of gopis and sta s with -ri 'adha alone. )e is attached to )er. 1;+. 'adha and Krishna's loving affairs are li"e a flowing river. 5n some places that river has man twisting croo"ed turns. 5n other places it is ver swift. 5n other places the water is ver deep. 5n other places are man violent whirlpools. 5n other places it is seen to flow with gentle peace. 1;.. 5n G>>vala-nilamani (11.1;+) it is said# 7The wa s of prema are naturall croo"ed, li"e the movements of a sna"e. The divine couple ma act with a sensible reason, and sometimes The ma act without an sensible reason at all.7 1;/. ?ne of these croo"ed pastimes is described in the following words# 7)er closed e es are li"e new flower buds. )er nec" is tilted bac". )er arms are languid. )er thighs are stunned. 2ow -ri

Krishna is fulfilling )er desire. -he smiles and smiles. 0h does -he not now "nit )er e ebrows in disapproval, as -he did before<7 1;1. 0hen in activit after activit Krishna affectionatel worships r, then pride comes and touches )er. & the process of philosophical debate no one has the power to understand 'adha's feelings of pride. For e(ample, 'adha thin"s# 1;3. 75 do not "now ! own good fortune that now 5 have ! beloved's association. *eaving the other gopis behind, )e met beautiful !e and too" !e deep into this forest.7 1;6. Eager to proceed, Krishna begged 'adha to continue wal"ing, but -he suddenl became ver la, . 1;9. Then 'adha said, 7The touch of 8our bod has made ! limbs languid and wea". 5 cannot wal" an further. =arr !e wherever 8ou li"e.7 1;:. )earing these words, Krishna felt aloof and uninterested. $lthough full of love for -ri 'adha, now )e felt love's aspect of anger. 0ith a moc"ing smile )e said, 70h are 8ou troubled< Drasp ! shoulders and climb up on them.7 11;. $ngered and humiliated, 'adha loo"ed down. Dlancing at 'adha, and in )is heart thin"ing of )er welfare, -ri Krishna pla full disappeared. 0hen -ri Krishna disappeared, -ri 'adha was wonderstruc". -he was li"e a white lotus flower suddenl bereft of the moon. 111. $gain and again 'adha lamented, 7? master, ? lover, ? dearest beloved, ? might -armed one, where did 8ou go< 0here are 8ou< ? master of ! life, please show 8ourself before 8our troubled maidservant. 11+. 70ith great determination 5 will search for 8ou and find 8ou.7 11.. 0hen -ri Krishna, the crest->ewel of the wise, thought, 7That gopi 5 >ust now abandoned will meet with the man gopis 5 abandoned previousl . 0hen the all gather together 5 will en>o with them a great rasa-dance festival,7 the man gopis met that one gopi who had fallen unconscious, overcome with love for *ord Krishna. The doe-e ed gopis, who had been searched for Krishna, whose heart is li"e clear cr stal, gathered around that fallen, unconscious gopi. 11/. $s -ri Krishna continued to hide from them, the gopis said (of the fallen, unconscious gopi), 75s that a campa"a garland fallen to the ground< 5s it a crescent moon< 5s it the goddess that rules over all glistening ra s of beaut < 5s it the personified beaut of Brindavana forest< $lasA $lasA 5t cannot be an of these things. 0hat is it<7 $s bees swarm around a lotus flower, with agitated hearts the doe-e ed gopis gathered around that fallen unconscious gopi. 111. Even the gopis who onl pretended to be 'adha's friends felt their hearts melt. ?ther gopis, -ri 'adha's true friends, who considered )er as dear as life, at once fell down unconscious. To those

gopis fate had given no shelter. 5nstead, fate placed on their e(traordinar situation a great good fortune. 113. 0hen, from its resting place on -ri 'adha's limbs, the fragrance of -ri Krishna entered their nostrils, the gopis, whose e es were more beautiful than the does' e es, and who were li"e e(pansions of -ri 'adha's form, and who were beautiful li"e -ri 'adha )erself, fell unconscious. 116. -eeing the bodice that, wet with "un"uma, anointed with red sindura, bro"en, and disarra ed, covered -ri 'adha's fair breasts, the gopis became >o ful. 119. $lthough )er bod also carried -ri Krishna's fragrance, when -he smelled -ri Krishna's fragrance on the other gopis' bodies, -ri 'adha at once regained consciousness. 11:. -urrounding 'adha, whose condition was now li"e theirs, 'adha's faithful gopi friends hugged each other. &itterl the wept. 0eeping, the said to 'adha, 75t is said, 'Five people gathered together cannot be unhapp '. Therefore, happ in each other's compan , we will not be troubled b even the greatest sorrows.7 Then the gopis as"ed, 70h did Krishna abandon 8ou< 4lease tell us. 0h are 8ou so filled with sorrow<7 1+;. *amenting )er misfortune, -ri 'adha said, 70here did Krishna ta"e !e< 0h did )e ta"e !e< 0hat did 5 do wrong< 5 do not "now. $ll 5 "now is that now 5 am bereft of )im and it must be because of ! own misdeeds.7 1+1. 'adha wept without restraint. -ome of )er sorrowing friends trued to console )er. The wiped the tears from )er face, arranged )er garments, and made )er stand up. -tanding together with 'adha, the as"ed, 70here can we find Krishna<7 1++. -ri 'adha said, 7Dentle-hearted Krishna happil en>o s pastimes not far from here. Do"ula's pure, profound, and modest prince acted rightl . ?ut of compassion for us )e first accepted and then abandoned us. 1+.. 70e should follow the trail mar"ed with Krishna's footprints. That is best for us.7 $s if the were wal"ing in the forest to pic" flowers, the gopis searched fro Krishna's footprints, which bear the mar" of the flag and other auspicious mar"s. -earching, the entered a place in the forest thic" with trees and vines. From that place the did not emerge. 1+/. The gopis said amongst themselves, 74erhaps because of our shameful actions -ri Krishna does not wish to come before our e es. 4erhaps )e will go far from this place. 0e should loo" for )im on the riverban". )e once said to us, '0herever 5 go, ou should also come.' 4erhaps, to drive awa the embarrassment )e ma feel b brea"ing )is own words, )e will again come before our e es.7 1+1. Tal"ing in this wa , and searching for Krishna, the gopis wandered here and there in the forest. Filled with humbleness,

the sang man songs. 1+3. $s the people in the assembl listened with rapt attention, the narrator (-nigdha"antha) brought his narration to a conclusion b sa ing, 7? Fueen of Brindavana, if 8ou are not present, then handsome Krishna will not accept even man millions of other gopis.7

Sri Gopala-campu, !irst-campu %wenty-fifth Purana

%wenty-fifth Purana Vipralambha-stambhana-Sri-)rsna-lambhana Stunne" by Separation from *im, the Gopis Eventually &e ain Sri )rishna+s $ssociation 1. !adhu"antha said# 4lease hear the following songs# ? Krishna li"e a moon shining in Bra>a, please see what has happened to usA ? Krishna li"e a moon shining in Bra>a, please see what has happened to usA +. ! dear Krishna, ever since 8ou too" 8our birth in this land of Bra>abhumi, ever thing appears to be glorious, and it is as if the goddess of fortune is personall alwa s e(isting here.@ ? *ord, 8ou have abandoned us. 0hat shall we do to bring 8ou bac"< (Translator's note# These verses follow the verses of -rimad-&hagavatam Tenth =anto, =hapter .1.) .. 0ith a glance 8ou eternall eclipse the most e(alted man -petalled autumn lotus flower, a lotus flower that is li"e a great demigod of splendor. /. $hA )ow will we become purified if we must remain far from 8ou< 4lease grant our reFuest. 4lease give us the boon that we ma alwa s be as if shac"led to 8ou. 1. 0e are all 8our maidservants. 0h do 8ou "ill us with 8our glance< 5ron weapons are not alone in having the power to "ill. 8ou e es have that power no less than weapons. 3. Do"ula and its forests 8ou saved from man fearful dangers. 0e "now that out of love 8ou protect 8our devotees. 0h , then, do ou "ill us< 6. ? protector of the poor and helpless, the idea that 8ou are 8asoda's son is an idea of this temporar world. 5n truth 8ou're the -upreme -oul, untouched b matter. That 8ou torment others is a ver bitter truth. 9. ? master, 8ou are not li"e others. 8ou do not become angr , for 8ou are the protector of all the worlds. 0hen the demigod &rahma reFuested, b 8our

own will 8ou too" birth in the -atvata d nast :. ? supreme master, please place on our heads 8our hand, which holds the hand of Doddess -ri and which frightens the fear personified, the fear of continued birth and death in this world. 4lease do not refrain from giving 8our merc to us. 1;. ? hero who removes Bra>a's fears, 0ith 8our smile 8ou pacifies the anger of us women. 4lease do not punish us. 4lease show us the effulgent festival of the glor of 8our face. 11. 8our feet are the goddess of fortune's abode. The defeat the sins and sufferings of this world. The are the abode of great sacredness. Even so, those feet followed the cows and even danced on the head of a poison-filled sna"e. 1+. 8ou have placed 8our feet in man terrible places. 8our feet are the abode of peacefulness. The pacif all inauspiciousness. $hA 0h do 8ou not protect us b placing 8our feet on our breast, which now burn with flames of separation from 8ou< 1.. 8our sweet, pla ful, splendid, graceful, words, scented with bliss and pleasing to the ear, have made us thirst to attain 8ou. 1/. Dreat saints praise the nectar of 8our words and words about 8ou. Those words are the life of all souls burning in the flames of material life. Those words "ill sins. To benefit us fools and sinners, the saints repeat those words. 11. 8our smiling, restless, pla ful e es glisten with love. =oming from the forest, 8our splendid flute music ta"es awa our ver breath. 13. 0hen 8ou go to herd the cows our thoughts become ripped apart as we thin" how 8our feet will become pric"ed b the pebbles and sharp blades of grass. 16. $hA Flames and flames burn and burn in ?ur hearts. 4lease remember us, 8our own poor-hearted people. ? lover, please place 8our lotus feet over our hearts. 19. $hA 0hen, during the da time 8ou wander in the forest, and we are unable to see 8our handsome face with its curl loc"s of hair, we thin" each moment is long li"e a "alpa. 1:. King 2imi cursed the village of Bra>a. 0h should he not be rebu"ed< 0h should we gopis not become angr with him< +;. 0hat cheater would re>ect a host of women who, bound b the shac"les of )is flute music and tormented b desire spurned their "insmen and ran to )im in the great forest at night< +1. &eloved, having seen 8our smiling, loving glances, handsome form, and glorious broad chest, and having heard 8our pla ful >o"ing words, we are now bewildered with love for 8ou. ++. $t the end of the da , when 8ou allow us to see 8our moonli"e face surrounded b the dar"ness of 8our curl blac" hair and mar"ed with the moon's spots of dust raised b the cows' hooves, 8ou arouse amorous passion within us.

