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Legal Ethics Compiled by Societas Spectra Legis, A.

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IMPORTANCE O LE!AL ET"ICS The highest moral a#d ethical sta#dards sho$ld be mai#tai#ed so that the people %ill co#ti#$e to repose their tr$st i# la%yers a#d i# the role they play i# the admi#istratio# o& '$stice. Co#se($e#tly the co#ti#$ed e)iste#ce o& the legal pro&essio# is e#s$red PRIMAR* C"ARACTERISTICS +"IC" ,ISTIN!-IS" T"E LE!AL PRO ESSION ROM .-SINESS/ ,$ty o& p$blic ser0ice, o& %hich emol$me#t is a by1prod$ct La%yer is a# o&&icer o& the co$rt id$ciary relatio# to clie#t Ca#dor, &air#ess to colleag$es i# the bar Ca# Corporatio#s practice la%2 No. Practice o& la% is reser0ed o#ly to #at$ral perso#s %ho are la%yers, either as solo practitio#ers or i# part#ership %ith other la%yers. SO-RCES O LE!AL ET"ICS CONSTIT-TION Sectio# 3 435, Article 6III, 789: Co#stit$tio# The S$preme co$rt shall prom$lgate r$les co#cer#i#g/ the protectio# a#d e#&orceme#t o& co#stit$tio#al rights pleadi#g, practice, a#d proced$re i# all co$rts, the admissio# to the practice o& la% the I#tegrated .ar, a#d legal assista#ce to the $#derpri0ileged Sectio# 7;, Article 6I, 789: Co#stit$tio# No Se#ator or Member o& the "o$se o& Represe#tati0es may perso#ally appear as co$#sel be&ore/ a#y co$rt o& '$stice electoral trib$#als ($asi1'$dicial a#d other admi#istrati0e bodies Puyat vs. De Guzman, Jr. ( 113 SCRA 31) A member of Congress cannot indirectly fail to follow the constitutional prohibition of not appearing personally as counsel before the SEC by buying a nominal share in the corporation after his appearance as counsel therein was contested. Sectio# 7<, Article 6II, 789: Co#stit$tio# The Preside#t, 6ice1Preside#t, the Members o& the Cabi#et, a#d their dep$ties or assista#ts shall #ot/ hold a#y other o&&ice or employme#t d$ri#g their te#$re, -NLESS OT"ER+ISE PRO6I,E, IN T"IS CONSTIT-TION.

directly or i#directly, practice a#y other pro&essio#, participate i# a#y b$si#ess. Sectio# =, Article I>1A, 789: Co#stit$tio# No member o& the Co#stit$tio#al Commissio#s shall d$ri#g his te#$re, hold a#y other o&&ice or employme#t #either shall he e#gage i# the practice o& a#y pro&essio# Sectio# 9, Article >I, 789: Co#stit$tio# ,$ri#g their te#$re, the Omb$dsma# a#d his dep$ties, shall be s$b'ect to the same dis($ali&icatio#s a#d prohibitio#s as pro0ided &or i# Sectio# =, Article I>1A. R-LES O CO-RT Sectio# :, R$le 93 +he# the e)ec$tor or admi#istrator is a# attor#ey, he shall #ot cha#ge agai#st the estate a#y pro&essio#al &ees &or legal ser0ices re#dered by him Sectio# =7 4.5, R$le 7<? A# attor#ey ca##ot, %itho$t the co#se#t o& his clie#t, be e)ami#ed as to a#y comm$#icatio# made by the clie#t to him, or his ad0ice gi0e# thereo# i# the co$rse o& pro&essio#al employme#t 4SLI,E NOT CLEAR5 LE!ISLATION Article 7;87 @3A, Ci0il Code The &ollo%i#g ca##ot ac($ire by p$rchase, e0e# at p$blic or '$dicial actio#, either i# perso# or thro$gh the mediatio# o& a#other/ @3A '$stices, '$dges, prosec$ti#g attor#eys, clerBs o& s$perior a#d i#&erior co$rts, a#d other o&&icers or employees co##ected %ith the admi#istratio# o& '$stice the property rights i# litigatio# or le0ied $po# o# e)ec$tio# be&ore the co$rt %ithi# %hose '$risdictio# or territory they e)ercise their respecti0e &$#ctio#sC this prohibitio# i#cl$des the act o& ac($iri#g by assig#me#t a#d shall apply to la%yers, %ith respect to the property a#d rights %hich may be the ob'ect o& a#y litigatio# i# %hich they taBe part by 0irt$e o& their pro&essio#

MO,ERN CONCEPT O PRACTICE O LA+ Cayetano vs. Monsod, !" SC#A "! $"%%"& 'ractice of (aw means any activity, in or out of court, which re)uires the application of law, legal procedure, *nowledge, training and e+perience. ,o engage in the practice of law is to perform those acts which are characteristics of the profession. -enerally, to practice law is to give notice or render any *ind of service, which device or service re)uired the use in any degree of legal *nowledge or s*ill. .t is not limited to appearing in court, or advising and assisting in the conduct of litigation, but embraces the preparation of pleadings and other papers incident to actions and special proceedings, conveyancing, the preparation of legal instruments of all *inds, and the giving of legal advice to clients. OL, CONCEPT, PRACTICE O LA+ 'eople vs. /illanueva,"0 SC#A "!% $"%12&

Criteria ,etermi#ati0e or Practice o& La%/ "abit$ality Compe#satio# Applicatio# o& La%, Legal Pri#ciple, Practice, or Proced$re %hich calls &or legal B#o%ledge, trai#i#g a#d e)perie#ce Attor#ey1Clie#t Relatio#ship SCRI6ENIN!1 &illi#g bla#Bs i# sta#dardiDed or stereotyped &orms %hich i#0ol0es p$rely clerical %orB %itho$t #eed &or a#y legal i#terpretatio#. This is #ot practice o& la%, as it does #ot i#0ol0e the determi#atio# by a trai#ed mi#d o& the legal e&&ects o& &acts a#d co#ditio#s. Is teachi#g o& la% Practice o& La%2 A la% pro&essor does #ot act$ally deal %ith clie#ts %hose rights are or may be s$b'ect to legal co#tro0ersiesC he does #ot hold himsel& o$t o& the p$blic as a la%yer, b$t as a me#tor lear#ed i# the la% %ho is ($ali&ied, by reaso# o& his legal trai#i#g to i#str$ct st$de#ts o# legal s$b'ects. 4mi#ister o& '$stice opi#io# #o. 98, s. 789E5 Practice o& La% a Pri0ilege, b$t also i# the #at$re o& a right/ Pri0ilege beca$se la%yers m$st bo% to the i#here#t reg$latory po%er o& the co$rt to e)act complia#ce %ith the la%yerFs p$blic respo#sibilities Right beca$se a la%yer ca##ot be pre0e#ted &rom practici#g la% e)cept &or 0alid reaso# 4e.g prohibitio#s o# some p$blic o&&icers5 +ho ca# practice la%2 Admitted as member o& the barC !ood a#d reg$lar sta#di#g 4sec. 7, R$le 7<9, R$les o& Co$rt5

+hy the practice o& la% is ge#erally limited to la%yers2 To protect party litiga#ts beca$se o& the comple) #at$re o& '$dicial proceedi#gsC to protect p$blic i#terest Sa#ctio#s &or -#a$thoriDed practice o& La%/ I#'$#ctio# to restrai# co#ti#$atio# o& $#a$thoriDed practiceC co#tempt o& co$rt 4Sec < @eA, R$le :7, ROC5, crimi#al prosec$tio# , damage, de#ial o& right to &ees Manangan vs. CFI G o#e %ho mas($eraded as a la%yer $si#g the #ame o& a deceased la%yer %as &o$#d g$ilty o& co#ti#$o$s &ra$d$le#t misreprese#tatio# a#d highly improper co#d$ct te#di#g directly to impede, obstr$ct, degrade a#d maBe a mocBery o& the admi#istratio# o& '$stice. Co#se($e#tly, he %as ad'$dged i# co#tempt o& co$rt, se0erely ce#s$red, a#d se#te#ce to s$&&er < mo#ths impriso#me#t. Sharia lawyers %ho are LL. grad$ates b$t #ot members o& the bar are #ot allo%ed to practice be&ore

reg$lar co$rts e0e# i& both parties are M$slims. Par. = Art. 7;< o& P.,. 7?9<, The Code o& M$slim Perso#al La%s o& the Philippi#es, pro0ides &or co#c$rre#t '$risdictio# o& the ShariFa ,istrict Co$rt %ith e)isti#g ci0il co$rts. Appeara#ce HPro "ac 6iceI Appeara#ce by a la%yer %ho is #ot lice#sed to practice i# a '$risdictio#, b$t o#ly i# co##ectio# %ith a partic$lar caseC may be allo%ed by co$rts $#der 0ery limited i#sta#ces, i& the appeara#ce is o#ly i# a# isolated case a#d #o compe#satio# is charged &or the ser0ice. Appeara#ce HI# Propria Perso#aI or HPro SeI Practice Appeara#ce i# co$rt by a #o#1la%yer &or himsel& a#d %itho$t the assista#ce o& a member o& the .ar. .asis/ Sec. 7 art. III, Co#stit$tio# 4d$e process cla$se5C Sec. 7 4=5, Art. III Co#stit$tio# 4d$e process G right to be heard by himsel& a#d co$#sel, especially i# crimi#al cases5C Sec. <, R$le :, ROC 4e0ery pleadi#g m$st be sig#ed by the party o& co$#sel represe#ti#g himJI +hile Pro Se Practice is allo%ed, it is #ot ad0isable. 4I# Re/ Koa($i# T. .orromeo, =;7 SCRA;?35 HA little lear#i#g is a da#gero$s thi#g. "e %ho acts as his o%# la%yer has a &ool a clie#t. Pro Se Practice does #ot apply to corporatio#s. Other%ise, it %o$ld circ$m0e#t the prohibitio# o# corporate practice o& la%. Th$s, it m$st hire a la%yer to collect its bills, &or i#sta#ce. No#1la%yers %ho are a$thoriDed to appear i# co$rt/ !R/ a #o#1la%yer may represe#t a party be&ore the MTC E)c/ crimi#al case E)c to E)c/ i# a locality %here a d$ly lice#sed member o& the bar is #ot a0ailable Se#ior la% st$de#t1 e#rolled i# a recog#iDed la% schoolFs cli#ical ed$catio# program appro0ed by the SC may appear be&ore a#y co$rt, trib$#al, age#cy, o&&ice, %itho$t compe#satio#, to represe#t i#dige#t clie#ts accepted by the legal cli#ic i# schoolC $#der direct s$per0isio# a#d co#trol o& a# I.P member d$ly accredited by the la% schoolC ci0il, crimi#al, admi#istrati0e4sec. 7, R$le 7<91A, R$les o& Co$rt5 .e&ore RTC a#d the higher co$rts1 m$st be accompa#ied by a s$per0isi#g la%yer i# all his appeara#ces Labor code1 75 %he# they represe#t themsel0es, =5 they represe#t their orga#iDatio# or member thereo& %ith %ritte# a$thoriDatio# o& the latter, <5d$ly accredited members o& legal aid o&&ice d$ly recog#iDed by the ,OK, or the I.P i# cases re&erred to by the latter Cadastral act1 a #o#1la%yer ca# represe#t a claima#t be&ore the cadastral co$rt A#y perso# appoi#ted to appear &or the !o0er#me#t i# accorda#ce %ith la% .e&ore the ,epartme#t o& Agraria# Re&orm Ad'$dicatio# .oard

P$blic O&&icials %ho ca##ot practice la%/ K$dges, other o&&icialsLemployees o& the s$perior co$rt OS! o&&icials a#d employees !o0er#me#t prosec$tors P, 6P, Members o& the Cabi#et, their dep$ties a#d assista#ts Members o& the Co#stit$tio#al Commissio#s Omb$dsma# a#d his dep$ties !o0er#ors, city a#d m$#icipal mayors Those prohibited by special la% 4RA E:7<, Sectio# :, @b1=A P$blic O&&icials %ith Restrictio# i# the Practice o& La%/ No Se#ator or member o& the "o$se may perso#ally appear as co$#sel be&ore a#y co$rt, electoral trib$#al, ($asi1'$dicial a#d other admi#istrati0e bodies. Sectio# 8?, R.A :7E?1 Sa#gg$#ia# members shall #ot/ Appear as co$#sel be&ore a#y co$rt i# a ci0il case %herei# a local go0er#me#t $#it or a#y o&&ice, age#cy, or i#str$me#tality o& the go0t is the ad0erse party Appear as co$#sel i# a crimi#al case %herei# a# o&&ice or employee o& the #atio#al or local go0t is acc$sed o& a# o&&e#se committed i# relatio# to his o&&ice Collect a#y &ee &or their appeara#ce i# admi#istrati0e proceedi#gs i#0ol0i#g the L!- o& %hich he is a# o&&icial -se property a#d perso##el o& the go0t e)cept %he# the Sa#gg$#ia#g member co#cer#ed is de&e#di#g the i#terest o& the go0t Sec. 7, R.A. 87?1 a retired '$stice or '$dge recei0i#g pe#sio# &rom the go0t, ca##ot act as co$#sel i# a#y ci0il case i# %hich the go0t or a#y or a#y o& its s$bdi0isio#s or age#cies is the ad0erse party or i# a crimi#al case %herei# a# o&&icerLemployee o& the go0t is acc$sed o& a# o&&e#se ic relatio# to his o&&ice

