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Blast design for underground mining applications

1 R. HOLMBERG

R. Holmberg Lima Nov 2011

Contents
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Contents: 1. Purpose - applications 2. Surface blasting 3. Surface - underground 4. Tunneling 5. Function of cut 6. Design of parallel cut 7. Tunnel rounds 8. Contour blasting 9. Divided faces 10. Shaft sinking
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11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Mining methods Ring layouts Design formula Explosives Decoupled charges Pointers Acknowledgements

Purpose & applications -1


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The purpose is to: Efficiently excavate rock so that the pieces removed can be handled economically Avoid ore losses and waste rock intrusion Obtain the planned contour with no underbreak and as little overbreak as possible Leave the remaining rock stable for as long as the operation requires.

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Purpose & applications -2


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The main applications are Mining; drifting and development work plus full workings Raise blasting and shaft sinking Quarrying Infrastructure; traffic tunnels, hydropower and water tunnels, parking garages, shelters, power house caverns etc Other applications; well springing, seismic operations etc.
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Surface blasting -1
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Quarry; typically identical holes,

parallel, same diameter and same burden and spacing, BS pattern, same charging, q = 0,5-0,9 kg/m3.
Road cut; like quarry but

contour holes , smaller hole diameters, smaller charges and on flatter angle
Foundations; essentially like

road cuts but vertical holes.


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Surface blasting -2
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Open cast mine; like road cut but larger holes and contour gets special emphasis, sometimes smaller holes of different angles and depths.
7540 7520

1st row

production 7500 holes 17 m 311 mm 7480


7460 7440 7420

helper & contour 152 mm

15 m bench
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7400 4480 4500 4520 4540

presplit 127 mm
4560 4580 4600 4620 4640

Surface vs underground - 1
Worldwide: OP >> UG, OP: ore < waste, UG: ore >> waste
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Surface vs underground - 2
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Annually excavated volumes in Sweden LKAB UG mines: 25 Mton Fe-ore, 20 Mton waste Aitik open pit mine: 28 Mton Cu-ore, 30 Mton waste. Other mines and crushed stone, infrastructure projects etc. ~80Mton
Makes about 180 Mton or 6 m3 per capita 70 kton explosives makes about 8 kg per capita

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Surface vs underground - 3
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Tunnelling:

Underground blasting; often more complicated drilling patterns and combinations of blasting methods

fire-in-the-hole!

blasting plan charged & primed

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Tunnelling - 1
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What has happened in tunnelling recent 25 years?

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Tunnelling - 2
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blasting = (38% 2007), small part of total excavation work but outcome often decisive for downstream operations
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Tunnelling - 3
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look-out angle needed to make room for drilling next round, min 0.2-0.3 m, design burden applied to hole bottom (toe) and at face deduct look-out Start- first one free face - the tunnel face. Blasting is confined and specific charge is high q = 1,5-2 kg/m3
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Tunnelling - 4
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Tunnel round with parallel holes

enlargement of cut part

larger empty (void, reamer or burn) holes

cut

blasting starts with cut = opening part of round


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Tunnelling - 5
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Charge calculations for tunnelling can be made according to Chapter 7 in Rock Blasting and Engineering by Persson, Holmberg & Lee. In these OHs simplified rules of thumbs by Finn Oucterlony at Swebrec is used.

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Design of parallell hole cut - 1


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#3

reamer hole = first swelling volume

#1

#2

rock to be broken
#4 - 100 ms

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Design of parallell hole cut - 2


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In principle, choose burden a according to diagram but:

If burden a too large breakage failure (rifling) or choking of flow of rock fragments
If burden a too small burning of rock fragments
Drilling accuracy is most essential!
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Design of parallell hole cut - 3


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Geometric considerations for cartridged explosives:


1st quadrangle: a = 1,5
+

2nd quadrangle: B1

B1 = W1

a W1= 2a

0,5W1
W2 =1,5W12 W1

3rd quadrangle: B2 = W2 & W3 =1,5W22


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4th quadrangle: B3 = W3 & W4 =1,5W32

Design of parallell hole cut - 4


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Charge concentration lb = lp in first quadrangle:


Advance; 0.95*(0.15+34.1 39.42)
In case of several (n) empty holes (d) in the cut use: = dn when estimating advance.