+.. ? hero, please give us the nectar of 8our lips, nectar that destro s all sorrows, nectar that will restore our lives, nectar tasted b 8our flute, which desires nothing else. +/. 0e dearl love 8ou. 0hatever 8ou desire, we desire also. )ow could we disagree with 8our desire< +1. 8our appearance destro s the sins of Bra>a's people, who "eep 8ou alwa s in their hearts. 0e earn to attain 8ou. 4lease give us a medicine to cure the sic"ness that has overta"en our hearts filled with love for 8ou. +3. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (1;..1.1:) it is said# 7? dearl belovedA 8our lotus feet are so soft we place them gentl on our breasts, fearing that 8our feet will be hurt. ?ur life rests onl in 8ou. ?ur minds, therefore, are filled with an(iet that 8our tender feet might be wounded b pebbles as 8our roam about on the forest path.7@ +6. This verse is e(plained in the following words# 0e affectionatel wish that 8ou place 8our feet, feet more soft than the lotus, upon our breasts. 0e desire this because we are stunned to thin" how 8our feet ma wal" on rough places. 0h should we not be filled with an(iet when 8our feet ma be wounded b pebbles as 8ou roam about on the forest path< $s we thin" in this wa 8ou at once enter our hearts. 0e are afraid that our hard hearts will wound 8our soft feet. Therefore please place them ver gentl on our breasts.7 +9. The gopis' songs graduall became sorrowful laments. This is not surprising. Their powerful thirst to see Krishna increased a hundred times. +:. )earing and seeing the gopis bitterl weep with glistening tearsI Krishna suddenl appeared amongst them dressed in glorious garments. .;. $s )e was before, in that wa Krishna appeared before the gopis' e es. )e was wonderfull splendid. The gopis let out a great tumult of 7KrishnaA KrishnaA7 .1. )earing the tumult, the beautiful gopis Fuic"l gathered around Krishna. The gopis were now filled with bliss. The had been li"e rivers beginning to go dr in the long summer when no rain clouds come, rivers that suddenl encounter a great host of large monsoon clouds that shower ample rains. The gopis felt the had been on the verge of death and now their lives were suddenl rescued. .+. The following description is given# Dlorious in ellow garments, smiling flower-garlanded Krishna gentl placed flower garlands on the gopis' shoulders. )e was li"e Kamadeva surrounded b man amorous 'atis. ... 0ithout sh ness, Krishna, surrounded b )is gopi-beloveds, went to the riverban". The restless gopis were li"e rivers swiftl flowing to the ocean Krishna. ./. The first of these proud gopis is described b -ri 4arasara !uni in these words of the Bisnu 4urana# -eeing her beloved, one >o ful gopi called out, JKrishnaA KrishnaA KrishnaA'

7The gopi here is named &hadra. .1. -rila -u"adeva Dosvami e(plains# 7$nother girl approached Krishna. $ glorious new lotus flower within its leaves was the offering she held in her folded hands.7 This gopi is =andravali. .3. 7?n some prete(t another gopi placed Krishna's feet on her breasts. 5t was as if she had worshiped *ord -iva for a boon and now her desire was fulfilled.7 This gopi is 4adma .6. 7$nother gopi too" in her folded hands the remnants of betel nuts chewed b Krishna. -he considered herself now the ob>ect of Krsna'spassionate love.7 This gopi is -aib a These gopis are all right-wing (gentle and mee") gopis. .9. 7$nother gopi too" Krishna's sandal-anointed arm and placed it around her nec". 5n this wa she hinted at her eagerness to en>o pastimes with )im.7 The gopi here is - amala, who is a left-wing (proud and bold) gopi. .:. 70ith the blac" bees of her unblin"ing e es, another gopi dran" the nectar at the lotus flower of Krishna's face. $ metaphor is emplo ed here. 5n truth the gopis' e es defeat the blac" bees and the glor of Krishna's face defeats the nectar of the lotus flower. The gopi here is *alita. /;. 0ith closed e es another sh -hearted gopi ga,ed at Krishna. Even though she was separated from )im, she saw )im in her heart. This is ver wonderful. -he became li"e a ogi, who b meditating meets the *ord in his heart.7 This gopi is Bisa"ha. /1. 7$n angr gopi tried to fire arrows from her e es.Krsna remained unwounded and unmoved. $lthough those arrows did not wound Krishna, the certaionl troubled )im,. 0ho can describe the activities of this gopi<7 The gopi here is 'adha, who is accompanied b )er gopi-friends. /+. 7The gopis' faces blossomed with happiness because of the monsooncloud Krishna's arrival. The celebrated a festival of bliss. The felt the had attained their life's goal. The felt the had been born again.7 This verse refers to all the gopis. /.. Krishna's form is splendid without peer. 2o metaphor can do >ustice to )is outhful handsomeness. $lthough no metaphor does >ustice to )im, still 5 have emplo ed metaphors in these verses. 5 am not at fault. That Krishna is more glorious than all else is simpl the nature of things. //. Krishna and the gopis then en>o ed pastimes of passionate amorous glances. Da,ing at each other, Krishna and the gopis both became li"e ca"ora birds ga,ing at the moon. $s flowers blossom on a vine, their e es blossomed with happiness. /1. $t that festive moment, Brndavana's splendid %eit , -ri Krishna, as )e was boldl en>o ing pastimes, wal"ed to the 8amuna's ban"s, which were pla full touched b restless waves and b lotus bree,es traveling on the pathwa s of the air. /3. The glorious 8amuna, its graceful waves li"e hands, flowed. The fragrant bree,es blowing from the lotus flowers' filaments embraced the soft

white sands of the riverban". The nectar autumn moonlight anointed the riverban" and chased the dar"ness of night far awa . The humming bees delightedl flew amongst the flowers growing on the land and in the water. /6. -ta ing b the glorious 8amuna, -ri Krishna, )is smiling glistening e es li"e hundred-petal white lotuses, with )is own hands anointed with "un"uma the gopis' breasts, dressed the gopis in fine garments, made them sit in glorious sitting places. and praised them with graceful pra ers and songs. 5n this wa )e delighted them and drove awa their sufferings. /9. 5 meditate on -ri Krishna, the master of m life. )e glistens li"e sapphires. )e is the abode goddess *a"smi earns to attain. -urrounded b a host of splendid, golden, saintl vra>a-gopis, )e is glorious. $round )im are hundreds of glorious flower gardens and forest archwa s. &elow )im are the diamond-powder sands of the riverban". above )im is the glorious parasol that is the moon. /:. -erved b Brnda and a host of Brndavana maidservants, who with great care brought )im flower garlands, divine fragrances, sandal paste with camphor, delicious foods, betel nuts, and other offerings, and en>o ing pastimes of >o"ing words with )is gopi-beloveds, the glorious dear lover Krishna shone with great splendor. 0ith the doe-e ed gopis, who tried to conceal their anger, Krishna conversed. 1;. To satisf the gopis, whose hearts were withered with anger at )im for )is misdeeds after the had renounced all for )is sa"e, Krishna spo"e pleasing and pla ful words. 11. Dentl massaging Krishna's hands, feet, and thighs, carefull concealing the anger in her heart, e(ternall peaceful, and her e es and e ebrows smiling, a certain gopi spo"e. 1+. -ome give the following description# 0ith restless e es and e ebrows, secret sweet smiles, graceful pla ful words, croo"ed hearts, e(ternal straightforwardness, then intelligent gopis affectionatel spo"e the following riddle to their submissive beloved, Krishna. 1.. 7? "ing of the intelligent, please solve this riddle. -ome persons love onl persons who love them. -ome persons do not love others, even if others love them. -ome persons love ever one, whether these persons love them or not. -ome persons love need and helpless persons, whether such persons love them or not.7 1/. 5n )is mind understanding the meaning of this riddle, -ri Krishna said# 7These four persons are respectivel # 1. persons greed after their own selfinterest, +. ungrateful persons, .. pious persons, and /. persons who "now the highest truths of spiritual life. ?r, these persons ma also be respectivel described as# 1. bewildered fools, +. persons who are self-satisfied, .. liberated persons, and /. merciful persons.7 11. )earing these words, the gopis "nitted their e ebrows. 0ith "nitted e ebrows the said to Krishna# 7First 8ou of following the path of religion.

Then 8ou abandoned us. 8ou were merciless. %o 8ou not see our anguish<7 13. 5n this verse the word 7cleverl 7 ma be interpreted as sarcasm and in truth ma thus mean foolishl 7. 5n the same wa 7the glories of following the path of religion7 ma be interpreted to mean 7the path of irreligion7. Thus these two statements mean the opposite of their face value. 5n this wa 7cleverness7 means foll 7. 78ou attracted us7 ma mean 78ou gave us perfection and liberation7. 5n these words the gopis rebu"e Krishna for being ungrateful. & abandoning them and b not being able to see their anguish, Krishna displa ed )is mercilessness. 16. Gnderstanding t the gopis' words, Krishna defended )imself. )e said, 75 am not li"e that. 5 desire to ma"e ou greed to attain !e, to ma"e ou wealth with the great treasure of love for !e. That is wh 5 arranged our separation from !e. -ome people thin" 5 wish to create calamities for ! devotees. These complaints bring !e great sorrow. 19. 70hen 5 abandoned ou, ou continuall earned to attain !e. 0ith great love ou passionatel earned to attain !e. 5 have not the power to repa ou even slightl . Therefore please be satisfied with our own virtuous glorious deeds. 1:. )earing )is pure and glorious words and understanding that no one is more wise or handsome than )im, the gopis thirstil ga,ed at *ord Krishna. 3;. From the s" the demigods >o"ed, 7? Krishna, wh do 8ou wish to give delight to the gopis< The ga,e at 8ou with croo"ed e es and the praise 8ou with croo"ed words.7 31. Dlor to the wild elephant of the beautiful-e e browed vra>a-gopis' pride and anger. Even though )e defeated it, the lion Krishna alwa s feared that elephant. 3+. !adhu"antha concluded his words b sa ing, 7? 'adha, 8our friend Krishna is gloriousl intelligent. )is intelligence is anointed with the fragrant oil of supreme s"ill and understanding. 8ou ma"e no reFuests of )im. 8ou are silent. -till )e earnestl wishes that 8ou be alwa s glorious and prosperous.

Sri Gopala-campu, !irst-campu %wenty-sixth Purana

%wenty-sixth Purana &asa-vilasa-prasarana Expansion of the &asa 'ance 1. -nigdha"antha said# 0hen the heard Krishna's sweet words, the gopis felt the anguish the had felt in separation from )im was now destro ed.

