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Statistics
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Advanced Subsidiary
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04 November 2013
Jake Keighley

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Table of Contents
The Greek Stuff .................................................................................................................................................................. 4
The Averages ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5
MODE ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
MEDIAN ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5
MEAN ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Measures of spread .......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Range ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
The Interquartile range ............................................................................................................................................. 5
Standard Deviation ..................................................................................................................................................... 6
Approximate Properties of the Standard Deviation ................................................................................. 6
Linear Scaling ........................................................................................................................................................... 6
Choice of Numerical Measures .................................................................................................................................... 7
Averages .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Measures of Spread..................................................................................................................................................... 7
Relative Frequency .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
Probability with Equally Likely Outcomes ........................................................................................................ 8
Complementary Event, A .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Using Two Events ............................................................................................................................................................. 9
Venn Diagrams.............................................................................................................................................................. 9
Unions & Intersections .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Mutually Exclusive Events .................................................................................................................................... 10
Exhaustive Events .................................................................................................................................................... 10
Conditional Probability .......................................................................................................................................... 10
Independent Events ................................................................................................................................................. 10
The Binomial Distribution ......................................................................................................................................... 11
Discrete Random Variables .................................................................................................................................. 11
Notation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
Conditions for Application of a Binomial Distribution .............................................................................. 11
Calculating Binomial Probabilities .................................................................................................................... 11
The Distribution ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
The Shape of a Binomial Distribution .............................................................................................................. 12
The Mean, Variance and S.D. of a Binomial Distribution .......................................................................... 13
Normal Distribution ..................................................................................................................................................... 14
Notation ........................................................................................................................................................................ 14
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Standard Normal Distribution ........................................................................................................................ 14
How to Work This Out ............................................................................................................................................ 14
Percentage Points (Table 4) ................................................................................................................................. 15
Mean, Variance & S.D. of a Normal Distribution .......................................................................................... 15
Estimation......................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Central Limit Theorem ........................................................................................................................................... 16
Confidence Intervals of a Normal Distribution ............................................................................................ 16
Correlation and Regression ....................................................................................................................................... 17
Using the Casio................................................................................................................................................................ 18
Binomial........................................................................................................................................................................ 18
Normal........................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Graphs ........................................................................................................................................................................... 19

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The Greek Stuff


A, B, C, - Events
A, B, C, - Complementary events of A, B, C, 1
- Probability of event A2
Union of the events A and B3
Intersection of events A and B4
- Probability of the event A conditional on the event B5
X, Y, R, - Random variables
, , , - An individual trial/item/value for random variables of X, Y, R,
,

, - Observations of random variable X

n Total # of trials/items
- Population variance
Population standard deviation
Population mean
s - Sample variance6
s Sample standard deviation7
- Sample mean8
Sum of9

i.e. the probability that A, B, C, does not occur

1
2
3
4
5
6

An unbiased estimate, hence

An unbiased estimate again


)
x bar
9 Just add what it says to add (watch out that:
7
8

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The Averages
MODE
10

MEDIAN11

MEAN
12

Measures of spread
Range
.

The Interquartile range


E.g.
,

.
.

Get Q1 and Q3 and do this:

10

In grouped data, the one with the highest frequency

11

W/ grouped data (n observations) use the

12

For grouped data;

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frequencys group as the median

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Standard Deviation13
Method 1

Method A

Grouped

Population

Sample14

Where;
,

In GROUPED DATA;
15

Approximate Properties of the Standard Deviation


1s.d., approx. of the data

2s.d. approx 95% of the data

3s.d. almost ALL data

Linear Scaling
Subtracting a +ve K (e.g. c) FROM EVERY VALUE

Reduces the mean by c

S.D. and variance dont change

Adding a +ve K (e.g. c) TO EVERY VALUE

Increases the mean by c

S.D. and variance dont change

Multiplying EVERY VALUE by a +ve K (e.g. k)

13

Multiplies the S.D. and Mean by k

Multiplies the Variance by k2

WATCH OUT! There are silly formulae ahead, just watch out that:

14
15

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Choice of Numerical Measures


Averages
Mode
Median
Mean

Advantages
It is certain to be in the existing dataset
The Median can be calculated in
situations where the others cannot17
The mean uses every value of the
dataset

Disadvantages
The mode may give you no information
about the dataset16
The Median is just hard for large datasets
In a small sample, this average can be
greatly affected by an outlier18

Measures of Spread
Range
IQR
S.D.

Advantages
Pips to calculate.
Takes a little effort to calculate, not
very affected by extreme values
Uses every single value in the dataset
equally

Disadvantages
For the range to work, spurious data will
not work well with this measure
Nasty to work out w/ large datasets
Nasty to work out w/ large datasets

E.g. the modal # of broken eggs in egg boxes is likely to be zero in any supermarket provides no
information about supermarkets egg looking-after ability.
17 E.g. suppose 99 homing pigeons fly from A to B, the Median time of flight can be calculated as soon as
the 50th pigeon has arrived at B.
18 or a misreported piece of data
16

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Relative Frequency

For example, roll a fair die once counting # of 1s:

Roll it 4 more times19:


, , , ,
Use this method to make a graph20:

As you can see with the first few values21, the success or failure of a trial22 has a great effect on
the relative frequency but with a larger sample the line settles on

23

Probability with Equally Likely Outcomes


24

5 times overall, again counting 1s


#
21 Less than 100(ish)
22 Success is getting a 1; failure is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6
23
.
19

20

24

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Complementary Event, A
The probability that A does not occur;