Terms Practice o& la%1 a#y acti0ity, i# or o$t o& co$rt %hich re($ires the applicatio# o& la%, legal proced$re, B#o%ledge, trai#i#g a#d e)perie#ce. To e#gage i# the practice o& la% is to gi0e #otice or re#der a#y Bi#d o& ser0ice, %hich de0ice or ser0ice re($ires the $se i# a#y degree o& legal B#o%ledge or sBill 4Cayeta#o 6. Mo#sod, =?7 SCRA =?75. Attor#ey, Co$#sel, Abogado, .oceros1 that class o& perso# %ho are lice#sed o&&icers or the co$rt,

empo%ered to appear, prosec$te a#d de&e#dC a#d $po# %hom pec$liar d$ties, respo#sibilities, a#d liabilities are de0eloped by la% as a co#se($e#t 4C$i 0. C$i, 7=? Phil.:=85. .ar1 %hole body o& la%yers .e#ch1 %hole body o& '$dges a#d '$stices .ar admissio#1 act by %hich o#e is lice#sed to practice i# co$rts o& partic$lar '$risdictio#s a&ter satis&yi#g certai# re($ireme#ts s$ch as bar e)ami#atio#, period o& reside#cy, or admissio# o# gro$#ds o& reciprocity Attor#ey i# &act1 a# age#t %hose a$thority is strictly limited by the i#str$me#t appoi#ti#g him, ho%e0er, he may do thi#gs #ot me#tio#ed o# his appoi#tme#t b$t are #ecessary to the per&orma#ce o& the d$ties specially re($ired o& him, s$ch a$thority bei#g #ecessarily implied. "e is #ot #ecessarily a la%yer. Co$#sel de O&icio1 a co$#sel, appoi#ted or assig#ed by the co$rt, &rom amo#g members o& the bar i# good sta#di#g %ho, by reaso# o& their e)perie#ce a#d ability, may ade($ately de&e#d the acc$sed. Note/ i# localities %here members o& the bar are #ot a0ailable, the co$rt may appoi#t a#y perso#, reside#t o& the pro0i#ce a#d good rep$te &or probity a#d ability, to de&e#d the acc$sed. Sec. :, R$les 77E ROC Attor#ey ad hoc1 perso# #amed a#d appoi#ted by the co$rt to de&e#d a# abse#tee de&e#da#t o& the s$it i# %hich the appoi#tme#t is made 4.ie#0e#$ 0. actors o& Traders I#s$ra#ce Cp., << La, A##, =?85 Attor#ey o& record1 o#e %ho has &iled a #otice o& appeara#ce a#d %ho he#ce is &ormally me#tio#ed i# co$rt records as the o&&icial attor#ey o& the party, 4Rey#olds 0. Rey#olds5 O& Co$#sel1 to disti#g$ish them &rom attor#eys o& record, associate attorneys are re&erred to as Ho& co$#selI A#other de&i#itio#1 0e#erable member o& &irm Lead Co$#sel1 the co$#sel o# their side o& a litigated actio# %ho is charge %ith the pri#cipal ma#ageme#t a#d directio# o& a partyFs case. "o$se Co$#sel1 la%yer %ho acts as attor#ey &or b$si#ess tho$gh carried as a# employee o& that b$si#ess a#d #ot as a# i#depe#de#t la%yer .ar associatio#1 a# associatio# o& members o& the legal pro&essio#. Amic$s C$riea1 &rie#d o& the co$rtC a perso# %ith stro#g i#terests i# or 0ie%s o# the s$b'ect matter o&

a# actio#, may petitio# the co$rt &or permissio# to &ile a brie&, oste#sibly o# behal& o& the party b$t act$ally to s$ggest a ratio#ale co#siste#t %ith its o%# 0ie%sC e)perie#ced a#d impartial attor#ey may be i#0ited by the co$rt to appear as amici criae to help i# the dispositio# o& cases s$bmitted to it. Amic$s c$riae par e)celle#ce1 bar associatio# that appear i# a case as amic$s c$riae Ad0ocate1 the ge#eral a#d pop$lar #ame &or a la%yer %ho pleads o# behal& o& someo#e else. .arrister 4E#gla#d51 a perso# e#titled to practice la% as a# ad0ocate or co$#sel i# s$perior co$rt. Solicitor 4E#gla#d51 perso# prosec$ti#g or de&e#di#g s$its i# Co$rts o& Cha#cery 4co$rt %hich admi#ister e($ity a#d proceedi#g accordi#g to the &orms a#d pri#ciple o& e($ity. Solicitor 4Philippi#es51 go0er#me#t la%yer attached %ith the o&&ice o& the solicitor ge#eral Proctor 4E#gla#d51 &ormerly, a# attor#ey i# the admiralty a#d ecclesiastical co$rts %hose d$ties a#d b$si#ess correspo#d to those o& a# attor#ey at la% or solicitor i# Cha#cery. Tit$lo de Abogado1 it mea#s #ot mere possessio# o& the academic degree o& .achelor o& La%s b$t membership i# the .ar a&ter d$e admissio# thereto, ($ali&yi#g o#e &or the practice o& la%

CHAPTER 1: THE LAWYER & SOCIETY CANON 1: UPHOLD THE CONSTITUTION, O EY THE LAWS AND PRO!OTE RESPECT "OR LAW AND LE#AL PROCESSES LA+*ERFS OAT"1 co#tai#s i# caps$le &orm the ethical sta#dards re($ired &or la%yers #ot to $#d$e delay a case1 la%yer %as reprima#ded %he# he $sed his legal e)pertise to $##ecessarily a#d $#'$stly delay a case 4,el M$#do 0s. CA, =3= SCRA ;<=5 to delay #o ma# &or mo#ey or malice G a la%yer sho$ld #ot re&$se or delay a case '$st beca$se he may #ot be paid %ell or as e)pected by him beca$se the legal pro&essio# is #ot a mo#ey1maBi#g trade. .$t this does #ot mea# that a la%yer ca##ot re'ect a case the &acts o& %hich do #ot co#0i#ces him to be meritorio$s. I& a la%yer is deliberately #ot paid, the ho#orable thi#g &or him to do is to %ithdra% &rom the case so as to allo% the clie#t to employ a#other la%yer. ,o #o &alsehood G g$ardia# o& tr$th

.o#galo#ta 0s Castillo, =;? SCRA <7? More#o 0s Ara#eta, A.C. No. 77?8, April =:, =??3 The la%yerFs highest ho#or is &o$#d i# a deser0ed rep$tatio# &or &idelity to pri0ate tr$st a#d p$blic d$ty, as a# ho#est ma# a#d as a patriotic a#d loyal citiDe# 4Ca#o# <=, last se#te#ce, CPE5

,isco$ragi#g La%s$its -#der R$le 7.?< o& CPR, a la%yer shall #ot &or a#y corr$pt moti0e or i#terest, e#co$rage a#y s$it or proceedi#g or delay a#y ma#Fs ca$se CrimeLTort o& Mai#te#a#ce G I#termeddli#g o& a# $#i#terested party to e#co$rage la%s$it A la%yer o%es to the society a#d to the co$rt the d$ty #ot to stir $p litigatio#. The &ollo%i#g are $#pro&essio#al acts/ 6ol$#teeri#g ad0ice to bri#g la%s$it e)cept %he# ties o& blood, relatio#ship a#d tr$st maBe it a d$ty to do so "$#ti#g $p de&ects i# titles to other ca$ses o& actio#C to breed litigatio# by seeBi#g o$t claims &or perso#al i#'$ries Employi#g age#ts or r$##ers Payi#g direct or i#direct re%ard to those %ho bri#g or i#&l$e#ce the bri#gi#g o& cases to his o&&ice Searchi#g &or $#B#o%# heirs a#d soliciti#g their employme#t K$sti&iable a#d -#'$sti&iable Litigatio# The la%yer m$st decli#e a case %he# co#0i#ced that it is i#te#ded merely to harass, or to i#'$re the opposite party or %orB oppressio# .$t other%ise, it is his right, a#d ha0i#g accepted e#gageme#t, it becomes his d$ty to i#sist $po# the '$dgme#t o& the co$rt as to the legal merits o& his clie#tFs claim or de&e#se, his appeara#ce i# co$rt sho$ld be deemed e($i0ale#t to a# assertio# o# his ho#or that i# his opi#io# his clie#tFs case is o#e proper &or '$dicial determi#atio#. A la%yer has the &ollo%i#g d$ties, i#ter alia/ To $phold the Co#stit$tio# a#d obey the la% Not to e#gage i# $#la%&$l co#d$ct Not to co$#sel illegal acti0ities Not to e#co$rage la%s$its To e#co$rage amicable settleme#t -lep 0s. Legal Cli#ic, I#c., ==< SCRA <79 .arratry G o&&e#se o& &re($e#tly i#citi#g a#d stirri#g $p ($arrels a#d s$itsC &ome#ti#g s$itsC the# o&&eri#g his legal ser0ices to o#e o& the parties Amb$la#ce Chasi#g G a la%yerFs act o& &ig$rati0ely chasi#g the 0ictims o& a# accide#t &or the p$rpose o& talBi#g to the 0ictim or the latterFs relati0es a#d o&&eri#g his legal ser0ices &or the &ili#g o& the case agai#st the perso# %ho ca$sed the accide#t .arratry 0s Amb$la#ce Chasi#g .arratry G re&ers to a#y actio#C Amb$la#ce Chasi#g G re&ers o#ly to perso#al i#'$ry actio#s .arratry G may re&er to s$its be&ore a#y &or aC Amb$la#ce Chasi#g G re&ers to cases bro$ght be&ore the co$rts

Recog#iDed e0ils o& Amb$la#ce Chasi#g/ ome#ti#g o& litigatio#C b$rde# o# co$rts a#d society

S$bordi#atio# o& per'$ry M$lcti#g o& i##oce#t perso#s by '$dgme#ts, $po# ma#$&act$red ca$ses o& actio# ,e&ra$di#g o& i#'$red perso#s ha0i#g proper ca$ses o& actio#s b$t ig#ora#t o& their legal rights a#d co$rt proced$res 4by mea#s o& co#tracts %hich retai# e)orbita#t perce#tages o& reco0ery a#d illegal charges &or co$rt costs a#d e)pe#ses a#d by settleme#t made &or ($icB ret$r#s o& &ees a#d agai#st the '$st rights o& the i#'$red5

CANON $ % A LAWYER SHALL !A&E HIS LE#AL SER'ICES A'AILA LE IN AN E""ICIENT AND CON'ENIENT !ANNER CO!PATI LE WITH THE INDEPENDENCE, INTE#RITY AND E""ECTI'ENESS O" THE PRO"ESSION( R)le $(*1 % A lawyer shall +,- re.e/-, e0/e1- 2,r 3ali4 reas,+s, -he /a)se ,2 -he 4e2e+seless ,r -he ,11resse4( 6alid reaso#s to decli#e e#gageme#t/ 4R$le 7;.?<5 G #ot i# a positio# to carry o$t the %orB e&&ecti0ely or compete#tlyC he labors $#der a co#&lict o& i#terest bet%ee# him a#d the prospecti0e clie#t or bet%ee# a prese#t clie#t a#d the prospecti0e clie#t5 M$st e)ercise the same degree or sta#dard o& dilige#ce accorded to payi#g clie#tsC legal aid is #ot a matter o& charity b$t a p$blic respo#sibility ..M. =?7=, ebr$ary 7?, =??8, Proposed R$le o# Ma#datory Legal Aid Ser0ice &or Practici#g La%yers All practici#g la%yers are re($ired to re#der a mi#im$m o& E? ho$rs o& &ree legal aid ser0ices to i#dige#t litiga#ts i# a year. ClerBs o& Co$rt a#d the I.P Legal Aid Chairperso# o& the I.P Chapter are desig#ated to coordi#ate %ith a la%yer &or cases %here he may re#der &ree legal aid ser0ice. La%yers e)cl$ded i# the term o& Hpractici#g la%yerI !o0er#me#t employees a#d i#c$mbe#t electi0e o&&icials #ot allo%ed by la% to practice La%yers %ho by la% are #ot allo%ed to appear i# co$rt S$per0isi#g la%yers o& st$de#ts e#rolled i# la% st$de#t practice i# d$ly accredited legal cli#ics o& la% schools a#d la%yers o& #o#1go0er#me#tal orga#iDatio#s 4N!Os5 a#d peoples orga#iDatio#s 4POs5 liBe the ree Legal Assista#ce !ro$p %ho by the #at$re o& their %orB re#der &ree legal aid to i#dige#t a#d pa$per litiga#ts a#d La%yers #ot co0ered $#der s$bparagraphs 475 to 4<5 i#cl$di#g those %ho are employed i# the pri0ate sector b$t do #ot appear &or a#d i# behal& o& parties i# co$rts o& la% a#d ($asi1'$dicial age#cies I#dige#t a#d pa$per litiga#ts are those %hose gross i#come a#d that o& their immediate &amily does #ot e)ceed a# amo$#t do$ble the mo#thly mi#im$m %age o& a# employee a#d those %ho #ot o%# a#y real property. They are e)empt &rom payme#t o& docBet &ees a#d la%&$l &ees as %ell as tra#scripts o& ste#ographic #otes. A pe#alty o& P;,??? shall be imposed o# the la%yer %ho &ails to meet the re($ired mi#im$m #$mber o& ho$rs o& legal aid ser0ice each year re($ired by the I.P %itho$t satis&actory e)pla#atio#. The la%yer shall ha0e a H#ot i# good sta#di#gI stat$s a#d shall #ot be allo%ed to appear i# co$rt or a#y ($asi1'$dicial body as co$#sel &or a period o& < mo#ths. A la%yer %ho &ails to comply %ith their d$ties i# the R$le &or at least < co#sec$ti0e years shall be s$b'ect to discipli#ary proceedi#gs a#d may be s$spe#ded &rom the practice o& la% &or 7 year.