)owever, the worr and doubt in their hearts was not destro ed. =onsidering the situation, Krishna became ver mee" and submissive to their wishes. +. To the gopis, whose faces were li"e abodes of blossoming lotus flowers, and whose e es were charming li"e restless "han>ana birds, Krishna sweetl said# .. 7For ! sa"e ou long suffered. 5n this secluded place 0e will now celebrate a festival of fulfilling our difficult-to-fulfill desire.7 5n the following words Krishna described the nectar rasa-dance# /. 7The autumn full-moon is the lamp. Brndavana forest is the dancingarenaI 8ou girls of vra>a are the pla ful and e(pert heroines. This is the perfect opportunit . 5 am >o ful )ari. 0ho is better than !e at celebrating festivals< ? beloved gopis, what festival is better than the rasa dance< 1. Then Krishna became li"e a full moon rose from the ocean of Bra>a. The ca"ora birds of the gopis' e es ga,ed at the full moon Krishna. Then Krishna e(panded to appear beside each pair of gopis. These forms were visible onl to the two gopis at the left and right. 0ith embraces and other li"e activities, Krishna delighted the gopis. Then, to en>o the rasa-dance pastime, the gopis formed a great circle on the 8amuna's ban" in a beautiful and smooth place free of mud, "usha grass, or other impediments. 3. Doing to the 8amuna's ban"s, Krishna at ever moment fulfilled the desires in the gopis hearts. The ga,ed at )im with their e es. The hairs on the gopis bodies stood erect with bliss. )ow can 5 describe the great festival the celebrated< Even toda that festival has not come to an end. 6. Da,ing at the splendid beaut of the gopis arra ed in a great circle li"e a bracelet around )im, forest-flower-garlanded Krishna thought# 9. 7The circle of the moon above is splendid and glorious, and the circle of gopis on the 8amuna's ban" is also splendid and glorious. )owever, the moon's splendor is marred b its spots, but the gopis' splendor is not marred in an wa . :. 7$haA The beautiful gopis are li"e a great golden bracelet. 5f 5 become li"e man sapphires set within that bracelet, that would be ver beautiful and pleasing to the heart. Therefore 5 should now enter amongst these gopis.7 Thin"ing in this wa , Krishna acted according to )is desire. 0h would )e not have e(panded into man Krishna's at that time< 1;. Krishna and the doe-e ed gopis were ver splendid and glorious on the 8amuna's ban"s. 5ndeed, the moon in the s" seemed to be a reflection of them. 11. The 8amuna's ban"s were the moon's friend. The beautiful gopis with raised e ebrows were the 8amuna's ban"s' friend. The man graceful forms of Krishna dancing in the circle were the gopis' friends. 1+. %ancing between each two gopis in that rasa dance, Krishna held the gopis hands and placed )is arms around their shoulders and bac"s. 1.. $ fair gopi and a dar" Krishna. $ fair gopi and a dar" Krishna. This was repeated hundreds of thousands of times in that rasa-dance circle. 5n the middle of that circle Krishna pla ed the flute and danced with 'adha. 1/. 0hen Krishna first en>o ed the rasa dance )is age was Kishora (11-11

ears). This *ord 4arashara !uni clearl e(plains (in Bishnu 4urana). $t that time Krishna thought, 7The teenage gopis have made ! life fruitful. $haA *oo". Then hairs of ! bod now stand erect with bliss. This 5 declare.7 11. $lthough Krishna en>o ed pastimes with man different gopis, the gopi named 'adha was the most dear to him. 5 thin" )er glorious activities have no peer. 13. To bring auspiciousness to the gopis, Krishna accepted them as )is associates and danced with them in the dancing-arena. The touch of )is bod aroused the gopis amorous desires. 16. -plendid li"e gold, their e es smiling, their bracelets and other ornaments >ingling with the music's rh thm, and their pla ful gestures filled with amorous hints, the gopis danced. 5n their midst Krishna, )is form li"e sapphire, shone with great splendor. 19. Their e ebrows gracefull curved, their forms filled with outhful splendor, their dancing movements pla ful, splendid, graceful, and e(pert, their moving bracelets, belts, and an"lets >ingling as the danced, the gopis were li"e the dancers in the celestial worlds. 1:. $haA The rh thmic >angling of the an"lets and other ornaments in the rasa-dance attracted the demigods fl ing nearb in their airplanes. Fl ing nearb and listening to the songs and musical instruments, the demigods did not "now whether the belonged to other demigods or to some other "ind of being. +;. The demigoddesses said# 7*oo"A *oo"A Krishna sings and the beautiful gopis sing in response. Then the gopis sing and Krishna sings in response. +1. *oo"A 4la ful Krishna wal"s on the riverban". 2ow Krishna embraces the gopis. *earned in music, the gopis sing ver sweetl .7 ++. 0ith graceful gestures, pla ful motions, and movements of e es and e ebrows, the gopis gracefull danced. +.. E(pert at singing, musical instruments, and dance, the demigods and goddesses sounded man musical instruments. Then Krishna and the gopis danced with great enthusiasm. This is described in the following verse# $s the demigods splendid sounded dundubhis, dindimas, damarus, and mrdangas, Krishna and the gopis danced with great energ . The seemed to have man millions of feet, hands, nec"s, and hips. +/. Dracefull moving their hands, Krishna and the gopis loo"ed li"e warriors e(pert at fighting with weapons. +1. Krishna and the gopis moved their hands this wa and that. -ometimes the held hands. -ometimes the did not. 5n this wa dar" Krishna and the fair gopis en>o ed the bliss of the rasa-dance. +3. $gain and again the demigods showered flowers on the circle of dar" Krishnas and fair gopis. $lthough the flowers were certainl falling down from above, the seemed to be rains falling up from the dar" monsoon-cloud Krishnas and the glittering lightning-flash gopis. +6. Their hearts filled with spiritual love, the demigods and goddesses called out to lotus-e ed Krishna, who now stood before their e es b the arrangement of the 8ogama a potenc . 4la ing on their musical instruments,

the demigods and goddesses mad a great tumult of sweet music. +9. The demigoddesses then sang the following song. $ Son 'efrain jaya jaya sad-guna-sara jagati vishishtam kalayitum ishtam gokula-lasad-avatara ? most virtuous *ord who descended to Do"ula to give the best gift to the world, all glories to 8ouA $ll glories to 8ouA kamalabhaveshvara-vaikuntheshvara-patni-cintitam eva rajasi rase valita-vilase nija-ramanibhir deva &rahma, -iva, and Bai"untheshvara 2ara ana's wife *a"shmi meditate on 8ou. ? *ord, 8ou shine in the pla ful rasa-dance with 8our beautiful gopibeloveds. natavat parikara nikhila-kaladhara racita-paraspara-moda alingana-mukharitama-maha-sukha ballava-vadhu-hrita-toda ? *ord who en>o s graceful dancing with the gopis, ? *ord who pleases them with affectionate words and embraces, and who removes their suffering, vyativikshana-krita-shatvika-parivrita-mandalam anu bahu-murte vraja-taruni-gana-racita-nayana-panasa cita-vashi-kriti-purte ? *ord who e(panded into man forms to stand beside each gopi ga,ing on 8ou in ecstas , ? *ord completel purchased b the oung vra>a-gopis' glances, carana-kaja-dhriti-kara-pallava-kriti-cilli-valita-viharan madhya-bhanga-tati-mani-kundala-gati-pulaka-sveda-vikaran The gopis gracefull moved their lotus feet, flower-petal hands, and e ebrows as the danced. The bent their waists, Their >ewel earrings swung, the hairs on their bodies stood up, the perspired, and the displa ed signs of ecstatic happiness. kalayati bhavata ghana-samyavata tadid iva sarva lalana api vah parimiti-tara-tamatam iti seyam japayati tulana

? *ord, 8ou are li"e a dar" raincloud, and all the gopis are li"e lightning flashes. This comparison is perfect. su-madhura-kanthe nrityotkanthe tava rati-matra-prite tvat-sparshamrita-mada-caya-samvrita-citte bhava-krite The gopis sing sweetl and long to dance. 8our advances are their onl pleasure. The nectar of 8our touch fills their hearts with bliss. The are purchased b 8our love. yuvati-jate gitaja-shatenavrita-vishva-prabhave yas tvam rajasi tat-sukha-bhag asi nama etasmai prabhave $s the gopis' singing fills the universe with happiness, 8ou shine with >o . ? *ord, 5 offer m respectful obeisances unto 8ou. ya saha bhavata vismayam avata svara-jatir ati-shuddham gayati seyam nikhilair geyam kalayati nija-guna-ruddham 8ou become filled with wonder as a certain gopi sweetl sings with 8ou. 0ith all the gopis -he sings the praises of 8our transcendental Fualities. tata utkarsham valayita-harsham valayati yeyam gane sa shri-radha valitaradha bhavata kalita mane )er song brings 8ou great happiness. 8ou respond b worshiping )er with great respect. yeyam rase shramaja-vilase vigalan-malli-valaya sa bhavad-amse lasad-avatamse dharati karam vara-kalaya E(hausted from the pastimes of the rasa dance, and )er >asmine-bracelet slipping, -he gracefull places )er hand on 8our shoulder, which is touched b 8our glistening earrings. ya camsam paribhuja-parigham paricumbati tava sa-vinodam hrishyati seyam tanv-aganeyam yad-roma ca samodam -he pla full "isses 8our arm and shoulder. -he is ver happ . Gn"nown to others, the hairs of )er bod stand up with >o . cala-kundala-dhara ganda-mukura-vara samisha-sparsha-vidhane tambula-drava-parivartad dravam ayase cumbana-dane ? *ord whose earrings swing to and froA ? *ord whose chee"s are splendid mirrorsA ?n a prete(t 8ou touch )er. Diving )er a "iss, 8ou both

e(change the nectar of chewed betel-nuts. esha nartana-kirtana-vartana-shijita-jata-sutala tava ramanuja karam atulambuja-misham adhad dhridi bala This girl is e(pert in singing and dancing, and )er moving ornaments tin"ling in graceful rh thms. ? 'amanu>a ( ounger brother of &alarama), pretending that 8our hand is a peerlessl beautiful lotus flower, -he places it on )er heart. atha rasa-krama-parivalita-shrama-vanita-lakshita-deha parito-bhramanaka-gana-vishramanaka sa-mudita-parama-sneha ? *ord who noticed the gopis' fatigue in the rasa dance, ? *ord who made them rest, ? happ , affectionate *ord, kavi-krita-nishcaya-shubhra-yashash-caya mala-samudaya-harin jaya jaya jaya jaya jaya jaya jaya jaya jaya jaya rasa-viharin ? *ord whose splendid fame is recounted b the greatest poets and philosophers, ? *ord splendid with flower garlands, ? en>o er of the rasa dance, glor , glor , glor , glor , glor , glor , glor , glor , glor , glor , to 8ouA +:. The second couplet of this song (ra>asi rase valita-vilase) is e(plained in the following verse# Krishna's form is the crest >ewel of all eternall handsome forms. & )is own potenc )e manifests )is spiritual humanli"e form. )is form fills ever one, including even )imself, with wonder. Krishna is )imself the ornament that decorates the ornaments )e wears. )e is the beaut that ma"es the gopis beautiful. .;. 5n -rimad-&hagavatam (..+.1+) it is said# 7The *ord appeared in the material world b )is internal potenc , 8ogama a. )e came in )is eternal form, which is >ust suitable for )is pastimes. These pastimes were wonderful for ever one, even for those proud of their own opulence, including the *ord )imself in )is form as the *ord of Bai"untha. Thus )is (-ri Krishna's) transcendental bod is the ornament of all ornaments.7@ 5t is also said in -rimad-&hagavatam (1;....3)# 7$s Krishna and the gopis danced together it appeared that Krishna was a greenish sapphire loc"et in the midst of a golden nec"lace decorated with valuable stones.7@ .1. -ince this is true of Krishna, how much more must it applied to 'adha also. .+. The eighth couplet of this song ( uvati->ate) is e(plained in the following verse# The vra>a-gopis are teenagers ("ishori) eternall . The never too" birth. Their glories fill all the worlds. ... The ninth couplet of this song ( a saha bahavata) is e(plained in this verse# 5 offer m respectful obeisances to -ri 'adhi"a. )earing )er beautiful