Use an uncharged part at the collar of h0 = a.


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Design of parallell hole cut - 5


Charge concentration lp for 2nd-4th quadrangles:
Charge concentration lp, kg/m
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lp
Bi, i =1, 2, 3 Max burden B, m

Stemming or uncharged length 10d or 0.5B. Bottom part may need lb=2lp to height of 1.25B.
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Tunnel rounds - 1
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Design of parts of round:


Roof or back holes Downward stoping Wall or rib holes Side stoping

1.

Lifters; spacing should not exceed design value S, e.g. width/S = 11,4 means round up to 12 and add 1 hole. Correct B for look-out of 0.20.3 m

2. Wall+roof; same for spacing and

subtract look-out distance 0,2-0,3 m from design burden B. If cautious blasting see below.
if B3 > B0 (next OH) then decrease B3. Place cut to minimize no. of side stope rows.

Cut holes

Helper row

3. Cut; match size of cut to side stope,

Floor holes or lifters Spacing S


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4. Stoping; use same side stope

Burden B

burden < B in all rows, same for downward stope and adjust to even breakage volumes. or lift cut position

5. Helpers; balance contour damage

Tunnel rounds - 2
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Part of round

Burden B m

Spacing S m 1,1 x B 0 1,1 x B 0 1,1 x B 0 1,1 x B 0 1,1 x B 0 1,2 x B 0

Bottom Charge concentration Stemming charge length bottom lb column lp not charged Lb, m 1/3 x H 1/6 x H 1/6 x H 1/3 x H 1/3 x H 1/3 x H kg/m lb lb lb lb lb lb kg/m 1,0 x lb 0,4 x lb 0,3 x lb 0,5 x lb 0,5 x lb 0,5 x lb h0, m 0,2 x B 0 0,5 x B 0 0,5 x B 0 0,5 x B 0 0,5 x B 0 0,5 x B 0

Floor /Lifter Contour: Wall Roof Stoping: Upwards Horiz./Side Downwards

1 x B0 0,9 x B 0 0,9 x B 0 1 x B0 1 x B0 1 x B0

Note: The explosive chosen (density and charge diameter) determines the

charge concentration lb, kg/m. Calculate lp and use next larger cartridge or pipe size for real column charge. Helpers may be designed as stoping holes or with consideration for damage depth. Diagram in next OH gives B0.
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Tunnel rounds - 3
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B0 lb
cartridge,mm

B0, burden at hole bottom or toe vs equiv. charge con-centration lb (kg/m) needed for breakage. Deduct look-out for perimeter holes

cartridged emulsion with alu, suitable for bottom charges


dynamite, e.g. bottom charge same emulsion but in longer pipes, used for column charges bulk ANFO like SSE fills hole, and a proper primer is needed
shifted scales on lines because densities are different

cartridge,mm pipe,mm

blasthole,mm
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Tunnel rounds 4
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Priming and initiation sequence principles


Do not initiate two holes on same delay no. in first two quadrangles.

Detonator no:s #1-22 tell the initiation sequence. In practice it is not usual to have the same delay time between all intervals, see Nonel LP series
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Tunnel rounds 5
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Nonel plastic tube with 17 mg/m of explosive


VoD 2100 m/s

Nonel LP detonators suitable for UG work

New series Nonel LP detonators:

delays up to 6000 ms in steps of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ms


old series detonator no.18100 ms same as new LP 1800 e.g.