R)le $(*$ % I+ s)/h /ases, e3e+ i2 -he lawyer 4,es +,- a//e1- a /ase, he shall +,- re2)se -, re+4er le5al a43i/e -, -he 1ers,+ /,+/er+e4 i2 ,+ly -, -he e0-e+- +e/essary -, sa2e5)ar4 -he la--er6s ri5h-s( 7i88e4ia-e le5al

a43i/e9 R)le $(*: % A lawyer shall +,- 4, ,r 1er8i- -, ;e 4,+e a+y a/- 4esi5+e4 1ri8arily -, s,li/i- le5al ;)si+ess( 7S,li/i-a-i,+ < 4is/)sse4 wi-h Ca+,+ :9 R)le $(*= % A lawyer shall +,- /har5e ra-es l,wer -ha+ -h,se /)s-,8arily 1res/ri;e4 )+less -he /ir/)8s-a+/es s, warra+-( Co#sider the I.P Chapter appro0ed Sched$les o& Attor#eyFs &ees To a0oid demea#i#g a#d degradi#g competitio#

CANON : % A lawyer i+ 8a>i+5 >+,w+ his le5al ser3i/es shall )se ,+ly -r)e, h,+es-, 2air, 4i5+i2ie4 a+4 ,;.e/-i3e i+2,r8a-i,+ ,r s-a-e8e+- ,2 2a/-s( Ad0ertisi#g !R/ a la%yer ca##ot ad0ertise his tale#t, as he is a member o& a# ho#orable pro&essio# the primary p$rpose o& %hich is to re#der p$blic ser0ice a#d sec$re '$sticeC rem$#eratio# is a mere accide#t. E>C/ 4 orms o& Permissible Ad0ertiseme#t5 +riti#g legal articlesC &or legal p$blicatio#s i# %hich he gi0es i#&ormatio# $po# the la% b$t ca##ot accept employme#t &rom s$ch p$blicatio# to ad0ise i#($ires i# respect to i#di0id$al rights o& perso#s La%s lists, b$t o#ly brie& biological a#d i#&ormati0e data Ordi#ary pro&essio#al cards Notice to other local la%yers a#d p$blishi#g i# a legal 'o$r#al o& o#eFs a0ailability Pro&&er o& &ree legal ser0ices to the i#dige#t, e0e# %he# broadcasted o0er the radio or te#dered thro$gh circ$latio# o& pri#ted matter to the ge#eral p$blic Simple a##o$#ceme#t o& the ope#i#g i& a la% &irm or o& cha#ges i# the part#ership, &irm #ame or o&&ice address, bei#g &or the co#0e#ie#ce o& the pro&essio# Listi#g i# a pho#e directory, b$t #ot $#der a desig#atio# o& a special bra#ch o& la%

Solicitatio# o& cases co#stit$tes malpractice The la% prohibits la%yers &rom soliciti#g cases &or the p$rpose o& gai#, either perso#ally ir thro$gh paid age#ts or broBers 4R$le 7<9, Sec. =:, ROC5 -se o& La% irm Name/ No &alse, misleadi#g or ass$med #ame shall be $sed. The co#ti#$ed $se o& the #ame o& a deceased part#er is permissible pro0ided that the &irm i#dicates i# all its comm$#icatio#s that said part#er is deceased. This r$le aba#do#ed the doctri#e i# the case o& I# Re/ Sycip, 8< SCRA 7 478:85. +here a part#er accepts p$blic o&&ice he shall %ithdra% &rom the &irm a#d his #ame shall be dropped &rom the &irm #ame $#less the la% allo%s him to practice co#c$rre#tly ilipi#o la%yers ca##ot practice la% $#der the #ame o& a &oreig# la% &irm, as the latter ca##ot practice la% i# the Philippi#es a#d the $se o& &oreig# la% &irm #ame i# the co$#try is $#ethical.

CANON = % A LAWYER SHALL PARTICIPATE IN THE DE'ELOP!ENT O" THE LE#AL SYSTE! Y INITIATIN# OR SUPPORTIN# E""ORTS IN LAW RE"OR! AND IN THE I!PRO'E!ENT O" THE AD!INISTRATION O" ?USTICE( E)amples/ Prese#t positio# papers or resol$tio#s &or the i#trod$ctio# o& perti#e#t bills i# Co#gress Petitio# %ith the SC &or the ame#dme#t o& the ROC

CANON @ % A LAWYER SHALL &EEP A REAST O" LE#AL DE'ELOP!ENTS, PARTICIPATE IN CONTINUIN# LE#AL EDUCATION PRO#RA!S, SUPPORT E""ORTS TO ACHIE'E HI#H STANDARDS IN LAW SCHOOLS AS WELL AS IN THE PRACTICAL TRAININ# O" LAW STUDENTS AND ASSIST IN DISSE!INATIN# THE LAW AND ?URISPRUDENCE( AR !a--er A@*: !a+4a-,ry C,+-i+)i+5 Le5al E4)/a-i,+, A)5)s- A, $*** P$rpose/ To e#s$re that thro$gho$t their careers, they Beep breast %ith la% a#d '$rispr$de#ce, mai#tai# the ethics o& the pro&essio# a#d e#ha#ce practice o& la%. Re($ireme#ts &or Completio# o& ML/ at least <E ho$rs o& co#ti#$i#g legal ed$catio# acti0ities per < years/ E ho$rs G legal ethics ; ho$rs G trial a#d pretrial sBills 3 ho$rs G alter#ati0e disp$te resol$tio# 8 ho$rs G $pdates o# s$bsta#ti0e a#d proced$ral la%s a#d '$rispr$de#ce ; ho$rs G %riti#g a#d oral ad0ocacy = ho$rs G i#ter#atio#al la% a#d i#ter#atio#al co#0e#tio#s E ho$rs G other s$b'ects as may be prescribed by the MCLE Committee

Perso#s e)empted &rom MCLE/ Preside#t, 6ice Preside#t a#d -#dersecretaries o& the E)ec$ti0e ,epartme#t Se#ators a#d "R Members Chie& K$stice, Associate K$stice o& the S$preme Co$rtC i#c$mbe#t a#d retired '$stices o& the K$diciary, i#c$mbe#t members o& the K.C a#d i#c$mbe#t co$rt la%yers co0ered by the Philippi#e K$dicial Academy Program o& co#ti#$i#g legal ed$catio# Chie& State Co$#sel, Chie& State Prosec$tor a#d Assista#t Secretaries o& the ,OK Solicitor !e#eralC Associate Solicitor !e#eral !o0er#me#t Corporate Co$#sel, ,ep$ty a#d Assista#t !o0er#me#t Corporate Co$#sel Chair a#d members o& the Co#stit$tio#al Commissio#s Omb$dsma#, O0erall ,ep$ty Omb$dsma#, ,ep$ty Omb$dsma#, Special Prosec$tor

"ead o& go0er#me#t age#cies e)ercisi#g ($asi1'$dicial &$#ctio#s I#c$mbe#t ,ea#s, bar re0ie%ers a#d pro&essors o& la% ha0i#g teachi#g e)perie#ce o& at least 7? years i# accredited la% school Cha#cellor, 6ice Cha#cellor, a#d members o& the Corps o& Pro&essio#al Lect$rers o& the Philippi#e K$dicial Academy !o0er#ors a#d Mayors Others/ Those %ho are #ot i# la% practice, pri0ate or p$blic Those %ho ha0e retired &rom la% practice %ith the appro0al o& the I.P .oard o& !o0er#ors

!ood Ca$ses &or E)emptio# &orm o& Modi&icatio# o& Re($ireme#t/ 6eri&ied re($est !ro$#ds/ Physical disability Ill#ess Post1grad$ate st$dy abroad Pro0e# e)pertise i# la%

Co#se($e#ces &or No#1Complia#ce/ Listed as deli#($e#t member by the I.P .oard o& !o0er#ors $po# the recomme#datio# o& the Committee o# MCLE

The listi#g as a deli#($e#t member is admi#istrati0e i# #at$re b$t shall be made %ith #otice a#d heari#g by the Committee o# MCLE AR !a--er N,( 1B$$, ?)+e :, $**A M.ar Matter No. 78==. G Re/ Recomme#datio# o& the Ma#datory Co#ti#$i#g Legal Ed$catio# 4MCLE5 .oard to I#dicate i# All Pleadi#gs iled %ith the Co$rts the Co$#selFs MCLE Certi&icate o& Complia#ce or Certi&icate o& E)emptio#. G The Co$rt Resol0ed to NOTE the Letter, dated May =, =??9, o& Associate K$stice A#to#io Ed$ardo .. Nach$ra, Chairperso#, Committee o# Legal Ed$catio# a#d .ar Matters, i#&ormi#g the Co$rt o& the dimi#ishi#g i#terest o& the members o& the .ar i# the MCLE re($ireme#t program. The Co$rt &$rther Resol0ed, $po# the recomme#datio# o& the Committee o# Legal Ed$catio# a#d .ar Matters, to REN-IRE practici#g members o& the bar to IN,ICATE i# all pleadi#gs &iled be&ore the co$rts or ($asi1'$dicial bodies, the #$mber a#d date o& iss$e o& their MCLE Certi&icate o& Complia#ce or Certi&icate o& E)emptio#, as may be applicable, &or the immediately precedi#g complia#ce period. ail$re to disclose the re($ired i#&ormatio# %o$ld ca$se the dismissal o& the case a#d the e)p$#ctio# o& the pleadi#gs &rom the records. The Ne% R$le shall taBe e&&ect si)ty 4E?5 days a&ter its p$blicatio# i# a #e%spaper o& ge#eral circ$latio#.M CANON C % THESE CANONS SHALL APPLY TO LAWYERS IN #O'ERN!ENT SER'ICES IN THE DISCHAR#E O"

THEIR TAS&S( A la%yer does #ot shed his pro&essio#alC obligatio#s $po# his ass$mi#g p$blic o&&ice La%yers %ho are i#c$mbe#t '$dges are go0er#ed by the Code o& K$dicial Co#d$ct. They ca##ot be i#0estigated by the I.P Commissio# o# .ar ,iscipli#e.

R(A( CD1: < C,4e ,2 C,+4)/- a+4 E-hi/al S-a+4ar4s 2,r P);li/ O22i/ials a+4 E81l,yees P$blic o&&icials 4i#cl$di#g go0er#me#t la%yers5 Electi0e, appoi#ti0e, perma#e#t, temporary, career, #o#1career 4i#cl$di#g military a#d police5, %hether or #ot they recei0e compe#satio#, regardless o& the amo$#t

These #orms sho$ld be obser0ed i# the discharge a#d e)ec$tio# o& o&&icial d$ties/ Commitme#t to p$blic i#terest Pro&essio#alism K$st#ess Si#cerity Political #e$trality Respo#si0e#ess to the p$blic Natio#alism Patriotism Commitme#t to democracy Simple li0i#g

Ca+,+ C %THESE CANONS SHALL APPLY TO LAWYERS IN #O'ERN!ENT SER'ICES IN THE DISCHAR#E O" THEIR TAS&S( !o0er#me#t la%yers are prohibited to e#gage i# pri0ate practice $#less a$thoriDed by the Co#stit$tio# or la% pro0ided that s$ch practice %ill #ot co#&lict or te#d to co#&lict. R)le C(*1 % The 1ri8ary 4)-y ,2 a lawyer e+5a5e4 i+ 1);li/ 1r,se/)-i,+ is +,- -, /,+3i/- ;)- -, see -ha- .)s-i/e is 4,+e( The s)11ressi,+ ,2 2a/-s ,r -he /,+/eal8e+- ,2 wi-+esses /a1a;le ,2 es-a;lishi+5 -he i++,/e+/e ,2 -he a//)se4 is hi5hly re1rehe+si;le a+4 is /a)se 2,r 4is/i1li+ary a/-i,+( Primary d$ty is #ot to co#0ict b$t to see that '$stice is do#e The s$ppressio# o& &acts or co#cealme#t o& %it#esses capable o& establishi#g the i##oce#ce o& the acc$sed is highly reprehe#sible a#d is ca$sed &or discipli#ary actio#

A prosec$tor is a ($asi1'$dicial o&&icer. Th$s, he sho$ld be as m$ch co#cer#ed %ith seei#g that #o i##oce#t ma# s$&&ers as i# seei#g that #o g$ilty ma# escapes. I& a prosec$tor &i#ds that there is #o s$&&icie#t e0ide#ce/

I# the prelimi#ary i#0estigatio#/ resol0e to the e&&ect that there is #o probable ca$se I& case has already bee# &iled/ &ile a motio# be&ore the co$rt &or the dismissal o& the actio# I& case o# appeal/ recomme#d be&ore the appellate co$rt the ac($ittal o& the acc$sed