songs glorif ing )er beloved Krishna, the gopis become filled with wonder and the demigods headed b &rahma, -iva, and 5ndra become filled with bliss. ./. The thirteenth couplet of this song (cala-"undala) is e(plained in this verse# Twice Krishna sipped the nectar of 'adha's lips. 0h would )e not taste the betel nuts chewed b )er< .1. 5n the confidential meetings of Bra>a's people, Krishna is alwa s praised with words li"e, 7Krishna is the root of spiritual love. )is form is pla ful and glorious.7 5 offer m respectful obeisances to 'adhi"a. ?f all of Krishna's gopi-beloveds, 'adhi"a has the most precious >ewel of love for Krishna. .3. &ringing )im completel under )er control, 'adha en>o s pastimes with )er beloved Krishna. ?n the prete(t of manifesting a form where each ta"es one half, -iva and 4arvati do not en>o pastimes in that wa . .6. The poets speculate that -iva and 4arvati combine to become each half of a single form. 5 sa that 'adha and Krishna are both filled with perfect and complete love for each other. This is "nown in all the three worlds. &ecause The are thus perfect and complete in Themselves, it is not right that The combine in a single form. .9. 0hen the divine singing and instrumental music became stopped, the >angling ornaments and bu,,ing bees provided musical accompaniment to the dancing. 0hen these two became e(hausted and stopped, the earrings and crowns of the dancers continued to glisten as the dancers continued to dance. .:. Krishna and the gopis en>o ed smiling pastimes of embracing, touching, and ga,ing with loving e es. $s Krishna and )is beloved gopis danced, The seemed to be reflections of each other. /;. 0hen the rasa-dance festival came to an end, the gopis had no power to "eep in order their flower garlands, hair, the garments on their nec"s and breasts, their other garments, or their ornaments. 0hen the meditate on this rasa-dance, the great sages forget ever thing else. The gopis were ver wonderful and glorious in the rasa-dance. 0hat narration is li"e the narration of the rasa-dance< /1. 0atching the rasa dance, the demigoddesses fl ing in airplanes in the s" became filled with passion and wonder. This we have heard. The moon and stars wandered and wandered in the s" . 5n this wa the wonder and sweetness of the rasa-dance continued to be manifest. /+. Then Krishna's rasa-dance pastimes with )is dear and passionate gopi-beloveds, who were eager for more pastimes, came to an end. /.. 0hen the rasa-dance came to an end, Krishna and the gopis wished to en>o amorous pastimes. Entering with each gopi into a different forest grove, 5ntent on become ornaments decorating each other, To en>o amorous pastimes Krishna and the gopis entered private places unseen b the others. There The embraced and en>o ed man pastimes. //. 0hen )e said, 7$hA 0ithout !e, our beloved, ou must have been plunged into the dar"ness of sorrows,7 and when )e embraced her, a gopi

wept, sprin"ling Krishna with the tears from her e es. /1. -a ing, 75 did not "now that this girl delicate li"e a new leaf from a tree, had become so e(hausted,7 Krishna again and again wiped the perspiration and tears from each gopi's face. /3. 0hen the were e(hausted from the rasa-dance pastime, Krishna wiped the perspiration and tears from each one of the beautiful-e e browed gopis. /6. 0hen, carr ing various "inds of paraphernalia, Brinda-devi's assistants as"ed her to describe Krishna's passionate pastimes, Brinda-devi replied# 7Krishna wiped the tears from the gopis e es, wiped the perspiration from their faces and the hair of their heads, fanned them with a cloth, "issed the edge of their chee"s, anointed their bodies with fragrant oils, dressed them in fine garments, offered them betel nuts, spo"e sweet words to them, and glorified them. 5n this wa Krishna relieved the fatigue )is beloved gopis felt from the rasa dance. /9. 70ith smiling e es the gopis ga,ed at Krishna's face. The fanned )im with new leaves, massaged )is limbs, re>oined )is bro"en flower-garland, rearranged )is disarra ed garments, spo"e cheerful >o"ing words that pleased )is heart, and offered )im betel nuts mi(ed with camphor. 5n this wa the dear gopis relieved the fatigue Krishna felt from the rasa dance. /:. $pproaching her, the gopi assistants smiled and again as"ed Brindadevi# 7? goddess, did ou see how, when their garments and ornaments were in disarra , Krishna and the gopis dressed and decorated each other< ? friend, we as" of ou this one favor# 0ithout telling us an lies, please reveal to us those secret pastimes.7 1;. -miling, Brinda then thought in her heart# 70hat the girls sa is true. Krishna and the gopis were seen again and again en>o ing man pastimes of singing songs to remove Their fatigue, delight their sense, and bring auspiciousness.7 11. =oncluding his narration, -nigdha"antha said# ? 'adha, 8our beloved is ver difficult to attain. ?f all the gopis, Krishna chose 8ou.

Sri Gopala-campu, !irst-campu %wenty-seventh Purana

%wenty-seventh Purana &a"a-prapanca-panca-purani #onclusion of the !ive-#hapter 'escription of the &asa-'ance

1. E(hausted and perspiring because of Their pastimes, dar" Krishna and the fair gopis went to the 8amuna. 'espectfull approaching, limitless hundreds of gopis suddenl entered the 8amuna's nectar waters. +. Thin"ing, 7%ar" Krishna and the beautiful gopis have crossed the shore and entered me7, the dar" 8amuna at once overflowed its ban"s. .. The splendid bodies of Krishna and the gopis were li"e man monsoon clouds and man lightning flashes. Their words were li"e the warbling of cata"a birds. Their splendor was li"e the splendor of the monsoon season. The were li"e a great assembl of man *ord 2ara anas and Doddess *a"shmis holding hands and entering the dar" s" that was the 8amuna river. /. $gain and again laughing and tal"ing, The entered the water. Their bodies now wet, The greatl trembled. 2ow The stood in the water. Their splendor led one to "now the were present there. 1. 0hen some graceful-curved-e e browed girls would not enter the water, Krishna splashed them. Thin"ing lightl of this Krishna, the girls splashed )im bac". 3. 2ow become li"e a cloud showering sweet monsoon rains, Krishna furiousl splashed the gopis. -tung as if b a shower of arrows, the gopis entered the water. 6. 4lunged in water up to their waists, the restless-e ed doe li"e girls dreaded proceeding an further into the water. 9. Thin"ing the were other fish, the fish sta ed awa from the places where the gopis' restless e es were reflected on the water. 5nstead touching the frightened gopis' delicate bodies, the fish brought nectar amusement to Krishna's e es. :. ?bserving the gopis' graceful motions, the swans admit that the gopis are the true rulers of the "ingdom of graceful motion. -eeing the gopis' breasts glorious li"e monsoon clouds, the ca"rava"a birds admit that the gopis are the true rulers of the "ingdom of glorious monsoon clouds. -eeing the gopis' e es, the fish admit that the gopis are the true rulers of the "ingdom of graceful restless ob>ects. )earing the gopis' sweetl >angling belts and ornaments, the sarasa cranes admit that the gopis are the true rulers of the "ingdom of sweet >angling. 1;. %efeating all the lotus flowers, the gopis' faces shine with great splendor. )ow did the defeat them< The defeated them with their supreme beaut and splendor. 11. Krishna cast a sidelong glance at the smiling gopis. Then )e started the pastime of water-splashing 1+. 5n the flowing monsoon cloud that was the 8amuna, the monsoon cloud Krishna splashed water on the lightning-flash gopis, and the lightningflash gopis splashed water on the monsoon-cloud Krishna. Fl ing in the s" in their airplanes, the demigoddesses said, 70hat wonder, wonder, wonder is that< 0hat dramatic-dance festival is that<7 1.. 5n water up to their nec"s, the lotus-faced gopis were li"e lotus forests embraced b the blac"-bee Krishna.

1/. 0hen Krishna defeated them in the water-splashing fight, the fairlimbed gopis hid in a forest of golden lotus flowers. 5mitating them, Krishna hid in a forest of blue lotus flowers. 11. The faces of Krishna and the gopis were naturall fragrant li"e lotus flowers, beautiful li"e lotus flowers, and sweet li"e lotus flowers. 0h would Krishna and the gopis not have been bewildered when in their water pastimes The both hid among the lotus flowers< 13. 0hen Krishna somehow found them hiding in the lotus forest, the gopis let up a cr of 7$lasA $lasA7 16. -eeing a smiling blossoming blue lotus, and in her heart seeing Krishna's face and relishing its nectar, a frightened gopi hid amongst her gopi friends splendid li"e her. 19. Drasping and embracing her, Krishna rescued a gopi floundering in deep water. 1:. 5n water up to their breasts, some beautiful gopis earned to defeat their life's master Krishna. )iding, the suddenl splashed )im with water. )ow could the fail to defeat )im in that attac"< +;. $s a blac" bee drin"s the nectar from the mouths of the lotus flowers that surround him, so clever Krishna, b "issing them, dran" the nectar of the lips of the beautiful-e ed gopis that then surrounded )im. +1. 0ith )is fingernails Krishna scratched the gopis breasts. 0hen )e suddenl , forcefull , and wonderfull embraced them, the gopis were sorel wounded b Kamadeva's arrows. ++. )is long arms reaching to )is "nees, Krishna approached the gopis, whose large e es seemed almost to touch their ears. Krishna placed )is hand on the gopis' tight belts. +.. 0hen, followed b )er gopi-friends, 'adha arrived at that place of water-pastimes, )er lover Krishna became stunned with bliss. )e made no attempt to splash )er. +/. 0hen, accompanied b )er entourage, 'adha approached to >oin in the water-pastime battle, Krishna became stunned and motionless. The gopis did not "now what to do. The thought their Fueen had alread defeated )er beloved. +1. )is lotus e es surrounded b curl loc"s of hair, Krishna ga,ed at 'adha as a blac" bee ga,es at a lotus flower. Frightened, 'adha bac"ed awa . Then Krishna entered amongst the gopis that were 'adha's arm . )e defeated them. +3. The nectar of ferocious battle-pastimes then too" birth amongst the sublimel beautiful gopis. Their e es red with passionate desire for waterpastimes, the splendid gopis loudl laughed. +6. -urrounded b ten million teenage vra>a-gopis, Krishna, fighting alone, began )is pla ful water-pastime battle. First Krishna wal"ed onto the shore, as )e had done before when )e stole the garments of the gopis when the had worshipped Doddess Kat a ani. +9. The gopis' words were li"e thee swans' warbling. Their garments were li"e the nearb waters. Their faces were li"e lotus flowers. Their restless e es