LP 0 at 25 ms exception dont use intervals shorter than 100 ms in tunnel rounds without trials R. Holmberg Lima Nov 2011

Tunnel rounds 6
Drilling and charging plan data: from sp TASS tunnel, note look-out
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Part of round Cut Stoping Lifter Helper Contour Holes Spacing Burden no. m m 9 special list 28 0,60 0,60 10 0,50 0,45 17 0,60 0,55 28 0,45 0,60

1m 1m

Part of round Cut Stoping Lifter Helper Contour

Bottom charge Dynomit Dynomit Dynomit Dynomit Dynomit

xL mm 30380 30380 30380 30380 30190

Column charge Dynorex Dynorex Dynorex Dynotex 1 Dynotex 1

xL mm 251100 251100 251100 221000 17 460

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4,3 m

Part of Charge Total Charge length Unround weight part bottom column charged kg/hole kg m m m Cut 2,8 25,2 0,38 3,92 0,3 Stoping 2,8 75,6 0,38 3,92 0,5 Lifter 2,9 29,0 0,38 4,02 0,2 Helper 1,8 32,4 0,38 3,92 0,2 Contour 1,1 30,8 0,19 4,21 0,2

Tunnel rounds 7
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In summary: Only 1 free face to start with when cut fires, tight hole burdens and spacings (high specific charge) Cut design requires special considerations like avoidance of sympathetic detonations and dead pressing Long delays to avoid choking of flow of fragmented rock, up to 6000 ms or more.

Parallel holes in good rock and small tunnels to achieve long pull (parallel & burn hole cuts).
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Tunnel rounds 8
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In summary, ctd: Poor rock requires shorter rounds, angled holes, e.g. fan and plow cuts possible to use if face wide enough to angle booms Depending on local conditions packaged or bulk explosives may be used. With bulk there is no special pipe charge, lp = lb, and primer should be used. Contour and helper row holes are usually more lightly charged than stoping holes; e.g. plastic pipe charges or string emulsion.
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Contour blasting - 1
Why cautious blasting?
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Extent of cautions blasting depends on expected life time of tunnel /cavern /drift etc Less dilution, better ore recovery Less support work, less bolting, less shotcrete or concrete to cast Increased safety Less rock to haul, saves time and money Smooth blasting method used UG to reduce overbreak and blast damage.

without caution

with

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Contour blasting 2
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Cautious and smooth blasting:


By cautious blasting is meant that the cracking in the remaining rock due to blasting, shall be limited to the damage zone depth Rc that has been prescribed for perimeter the perimeter in question. The cracking caused by the stoping and helper holes inside the perimeter helpers or must not reach farther into the stoping holes remaining rock than the cracking from the perimeter/contour holes.

or contour

Smooth blasting uses light decoupled charges in contour and helpers with balanced damage damage zone depths; holes fired last in round. zone radius
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Contour blasting 3
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In Swedish tunneling:
Rc < 0,3 m often required Damage zone table gives charge concentration for Swedish bedrock conditions; 45-51 mm holes. Note: q is given in Dynamite equivalents, multiply real q by 0,73 for Gurit Contour and helper damage zones can be read off curve Holmberg-Persson theory behind line.
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2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5

Damage zone depth Rc, m Rc= 1,9*q

0.0 0.0

Rc = 1,9q; q < 0,5 kg/m Rc = 0,95(q+0,5); q > 0,5 kg/m


0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Charge concentration q, kg DxM/m

Damage zone

Contour blasting - 4
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Recommended charging of countour holes

Notes: Connect charges and use small primer to initiate them *: Damage zone e.g. from 17 mm Gurit Rc = 1,90,230,73 0,3 m
= 0,17 eq kgDxM/m New Swebrec approach explicitly includes effect on Rc of Blast hole diameter and coupling factor Water in blast hole and rock properties Simultaneous initiation using e.g. electronic dets or cord.

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Contour blasting 5
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normal stoping holes

If stoping holes too heavily charged then the cracks will extend beyond damage zone of contour holes. Solution = more lightly charged helper row with adjusted burdens and spacings!

When cracks from holes inside the contour reach no further than the cracks from the contour holes, the damage zones are balanced.
stoping
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Contour blasting 6
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Does it matter? Take 22 mm Gurit Crack length in dry 64 mm hole 15-20 cm Crack length in wet 64 mm hole 45-60 cm Crack length with no decoupling 90-100 cm! Crack lengths with electronic dets shorter than for Nonel detonators if Charge concentration q < 0.6 kg/m and spacing S/B < 1 If decoupling is sufficient and holes are proven dry Initiation simultaneous well within 1 ms.
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Contour blasting - 7
34 Extremely cautious blast with hybrid initiation plan

Nonel + electronic dets (EDD) in contour and helpers Lightly charged lifters and helpers

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Note half casts in floor!