R)le C(*$ % A lawyer i+ -he 5,3er+8e+- ser3i/e shall +,- )se his 1);li/ 1,si-i,+ -, 1r,8,-e ,r a43a+/e his 1ri3a-e i+-eres-s, +,r all,w -he la--er -, i+-er2ere wi-h his 1);li/ 4)-ies( #R: a lawyer wh, h,l4s a 5,3er+8e+- ,22i/e 8ay +,- ;e 4is/i1li+e4 as a 8e8;er ,2 -he ar 2,r 8is/,+4)/- i+ -he 4is/har5e ,2 his 4)-ies as a 5,3er+8e+- ,22i/ial E0/: 8is/,+4)/- is ,2 s)/h /hara/-er as -, a22e/- his E)ali2i/a-i,+ as a lawyer -, sh,w 8,ral 4eli+E)e+/y, -he+ he 8ay ;e 4is/i1li+e4 as a 8e8;er ,2 -he ;ar R)le C(*: % A lawyer shall +,-, a2-er lea3i+5 5,3er+8e+- ser3i/e, a//e1- e+5a5e8e+- ,r e81l,y8e+- i+ /,++e/-i,+ wi-h a+y 8a--er i+ whi/h he ha4 i+-er3e+e4 while i+ sai4 ser3i/e( 4other%ise, ta#tamo$#t to the represe#tatio# o& co#&licti#g i#terests5. PC!! 0s Sa#diga#baya#C !R No. 7379?3 4=??35 Matter/ a#y discrete, isolatable act as %ell as ide#ti&iable tra#sactio# or co#d$ct i#0ol0i#g a partic$lar sit$atio# a#d speci&ic party, a#d #ot merely a# act o& dra&ti#g, e#&orci#g or i#terpreti#g go0er#me#t age#cy proced$res, reg$latio#s or la%s, or brie&i#g abstract pri#ciples o& la% I#ter0e#tio#s as co#templated $#der R$le E.?</ A# act o& a perso# %ho has the po%er to i#&l$e#ce the s$b'ect proceedi#gs S$ch i#ter0e#tio# ca##ot be i#s$bsta#tial, i#sig#i&ica#t or i##oc$o$s

RA <?78, Sec. <4d5 G corr$pt practices o& p$blic o&&icials/ ))) accepti#g or ha0i#g a#y member o& his &amily accept employme#t i# a pri0ate e#terprise %hich has pe#di#g o&&icial b$si#ess %ith him d$ri#g the pe#de#cy thereo& a#d %ithi# o#e year a&ter its termi#atio# RA E:7<, SEC. :4b5 Prohibitio#s/ o%#, co#trol, ma#age, or accept employme#t as o&&icer, employee, co#s$lta#t, co$#sel, broBer, age#t, tr$stee or #omi#ee i# a#y pri0ate e#terprise reg$lated, s$per0ised or lice#sed by their o&&ice $#less e)pressly allo%ed by la%. 4This prohibitio# shall co#ti#$e 7 year a&ter separatio#5 The lawyer a+4 -he le5al 1r,2essi,+ I# a #$tshell/ $phold the i#tegrity a#d dig#ity o& the legal pro&essio# a#d s$pport the I.P. .e co$rteo$s, &air a#d &ra#B to &ello% la%yers. Not to assist i# the $#a$thoriDed practice o& la%. Not to e#croach $po# the employme#t o& a#other la%yer. Ca+,+ D < A lawyer shall a- all -i8es )1h,l4 -he i+-e5ri-y a+4 4i5+i-y ,2 -he le5al 1r,2essi,+, a+4 s)11,r- -he a/-i3i-ies ,2 -he I+-e5ra-e4 ar(

R)le D(*1( A lawyer shall ;e a+swera;le 2,r >+,wi+5ly 8a>i+5 a 2alse s-a-e8e+- ,r s)11ressi+5 a 8a-erial 2a/- i+ /,++e/-i,+ wi-h his a11li/a-i,+ 2,r a48issi,+ -, -he ;ar( Other%ise/ ,e#ied permissio# to taBe the .ar Not allo%ed to taBe oath StricBe# &rom the Roll o& Attor#eys

I# Re/ Ramo# !ala#g 4EE SCRA =9=5 G -#der oath/ Hhe has #ot bee# charged %ith a#y o&&e#se be&ore a iscal, M$#icipal K$dge, or other o&&icersC or acc$sed o&, i#dicated &or or co#0icted by a#t co$rt or trib$#al o& a#y crime i#0ol0i#g moral t$rpit$deC #or is there a pe#di#g case agai#st himI. .$t he i#te#tio#ally %ithheld his crimi#al case o& slightly physical i#'$ries %hich %as still pe#di#g 4he %as allo%ed to taBe the .ar : times d$e to s$ch co#cealme#t5 a#d allo%ed to taBe his oath i# 78:=. LICENSE RE6OOE,. ,iao 0s MArti#es 4: SCRA ;::5 G alse prete#ses i# misreprese#ti#g that he &i#ished Associate i# Arts ,egree %he# he had #ot. STICOEN ROM T"E ROLL. I& %hat is co#cealed is a crime #ot i#0ol0i#g moral t$rpit$de G co#cealme#t is itsel& e0ide#ce o& s$&&icie#t lacB o& moral character R)le D(*$( A lawyer shall +,- s)11,r- -he a11li/a-i,+ 2,r a48issi,+ -, -he ;ar ,2 a+y 1ers,+ >+,w+ ;y hi8 -, ;e )+E)ali2ie4 i+ res1e/- -, /hara/-er, e4)/a-i,+, ,r ,-her rele3a+- a--ri;)-e( 6iolatio# maBes a la%yer liable &or discipli#ary actio#C gross misco#d$ct i# o&&ice 4R$le 7<9, Sec. =:, ROC5

R)le D(*:( A lawyer shall +,- e+5a5e i+ /,+4)/- -ha- a43ersely re2le/-s ,+ his 2i-+ess -, 1ra/-i/e law, +,r shall he, whe-her i+ 1);li/ ,r 1ri3a-e li2e, ;eha3e i+ a s/a+4al,)s 8a++er -, -he 4is/re4i- ,2 -he le5al 1r,2essi,+ Commissio# o& $#la%&$l act tho$gh #ot related to the discharge o& pro&essio#al d$ties %hich p$t his moral character i# serio$s do$bt, re#ders him $#&it to co#ti#$e practici#g la%.

,$ty to $phold the ho#or o& the pro&essio#/ E)pose %itho$t &ear or &a0or be&ore the proper trib$#als corr$pt or disho#est co#d$ct i# the pro&essio# Accept %itho$t hesitatio# employme#t agai#st a member o& the .ar %ho has %ro#ged his clie#t !$ard the bar agai#st admissio# to the pro&essio# o& perso#s o& de&icie#t moral characters.

The I#tegrated .ar O&&icial state orga#iDatio# re($iri#g membership a#d &i#a#cial s$pport o& all attor#eys as a co#ditio# precede#t to the practice o& la%. Natio#al orga#iDatio# o& la%yers 4I.P5 created Ka#$ary 7E, 78:<p$rs$a#t to R$le 7<81A ROC.

I#tegratio# o& the .ar Esse#tially a process by %hich e0ery la%yer is a&&orded a# opport$#ity to do his share i# carryi#g o$t the ob'ecti0es o& the .AR as %ell as obliged to bear his portio# o& its respo#sibilities ,ictated by o0erridi#g co#sideratio#s o& p$blic i#terest %hich '$sti&ies the restrictio#s that i#tegratio# imposes $po# the perso#al i#terests a#d co#0e#ie#ce o& the i#di0id$al la%yers. Ma#dated by the Co#stit$tio# %he# it ga0e the SC po%ers to prom$lgate r$les co#cer#i#g, amo#g others, the i#tegratio# o& the .ar.

Is bar i#tegratio# co#stit$tio#al2 4I# Re/ Edillo#5 6alid e)ercise o& police po%er o0er a# importa#t pro&essio# Legal practice #ot a right b$t a pri0ilege SC has ple#ary po%er i# all cases regardi#g the admissio# to a#d s$per0isio# o& the practice o& la% Not 0iolati0e o& the &reedom o& associatio#. I#tegratio# does #ot maBe a la%yer a member o& a#y gro$p o& %hich he is #ot already a member O#ly comp$lsio# is the payme#t o& a##$al d$esC cost o& impro0i#g the pro&essio# sho$ld be shared by the s$b'ects a#d be#e&iciaries o& the reg$latory program, the la%yers.

Sa#tos 0s Llamas 4A.C. No. ;:;8. Ka#$ary =?, =???5. The e)emptio# gra#ted by R.A. :;<= to se#ior citiDe#s &rom payi#g i#di0id$al i#come ta) does #ot e)empt la%yers %ho are liBe%ise se#ior citiDe#s &rom payi#g I.P d$es a#d pri0ileged ta). I#tegrated .ar Comp$lsory Si#e ($a #o# to the practice o& la% 6iolatio# o& r$les o# i#tegratio# is s$&&icie#t ca$se &or disbarme#t or s$spe#sio# .ar Associatio#s 0ol$#tary #o #o Shall #ot operate at cross1p$rposes %ith the I.P 4sho$ld #ot obstr$ct or de&eat the p$rposes o& the I.P Ca+,+ A < A lawyer shall /,+4)/- hi8sel2 wi-h /,)r-esy, 2air+ess a+4 /a+4,r -,war4s his 1r,2essi,+al /,llea5)es, a+4 shall a3,i4 harassi+5 -a/-i/s a5ai+s- ,11,si+5 /,)+sel( R)le A(*1 < A lawyer shall +,-, i+ his 1r,2essi,+al 4eali+5s, )se la+5)a5e whi/h is a;)si3e, ,22e+si3e ,r ,-herwise i81r,1er( Sho$ld be obser0ed e0e# i# the pleadi#gs that la%yers &ile. orce&$l b$t dig#i&ied, emphatic b$t respect&$l Clie#ts, #ot the la%yers, are the litiga#ts

+a#t o& i#te#tio# #ot a# e)c$se &or the disrespect&$l la#g$age $sed

R)le A(*$ <A lawyer shall +,-, 4ire/-ly ,r i+4ire/-ly, e+/r,a/h )1,+ -he 1r,2essi,+al e81l,y8e+- ,2 a+,-her lawyerF h,we3er, i- is -he ri5h- ,2 -he lawyer, wi-h,)- 2ear ,r 2a3,r, -, 5i3e 1r,1er a43i/e a+4 assis-a+/e -, -h,se see>i+5 relie2 a5ai+s- )+2ai-h2)l ,r +e5le/-2)l /,)+sel( A la%yer sho$ld #ot steal clie#ts A la%yer shall #ot #egotiate %ith opposite party %ho is represe#ted by co$#sel, %itho$t the latterFs B#o%ledge or prese#ce A la%yer may ho%e0er i#ter0ie% a#y %it#ess or prospecti0e %it#ess o& the ad0erse party

CANON B A lawyer shall +,-, 4ire/-ly ,r i+4ire/-ly, assis- i+ -he )+a)-h,riGe4 1ra/-i/e ,2 law( O#ly those lice#sed by the SC may practice la% i# this '$risdictio#.

R)le B(*1 A lawyer shall +,- 4ele5a-e -, a+y )+E)ali2ie4 1ers,+ -he 1er2,r8a+/e ,2 a+y -as> whi/h ;y law 8ay ,+ly ;e 1er2,r8e4 ;y a 8e8;er ,2 -he ar i+ 5,,4 s-a+4i+5( ,elegatio# to a #o#1la%yer, or to a disbarred la%yer, s$spe#ded a la%yer, alie# la%yerJ $#ethical Ca##ot e0e# delegate to a ($ali&ied perso# %itho$t the clie#tFs co#se#t 4perso#al relatio#hip5

R)le B(*$( A lawyer shall +,- 4i3i4e ,r s-i1)la-e a 2ee 2,r le5al ser3i/e wi-h 1ers,+s +,- li/e+se4 -, 1ra/-i/e law, e0/e1-: a( where -here is a 1re%e0is-i+5 a5ree8e+- wi-h -he 1ar-+er ,r ass,/ia-e -ha-, )1,+ -he la--ers 4ea-h, 8,+ey shall ;e 1ai4 ,3er a reas,+a;le 1eri,4 ,2 -i8e -, his es-a-e ,r -, 1ers,+s s1e/i2ie4 i+ -he a5ree8e+-F ,r ;( where a lawyer )+4er-a>es -, /,81le-e )+2i+ishe4 le5al ;)si+ess ,2 a 4e/ease4 lawyerF ,r /( where -he lawyer ,r law 2ir8 i+/l)4es +,+%lawyer e81l,yees i+ a re-ire8e+- 1la+, e3e+ i2 -he 1la+ is ;ase4 i+ wh,le as i+ 1ar-, ,+ a 1r,2i-%shari+5 arra+5e8e+-( CHAPTER III( THE LAWYER AND THE COURTS CANON 1* % A LAWYER OWES CANDOR, "AIRNESS AND #OOD "AITH TO THE COURT( Ra-i,+ale: b$rde# o# '$diciary %o$ld be i#tolerable i& it ca##ot taBe at &ace 0al$e %hat is asserted by co$#selJ R)le 1*(*1 % A lawyer shall +,- 4, a+y 2alseh,,4, +,r /,+se+- -, -he 4,i+5 ,2 a+y i+ C,)r-F +,r shall he 8islea4, ,r all,w -he C,)r- -, ;e 8isle4 ;y a+y ar-i2i/e( Cases o& alsehood/ Raisi#g iss$es lo#g laid to rest by a &i#al a#d e)ec$tor '$dgme#t MaBi#g it appear that a perso#, lo#g dead, e)ec$ted a deed o& sale i# the la%yerFs &a0or ,e#yi#g ha0i#g recei0ed the #otice to &ile brie& %hich de#ial is belied by the ret$r# card Prese#ti#g &alsi&ied doc$me#ts be&ore the co$rt