were li"e blac" bees. Their graceful limbs were li"e lotus stems. +:. 7)a-haA7 The sound of laughter filled the water and the shore. -ome laughter was li"e the sweet warbling of cata"a birds. ?ther laughter was li"e the rumbling of rain clouds. .;. $s before )e laughed again and again as )e returned the gopis' garments, this time )e ga,ed at the clothed-gopis' faces and also laughed again and again. .1. $t that time the gopis accepted their garments from Krishna. -ome gopis were restless, some were restless with croo"ed desires, some were red with embarrassment, some were stunned, some wept without an trace of a smile, some were filled with pride and anger, and all ga,ed again and again at Krishna whop enchants the three worlds. $ll earned to attain )im. $t that time some demigoddesses glorious with e(Fuisite garments, ornaments, and flower garlands, and fl ing in the s" in their airplanes, showered flowers on Krishna and the gopis. .+. -eeing their garments were now wet, Krishna affectionatel and respectfull gave new garments and ornaments to the gopis. ... Emerging from the water, Krishna's beloved gopis were ver splendid and beautiful. %ressed in colorful garments, the were glorious. ./. 2ow dressed in man glorious ornaments, Krishna and the gopis found that a strong desire to ga,e at each other had ta"en birth within Them. The gopis ga,ed at outhful Krishna dressed in glorious garments. !an demigoddesses fl ing in airplanes in the s" then honored the gopis b showering flowers upon them. .1. -pea"ing a tric" >o"e, the gopis said to Krishna '0ho is this person named Kamadeva, who is the general of 8our arm < )e is 8our friend. -how him to us.7 .3. 0ith a concealed smile -ri Krishna then said to 'adha (the words of the following song). $ Son radhe maishir drashtum anangam tasya tu pashya ganam krita-satkrita-sukrita-sulambhita-sangam 'adha, don't desire to see KamadevaA *oo"A )ere are his friendsA & worshiping them 8ou will easil see Kamadeva. taru-valli-tati dampati-palli bhavatim atithiyanti akarayati calan-nava-pallava-panibhir atmiyanti This village of trees, along with their wives the vines, ma"es 8ou its guest. 0aving the new sprouts that are its hands, it invites 8ou to enter. sa punar iha kusumani kirati pathi racayitum astara-caryam

kokila-kulam api tava hutim kila kalam anu kalayati varyam This village of trees and vines spreads flowers on the path to serve 8ou. The cuc"oos call 8ou with sweet music. bhrunkarena ca bheri-shabdam bhramara vidadhati sa-sukham shithilitam api bata tanute nartanam abhitash cali-pramukham & ma"ing bu,,ing sounds the bees pla bheri drums as the peacoc"s spread their tails and happil dance. nija-ruci-dipam paritah prathayati so 'yam rajanisvami esha ca panthah svam vistritavams tvat-pada-rajasam kami The moon spreads its beautiful light ever where. )e illuminates this path because he desires to touch the dust of 8our lotus feet. .6. %ressed in glorious garments, Krishna and the gopis shone with great splendor as the wal"ed in a glorious forest b the 8amuna's ban"s. Krishna then reminded the gopis of the various pastimes the had en>o ed da after da in the various places of that forest. .9. 5n husband and wife pairs the blac" bees left their own abodes, followed Krishna and the gopis, and sang auspicious songs glorif ing Krishna and the gopis. )ow did the blac" bees "now an thing of the glories of Krishna and the gopis< 0herever Krishna and the gopis went, the blac" bees followed. Therefore the bees "new ever thing of these glories. .:. $t this point -nigdha"antha as"ed# 0hen onl a little remained of the night Krishna and the gopis wandered in man places. 0hat pastimes did eager Krishna and the gopis en>o then< /;. To this Fuestion !adhu"antha replied# Krishna and the gopis then pla ed a game of hide-and-see". Krishna arranged this game so )e could meet each gopis individuall in various private places. $s the gopis were searching for Krishna in this game, Krishna e(panded into man different forms. Each gopis met privatel with one of those forms. 5n this wa Krishna too" each one of the peerlessl -beautiful-e ed gopis far awa to a secluded place in the forest. /1. Though sometimes the saw another gopi meet with Krishna in a secluded place, the gopis did not believe what the saw. 5n their hearts the were certain what the saw was onl a golden uthi vine embracing a dar" tamala tree. /+. Though the heard the >ingling of other gopis' an"lets, the gopis thought it onl the warbling of some birds. Though the saw the forms of Krishna and other gopis, the thought those forms onl a man dar" tamala and fair campa"a trees /.. That forest was not filled with blinding dar"ness. The glorious moon filled the forest with light, the forest where, in place after place, Krishna and

the gopis became wealth with a great treasure of amorous pastimes. //. 5n those secluded places Krishna and the gopis pla full tal"ed and flirted. ?n their restless splendid bodies the hairs blossomed erect. The became restless with the desire to en>o amorous pastimes. /1. Krishna and the gopis then en>o ed the ten rasas favorable to con>ugal love, rasas that are# astonishment, dread, anger, ghastliness, respect for elders or superiors, compassion, chivalr , laughter, neutralit , and con>ugal love one after the other. Finall The en>o ed the rasa of con>ugal love. /3. 0andering in the forest, Krishna and gopis saw in the full moon's light man wonderful varieties of birds, beasts, vines, and trees, some The had "nown before and some The had never "nown before. 5n this wa The tasted the rasa of astonishment. /6. -ometimes The entered forest groves filled with wild bees gathering pollen from hosts of flowers. The gopis became afraid. Krishna calmed them with sweet words. 5n this wa the gopis e(perienced the rasa of dread. /9. 0hen sometimes a bold blac" bee stung a gopi and brought to her difficult-to-remove tears, Krishna, )is e es now become li"e red lotus flowers almost touching )is shar"-shaped earrings, violentl punished that bee, stri"ing him with a formidable long-stemmed pastime-lotus-flower. 5n this wa Krishna en>o ed the rasa of anger. /:. -ometimes a gopi, her splendid face filled with charming pla fulness, saw a lotus-flower growing from the dr ground and (unaware that some species of lotus grow not in ponds but on dr land) became filled with shoc" and horror. 5n this wa that gopi e(perienced the rasa of ghastliness. 1;. -ometimes, learning the arts of sweet warbling from a group of parrots, a gopi, now those her teachers and she their student would sing ver sweetl . 5n this wa she e(perienced the rasa of being respectful to elders or superiors. 11. -ometimes, seeing that in the course of Their agitated pastimes the had crushed some graceful buds on a flowering vine, Krishna and the gopis shed a few tears from Their e es. 5n this wa The e(perienced the rasa of compassion. 1+. -ometimes, to brea" into pieces the great festival of their pride, Krishna engaged the graceful banana-tree-thigh-li"e gopis in pastimes of amorous battle. 5n this wa )e a the en>o ed the rasa of chivalr . 1.. -ometimes, seeing Their shadows move here and there in e(aggerated wa s as The en>o ed amorous pastimes, Krishna and the gopis would laugh greatl . 5n this wa The en>o ed the rasa of laughter. 1/. -ometimes, e(hausted after en>o ing man pastimes, Krishna and the gopis, feeling Their hearts renounce the happiness The formerl felt b touching each other, now happil closed Their e es in sleep. 5n this wa The e(perienced the rasa of neutralit . 11. -ometimes, even though alread e(hausted b en>o ing man wild amorous pastimes, Krishna and the gopis continued to en>o again and again, sta ing awa"e the whole night, awa"e and alwa s plunged in the

ocean of passionate amorous pastimes. 5n this wa Krishna and )is gopibeloveds en>o ed pastimes of con>ugal love. 13. -eeing a blac" bee "iss a flowering vine and a parrot "iss a pomegranate, amorous Krishna earned to "iss the gopis. 16. Krishna is li"e a blac" bee that bites the lips of the lotus flowers and tastes their nectar. Even from afar seeing the charming gopis, Krishna is overcome with passionate desire. 19. Da,ing and ga,ing at the moonlight, Brindavana forest, its man groves, the couches in those groves, Krishna and the doe-e ed gopis, and Their amorous pastimes, m heart is enchanted. 2ow it turns from all material things. Da,ing at these things in relation to Krishna, m heart at once goes to them. $h, how shall 5 ever loo" at material things again< 1:. The gopis have thus been described in a general wa . )owever, more specificall it ma be said# The virtues of the other gopis ma be described, &ut the glor and good fortune of -ri 'adha cannot be described. 2o one has the power to describe all )er glories. 5f )er glories are described, then all other descriptions are chased far awa . 3;. Even while the embraced Krishna, the gopis feared the moment when the would be separated from )im, and that fear became a wrin"le present in their pastimes with )im. *eaving their homes, the went to forest cottages to en>o pastimes with Krishna. 5n those places their pastimes with Krishna became full blossomed. &ut even then the remembered that the cruel reddish dawn would eventuall come (and stop these pastimes). 31. $t the end of night the eastern hori,on becomes reddish, the moon begins to set in the west, the white lotus flowers close their petals, and, fearing that the night will soon end, Krishna's beloved gopis wither with sorrow. 3+. Fl ing in the s" in their airplanes, the demigoddesses sa # $ being ma start in a lowl position, eventuall become raised to an e(alted position, and then fall again to a lowl position. *oo". The beautiful-faced gopis' faces, the blue lotus flowers, and moon have all fallen from an e(alted position. 3.. $lasA The moon, which is the friend of the lotus flowers and the friend of all who burn with sorrow has fallen into the western ocean. The blue lotus flowers are now embarrassed b the pla ful gopis' sidelong glances. 3/. Bra>a's gopi-goddesses sa # The reddish dawn now Fuic"l rises and conFuers the s" . 2ow the stars and we gopis are all crushed into powder. 31. Thin"ing of their condition, Krishna, whose nature is alwa s glorious and auspicious and whose is eternall a graceful teenager, wiped the tears flowing along the lotus faces of the gopis, who dropped hints of embracing )im and hints of the great glor of their love for )im. =omforting them, Krishna said# 33. ? gopi-friend, 0hen 5 held ou in ! arms, 5 did not allow that opportunit to be bro"en into pieces b an thing else. $lthough ! desires were all fulfilled, ! heart was still not satisfied. ?ur relatives and elders became obstacles that stopped the fulfillment of ?ur desires. 2ow is the time

ou must return home. ? friend, please do not wilt with sorrow. 36. $fter first touching Krishna with their hands, embracing )im, and en>o ing pastimes as before, the gopis finall departed and wal"ed on the path to Bra>a. 39. $lthough in )is heart )e was submissive to the gopis' wishes, Krishna also considered the needs of the others who dearl loved )im. Krishna acted as good people act. 3:. 2ow separated from Krishna, the more than ten million gopis returned to their own villages. The did not "now what to do. The gopis who were Krishna's most confidential associates sta ed in the court ards of their own homes with their gopi-friends. There the en>o ed pastimes. 6;. The gopis gave all honor to Krishna. E(pertl )e had "issed them. Tightl )e had embraced them. The believed )is words. %id )e act to bring auspiciousness to them, or did )e not< 5 do not "now. 61. Their voices cho"ed with emotion, the gopis said to Krishna# 72ow we have to power to associate with 8ou. ? Krishna, please hear our appeal. -aintl persons do not abandon persons the once accepted.7 6+. -eparated from each other, Krishna and the gopis were overcome. The were bathed and hugged b the tears falling from their e es. Their bodies were covered with tears. Their chests were wet with tears. Their hearts were melting with tears. 6.. )earing the tumultuous warbling of man birds, Krishna and the gopis "new, 7%awn is here.7 The were ver surprised. The suddenl possessed a great wealth of trembling. Tears fell from their e es. The were rapt in thin"ing of each other. 2ow the would be separated. 6/. $gain and again 'adha and Krishna ga,ed at each other with croo"ed e es. $gain and again The wept. That The somehow had the power to return to Their homes was not surprising. $fter all, saintl and righteous persons, without an resistance, alwa s do what is right. 61. 0hen the were separated from )im, Krishna's gopi-beloveds felt great sorrow ta"e birth in their hearts. )owever, 'adha felt the worst "ind of torment when -he was separated from Krishna. 63. 5n the autumn moonlight Krishna and the gopis had en>o ed man pastimes. 2ow the saw that the brahma-muhurta had come. $lthough Their hearts were filled with effulgence, The carefull covered Their bodies. The wal"ed on hidden paths. 5n their hearts the meditated on these pastimes. The thirsted after more pastimes. 5n this wa , e(hausted, The entered Bra>a village. 66. E(ternall , the rasa-dance festival came to an end, but in did not end within the gopis' hearts. 5t is said# 0hen the rasa-dance festival had come to an end, the beautiful-e ed gopis became diligentl engaged in their household duties. -till, the alwa s thought of those pastimes of singing and dancing. 5t was as if those pastimes were alwa s manifesting before their e es. 69. 5n the rasa-dance pastimes Krishna was the amorous hero and the man gopis were )is amorous heroines. 0ith their glories the beautiful-e e