Using Two Events


Venn Diagrams25
A

S
A

Unions & Intersections


26

27

S
A

28

29

25

Union
Intersection
28 The
29

26
27

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is because it is counted twice and should only be counted once

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Mutually Exclusive Events


Examples of mutually exclusive events include:

Getting a Head AND Getting a Tail

Sitting down AND Standing up

They cannot both occur

30

Exhaustive Events
Two events are said to be exhaustive when it is certain that at least 1 of them occurs31;
A. The # obtained is , , or
B. The # obtained is even
32

NB. A and A are exhaustive as

Conditional Probability
The probability that A happens given B has happened;
33

34

Independent Events
If A B are independent, when one happens, the chance that the other will happen hasnt
changed;
35

36

37

For Mutually Exclusive Events;

It doesnt have to be exclusive


32

33
,
34

35 A has the same probability whether or not B occurs


36 B has the same probability whether or not A occurs
37 Multiplication for independent events
30
31

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The Binomial Distribution


Discrete Random Variables
A Discrete Random Variable is a result38 which is subject to random variation. The Discrete
Random Variable can also only take defined values.39
Random Variables are given capital letters, e.g. X, Y and Z; single values are given lower case
letters, e.g. ,
.

Notation
.

40

Dont let this fox you, all it is saying is:

41

Watch out for (in binomial mode)


42

Conditions for Application of a Binomial Distribution


1. There is a fixed #, n, of independent trials.
2. Each trial has 2 outcomes
3. All the probabilities are the same for EVERY trial

Calculating Binomial Probabilities


( )

( )

43 44

The Distribution
,
All this means is:
The random variable, X, is binomially distribute when the # of trials is n and the probability of a
success is p 45

i.e. A result of a trial, e.g. getting a head on a fair coin


E.g. Faces of a Die
40 I.e. P mode
b d
41
The first value that X can take
42 C and table do
b d
43 ( )
38
39

44

( )

45

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The Shape of a Binomial Distribution


This distribution is skewed to the
right due to the high chance of a
success (0.8)

Binomial; n=15, p=0.8


This distribution is perfectly
symmetrical due to an equal
probability of success and failure

Binomial; n=15, p=0.5


This distribution is skewed to the
left due to the low chance of a
success (0.2)

Binomial; n=15, p=0.2

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The Mean, Variance and S.D. of a Binomial Distribution


This is dead simple its even in the formulae book:

46

46

Yes,

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Normal Distribution
A binomials random variable is discrete but the normals random variable is continuous, e.g.
time, distance, volume, etc.

In a continuous data group,


probability.

as a specific point has no area; but

has a

In normal distribution;

This is because a point has no area, but a collective of points has an area.

Notation
,
Where is mean and 2 is variance47

N tells you that it is normally distributed, X is the random variable


Standard Normal Distribution
This is a distribution where all values are widely known and available. Thats why you need to
know its notation;
,
Essentially the same, but the variable changes from X to Z, why?
Z is the Standard Normals Random Variable48

How to Work This Out


Take your distribution, lets say

, .

Now you need to standardize,49 with;

.
.

Or standard deviation squared


This does mean; becomes
49 Makes it into Standard Normal Distribution, also formula wants S.D. NOT Variance
47
48

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Percentage Points (Table 4)

# Standard Deviations

Probabilities

Mean, Variance & S.D. of a Normal Distribution

What You want


Standard Deviation
Mean
Both Mean & S.D.

What You Need


Mean and one tail prob.
S.D. and one tail prob.
Two tail prob.

One Tailed Probability

Two Tailed Probablilty

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Estimation
( ,

) 50

Par example;
,

,
( ,

) 51

Central Limit Theorem


A very important part of CLT is that the larger the sample, the closer that it represents a normal
distribution. The book recommends n to be bigger than 30.

So its just the same thing but with an adjustment to make it unbiased.

Confidence Intervals of a Normal Distribution


A confidence interval is written like this;
(

),

This z value needs sorting,


You will have a percentage point (e.g. 80% or 0.8), take this off 100% (20% or 0.2); halve it
(10% or 0.1); add to the original percentage (90% or 0.9). look this value up in Table 4 (1.2816)
and this is your z value.52

50

If,

,
,

51
52

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Correlation and Regression


In this chapter, it helps to see the graph youre doing as there are usually important things to
draw from a scatter plot, use your Casio
Also look at the Explanatory X and the Response Y variables they could have a spurious
(bogus) relationship.
The equations are in the booklet but generally just use your calculator.
53

Influential points are points that affect the data, and the line of best fit, greatly; these are usually
very extreme values.
Please note in linear scaling, r is unaffected.

53

The y distance of a point from the line of best fit

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Using the Casio


Ill assume that you know main functions of the calculator.

Binomial
For
1. STAT mode
2. DIST (F5)
3. BINM (F5)
4. Bpd (F1)
5. Var (F2)
6. Enter your variables then execute
For

i.e. Table 1
1. STAT mode
2. DIST (F5)
3. BINM (F5)
4. Bcd (F2)
5. Var (F2)
6. Enter your variables then execute

Normal
For

i.e. Table 3
1. STAT mode
2. DIST (F5)
3. NORM (F1)
4. Ncd (F2)
5. Enter your variables then execute

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For percentage points i.e. Table 4
1. STAT mode
2. DIST (F5)
3. Norm (F1)
4. InvN (F3)
5. Enter your variables then execute

Graphs
1. Insert X values into List1 and Y into List2
2. GRPH (F1)
3. GRPH1 (F1)
4. Done!
5. If best fit needed, press, X (F1)

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