Art. 79;, RPC 4&alse Testimo#y5 G B#o%i#gly o&&er i# e0ide#ce a &alse %it#ess or testimo#y i# a#y '$dicial or o&&icial proceedi#g. N$otatio# o& ,ecisio# M$st be 0erbatim Pro0ide the proper citatio# ,o #ot ($ote the syllab$s

R)le 1*(*$ % A lawyer shall +,- >+,wi+5ly 8isE),-e ,r 8isre1rese+- -he /,+-e+-s ,2 a 1a1er, -he la+5)a5e ,r -he ar5)8e+- ,2 ,11,si+5 /,)+sel, ,r -he -e0- ,2 a 4e/isi,+ ,r a)-h,ri-y, ,r >+,wi+5ly /i-e as law a 1r,3isi,+ alrea4y re+4ere4 i+,1era-i3e ;y re1eal ,r a8e+48e+-, ,r asser- as a 2a/- -ha- whi/h has +,- ;ee+ 1r,3e4( R)le 1*(*: % A lawyer shall ,;ser3e -he r)les ,2 1r,/e4)re a+4 shall +,- 8is)se -he8 -, 4e2ea- -he e+4s ,2 .)s-i/e( Litigatio# is #ot a game o& tech#icalities Eternal -ardens Memorial 'ar* vs. CA, -.#. 3o. " 41%5, Aug. 2, "%%5 To th%art the e)ec$tio# o& a '$dgme#t %hich has lo#g bee# re#dered &i#al a#d e)ec$tor, petitio#er resorted to/ irst, opposi#g the +rits o& Possessio# i# &a0or o& Sps. Seeli# be&ore the RTC by &ili#g M R, petitio# to CA, petitio# de#ied, M R, petitio# to SC, petitio# de#ied, M R, de#iedC Seco#d/ Petitio# &or Certiorari be&ore CA, de#ied, M R, de#iedC Petitio# &or Re0ie% be&ore SC, de#ied, M R, de#iedC Third, same as seco#d. I# the mea#%hile that the case %as protracted a#d e)ec$tio# delayed d$e to the $#meritorio$s petitio#s o& petitio#er, the case has dragged o# &or 7: years, %herei# i#terme#t o# the parcel o& la#d has taBe# place re#deri#g e)ec$tio# i# &a0or Sps. Seeli# impossible. HAs o&&icers o& the co$rt, la%yers ha0e a respo#sibility to assist i# the proper admi#istratio# o& '$stice. They do #ot discharge this d$ty by &ili#g poi#tless petitio#s that o#ly add to the %orBload o& the '$diciary, especially this co$rt, %hich is b$rde#ed e#o$gh as it is. A '$dicio$s st$dy o& the &acts a#d the la% sho$ld ad0ise them %he# a case s$ch as this, sho$ld #ot be permitted to be &iled to merely cl$tter the already co#gested '$dicial docBets. They do #ot ad0a#ce the ca$se o& la% or their clie#ts by comme#ci#g litigatio#s that &or sheer lacB o& merit do #ot deser0e atte#tio# o& the co$rts. La%yerFs &irst d$ty is to the co$rts Not o#ly to '$dges b$t also to '$dicial o&&icers %ho taBe part i# the '$dicial %orB Obedie#ce to co$rt orders a#d processes Criticism m$st be bo#a &ide a#d m$st #ot spill o0er the %alls o& dece#cy. 4I# Re/ Almace# <7SCRA 3975

CANON 11 % A LAWYER SHALL O SER'E AND !AINTAIN THE RESPECT DUE TO THE COURTS AND TO ?UDICIAL O""ICERS AND SHOULD INSIST ON SI!ILAR CONDUCT Y OTHERS( R)le 11(*1 % A lawyer shall a11ear i+ /,)r- 1r,1erly a--ire4( R)le 11(*$ % A lawyer shall 1)+/-)ally a11ear a- /,)r- heari+5s( R)le 11(*: % A lawyer shall a;s-ai+ 2r,8 s/a+4al,)s, ,22e+si3e ,r 8e+a/i+5 la+5)a5e ,r ;eha3i,r ;e2,re -he C,)r-s( R)le 11(*= % A lawyer shall +,- a--ri;)-e -, a ?)45e 8,-i3es +,- s)11,r-e4 ;y -he re/,r4 ,r ha3e +,

8a-eriali-y -, -he /ase( I# Re Ag$as 7 Phil 7/ The i#str$cted %it#ess #ot to looB at de&e#da#tFs la%yer b$t i#stead &oc$s his atte#tio# o# the &ormer. +he# the %it#ess did #ot gi0e heed to the %ar#i#g, '$dge arose &rom his seat a#d grabbed the %it#ess by the sho$lderJ la%yer asBed that the i#cide#t be placed o# the record, %as held i# co#tempt. Sc r$led that act o& i#sisti#g that the matter be placed o# record is #ot co#tempt$o$s. La%yers m$st ho%e0er be co$rageo$s e#o$gh to espose arbitrari#ess a#d i#'$stices o& '$dges. 6ic*er vs. Arcangel, -.#. 3o. "" 51%, 7an. %, "%%1 .n #e Almacen, -# 3o. (8 9120, :eb. "5, "%9! R)le 11(*@ % A lawyer shall s);8i- 5rie3a+/es a5ai+s- a ?)45e -, -he 1r,1er a)-h,ri-ies ,+ly( Proper A$thorities/ S$preme Co$rt O&&ice o& the Omb$dsma#1 Maceda 0s Omb$dsma# 4!R No. 7?=:97, Apr. ==, 788<5 "R P Se#ate1 &or SC K$stices 4impeachable o&&icers5

CANON 1$ % A LAWYER SHALL EHERT E'ERY E""ORT AND CONSIDER IT HIS DUTY TO ASSIST IN THE SPEEDY AND E""ICIENT AD!INISTRATION O" ?USTICE( R)le 1$(*1 % A lawyer shall +,- a11ear 2,r -rial )+less he has a4eE)a-ely 1re1are4 hi8sel2 ,+ -he law a+4 -he 2a/-s ,2 his /ase, -he e3i4e+/e he will a44)/e a+4 -he ,r4er ,2 i-s 1re2ere+/e( He sh,)l4 als, ;e rea4y wi-h -he ,ri5i+al 4,/)8e+-s 2,r /,81aris,+ wi-h -he /,1ies( R)le 1$(*$ % A lawyer shall +,- 2ile 8)l-i1le a/-i,+s arisi+5 2r,8 -he sa8e /a)se( or$m1Shoppi#g 1 as a res$lt or i# a#ticipatio# o& ad0erse opi#io# i# o#e &or$m, a party seeBs &a0orable opi#io# i# other &or$m 4a5 o# the gamble that o#e %ill re#der a &a0orable dispositio# Eleme#ts o& &or$m1shoppi#g G same parties, same ca$ses o& actio#, same iss$es, same relie&s 4relate to res '$dicata a#d litis pe#de#tia5 +hat are the e0ils o& &or$m1shoppi#g2 ,$plicatio# or m$ltiplicatio#s o& s$its ,o$ble or m$ltiple 0e)atio# o& la%s$its arisi#g &rom o#ly o#e ca$se Cloggi#g or co$rt docBets +aste o& time, e#ergy a#d reso$rcesC Reprehe#sible ma#ip$latio# o& co$rt processes a#d proceedi#gs May res$lt i# trib$#als re#deri#g co#&licti#g r$li#gs

"o% do the co$rts seeB to pre0e#t &or$m1shoppi#g P %hat are the e&&ects o& #o#1complia#ce2

Sec 3, R$le :, ROC/ CERTI ICATION O NON1 OR-M S"OPPIN! i# i#itiatory pleadi#gs sig#ed by the party, #ot the la%yer. Other%ise/ ail$re to comply #ot c$rable by ame#dme#t ,ismissal %itho$t pre'$dice, $#less other%ise pro0ided, $po# motio# a#d a&ter heari#g S$bmissio# o& a H&alse certi&icatio#L#o#complia#ce %ith a#y o& the $#dertaBi#g therei#1i#direct co#tempt o& co$rt, admi#istrati0e a#d crimi#al sa#ctio#s +ill&$l a#d deliberate &or$m1shoppi#g1 s$mmary dismissal %ith pre'$dice, direct co#tempt, admi#istrati0e actio#

R)le 1$(*: % A lawyer shall +,-, a2-er ,;-ai+i+5 e0-e+si,+s ,2 -i8e -, 2ile 1lea4i+5s, 8e8,ra+4a ,r ;rie2s, le-he 1eri,4 la1se wi-h,)- s);8i--i+5 -he sa8e ,r ,22eri+5 a+ e01la+a-i,+ 2,r his 2ail)re -, 4, s,( R)le 1$(*= % A lawyer shall +,- )+4)ly 4elay a /ase, i81e4e -he e0e/)-i,+ ,2 a .)458e+- ,r 8is)se C,)r1r,/esses( R)le 1$(*@ % A lawyer shall re2rai+ 2r,8 -al>i+5 -, his wi-+ess 4)ri+5 a ;rea> ,r re/ess i+ -he -rial, while -he wi-+ess is s-ill )+4er e0a8i+a-i,+( To pre0e#t la%yer &rom teachi#g or coachi#g %it#ess to testi&y i# his &a0or or to recti&y some mistaBes or stateme#ts damagi#g to his ca$se I# the last a#alysis, to $phold the tr$th

R)le 1$(*C % A lawyer shall +,- >+,wi+5ly assis- a wi-+ess -, 8isre1rese+- hi8sel2 ,r -, i81ers,+a-e a+,-her( La%yer sho$ld do #o &alsehood #or co#se#t to the doi#g o& a#y i# co$rt Crimi#al Liability/ +it#ess1 &alse testimo#y 4Arts. 797, 79= or 79<, RPC depe#di#g $po# the #at$re o& the case5 La%yer1 o&&eri#g &alse testimo#y i# e0ide#ce 4Art. 79;, RPC5C a#d crimi#al a#d admi#istrati0e liability

R)le 1$(*D % A lawyer shall +,- a;)se, ;r,w;ea- ,r harass a wi-+ess +,r +ee4lessly i+/,+3e+ie+/e hi8( +hat are the rights o& the %it#ess $#der the ROC/ Sec. <, R$le 7<=, ROC To be protected &rom irrele0a#t, improper or i#s$lti#g ($estio#s, a#d &rom harsh a#d i#s$lti#g demea#or Not to be detai#ed lo#ger tha# the i#terests o& '$stice re($ires Not to be e)ami#ed e)cept o#ly as to matters perti#e#t to the iss$e Not to gi0e a# a#s%er %hich %ill te#d to s$b'ect him to a pe#alty &or a# o&&e#se $#less other%ise pro0ided by la% Not to gi0e a# a#s%er %hich %ill te#d to degrade his rep$tatio#, $#less it be 0ery &act at iss$e or to a &act &rom %hich the &act i# iss$e %o$ld be pres$med. .$t a %it#ess m$st a#s%er to the &act o& his pre0io$s &i#al co#0ictio# &or a# o&&e#se.