browed gopis defeated even Doddess *a"shmi herself. Their forms were sweet li"e nectar. The were supremel pure and free from an imperfection. The wise poets strive to describe all their glories. -till, the poets cannot completel describe all the gopis glories, the gopis who were worshiped and praised b -rila -u"adeva Dosvami. 6:. Then -nigdha"antha said# $hA 0here did the four bo s go< 9;. !adhu"antha replied# &efore the had climbed a great tree. Then the eagerl wal"ed on the path to their master's house. 2ow the are silent. 91. 5n this wa !adhu"antha described the rasa-dance pastime. Three amas of the night had passed. 5nterrupting his rapt meditation on Krishna's pastimes, he folded his hands and said# 9+. ? beautiful and glorious 'adha, the demigods who control the three worlds were delighted b the rasa dance. The all worship 8our beloved Krishna. 9.. $gain and again calling the honored bo -poets to )is side, lotus-e ed Krishna gave them as gifts the ver ornaments )is gopi-beloveds wore. 9/. Ever one there celebrated a great festival of giving gifts to the two poets. Ever one was glorious with great splendor. The gave gifts as if the were one person and not man . Then the became engaged in their own activities again. Then the brahma-muhurta moment came. Fatigued, the all returned to their own homes.

%wenty-ninth Purana &ahah-kutuhala-vaha-bahala-rahah-kri"a Secret Pastimes ,ith -any Secret ,on"ers an" Pleasures

1. -nigdha"anta again described evening pastimes, sa ing# 0hen the left the rasa dance and turned to their homes, the gopis did not fear their "insmen, for *ord Krishna's ma a potenc had manifested duplicates of ever gopi at ever house. $ware of this, the gopis simpl returned home b the regular path. +. Brinda arranged that man nights would be passed in nectar rasadance pastimes. 5n man wa s she helped *ord Dovinda. .. Brinda and the gopis planted tamala trees and splendid plants on the pathwa s leading far from Bra>a, pathwa s Krishna's gopi-beloveds traveled to meet Krishna. 5n this wa the served *ord )ari. /. The made these arrangements in the various forests. Thus the helped Krishna's gopi-beloveds en>o rasa-dance pastimes with Krishna at night. 1. $gain and again Krishna embraces )is gopi-beloveds, whose graceful thighs are li"e banana-tree trun"s. $gain and again )e en>o s pastimes

where the become li"e nec"laces around )im. $gain and again )e holds them to )is chest. 3. 0ith the help of a gopi who is li"e the greatest cheater of all cheaters, Krishna personall enters the gopis houses. The following is a hint of the direction these pastimes ta"e. )elped b *alita, Krishna disguises )imself in Bisha"ha's garments. 5n this disguise )e enters 'adha's house in the dar"ness of night. -ometimes with Bisha"ha's help Krishna disguises )imself in *alita's garments. 6. There, in the blinding dar"ness, to a contrar gopi )e desired, Krishna, pretending to be her gopi-friend, spo"e these words# 7The handsome-e e browed best of the gopas earns to become our friend. That this is true 5 vow to ou. 4lease accept )is friendship.7 9 and :. 5f somehow the elderl gopis enter the forest place near where lotus-e ed Krishna is en>o ing pastimes with the teenage gopis, Krishna en>o s fun at the elder gopis e(pense. 0ith the help of )is gopi-beloved, Krishna e(pertl tric"s the elder gopis. For e(ample, Krishna ma sa # 7? elder gopi, a demigod now threatens both ou and !e with fearful dangers. 4ushed b his counselors, that demigod is about to crush these forests and pasturelands into powder. Therefore ou should not go here and there in the forest.7 1;. 5n another situation a teenage gopi ma sa # 7? elder gopi, the outline of a shar"-shaped earring ( ou see) impressed into m "un"uma-anointed chee" was made b the earring of one of m gopi-friends. That is the truth. 5t was not made b me, nor was it made b one of m rivals. That is not a lie.7 Translator's note# 5n this situation *ord Krishna's shar"-shaped earring was pressed against this gopi's "un"uma-anointed chee", leaving an impression in the "un"uma. The elder gopi sees it and suspects Krishna is the origin of the mar", but the ounger gopi denies it, spea"s a lie, and then denies she was l ing. 11. 5n this verse the girl affirms that her gopi-friend made the mar" and not one of her gopi-rivals. The poet repeating her words affirms here that the oung gopi is l ing. Proshita-bhartrika .$ Gopi 'istrau ht Because )rishna *as Gone to a !araway Place/ 1+. $ gopi who sta s in Bra>a and is distraught (at Krishna's absence) is called proshita-bhartri"a. 1.. !editating on -uch a gopi, Krishna ma thin" in this wa # 78ou ga,e at, tal" with, touch, and embrace 'adha.8ou are happ to see how -he even imitates 8our actions. $h, 8ou do not believe -he is on the verge of death. 5f -he dies, what will 8ou sa then< 0ill 8ou be happ then<7 1/. $ gopi ma sa to -ri Krishna# 7For )er ornaments seem li"e the flames of a fire and the flames of a fire seem li"e ornaments. )ow can others

console 'adha, now that -he is separated from 8ou< 11. 75 clearl said, J8ou are 'adha's ver life's breath, and 'adha is 8our ver life's breath.7 ? master Krishna, 5 am ver wretched, for b continuing to live and breathe 5 now ma"e light of these words 5 spo"e.7 0tkanthita .$ Gopi ,ho 1earns %o -eet )rishna/ 13. 5n this situation a gopi ma sa to Krishna# 'adha is pushed b an intense desire for 8our association, but 8ou are not pushed b an such desire. ? Krishna, 'adha is not attracted to this happiness, the happiness of renunciation. 16. 70ith tears, trembling, becoming pale, faltering of the voice, standing erect of the bod 's hairs, perspiration, becoming stunned, and bewilderment, an intense earning for 8our association, a earning li"e a particle of food caught in )er throat and cho"ing )er breath, now torments 'adha. 19. 7? Krishna, 8ou possess all virtues. 8our glor is free of an fault. 0h , then, do 8ou torment the heart of 'adha, who is li"e virtue personified<7 $bhisarika .$ Gopi ,ho Goes %o -eet )rishna/ 1:. $ gopi ma spea" to 'adha these >o"ing words# 7? girl wal"ing with such determination, ? girl with restless e es, where are 8ou going at sunset< 5 do not "now the glorious destination that sta s in the thoughts of 8our heart. -till, when 8ou see a dar" tamala tree, 8ou become stunned and cannot move. Then 8ou tr to hide in the midst of all 8our tric" gopi-friends. +;. 7The sun, which is li"e a >ewel glistening in the s" , now sets on the eastern hori,on. &ut 8ou are hurr ing to the east. 5 thin" 8ou must be going to Krishna. 8ou must have services to render to )im.7 +1. The meeting of Krishna and the gopis is described in the following words# 7Filled with ecstas , other girls hurr to their rende,vous with Krishna in the white moonlit night. Their blissful smiles, born from thin"ing of the touch of their beloved Krishna's bod , have made their white garments and ornaments all pathetic and useless in comparison. ++. 74oets e(plain that the vra>a-gopis mistoo" the dar"ness of night for Krishna )imself. -till, the secret truth is that Krishna is indeed ver li"e that dar"ness. +.. 7From the beginning the gopis' hearts trembled. $s the began to wal", their feet became stunned. 0hen in their hearts the saw Krishna meeting with them, their bodies became stunned. %estin is the supreme cause that brought these gopis with gracefull curved e ebrows to their rende,vous with Krishna. %estin forcibl attracted them to Krishna.7 +/. -ometimes, even during the da time, one gopi will tric" another gopi into a meeting with Krishna. $n e(ample of this is seen in these words# 7? gopi-friend, loo"A The peacoc"s are fearlessl dancing ever where. 5n their

midst a bo li"e a new rainclouded en>o s pastimes with great splendor.7 The bo in this secluded place is Krishna. Vasaka-sa22a .$ Gopi ,ho #arefully 'ecorates *erself for a -eetin with )rishna/ +1. $ vra>a-gopi pic"s flowers and with them carefull decorates a bed. $hA 5n the three worlds there is no bed li"e this. Even in the pathwa s of Bai"untha there is no bed li"e this. =arefull dressed and adorned to meet her lover, this gopi shines with great splendor. 2o one is her eFual. -urrounded b her gopi-friends, she thin"s onl of her lover, Krishna. -he thin"s of none but )im. +3. %escribing a gopi overcome with longings to meet Krishna, another gopi sa s to Krishna# 7$fter decorating the bed, this gopi became rapt in thin"ing of 8our imminent arrival. -he could not bear even a single moment without seeing 8ou. 0hen she saw that 8ou were not coming, she was overwhelmed and, with her trembling, ca"ra-mar"ed hands, she tore apart all the decorations she had carefull arranged.7 Vipralab"ha .$ Gopi #heate" by )rishna, ,ho 'i" 3ot #ome to the &en"e4vous/ +6. 5n this situation one gopi sa s to Krishna#7? supreme master, 8our arrival brings not onl pleasure and liberation, but it also places in the hearts of 8our friend's devotion to 8ou.7 This verse ma also be interpreted# 7? supreme master, 8our arrival does not bring sense-gratification or liberation. 5nstead, it places in the hearts of 8our friend's devotion to 8ou.7 )han"ita .$ Gopi #heate" by )rishna/ +9. 5n this situation a gopi ma sa to Krishna# 7Even without scratching her with 8our fingernails or an thing else 8ou ripped this girl into shreds. ? Krishna, this shows 8our supreme s"ill.7 Translator's note# )ad Krishna met with that gopi, )e would have en>o ed amorous pastimes with her and those pastimes would have included amorous bites and scratches. )owever, Krishna did not meet with her. Hilted b )im, she felt she had been ripped into shreds. +:. $ gopi-messenger ma rebu"e a "handita (>ilted b Krishna) gopi in these sarcastic words#7? glorious, proud, worship able girl, our friends have all heard the news of what happened to ou. 8ou should worship our glorious pastimes with Dovinda.7 .;. To a gopi ferocious with >ealous anger a gopi-friend ma sa #7? 'adha, wh are 8ou so proud< 0h do 8ou plan to fire from 8our e es a flaming arrow of >ealous anger< $fter all, Krishna will certainl counteract it with the monsoon-cloud weapon of )is glance.7