Contour blasting - 8
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Divided faces - 1
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Divided faces - 2
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Reasons for dividing face:


Stability reasons - cant otherwise maintain stability of and at face - uncertain about geology, pilot gathers information Productivity; access to many faces

Length of rounds
- the span is able to support the rock-load

- the support measures can be installed in due time.


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Divided faces - 3
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West portal
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Ex. Lttinge traffic tunnel, 2-lane 1058 m Sthlm 2005-6 188,5 m, 152 m2: E & W access Rd 1-3 Side pilot, leaving plug to prevent noise coming out and winter cold in Rd 4-7 Widen to full section
ca 5m

1:a verlapp ca 7m

10
ca 5m

Rd 8-9 side pilots

Rd 10-123 side pilot and trailing side stope in same round.


ca 3m

saved plug

6000

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Divided faces - 4
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Drilling of pilot at East portal and side stopes (slashes).


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Divided faces 5
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Excavation sequence for hydro power house cavern


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Shaft sinking - 1
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2 m bench with confined toe and fanned rows

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Shaft sinking - 2
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5 m full face round with cut and parallel holes easier drilling, pulls deeper and produces finer muck than bench round 200 mm pilot (reamer) hole drilled 0,3 m deeper than rest of round to ensure 100% pull.

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Mining methods -1
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Room and pillar; metal mines & underground quarries


cross cut = tunnel round drift heading = tunnel round

vertical bench

upward stoping = horizontal bench

Depending on the mining method a mine uses several blasting methods.


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Mining methods -2
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Drift and (multiple) benching, Zinkgruvan


Parallel drill holes that follow the ore.

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Mining methods -3
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Panel stoping, Zinkgruvan


2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
rings or fans with 89 mm angled holes of different lengths

1 2 1

1 2 1 2

Panels 1 filled with paste fill before # 2 between blasted.


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Mining methods -4
Sublevel caving or SLC at LKAB
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blasting against confinement of caving masses

SLC rings with angled holes of different lengths

high grade iron ore 4500 kg/m3

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Ring layouts 1
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Different SLC ring layouts at LKAB

water hydraulic ITH, 115 mm holes, 15-58 m long, 3 m burden, typically opened at center, 2 holes every 100 ms.
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Ring layouts 2
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Deck charging sometimes

used for

breakage sequence + flow delay number = Vibrations.


initiation sequence

stemming
charge in hole separated into decks by stemming and detonated separately in sequence 3, 4 etc

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flow

Explosives -1
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Types of explosives used

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Explosives - 2
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Anolit (ANFO) Anolit


Density Weight strength Volume strength Expl. energy VOD Gas volume Water resistance Use primer 850 kg/m3 100 % 100 % 4,0 MJ/kg 2400 m/s 970 l/kg poor

compressed air charging equipm.

Anolit A with 6-7% Al


expl. energy = 4,9 MJ/kg volume strength = 125 %
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Explosives - 3
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Emulsion matrix is not an explosive which means safer, less restricted transportation

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Explosives - 4
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Reaction kinetics Emulsion finer structure rendering in higher VoD

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Explosives - 5
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Site Sensitised Emulsion

Oxidizer Solution

Slurry Station
Gassing agents

Fuel and Emulsifier

Emulsion mixer

Dosage pumps

Control panel Pump

Emulsion matrix

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Explosives - 6
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Titan SSE system (site sensitized emulsion)

under ground in 45-51 mm holes


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Explosives - 7
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Slurry Station
Gassing agents AN Aluminum Prills