R)le 1$(*A % A lawyer shall a3,i4 -es-i2yi+5 i+ ;ehal2 ,2 his /lie+-, e0/e1-: 7a9 ,+ 2,r8al 8a--ers, s)/h as -he 8aili+5, a)-he+-i/a-i,+ ,r /)s-,4y ,2 a+ i+s-r)8e+-, a+4 -he li>eF ,r 7;9 ,+ s);s-a+-ial 8a--ers, i+ /ases where his -es-i8,+y is esse+-ial -, -he e+4s ,2 .)s-i/e, i+ whi/h e3e+- he 8)s-, 4)ri+5 his -es-i8,+y, e+-r)s- -he -rial ,2 -he /ase -, a+,-her /,)+sel( CANON 1: % A LAWYER SHALL RELY UPON THE !ERITS O" HIS CAUSE AND RE"RAIN "RO! ANY I!PROPRIETY WHICH TENDS TO IN"LUENCE, OR #I'ES THE APPEARANCE O" IN"LUENCIN# THE COURT( R)le 1:(*1 % A lawyer shall +,- e0-e+4 e0-ra,r4i+ary a--e+-i,+ ,r h,s1i-ali-y -,, +,r see> ,11,r-)+i-y 2,r /)l-i3a-i+5 2a8iliari-y wi-h ?)45es( Reaso#2 To protect the good #ame a#d rep$tatio# o& both la%yer a#d '$dgeC to a0oid misco#str$ctio#s o& moti0eC so as #ot to serio$sly a&&ect the co#&ide#ce o& the litiga#ts a#d the p$blic i# ge#eral o# the co$rts a#d '$stice system R)le 1:(*$ % A lawyer shall +,- 8a>e 1);li/ s-a-e8e+-s i+ -he 8e4ia re5ar4i+5 a 1e+4i+5 /ase -e+4i+5 -, ar,)se 1);li/ ,1i+i,+ 2,r ,r a5ai+s- a 1ar-y( E0il so$ght to be a0oided by the r$le2 Trial by p$blicityC &air trial i# the co$rts may be hampered or i#ter&ered %ith "o%e0er i& the QQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQ o& the case '$sti&y a stateme#t to the p$blic2 +he# is trial by p$blicity pre'$dicial2 There m$st be allegatio# a#d proo& that the '$dges ha0e bee# $#d$ly i#&l$e#ced, #ot simple that they might be, by the barrage o& p$blicity 4Marteli#o 0s. Ale'a#dro, as reiterated i# PP 0s. Mayor Sa#cheD, !R NO. 7=7?<81;3, October 79, =??7 a#d Estrada 0s ,esierto, !R Nos. 7;E:7?173, March =, =??75 R)le 1:(*: % A lawyer shall +,- ;r,,> ,r i+3i-e i+-er2ere+/e ;y a+,-her ;ra+/h ,r a5e+/y ,2 -he 5,3er+8e+- i+ -he +,r8al /,)rse ,2 .)4i/ial 1r,/ee4i+5s( CHAPTER I'( THE LAWYER AND THE CLIENT CANON 1= % A LAWYER SHALL NOT RE"USE HIS SER'ICES TO THE NEEDY( R)le 1=(*1 % A lawyer shall +,- 4e/li+e -, re1rese+- a 1ers,+ s,lely ,+ a//,)+- ,2 -he la--er6s ra/e, se0( /ree4 ,r s-a-)s ,2 li2e, ,r ;e/a)se ,2 his ,w+ ,1i+i,+ re5ar4i+5 -he 5)il- ,2 sai4 1ers,+( Is this r$le applicable to ci0il cases2 1No. I# ci0il cases, it is the la%yerFs d$ty to co$#sel or mai#tai# s$ch actio#s or proceedi#gs o#ly as appear to him to be '$st, a#d s$ch de&e#ses that he belie0es are ho#estly debatable $#der the la%. The la%yerFs sig#at$re i# a pleadi#g is deemed a certi&icatio# by him that he has read the pleadi#g, that to the best o& his B#o%ledge, i#&ormatio# a#d belie&, there is good gro$#d to s$pport it. .$t he ca# decli#e i& there is a 0alid a#d '$sti&iable gro$#d. Ca# a la%yer re&$se to represe#t a# acc$sed belie0i#g he is g$ilty2

1No. the sole reaso# is his belie& o#ly, trial has #ot yet bega# b$t he has already co#0icted a perso#. E0erybody deser0e proper de&e#se a#d d$e process. "e sho$ld de&e#d the acc$sed by all &air a#d reaso#able#ess.

!ro$#ds to dismiss a case G tra#scriptio#, the complai#t %as #ot &iled at a proper a$thority, do$ble 'eopardy. *o$ B#o% the acc$sed is already g$ilty yet NO '$dgeme#t G &ight &or the ac($ittal. Not applicable i# ci0il cases

R)le 1=(*$ % A lawyer shall +,- 4e/li+e, e0/e1- 2,r seri,)s a+4 s)22i/ie+- /a)se, a+ a11,i+-8e+- as /,)+sel de !!"#" ,r as am"#us #ur"ae, ,r a reE)es- 2r,8 -he I+-e5ra-e4 ar ,2 -he Phili11i+es ,r a+y ,2 i-s /ha1-ers 2,r re+4i-i,+ ,2 2ree le5al ai4( Ca+ a+ a//)se4 re2)se a /,)+sel 4e ,2i/i,I Yes, i& he has co$#sel de parte. I& the acc$sed ma#i&ests that he %a#ts to hire co$#sel de parte, co$rt sho$ld gi0e him s$&&icie#t time to do so. "o%e0er, the acc$sed ca##ot, %itho$t 0alid gro$#ds, re&$se a co$#sel de o&icio. Ca+ -he .)45e assi5+ a lawyer -, re+4er 2ree le5al ai4 -, 4es-i-)-e ,r i+4i5e+-s i+ /i3il /asesI Yes, $#der Sectio# <7, R$le 7<9 %here the ser0ices o& co$#sel are #eeded to attai# the e#ds o& '$stice. R)le 7+,- /lear9 a//e1- re1rese+-a-i,+ ,2 a+ i+4i5e+- /lie+- )+less: "e is #ot i# a positio# to carry o$t the %orB e&&ecti0ely or compete#tlyC "e labors $#der a co#&lict o& i#terest bet%ee# him a#d the prospecti0e clie#t or bet%ee# a prese#t clie#t a#d the prospecti0e clie#t. C,+/e1- ,2 C,+2li/-i+5 I+-eres-s +he# the la%yer %o$ld arg$e a claim o# o#e ha#d a#d %o$ld ha0e to arg$e the de&e#se agai#st s$ch claim o# the other ha#d.

R$le 7;.?; 1 A la%yer %ho accepts the ca$se o& a perso# $#able to pay his pro&essio#al &ees shall obser0e the same sta#dard o& co#d$ct go0er#i#g his relatio#s %ith payi#g clie#ts. R$le 73.?7 G A la%yer, i# co#&erri#g %ith a prospecti0e clie#t, shall ascertai# as soo# as practicable %hether the matter %o$ld i#0ol0e a co#&lict %ith a#other clie#t or his o%# i#terest, a#d i& so, shall &orth%ith i#&orm the prospecti0e clie#t. !e.ia 3s( Reyes Atty. Reyes %as the co$#sel a#d #otary p$blic o& PN.. I# s$ch capacity, he ha#dled litigatio# i#0ol0i#g PN. a#d a certai# Me'ia. Me'ia lost a#d %a#ted to appeal. At ReyesF ad0ise, Me'ia did #ot p$sh thro$gh %ith his i#te#ded appeal. Later o#, Me'ia lear#ed that Reyes %as the PN.Fs co$#sel. Act co#stit$tes malpractice. I# case o& co#&lict o& i#terests o& a la%yer a#d his clie#t G &a0or the clie#t. 4e.g. do #ot prioritiDe attor#eyFs &ees o0er a#d abo0e clie#tsF shares i# the '$dgme#t a%ard5 R$le 73.?< G A la%yer shall #ot represe#t co#&licti#g i#terests e)cept by %ritte# co#se#t o& all co#cer#ed gi0e#

a&ter a &$ll disclos$re o& the &acts. Represe#ti#g co#&licti#g i#terests is a crimi#al o&&e#se. .etrayal o& Tr$st by a# Attor#ey 4Art. =?8, RPC5 Treachery a#d do$ble1deali#g is co#dem#ed. +here the la%yer did #ot accept the case b$t represe#ted the ad0erse party a&ter co#s$ltatio# by the otherJ

Hila4, 3s( Da3i4 It is #ot esse#tial that the clie#t sho$ld ha0e employed or paid the la%yer pro&essio#allyC mere co#s$ltatio# s$&&ices to establish a la%yer1clie#t relatio#ship. La%yer sho$ld #ot represe#t co#&licti#g i#terests. ,$ty 4#ot to represe#t co#&licti#g i#terests5 applies e0e# A TER attor#ey1clie#t relatio#ship is termi#ated. Na>1il 3s( 'al4eG Atty. 6aldeD is ma#agi#g part#er o& his o%# la% &irm a#d o%# acco$#ti#g &irm. I# a case, Atty. 6aldeD represe#ted the estate o& the late Kose NaBpil. T%o claima#ts agai#st the estate are clie#ts o& his acco$#ti#g &irm. S$spe#ded &or represe#ti#g co#&licti#g i#terests. Whe+ is re1rese+-i+5 /,+2li/-i+5 i+-eres-s a)-h,riGe4I -po# %ritte# co#se#t o& the clie#t co#cer#ed gi0e# a&ter &$ll disclos$re o& the &acts. R$le 73.?< G A la%yer shall be bo$#d by the r$le o# pri0ileged comm$#icatio# i# respect o& matters disclosed to him by a prospecti0e clie#t. This is a#other i#sta#ce o& loyalty to the clie#t. 6irt$al co#&essio#al seal o& the clie#tFs secrets a#d co#&ide#ces. orm o& comm$#icatio#/ oral, %ritte#, actio#s, sig#sJ Sectio# 4#ot clear5 ROC G A# attor#ey ca##ot, %itho$t the co#se#t o& his clie#t, be e)ami#ed as to a#y comm$#icatio# made by the clie#t to him, or his ad0ice gi0e# thereo# i# the co$rse o&, or %ith a 0ie% to, pro&essio#al employme#t, #or ca# a# attor#eyFs secretary, ste#ographer, or clerB be e)ami#ed, %itho$t the co#se#t o& the clie#t a#d his employer, co#cer#i#g a#y &act the B#o%ledge o& %hich has bee# ac($ired i# s$ch capacity.

Are pleadi#gs co#&ide#tial2 *es, be&ore they are 4#ot clear5 i# co$rt. -#pri0ileged comm$#icatio#/ la%yer ca# be compelled to testi&y, or else he may be cited i# co#tempt o& co$rt. .asic limitatio#s o& pri0ileged comm$#icatio#/ a.5 p$rpose o& seeBi#g legal ad0iceC b.5 does #ot e)te#d to comm$#icatio# o& &$t$re crimes, a perso# committi#g or abo$t to commit a crime ca# ha0e #o pri0ileged %it#essC comm$#icatio# m$st be &or a la%&$l p$rpose or i# &$rthera#ce o& a la%&$l e#d. or other%ise, i& the p$rpose is crimi#al, it is #ot o#ly la%&$l to di0$lge, b$t the la%yer sho$ld be bo$#d to disclose at o#ce i# the i#terest o& '$stice. The pri0ilege applies to la% st$de#ts $#der the La% St$de#t Practice r$le

Tw,%",l4 P)r1,ses ,2 -he R)le: To e#co$rage clie#t to maBe &$ll disclos$re %itho$t &earC To e#able co$#sel to obtai# &$ll i#&ormatio# so as #ot to misled i# the e0al$atio# o& the merits or demerits o& the clie#tFs case. R$le 73.?3 G A la%yer he# ad0isi#g his clie#t, shall gi0e a ca#did a#d ho#est opi#io# o# the merits a#d probable res$lts o& the clie#tFs case, #either o0erstati#g or $#derstati#g the prospects o& 4#ot clear5. 4Not clear5 a# i#sta#ce o& ca#dor.

R$le 73.?E G A la%yer shall #ot state or imply that he is able to i#&l$e#ce a#y p$blic o&&icial, trib$#al or legislati0e body. O# matters o& la%, it is the la%yer %ho sho$ld hold the rei#s. The clie#t sho$ld yield to the la%yer a#d #ot the other %ay aro$#d. HLa%yeri#gI or Hbei#g a mere mo$thpiece o& the clie#tI $#te#able arg$me#ts 4+icBer 0s. Arca#gel5 La%yers sho$ld ad0ise clie#ts o# matters o& decor$m a#d proper attit$de to%ards co$rts o& '$stice e.g. c$rbi#g the clie#tFs desire 4#ot clear5 the litigatio# or to 4#ot clear5 to the streets a#d rally R$le 73.?9 G A la%yer %ho is e#gaged i# a#other pro&essio# or occ$patio# co#c$rre#tly %ith the practice o& la% shall maBe clear to his clie#t %hether he is acti#g as a la%yer or i# a#other capacity. E)amples o& other capacities/ real estate 4#ot clear5 age#t, i#s$ra#ce ad'$ster, collectio#

CANON 1D < A LAWYER OWES "IDELITY TO THE CAUSE O" HIS CLIENT AND HE SHALL E !IND"UL O" THE TRUST AND CON"IDENCE REPOSED IN HI!( Relatio#ship o& la%yer1clie#t is highly &id$ciary a#d dema#ds $tmost &idelity a#d good &aith. 4Not clear5 to clie#tFs ca$se is the esse#ce o& the 4#ot clear5. +itho$t this &idelity, the la%yer 4#ot clear5 beca$se #o clie#t %ill e#gage his 4#ot clear5.

Rosacia 0s. .$lalacao

CANON 1C < A LAWYER SHALL HOLD IN TRUST ALL !ONEYS AND PROPERTIES O" HIS CLIENT THAT !AY CO!E INTO HIS POSSESSION( TWO 7$9 DUAL ROLES O" THE LAWYER TO HIS CLIENT: id$ciary or Tr$stee -tmost good &aith a#d &idelity is re($ired. Strict complia#ce %ith Ca#o#s 7;1==. Age#t Appear i# co$rt i# behal& o& the clie#t. .i#d the clie#t i# all matters o& ordi#ary '$dicial proced$re. More tha# a# ordi#ary age#t 4Regata 0s. Sa#diga#baya#, !.R. No. 7?38<9, 788E5. La%yer is &oremost a# o&&icer o& the co$rt.