.1. The following is a conversation of a gopi and her lover Krishna who, although he respectfull approaches her, nevertheless bears the red scratch mar"s and other mar"s of having en>o ed pastimes with a rival gopi# .+. Krishna# &elovedA Dopi# &elovedA Krishna# 0h is our face so dar"ened with anger< Dopi# 8ou are pathetic. 8ou don't "now< Krishna# Know what< Dopi# The scratch mar"s and bite mar"s 8ou are tr ing to hide. Krishna# Those came from a ra"shasi. )iding, she attac"ed !e. ... The following words are spo"en to that gopi b her gopi-friend#7 *ightning on a glistening cloud stri"es fear into people's hearts.? bewildered gopi-friend, wh do ou continue to smile and spea" >o"ing with words with Krishna< 5 would not praise the colorful mar"s that now adorn )is chest.7 ./. That wronged gopi ma then sa to Krishna# 7The blac" an>ana well covers the red scratch-mar"s on 8our chest, but the bite-mar"s on 8our lips are still clearl visible. .1. 7$ dar" cloud comes from the dar"ened western hori,on. Embarrassed, that cloud tries to hide the mar" it bears, the mar" of the moon.7 Translator's note# 5n this verse the dar" cloud is Krishna and the mar" of the moon is the mar" of =andravali's scratches on Krishna's chest. .3. 7? unconFuerable Krishna, it was not wrong for 8ou to manifest a female form (!ohini), nor was it wrong for 8ou to become a tortoise (Kurma) that too" shelter of a great mountain (-umeru), nor was it wrong that 8ou delighted a goddess with nectar.7 Translator's note# These sarcastic words hint the following hidden meaning# 75t was not wrong for 8ou to ma"e the gopis fall in love with 8ou, nor was it wrong for 8ou to become li"e a turtle ta"ing shelter of the great mountains of =andravali's breasts, nor was it wrong for 8ou to delight Doddess =andravali was man nectar pastimes.7 .6. 7!e 8ou abandon. )er 8ou delight with pastimes. ?ne 8ou abandon and the other 8ou bless. .9. 7$ lust bo does not distinguish if a girl is sweet li"e nectar or dr and without a single nectar drop. *oo" at KrishnaA Even though )is flute is completel dr , )e still tries to drin" nectar from it.7 .:. To these words Krishna replies#7? 'adha, 8our form is slender, 8our heart is gentle and soft, and 8our intelligence is sharp. 0h , then, does >ealous anger rest within 8ou< This Fuestion 5 as". /;. 7)ow do such cruel words come from 8our mouth and the flower-petal that is 8our tongue< $hA 5 "now now. These words must come from the thunderbolt that is 8our heart. /1. 78our gentle "indness does not please !e as much as this >ealous anger where 8ou attac" !e and show 8our independent spirit. /+. 7? 'adha, 8our anger pains !e, but then again it is li"e blows struc"

with a pastime lotus-flower, blows that give no pain at all. $hA This anger to !e is li"e the pain 8our feet ma feel when the touch the hairs on ! chest.7 /.. To Krishna's sweet words 'adha gives the following repl # 7)ow can 5 tolerate separation from 8ou< ? master of the goddess of fortune, 5 cannot tolerate that fearsome separation. 5t is li"e an $gast a !uni drin"ing up the ocean of ! happiness, or li"e a strong wind that blows awa the clouds of ! peaceful composure, or li"e an air-eating sna"e devouring the air of ! life's breath, or li"e a great fire bla,ing in the forest of ! bod .7 //. -eeing her gopi-friend weeping, another gopi said to Krishna# 7-unset is red, and da is colorless. &ecause of sunset, da never touches night, which has a dar" heart.7 Translator's note# 5n these gnomic words sunset is 'adha, da is Krishna, and night is =andravali. The hint here is# &ecause of 'adha, Krishna should never approach =andravali. /1. )ere the hint is# 7? Krishna, 8ou are "nown to be ver contrar . Therefore 8ou are not free of fault in this matter.7 /3. Then the gopi filled with >ealous anger sa s to her gopi-friend#7? croo"ed girl, the oil of affection is now spilled. 2ow the flame is e(tinguished in the lamp that sta s in m heart. 0h do ou rebu"e Krishna for )is misdeed< )is misdeed is ver slight. 2o longer am 5 a partisan. 2ow 5 am neutral. 5f Krishna finds happiness with man different gopis, then who suffers on that account<7 /6. Then, to ma"e 'adha's tears go awa , Krishna spea"s these tric" words# 7&oo"s on the science of >ewels declare that pearls come from o sters. $haA 5 see some pearls. 2ow ! hand will gather these pearls from 8our face, ? proud girl filled with >ealous anger.7 /9. 2ow will be described the Kahalahantarita gopi, who openl spea"s to Krishna the averse she feels to )im in her heart. )alahantarita-bharrtrika .$ Gopi Separate" from )rishna Because of a 5over+s 6uarrel/ /:. 5n this situation a gopi thin"s#7? heart, if with >ealous anger ou wish to subdue Krishna, then, even if Krishna is made into our submissive servant, should ou not abandon )im as useless<7 1;. $ gopi-friend ma sa to Krishna# 7? !urari, 8ou must thin" the girl who scratched 8our chest is 8our dear most beloved. This thought ma"es flames glisten in our e es. 11. 7? beloved of the gopis, this proud girl, who considers honor her ver life, and who has now been dishonored b 8ou, and who is now on the verge of death, her life's breath about to flee from her bod , is 8our true dear most beloved.7 1+. *eaving these hostile gopis, Krishna then went far awa . )owever# 1.. Then the music of Krishna's bamboo flute made the hairs of proud,

>ealous, angr 'adha stand erect with bliss. 1/. $pproaching 'adha, a proud and contrar gopi sa s# 0h did 8ou not spea" harsh words< 0h in 8our heart have 8ou no anger toward the offender Krishna< $lasA $lasA 5 am alwa s in disgrace. 8ou will never find happiness with that offender Krishna.7 11. 'adha thin"s in her heart# 7! dear gopi-friend sa s, J8ou should be angr and >ealous.' &ut 5 do not understand >ealous anger at all. 5f b some croo"ed activities 5 could attain ! wishes, then what are those croo"ed activities< $hA ! heart earns to ga,e at dar" Krishna's smiling lotus e es. $hA $hA )ow can 5 have an other desire< 13. 7$lthough )e has committed an offense, ! heart still loves )im. 5 have no power to renounce )im. )ow can 5 ever leave Krishna<7 16. Dlor to *ord Krishna's sweet flute-music, which attracts -ri 'adha and also attracts the gopis that counsel )er to become ferocious with >ealous anger. 19. To Krishna who, ga,ing at 'adha's face, doubts that an simile or metaphor can be spo"en to describe )er properl , a gopi sa s#7? Krishna, do not be so bold to thin" that the moon can be compared to 'adha's face. )er e ebrows are all-conFuering archer's-bows. &ending those bows, -he shoots man arrow-glances from )er e es.7 1:. 5t is also said#7 Da,ing at Krishna, 'adha has become li"e a bumblebee in a lotus forest, or li"e a saphari fish in a pleasant la"e. 5t is not otherwise.7 Sva"hina-bhartrika .$ Gopi ,ho 'ominates )rishna/ 3;. )er lover Krishna alwa s begs boons from )er. )is desire is not merel to touch )er. $gain and again -he gives )im commands.7 Tie ! belt7, -he sa s. $gain and again feeling the touch of Krishna's bod to )er bod , -he is filled with bliss as if -he had become Doddess *a"shmi herself. 31. 0hen Krishna praises 'adha's beaut , -he does not listen, for -he is rapt in ga,ing at )is wonderfull handsome form. 3+. 5n a secluded place tal"ing amongst themselves, the gopis sa , 7Even though in Their pastimes -he is li"e a campa"a vine subordinate to the tamala tree Krishna, we "now that because of )er great passion and dominating spirit -he ma"es Krishna into )er subordinate. -he dominates Krishna. 3.. The following is a song m spiritual master, -rila 'upa Dosvami, taught in a dream, a song the gopi *alita sings in *alita-raga earl in the morning. $ Son jagaranad atha kunja-vare vikshita-bhaskara-ruci-nikare kanta-nidra-bhanga-kare

api sankalita-sva-parikare ( e!rain" mama dhir majjati kamsa-hare mauli-shikhopari-pincha-dhare $wa"ened b seeing the splendid morning sunlight in the beautiful forestgrove, Krishna brea"s the sleep of )is beloved as )er gopi-friends gather around Them. ('efrain) ! consciousness is now absorbed in thin"ing of Kamsahara Krishna, who wears a peacoc"-feather crown. muhur ullasita-yuvati-nikare samam anya bahir anya-care ghana-gahanadhvani gamana-pare tatra ca bahu-krita-sukha-vitare asha-stambhita-viraha-gare dhamni sanatana-sharma-hare The oung gopis please )er again and again, and lead )er down the path through the dense forest. 5n the forest -he was ver happ , but at home )er eternal happiness is stolen awa . $t home -he has become bitten b the poisonous sna"e of separation from )er lover. -he is now stunned with the desire to meet )im. 3/. ?n another da the gopis' good fortune described in these words# 5n the forest noting that dear 'adha was determined to dominate Krishna, a smiling gopi placed sleeping Krishna's flute in 'adha's hand and Krishna's peacoc"-feather crown on )er head. To this gopi 'adha said# 7%ear girl, while ! lover sleeps on this pleasant forest bed, ou robbed )is flute and brought it to !e. 5 see 8ou can wal" on a path even 5 dare not tread.7 33. $s a farmer plows after the monsoon season, so Krishna, obedient to the gopis' wishes, observed the vasanta-pancami festival, sang songs in Basanta-raga, and en>o ed pastimes with the gopis. 36. ?n Basanta-pancami, as the bees eagerl flew amongst the flowers and buds, and as the >asmine flowers bloomed, 'adha and the gopis became rapt in thin"ing of Krishna. The gopis became sorrowful at Krishna's absence. Brnda approached them and spo"e some words to ma"e them cheerful. 39. $ gopi said, 7Friend Brinda, wh do ou approach a fool li"e me< $h, ou must have come here to see that charming thing. 3:. Brnda said, 70hat charming thing<7 6;. The gopi said, 7-omething that will delight ou.7 61. Brnda said, 74lease tell me of it.7 6+. The gopi said, 70hen 'adha saw the beaut of springtime, -he was overcome with feelings of separation from Krishna. -eeing 'adha in this wa , a certain gopi tried to console )er. $ccompanied b her gopi-friends, that gopi sang the following song in Basanta-raga. 5n that wa she attracted

Krishna to that place. The song is given below. 6.7 $ Son 'efrain krishna-vanam sakhi bhati sa-rangam bhavatim iva laghu netum adhisham sevita-madhurasa-sangham ? friend, Krishna's blissful forest has now come to Fuic"l bring 8ou to its charming "ing. jagara-mitam iva madhavika-shatam anukrita-jrimbha-bhangam cumbati madhupa-gane krita-bhangi smarayati priya-sangam )undreds of madhvi"a vines blossom, as if awning on first wa"ing up. Their flowers "iss the bumblebees, reminding 8ou of the meeting with 8our lover Krishna. sa-rasa-rasalaja-makula-kulam paripulakayad iva samam angam akaritam iva tava kurute pika-kulam anukalayad anangam The sweet mango buds are li"e the forest's hairs standing up with >o . The cooing cuc"oos seem to call 8ou to en>o amorous pastimes with 8our lover. tvam celakali-candana-maruta vasayatanu-lavangam karshati madhuripu-madhu-parvodita-vina-venu-mridangam The lavanga-scented bree,e from the sandalwood forest sha"es 8our garment and draws 8ou to the sounds of the flute, lute, and drum in Krishna's springtime festival. nitayam tvayi madhavi madhava-madhava-gana-tarangam kirati paraga-cayam locanam iva natayati caru-kurangam ? 'adha, as 8ou approach, the waves of music from Krishna's springtime festival sprin"le 8ou with their pollen and ma"e 8our e es gracefull dance li"e the beautiful e es of a doe. iti sa labdhva vallabham anisham manasa valita sangam jayati nirupama-rupini madhye yamuna-manasa-gangam $ttaining in this wa the compan of 8our lover, to whom 8our heart turns da and night, 8ou gloriousl shine, ? incomparabl beautiful one, on the shores of the 8amuna and !anasa-ganga.