Oxidizer

Solution Fuel and Emulsifier

Control panel Blender Pump

Emulsion

mixer

Dosage

pumps

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Explosives - 8
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Bore hole diameter : Quarries : 2 - 6 Mining : 6 - 12 Max pump heigth : 40 m Max hose length : 150 m
Slurry Station
Gassing agents AN - Prills Aluminum Oxidizer Solution Fuel and Emulsifier Control panel Blender Pump Emulsion mixer Dosage pumps

above ground in holes 64-320 mm


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Explosives - 9
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Comparing ANFO and emulsion

explosives

Emulsion matrix less restricted in transportation Pumped emulsions have higher charging capacity Density regulated by gassing during pumping

Decoupled string emulsion in horizontal holes


Slurry Station
Oxidizer Solution Gassing agents Fuel and Emulsifier AN - Prills Aluminum Control panel Blender Pump Emulsion mixer Dosage pumps

Emulsions have higher water resistance and AN prills may be added to raise density

Energy content per m3 roughly the same

but

Lower price of ANFO ideal for dry hole conditions.


Roger

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YZ-snitt KI-28-849-o3030-19
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Explosives - 10
Uphole ring charging at LKAB
KR0500 (Kimulux Repumpable 0500), sensitized by glass microballoons, contains aluminum Water used to lubricate inside of charging hose; mixed in at nozzle Staying in place is a balance between viscosity and adhesion Emulsion is tixotropic and blast shock is too fast to cause liquefaction But, running water creates problems.
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-40

40-50 m
5 7 4 8

-35

58

-30

-25

2 11
-20

3 10

9 10

10 11

-15

1 9 12 8 9 12 11 10 8 12 8

11

-10

11

-5

10

12

-10

-5

10

Explosives - 11
DynoRex
Dynamite with NG, nitroglycol, nitrocellulose and AN
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used as bottom charge, primer & booster, in wet holes etc.


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also available as 1100 mm pipe charges 59

Explosives - 12
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Kemix A

used as bottom and column charge (pipe) , primer & booster, contour blasting.
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Decoupled charges - 1
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Decoupled charges - 2
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Dynotex
pipe charges 17-32460/1000 mm

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Decoupled charges - 3
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String emulsion

by balancing emulsion flow through nozzle and hose retraction an even string is deposited in hole

string 0,35 kg/m


mini SSE
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Decoupled charges - 4
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Selmer Anlggning AB
Chalmers-tunnelen

Strengladning SSE
Ladeplan 4,2 m 4.steg . SSE emulsjon i hele salven

Strossehull oppe : 4,0 kg


1,1 kg/m

A B A B C

0,7m

3,05 m

0,45m

Innerkontur (hjelpekontur) : 3,0 kg


0,8 kg/m 0,7m 3,2m 1,1 kg/m 0,3m 3,45m 0,45m 0,3m

Kutt m/hjelpehull : 4,5 kg

D C D

Konturhull m/hjrneliggere : 1,7 kg


0,4 kg/m : 3,0 kg Innerkontur (hjelpekontur) 0,3m 3,9 m 0,8 kg/m 0,3m 3,6m
Emulsjon Tennpatron

0,15m

Liggerhull : 3,3 kg

0,3m

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Pointers - 1
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Underground blasting:
Often more complicated drilling patterns and blasting methods used than in surface blasting
Special considerations for cuts and openings; stability; rock stress and water complicate work Separation between fragmented rock (ore) and remaining rock mass (waste) hard to maintain

Short life span of drifts and cavities in mining but long span in infrastructure tunnels and cavern
Nitrate leakage from explosives is coming into focus; spillage & non-detonating explosives are sources.
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Pointers - 2
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Quality of blasting work:


Blasting never gets better than drilling and drill hole deviations are frequently large Water problem in charging also with emulsions - bad charging practice mixes emulsion & water, may cause detonation failure; water removes cushion effect for decoupled charges; wet upholes cause emulsion to slip etc Some cases black holes, e.g. SLC. One doesn't - see the drilling quality, know how the ring fired or even which ring the ore loaded comes from High quality blast designs, drilling and charging work needed to achieve good blasting results.
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Accknowledgements
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The author wishes to acknowledge Prof Finn Ouchterlony , Swebrec and LTU who provided a lot of the sources for the material presented in this lecture

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THANKS!
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R. Holmberg Lima Nov 2011