LAWYERS REACH O" CLIENTS TRUST Ill)s-ra-i3e Cases: Misappropriatio# by la%yer o& re#tals 4Lic$a#a# 0s. Melo, 7:? SCRA 7??5 Sec$ri#g mo#ey &rom clie#t &or &ictitio$s s$persedeas bo#d, a#d appropriati#g the same 4,oce#a 0s. Limo#, AC No. =<9:, Sept. 7?, 78895 Misappropriati#g mo#ey gi0e# by clie#t to be $sed &or amicable settleme#t 4Na0arro 0s. Me#eses III, ACT No. <7<, Ka#. <?, 78895 R$le 7E.?7 G A la%yer shall acco$#t &or all mo#ey or property collected or recei0ed &or or &rom the clie#t. R$le 7E.?= G A la%yer shall Beep the &$#ds o& each clie#t separate a#d apart &rom his o%# a#d those o& others Bept by him. U+law2)l Re+-e+-i,+ ,2 Clie+-s ")+4s: 6iolatio# o& Ca#o# 7E. Co#stit$tes co#tempt o& co$rt/ O&&icer o& the co$rt %ho has misbeha0ed i# his o&&icial tra#sactio#s. Crimi#al a#d ci0il prosec$tio#.

R$le 7E.?; G A la%yer shall #ot borro% mo#ey &rom his clie#t $#less the clie#tFs i#terests are &$lly protected by the #at$re o& the case or by i#depe#de#t ad0ice. Neither shall a la%yer le#d mo#ey to a clie#t, e)cept, %he# i# the i#terest o& '$stice, he has to ad0a#ce #ecessary e)pe#ses i# a legal matter he is ha#dli#g &or the clie#t. )si+ess -ra+sa/-i,+s wi-h /lie+-s: La%yer is #ot barred &rom deali#g %ith his clie#t b$t the b$si#ess tra#sactio# m$st be characteriDed %ith $tmost ho#esty a#d good &aith. 4NaBpil 0s. 6aldeD, AC No. =?;?, March ;, 78895. M$ch higher sta#dard o& good &aith is re($ired compared to b$si#ess tra#sactio#s that are at armFs le#gth. No pres$mptio# o& i##oce#ce or improbability o& %ro#gdoi#g is co#sidered i# the la%yerFs &a0or.

R$le 7E.?< G A la%yer shall deli0er the &$#ds a#d property o& his clie#t %he# d$e or $po# dema#d. "o%e0er, he shall ha0e a lie# o0er the &$#ds a#d may apply so m$ch thereo& as may be #ecessary to satis&y his la%&$l &ees a#d disb$rseme#ts, gi0i#g #otice promptly therea&ter to his clie#t. "e shall also ha0e lie# to the same e)te#t o# all '$dgme#ts a#d e)ec$tio#s he has sec$red &or his clie#t as pro0ided &or i# the R$les o& Co$rt.

TWO 7$9 &INDS O" ATTORNEYS LIENS:

RETAININ#, #ENERAL, POSSESSORY LIEN G right o& la%yer to la%&$lly %ithhold his clie#tFs property 4&$#ds or doc$me#ts5 that la%&$lly come i#to his possessio#, $#til payme#t o& his attor#eyFs &ees. CHAR#IN#, SPECIAL, PARTICULAR, NON%POSSESSORY LIEN G right o& the attor#ey to re($est the co$rt to a##otate his claim &or attor#eyFs &ees i# %hate0er reco0eries made by the clie#t &rom the losi#g ad0ersary.

+hy the recog#itio# o& the Atoor#eyFs Lie#2 It is b$t #at$ral that the la%yer be sec$red i# the &r$its o& his pro&essio#al labor. Proper admi#istratio# o& '$stice ca##ot be sec$red %itho$t a# i#tellige#t a#d prospero$s bar. 4Sta#sell 0s. Roach, =8 ALR 7;<5

asis ,2 Re-ai+i+5 Lie+ 7Se/( :D, R)le 1:A, ROC9 A+ a--,r+ey shall ha3e a lie+: -po# the "UNDS, DOCU!ENTS a+4 PAPERS o& his clie#t. +hich ha0e LAW"ULLY CO!E INTO HIS POSSESSION( A#d may retai# the same $#til his LAW"UL "EES AND DIS URSE!ENTS ha0e bee# paid. A#d may apply s$ch &$#ds to the SATIS ACTION thereo&. Li8i-a-i,+s ,+ e0er/ise ,2 re-ai+i+5 lie+: $#ds, doc$me#ts, a#d papers o#ly Thi#g retai#ed sho$ld ha0e la%&$lly come i#to the possessio# o& the la%yer $#der circ$msta#ces co#siste#t %ith the e#&orceme#t o& a lie# &or ser0ices. Th$s, retai#i#g lie# does #ot apply to &$#ds comi#g i#to the la%yerFs possessio# i# tr$st A la%yer ca##ot retai# &iles the clie#t #eeds to p$rs$e his case 4People 0s. Alt0ater, :9 Misc. =d =;5 or la%&$l &eels a#d disb$rseme#ts o#ly

Is re-ai+i+5 lie+ -he sa8e as re-ai+i+5 2eeI RETAININ# 7OR RETAINER9 "EE G A prelimi#ary &ee paid to e#s$re a#d sec$re a l%ayerFs &$t$re ser0ices, to rem$#erate him &or bei#g depri0ed o& employme#t by other perso#s %ho may ha0e ad0erse i#terests to that o&

the clie#t retai#i#g the la%yerFs ser0ices. I# the abse#ce o& a# agreeme#t to the co#trary, the retai#i#g &ee is #either made #or recei0ed i# co#sideratio# o& the ser0ices co#templated. Rather, it is apart &rom %hat the clie#t agreed to pay &or the co#templated ser0ices. 4Research P Ser0ices Realty, I#c. 0s. CA, =EE SCRA :<75

asis ,2 Char5i+5 Lie+ 7Se/(:D, R)le 1:A, ROC9 A lawyer shall ha3e a lie+: -po# all '$dgme#ts &or the payme#t o& mo#ey, a#d e)ec$tio#s iss$ed i# p$rs$a#ce thereo&, +hich he has sec$red i# a litigatio# &or his clie#t, rom a#d a&ter the time %he# he shall ha0e ca$sed a stateme#t o& his claim o& s$ch lie# to be e#tered $po# the records o& the co$rt re#deri#g s$ch '$dgem#t, or iss$i#g s$ch e)ec$tio#, a#d Shall ha0e ca$sed %ritte# #otice thereo& to be 4#ot clear5 to his clie#t a#d to the ad0erse party.

7Sli4e i+/,81le-e9 Li8i-a-i,+s ,+ e0er/ise ,2 /har5i+5 lie+: Applies o#ly to the speci&ic actio# i# %hich the chargi#g lie# is recorded. Applies o#ly to &a0orable mo#ey '$dgme#ts, a#d e)ec$tio#s p$rs$a#t thereto. RETAININ# LIEN NATURE ASIS CO'ERA#E E""ECTI'ITY NOTICE APPLICA ILTY Pasi0e !e#eral La%&$l possessio#s o& papers, doc$me#ts, a#d &$#ds belo#gi#g to clie#t O#ly doc$me#ts, papers a#d &$#ds i# the la%&$l possessio# o& the la%yer by reaso# o& his pro&essio#al employme#t As soo# as la%yer taBes possessio# Clie#t #eed #ot be #oti&ied May be e)ercised be&ore '$dgme#t or e)ec$tio#, or regardless thereo& CHAR#IN# LIEN Acti0e Speci&ic Sec$ri#g &a0orable mo#ey '$dgeme#t &or the clie#t Co0ers all '$dgme#ts &or the payme#t o& mo#ey a#d esec$tio#s p$rs$a#t thereto As soo# as claim &or the lie# e#tered i#to the records o& the case Clie#t a#d ad0erse party m$st be #oti&ied E)ercised o#ly %he# la%yer had already sec$red a &a0orable mo#ey '$dgme#t

7Sli4e I+/,81le-e9

R$le 79.?7 G A la%yer shall #ot $#dertaBe a legal ser0ice %hich he B#o%s or sho$ld B#o% that he is #ot ($ali&ied to re#der. "o%e0er, he may re#der s$ch ser0ice i&, %ith the co#se#t o& his clie#t, he ca# obtai# as collaborati#g co$#sel a la%yer %ho is compete#t o# the matter. R$le 79.?= G A la%yer shall #ot ha#dle a#y legal matter %itho$t ade($ate preparatio#. R$le 79.?< G A la%yer shall #ot #eglect a legal matter e#tr$sted to him a#d his #eglige#ce i# co##ectio# there%ith shall re#der him liable. E&&ects o& Neglige#ce a#d I#compete#ce o& La%yer/ ,iscipli#ary actio# agai#st the la%yer Malpractice s$it &or damages A crimi#al co#0ictio# may be set aside A retrial may be had i# ci0il cases

E22e/-s ,2 Ne5li5e+/e a+4 I+/,81e-e+/e ,2 C,)+sel IN CRI!INAL CASES Crimi#al co#0ictio# may be set aside i& the errors o& the de&e#se co$#sel %ere so shocBi#g that they depri0ed the acc$sed o& the co#stit$tio#al right to e&&ecti0e co$#sel. 4McMa## 0s, Richardso#, <8: -S :385 Co#0ictio# may be set aside b$t acc$sed m$st sho% that his co$#selFs acts aor omissio#s H%ere o$tside the ra#ge o& pro&essio#ally compete#t assista#ce.I $rthermore, the acts or omissio#s m$st ha0e ca$sed act$al pre'$dice, #ot '$st some co#cei0able e&&ect o# the o$tcome o& the case. Str'cBla#d 0s. +ashi#gto# 4;EE -S EE95

E22e/-s ,2 Ne5li5e+/e a+4 I+/,81e-e+/e ,2 C,)+sel i+ CI'IL CASES Retrial may be co#d$cted Co$rts are slo% i# setti#g aside '$dme#ts i# ci0il cases

Dili5e+/e reE)ire4 ,2 /,)+sel: ORDINARY CARE a+4 DILI#ENCE A la%yer is #ot a# i#s$rer o& the res$lt o& a case. IS THE CLIENT OUND Y THE NE#LI#ENCE O" HIS COUNSELI #e+eral R)le: YESJ A#y at o& the la%yer %ithi# the scope o& his ge#eral or implied a$thority is co#sidered a# act o& the clie#t. E0/e1-i,+: +he# the applicatio# o& the ge#eral r$le %o$ld res$lt to serio$s i#'$stice or o$tright depri0atio# o& the clie#tFs li&e, liberty, or property %itho$t d$e process o& la%. R$le 79.?; G A la%yer shall Beep the clie#t i#&ormed & the stat$s o& his case a#d shall respo#d %ithi# a reaso#able time to the clie#tFs re($est &or i#&ormatio#. It is also the d$ty o& a clie#t1litiga#t to be i# co#tact %ith his co$#sel &rom time to time i# order to be i#&ormed

o& the progress o& his case. No pr$de#t party %ill lea0e the &ate o& his case e#tirely to his la%yer. 4.er#ardo 0s. CA, =:3 SCRA ;7<5 Litiga#ts sho$ld gi0e #ecessary assista#ce to their co$#sel &or %hat $s at staBe is their i#terest i# the case. 4!rre#hills Airco#ditio#i#g 0s. NLRC, =;3 SCRA <9;5

CANON 1B < A LAWYER SHALL REPRESENT HIS CLIENT WITH KEAL WITHIN THE OUNDS O" THE LAW A la%yerFs d$ty is #ot to his clie#t b$t to the admi#istratio# o& '$sticeC to that e#d, his clie#tFs s$ccess is %holly s$bordi#ateC a#d his co#d$ct o$ght to a#d m$st 4#ot clear5 scr$p$lo$sly obser0a#t 4#ot clear5 ethics. 4Maglasa#g 0s. 4#ot clear5 78? SCRA <?E5 R$le 78.?7 G A la%yer shall employ o#ly &air a#d ho#est mea#s to attai# the la%&$l ob'ecti0es o& his clie#t a#d shall #ot prese#t, participate i#prese#ti#g or threate#i#g 4#ot clear5 $#&o$#ded crimi#al 4#ot clear5 to obtai# a# improperly 4#ot clear5 i# a#y case or 4#ot clear5 De2e+se ,2 a 1ers,+ a//)se4 ,2 a /ri8e It is the d$ty o& the attor#ey, i# the de&e#se o& a perso# acc$sed o& a crime by all &air a#d ho#orable mea#s, regardless o& his perso#al opi#io# as to the g$ilt o& the acc$sed, to prese#t 4#ot clear5 the la% permits. To the 4#ot clear5 may be depri0ed o& li&e 4#ot clear5 by d$e process o& la% 4#ot clear5 47<9, ROC5 R$le 78.?= G A la%yer %ho has recei0ed i#&ormatio# that his clie#t 4#ot clear5 the coarse o& the represe#tatio#, perpet$ated a &ra$d $po# a perso# or trib$#al, shall promptly call $po# the clie#t to recti&y the 4#ot clear5 &aili#g %hich he 4#ot clear5 the relatio#ship 4#ot clear5 clie#t i# accorda#ce 4#ot clear5 R$les o& Co$rt R$le 78.?< G A la%yer shall #ot allo% his clie#t to dictate the proced$re i# ha#dli#g the case "e 4the la%yer5 sho$ld &ollo% his o%# decisio# a#d #ot that o& his clie#t. Th$s, a la%yer may agree to postpo#e the trial o& the case, despite the clie#tFs co#trary %ishes, i& the opposite 4#ot clear5 or $#der berea0eme#tl, or $#der 4#ot clear5 ca$ses. CANON $* < A LAWYER SHALL CHAR#E ONLY "AIR AND REASONA LE "EES( A--,r+eys "ees, De2i+e4 The rem$#eratio# gi0e# to a 4#ot clear5 reaso#able compe#satio# 4#ot clear5 pro&essio#al ser0ices. Ra-i,+ale ,2 A--,r+eys "ees Altho$gh the legal pro&essio# #ot a b$si#ess $#dertaBi#g, the la%yer liBe all other h$ma# bei#gs 4#ot clear5 to a li0elihood. 4#ot clear5 4=8 ALR 7;<5 Or4i+ary C,+/e1- ,2 A--,r+eys "ees:

Reaso#able compe#sato# paid 4#ot clear5 a la%yer by his clie#t &or the legal ser0ices he has re#dered to the latter. 4#ot clear5 employme#t or 4#ot clear5 o& the la%yer by the 4#ot clear5

E0-ra,r4i+ary C,+/e1- ,2 A--,r+eys "ees: I#dem#ity &or damages ordered by the co$rt to be paid by the losi#g party i# litigatio# !R/ Payable to the clie#t 4#ot clear5 bet%ee# the la%yer 4#ot clear5 the attor#eyFs &ees shall 4#ot clear5 lay%er as additio#al 4#ot clear5 or as part thereo&. ARTICLE $$*A, NEW CI'IL CODE: I# the abse#ce o& stip$latio#, attor#ey a#d e)pe#ses o& litigatio#, other tha# '$dicial costs, ca##ot be reco0ered. +he# e)emplary damages are a%ardedC +he# the 4#ot clear5 the plai#ti&& to 4#ot clear5 %ith third perso#s or to their e)pe#ses to protect his i#terestC I# crimi#al cases o& malicio$s prosec$tio# agai#st the plai#ti&&C I# case o& a clearlt $#&o$#ded ci0il actio# or proceedi#g agai#st the 4#ot clear5 +here the de&e#da#t acted i# gross a#d e0ide#t bad &aith i# re&$si#g to satis&y the plai#ti&&Fs plai#ly 0alid, '$st a#d dema#dable claimC I# actio#s &or legal s$pportC I# actio#s &or the reco0ery o& %ages o& ho$sehold helpers, laborers a#d sBilled %orBersC 4#ot clear5 $#der %orBme#Cs compe#satio# a#d 4#ot clear5 4#ot clear5 to reco0er ci0il liabilty arisi#g &rom a crimeC 4#ot clear5 '$dicial costs are a%ardedC 4#ot clear5 %here the co$rt deems it '$st a#d e($itable that 4#ot clear5 o& litigatio# sho$ld be reco0ered.

Pres)81-i,+ as -, E+-i-le8e+- ,2 A--,r+eys "ees: !R/ I& a la%yer re#ders 0al$able ser0ices to o#e %ho recei0es the be#e&its thereo&, a promise to pay a reaso#able 0al$e is pres$med 4#ot clear5 H,w a5ree8e+- re: a--,r+eys 2ees 8a4e: Oral

Wri--e+ C,+-ra/- 2,r A--,r+eys "ees: To a0oid co#tro0ersy o0er attor#eyFs &ees ais ad0isable to agree i# ad0a#ce as to the matter o& ho% the la%yer is to be compe#sated. $rthermore, i# case o& $#'$sti&ied 4#ot clear5 he shall be e#titled to 4#ot clear5 &$ll compe#satio# based o# 4#ot clear5. The la% seeBs to protect 4#ot clear5 $#scr$p$lo$s a#d $#grate&$l 4#ot clear5 la%yers to a0oid payme#t. ases 2,r A--,r+eys "ees i2 C,+-ra/- is I81lie4:

Co#cept o& -#'$st E#richme#t G 4#ot clear5 o#e shall $#'$stly e#rich himsel& at 4#ot clear5 a#other.

I+-er1re-a-i,+ ,2 C,+-ra/-s 2,r A--,r+eys "ees I# case o& ambig$ity o& co#tract bet%ee# attor#ey a#d clie#t co#cer#i#g compe#satio#, a 4#ot clear5 &a0orable to the clie#t 4#ot clear5 pre&erred. 4,e Los Sa#tos 4#ot clear5, 9 SCRA :E;5

A--,r+eys "ees are s);.e/- -, .)4i/ial re3iew Reas,+: A la%yer is primarily a# o&&icer o& the co$rt charged %ith the d$ty o& assisti#g the co$rt i# admi#isteri#g 4#ot clear5 '$stice bet%ee# the parties 4#ot clear5 his attor#eyFs &ees sho$ld 4#ot clear5 '$dicial co#trol. &i+4s ,2 Re-ai+er "ee A5ree8e+-s 7=?38=, March 7;, 788:5/ 7Sli4e I+/,81le-e9 #e+eral Re-ai+er ee paid to a la%yer to sec$re his &$t$re 4#ot clear5 as ge#eral 4#ot clear5 &or a#y ordi#ary lehal problem 4#ot clear5 may arise i# the ro$ti#ary b$si#ess o& the clie#t a#d re&erred to him &or legal actio#. The &$t$re ser0ices the la%yer are sec$red a#d committed to the 4#ot clear5 clie#t. or this, the clie#t pays the la%yer a &i)ed retai#er &ee %hich co$ld be mo#thly or other%ise, 4#ot clear5 their agreeme#t. The &ees are 4#ot clear5 there are cases re&erred to the la% 4#ot clear5 rem$#eratio# is that the la%yer 4#ot clear5 opport$#ity o& re#deri#g ser0ices 4#ot clear5 party or other parties. I# &i#e, 4#ot clear5 &or lost opport$#ities. S1e/ial Re-ai+er ee &or a speci&ic case ha#dled or special ser0ice re#dered by the la%yer &or a clie#t. A clie#t may ha0e se0eral cases dema#di#g special or i#di0id$al 4#ot clear5 &or e0ery case there is a 4#ot clear5 i#depe#de#t co#tract &or 4#ot clear5, each &ee is co#sidered 4#ot clear5 retai#er. Oi#ds o& Attor#eyFs ees Arra#geme#ts/ i)ed or Absol$te ee Co#ti#ge#t ee i)ed ee Payable Per Appeara#ce 4#ot clear5 "o$rly Rate L Time .illi#g 4#ot clear5 based o# Piece +orB

C,+-i5e+- "ee C,+-ra/ A co#tract %hereby a la%yer gets paid &or ser0ices o#ly i& he %i#s the case &or the clie#t

A.O.A HNo C$re, No Pay .asisI Agreeme#t laid do%# i# a# e)press co#tract bet%ee# a la%yer a#d a clie#t i# %hich the 4#ot clear5 pro&essio#al &ee, $s$ally a &i)ed 4#ot clear5 %hat may be reco0ered i# the 4#ot clear5 to depe#d $po# the s$ccess 4#ot clear5 4Taga#as 0s. NLRC, <;9 SCRA 4#ot clear5 5

Ra-i,+ale ,2 C,+-i+5e+- "ee C,+-ra/S$ch co#tract is o&te# the 4#ot clear5 %ay by %hich the poor a#d helpless 4#ot clear5 their rights 0i#dicated 4#ot clear5 A8,)+- ,2 -he C,+-i+5e+- "ee A co#tract &or a co#tige#t &ee, %here sa#ctio#ed by la%, sho$ld be reaso#able $#der all circ$msta#ces i#cl$di#g the risB a#d $#certai#ty o& 4#ot clear5, a#d sho$ld al%ays 4#ot clear5 to the s$per0isio# o& the 4#ot clear5 its reaso#able#ess. 4#ot clear5 4CPE5 A# attor#ey e#gaged o# a co#tige#t &ee 4#ot clear5 may #ot, i# order to collect his &ees, 4#ot clear5 a# appeal despit his clie#tFs re&$sal to 4#ot clear5 4Le0iste 0s. CA, !.R. No. =879;, Ka#. <?, 78985 Co#tige#t &ee co#tract does #ot maBe 4#ot clear5 la%yer a creditor o& the clie#t. It #either 4#ot clear5 to gi0em to the la%yer a#y right 4#ot clear5 perso#al or real, i# a#d to the 4#ot clear5 %i##i#gs i# the s$it. I& the 4#ot clear5 does #ot occ$r, the# the la%yer 4#ot clear5 to his &ees.

Cha81er-,)s C,+-ra/-, De2i+e4: O#e %hereby the la%yer agrees to presec$te s$its at his o%# e)pe#se the reco0ery o& thi#gs or property belo#gi#g to or claimed by the clie#t the latter agreei#g to pay the &ormer 4#ot clear5 the thi#g or property 4#ot clear5 as compe#satio#. CHA!PERTOUS CONTRACT La%yer $#dertaBes to bear all e)pe#ses i#cide#t to the litigatio# Payable i# cash or i# Bi#d 4#ot clear5 CONTI#ENT CONTRACT NA Payable i# cash or i# Bi#d 6alid

O-her 2a/-,rs 8ay ;e /,+si4ere4 s)/h as: Clie#tFs ability to pay Reaso#able re($ests o& &ello% la%yers, a#d o& their 4#ot clear5 a#d orpha#s %itho$t ample mea#s Respo#sibilty imposed Res$lts sec$red

4#ot clear5 la%yers sho$ld a0oid charges that 4#ot clear5 $#derestimate their legal ad0ice a#d 4#ot clear5 Why sh,)l4 -here ;e a /ri-eria 2,r reas,+a;le 7+,- /lear9 ,2 2eesI

E)cessi0e &ees %o$ld disco$rage prospect clie#ts &rom seeBi#g legal repre#se#tatio#. I#ade($ate legal &ees might ser0e as a 4#ot clear5 &or the la%yer to e)ert his 4#ot clear5 represe#ti#g the clie#tC it might 4#ot clear5 dedicated a#d tale#ted 4#ot clear5 p$rs$i#g a career i# la%. Whe+ a--,r+eys 2ees ;ase4 ,+ L)a+-)8 !er)i- are Awar4e4: +he# the &ees stip$lated appear e)cessi0e, $#co#scio#able, $#reaso#able +here there is #o e)press co#tract +here the co#tract o& employme#t is 0oid 4#ot clear5 irreg$larity i# its e)ec$tio# 4#ot clear5 matters 4#ot clear5 agreeme#t to pay attor#eyFs &ees 4#ot clear5 #ot bee# agreed $po#

A--,r+eys 2ees where /lie+- wi-h4raws 7Se/( $C, R)le 1:A9: The la%yer shall reco0er the -LL AMO-NT o& compe#satio# stip$lated 4#ot clear5 the co#tract i& the &ollo%i#g co#ditio# 4#ot clear5 4#ot clear5 has bee# red$ced to %riti#g 4#ot clear5 attor#ey is %itho$t 4#ot clear5 A--,r+eys 2ees where /,)+sel wi-h4raws Ca$se is '$sti&ied G N$a#t$m Mer$it Ca$se is #ot '$sti&ied G attor#eyFs &ee 4#ot clear5 or e0e# &or&eited

Law 8ay li8i- -he /,lle/-i,+ ,2 A--,r+eys 2ees The state as pare#s patriae may protect the i#terest o& the 4#ot clear5

E0a81les ,2 law li8i-a-i,+s ,+ A--,r+eys "ees: R.A. No. 7;3 4-.S. 6etera#s Claims5 G A la%yer is limited to attor#eyFs &ees o& #ot more tha# Php =?.?? HIt shall be $#la%&$l &or a#y perso# to 4#ot clear5, i# a#y '$dicial or 4#ot clear5 proceedi#gs &or the reco0ery 4#ot clear5 attor#eyFs &ees %hich e)ceed 4#ot clear5 amo$#t o& %ages recoe0ered 4#ot clear5 4Labor Code5

R$le 4#ot clear5 G A la%yer shall, cases o& re&erral, %ith the co#se#t o& the clie#t, be e#titled to a di0isio# o& &ees 4#ot clear5 to the %orB 4#ot clear5 a#d the 4#ot clear ass$med. ReE)isi-es 2,r "ee%S1li--i+5: Re&erral cases +ith clie#tFs co#se#t 4#ot clear5 to the %orB per&ormed 4#ot clear5 respo#sibilty ass$med

R$le =?.?< G A la%yer shall 4#ot clear5 %itho$t the &$ll B#o%ledge a#d co#se#t o& the clie#t, accept 4#ot clear5 &ee, re%ard, costs, commissio#s, i#terests, rebate or &or%ardi#g allo%a#ce or other 4#ot clear5 %hatsoe0er 4#ot clear5 his pro&essio#al 4#ot clear5 &rom a#yo#e other 4#ot clear5 clie#t.

R$le =?.?; G A la%yer shall a0oid co#tro0ersies %ith clie#t co#cer#i#g his compe#satio# a#d shall resort to '$dicial actio# 4#ot clear5 impositio#, i#'$stice 4#ot clear5 Ass)81siThe actio# &iled by a la%yer 4#ot clear5 clie#t &or collectio# 4#ot clear5 &ees. CANON $1: A LAWYER SHALL PRESER'E THE CON"IDENCES AND SECRETS O" HIS CLIENT E'EN A"TER THE ATTORNEY%CLIENT RELATIONSHIP IS TER!INATED C,+seE)e+/es ,2 'i,la-i+5 Clie+-s C,+2i4e+/e: Crimi#al liability/ .etrayal o& tr$st by a# attor#ey or solicitor, Re0elatio# o& Secrets 4Art. =?8, RPC5 Pe#alty/ PC mi#, or a &i#e ra#gi#g &rom Php =?? to 7,??? or both 4#ot clear5 additio# to proper admi#istrati0e 4#ot clear5