6/. 5n this situation the following verse is given# -pringtime ma"es the forest ver beautiful. 5t ma"es the gopis eager to en>o amorous pastimes. 5t fills this place with a sweet fragrance. ? gopi-friend, loo"A -pringtime is manifest now. Translator's note# The word for springtime here is madhava7. Therefore this verse ma also be interpreted to refer to Krishna instead of spring. 61. )earing these words, Krishna appeared before Brnda and the gopis. $ Son 'efrain radha harir api pulaki-vasantam gayati nija-mudam anu vikasantam Their transcendental happiness in full bloom, 'adha and Krishna sing a song in vasanta-raga. upadishate dishi dishi gunayantam pikam anu pancamam ati-cirayantam $ cuc"oo sings a sustained fifth note. 'adha and Krishna imitate him, singing out to ever direction. vasanti-madhu rahasi dhayantam shamsati madhuliham anu gayantam -inging in imitation of his humming, 'adha and Krishna glorif a bumblebee that drin"s the hone of a vasanti flower in a secluded place. madhu-rasam anu ganam ramayantam rasayati vinimitam adharam ayantam $s 'adha and Krishna sing Their lips touch. 5n this wa The taste the sweetest nectar. malayaja-surabhi-dhuram khanjantam kavayati gandha-vaham prasajantam 'adha and Krishna glorif the ver fragrant bree,e that slowl limps from the !ala a )ills. vadya-ganam guna-valita-dig-antam anu nrityati mada-lola-drig-antam

'adha and Krishna hear beautiful instrumental music from a distant place. The corners of Their e es happil dance in time with the music. capala-ghana-sama-rucim anu tam tam natayati shikhi-ganam api nipatantam 'adha and Krishna's luster, which is li"e a monsoon cloud and lightning, ma"es the peacoc"s dance. 2ote# 4eacoc"s are fond of the monsoon season, and the show their pleasure b >ubilantl dancing. The thought 'adha and Krishna were a raincloud and lightning, and so the naturall showed their pleasure to see Them. kirati curnam anu purna-danantam samam ali-lalanabhir anantam The gopis fill the air with a limitless shower of fragrant powder. shramajala-kana-ganam anu vilasantam vahati paraga-bharam rucimantam =overed with drops of perspiration and colorful, fragrant powder, 'adha and Krishna are splendidl beautiful. 63. The gopis remembered how the went to meet Krishna in spite of their elders' attempts to stop them. 66. The gopis carefull watched Krishna. The had submissive Krishna under their control. The were unhapp when the were separated from )im, and )e was unhapp when )e was separated from them. 69. The passionate lover Krishna watches the pathwa . )e pla s )is flute. )is sends messengers. -he is attracted, but )er elders firml prevent )er. 5t is all to no avail. The hearts of 'adha and Krishna must remain separate. 6:. The thoughts in 'adha's and Krishna's hearts are described in these words# 75 cannot see )er. 2ow )er "insmen are happ . $hA &ut 5 thin" -he must be ver unhapp now. ! power to meet with )er is now crushed into powder. $lasA 0hat shall 5 do now< 0hat shall 5 do<7 9;. 7Tonight ! elders all watch !e. $lasA Tonight amorous pastimes with ! beloved will not touch !e. ?nl in ! dreams will 5 see ! beloved. 5 thin" that if 5 sta awa"e, and thus do not see ! beloved in ! dreams, 5 will not be able to sta alive. ?A ?A ? dar" Krishna, where are 8ou now<7 Translator's note# This verse is ambiguous and ma be interpreted for either 'adha or Krishna. The above translation is interpreted for 'adha. 5n the interpretation for Krishna the last line becomes# 7?A ?A ? 'adha, ?

beloved of Krishna, where are 8ou now<7 91. 0ithout beautiful 'adha and dar" Krishna, the gopis felt sorrowful as if flames bla,ed in their hearts. 9+. The elders were angr . The prevented the gopis from going to Krishna. Then Krishna created a tric", a tric" that consisted of a great thirst to visit hol pilgrimage places. 9.. Krishna's gopi beloved thought of going on pilgrimage. 4ilgrimage glistened in their hearts. The considered it ver important. 9/. 0hen Dovinda ascended a great cart to depart for pilgrimage, the gopis ga,ed at )im. Their shac"les now fallen awa , the birds of the gopis' glances flew to Krishna. 91. 2ight after night, as the various constellations slowl passed b the moon in the s" , Krishna en>o ed pastimes with the gopis. 93. 0ith the gopis, who had come from afar, who passionatel earned to meet with )im, who were dressed in glorious garments, who were >o ful and pla ful, who had cheated their elders, who had renounced ever thing, and who were free from material dualit , *ord Krishna en>o ed man pastimes on that pilgrimage path. 96. $lso, while the people of Do"ula were on pilgrimage, Krishna, disguised as a girl, would meet with the gopis and en>o pastimes with them. 99. %isguised as a girl learned in astrolog , mantras, oga, and Tantras, Krishna en>o ed the following conversation pastime# 'adha# ? all-"nowing girl, what is the most blissful place in the three worlds< Krishna-disguised-as-a-learned-girl# Krishna's land of Bra>a. 'adha# 5n this world what is the best activit to perform for one's livelihood< %isguised Krishna# -inging songs about Krishna 'adha# 0hat activit brings the most auspicious result< %isguised Krishna# The desire to attain Krishna. 'adha# 0hat is most delightful< %isguised Krishna# Krishna's handsome form. 'adha# 0hat is the best goal one can attain< %isguised Krishna# The attainment of Krishna's association. !a the tric"ster Krishna, who conversed with 'adha in this wa , protect us all. 9:. %isguised as a gopi-messenger, Krishna conversed with 'adha in this wa # 'adha# 0ho are 8ou< Krishna-disguised-as-a-gopi-messenger# 5 am a messenger. 'adha# 0ho sent 8ou< %isguised Krishna# 8our master.

'adha# 0hat are 8our Fualifications< %isguised Krishna# ! Fualifications are eFual to those of 8our master. 'adha# =an 8ou prove 8ou are Fualified li"e ! master< %isguised Krishna# 8es. Ta"e !e to a private room and 8ou ma ga,e at ! bod . -impl b hearing Krishna's croo"ed words 'adha could understand the true identit of )er guest, that )er guest was actuall the ob>ect of )er desire. :;. 2ight after night Krishna, disguised in various wa s, would meet with 'adha, who was anguished in separation from )im, and converse with )er, chasing awa )er feelings of separation. -ome e(amples of these pastimes are described below. -eeing Krishna described as a girl who is a ph sician, 'adha said# 7? friend, 8ou are a dar"-limbed ph sician. 4lease cure the flames of anguish that burn in ! heart.7 Krishna-in-disguise too" the pulse at 'adha's hand. Then )e proceeded to touch 'adha's limbs, one after the other. Finall 'adha protested, 7-topA 0h do 8ou touch !e again and again<7 :1. To Krishna disguised as a girl flute-pla er, 'adha said, 78ou are a dar"limbed flute-pla ing girl. 8our home is far awa . 2ot one of 8our friends lives nearb . The night has half passed. 8ou ma sleep on ! bed.7 :+. 0hen Krishna came disguised as a poetess, 'adha said, This dar" girl is a peerless poetess. -he is ver learned. )ow does -he "now so man secret truths about !e, secret truths 5 did not even "now ! self<7 :.. 0hen Krishna came as a girl artist, 'adha said, 7? gopi-friend, this dar" girl is an artist. 5n a secluded place -he showed !e a colorful picture of a girl >ust li"e !e standing ne(t to a peerlessl handsome bo .7 :/. 0hen Krishna came as a girl betel nut-merchant, 'adha said, 7? gopifriend, this secret 5 tell to ou# 5n some past life this girl was someone e(traordinar . -he was not >ust a betel nut-seller. This girl "nows mantras to bring others under )er spell.7 :1. 0hen Krishna came disguised as a florist girl, 'adha said, 7This dar" florist girl has spread out man garlands for sale. 0h does )er dar" form fill !e with amorous desires<7 :3. 0hen Krishna came disguised as a fruit-merchant girl, 'adha said, 7This dar" fruit-merchant girl has spread out man different fruits for sale. &ut wh , amongst them all, does -he loo" onl at the bilva fruits< Translator's note# The bilva fruit's shape reminds Krishna of 'adha's breasts. :6. 0hen Krishna came disguised as a girl thief, 'adha said, 7This dar" girl is not honest. Gnseen b others, -he has switched )er nec"lace for one more valuable. 2ow -he earns to steal that pearl-nec"lace.7

:9. 0hen Krishna came disguised as a perfume-merchant girl, 'adha said, 7? gopi-friend, 5 purchase the aguru from this perfume-merchant girl. $haA 0hen ma"ing their purchase, ! elder relatives will not sa the words Krishna (aguru) or a"rishna (white sandalwood).7 ::. The following are conversations that hint at Krishna's -rivatsa mar". 1;;. %isguised as a seamstress, Krishna sa s, 75 feel great affection for 8ou. 5 am ver e(pert at sewing. ? gopi-friend, loo" at the graceful bodice that rests on ! chest.7 1;1. %isguised as a cloth-d er girl, Krishna sa s, 75 am a cloth-d er girl. ! name is - ama. 5 am famous in the entire world. ! colorful garments are li"e a lotus flower blossoming over ! chest.7 1;+. %isguised as a mirror-merchant girl, Krishna sa s, 5 come selling mirrors, "armu"as, coral, and pearls. ? girl of Bra>a, if 8ou as", in private 5 will show 8ou ! two >ewelr cases.7 1;.. %isguised as a masseuse, Krishna sa s, 75 am a slender and beautiful girl e(pert at giving massages. 5 wish to serve 8ou. ? glorious girl, ! slightest touch brings happiness that defeats the happiness of &rahman.7 1;/. $pproaching Krishna, who was disguised as a bracelet-merchant girl, the gopis thought, 72ever have we met a girl, gentle or harsh, li"e this girl.7 1;1. 0hen, during a dar"-fortnight, the people of Bra>a went to $mbi"avcana, Krishna manifested man charming forms. &efore each gopi )e appeared in the particular handsome form that gopi wished to see. 1;3. 5f someone sa s Krishna's vra>a-gopi-beloveds are li"e bumblebees fl ing along the pathwa s of the lotus flowers of Krishna's heart, then we doubt that statement is true. 0e sa it is 'adha alone who sta s in the lotus flower of Krishna's heart. 1;6. )ere the final conclusion is given# ? 'adha, handsome Krishna, who "illed &a"asura and ended Bid adhara -udarshana's curse, loves 8ou more than an other girl.

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