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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY EXAM 4

CHAPTER 14: THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES


-In humans, Brain to Body ratio is very high (smartness) -Large cerebral cortex -Expanded frontal lobes (higher functions- self-control/planning ability/reasoning/abstract thinking) Brain Development -Neural tube flexes and forms 3 primary vesiclesThe forebrain, the midbrain, and Hindbrain -Encephalization- the further formation of the brain (3rd and 1st vesicles divide into secondary vesicles) -When a fetus is born- the brain looks a lot like adult brain -Fetal brain grows very rapidly (there are about 50,000 neurons forming each second)
The telencephalon develops into the cerebrum and lateral ventricles. The diencephalon forms the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and third ventricle. The metencephalon becomes the pons, cerebellum, and upper part of the fourth ventricle. The myelencephalon forms the medulla oblongata and lower part of the fourth ventricle. The mesencephalon (mesenSEFalon), or midbrain, gives rise to the midbrain and aqueduct of the midbrain (cerebral aqueduct).

Cerebellum- second largest part of the brain (often called little brain) Cerebrum- the newest edition to brain according to evolutionary history/ where frontal lobe is (planning/reasoning/abstract thought is there) Protective covering (Meninges) - continuous with meninges of spinal cord -Cranial meninges have similar function/structure to spinal meninges (same names) Dura mater- has 2 layers in cranial meninges -External periosteal layer- superficial layer against bony coverings -Internal meningeal layerExtensions of Dura mater- hard membranes that separate areas (divide intracranial vault in a couple of ways)

-Falx cerebri- fold of dura mater (descend from dura, vertically, in the longitudinal fissure) -Longitudinal fissure- separates the 2 hemispheres in cerebrum -Falx cerebelli- an extension of the dura mater that separates the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum. -Tentorium cerebelli- extension of dura mater that is important in clinical settingtumors are often separated in relation to tentorium cerebelli (supra-tentorium and infra-tentorium) -Often in children, tumors are found in infratentorium -Often in Adults, tumors are found in supra tentorium -If there is any brain swelling, there will not be much movement in the extension of the dura mater (it could build up intercranial pressure-serious brain injury)

Brain Blood Flow- Brain is a huge amount of the mass of body (in relation to many other body organs) (makes up about 2% of total body weight) (makes up about 20% of blood supply to brain) brain is a huge consumer- 20% of oxygen/glucose (energy) -Arteries- oxygenated blood- red -Internal carotid artery- large supply of blood to brain (anterior portion of brain) -Vertebral arteries- supply posterior portion of brain.

-Veins- deoxygenated blood- blue -Internal jugular vein- important vessels for veinus return Blood-Brain barrier- keep harmful substances from brain (protects brain) -there is a huge metabolic cost of this (active transport of glucose molecules across barrier- need transport energy/ ATP) -Ability to get drugs across barrier- (benefit-antibiotics) (Disadvantage- Old Benadryl makes you feel drowsy) Production and flow of CSF -Cerebrospinal fluid- found in subarachnoid space in brain -CSF circulates through internal cavities in brain (brain ventricles) Ventricles- There is one lateral ventricle in each hemisphere of the cerebrum. (Think of them as ventricles 1 and 2.) Anteriorly, the lateral ventricles are separated by a thin membrane, the septum pellucidum. The third ventricle is a narrow slit like cavity along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus. The fourth ventricle lies between the brain stem and the cerebellum. -CSF- mechanical protection (shock absorber)/ circulation (take wastes away from brain/nutrients towards brain)/ maintain homeostasis (maintain PH of blood flow in brain) Arachnoid materPia materThe Brain Stem- Superior to spinal cord/ continuous with spinal cord -Made of midbrain/pons/medulla oblongata Medulla oblongata- considered the vital functional center of brain-Cardiovascular center- controls heart rate/ the force of heartbeats/diameter of blood vessels -Respiratory center- controls rate/rhythm of breathing -Vomiting/coughing/sneezing -Associated with Cranial nerve nuclei with nerves 8-12 -Portions of 4th ventricle extends into medulla Pons- superior to medulla (located anterior to cerebellum) -considered the bridge that connects the spinal cord with the brain -Also considered to connect other parts of brain to each other

-Controls breathing- inhalation/exhalation -Contain the nuclei associated with 4 pairs of cranial nerves (5-8) -Nerve 5 emerges directly from pons -Nerves 6, 7, and 8 emerge from space between pons and medulla Midbrain- extends from pons (Diencephalon is superior) -Where cerebral aqueduct is found (pass through midbrain- job is to connect the 3rd and 4th ventricle -Posterior part has 4 rounded elevations (superior/inferior colliculi) -Colliculi are reflex centers (sensory reflexes- visual/auditory/startle reflex) -The origin of cranial 3 and 4 can be found here Cerebellum- the second largest portion of brain (sometimes called the little brain) -Found inferior to cerebrum and posterior to brain stem -Separated from cerebrum by transverse fissure -Vermis- central constriction- separates the 2 cerebral hemispheres -Important in comparing intended movements and actual skeletal movements (being in a hurry, a running up a flight of stairs, and missing a step) -Regulation of posture -Maintain equilibrium and balance Diencephalon- superior to mid brain/ located in midbrain-midline (you have to cut brain to see it) -Develops from procencephalon (more primitive then cerebral cortex) -Surrounds third ventricle (CSF circulation) -Thalamic structures are found here Thalamus- relay station for sensory impulses that go to cerebral cortex (with the exception of the sense of smell- which is associated with hypothalamus) -has sensations of pain/touch/temperature/pressure all are relayed to thalamus on their way to higher centers of cerebral cortex Epithalamus- found superior and posterior in relation to the thalamus -Pineal gland- gland that secretes melatonin (important for regulation of sleep cycle) (more secreted in darkness than in daylight) Hypothalamus- hormones found here that control different homeostatic functions -controls Autonomic nervous system

-serves as coordinator between the nervous system and the endocrine system -control body temperature/regulate hunger and thirst/feeling of satiated (fullness in regards to food) -regulates internal clock Cerebrum- cerebral cortex (seed of our intelligence) higher thought processes -Ability to read/write/memory/think ahead-planning -Consists of outer layer- cerebral cortex -Internal region of white matter (some nuclei/concentration of gray matter) -During embryological development the gray matter folds faster than white matter (this contributes to the folds in the brain or increased surface area)
PART FUNCTION

BRAIN STEM Medulla oblongata: Contains sensory (ascending) and motor (descending) tracts. Cardiovascular center regulates heartbeat and blood vessel diameter. Medullary rhythmicity area (together with pons) regulates breathing. Contains gracile nucleus, cuneate nucleus, gustatory nucleus, cochlear nuclei, and vestibular nuclei (components of sensory pathways to brain). Inferior olivary nucleus provides instructions that cerebellum uses to adjust muscle activity when learning new motor skills. Other nuclei coordinate vomiting, swallowing, sneezing, coughing, and hiccupping. Contains nuclei of origin for cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII. Reticular formation (also in pons, midbrain, and diencephalon) functions in consciousness and arousal. Pons: Contains sensory and motor tracts. Pontine nuclei relay nerve impulses from motor areas of cerebral cortex to cerebellum. Contains vestibular nuclei (along with medulla) that are part of equilibrium pathway to brain. Pneumotaxic area and apneustic area (together with the medulla) help control breathing. Contains nuclei of origin for cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII.

Dissection Shawn Miller, Photograph Mark Nielsen

Dissection Shawn Miller, Photograph Mark Nielsen

Midbrain: Contains sensory and motor tracts. Superior colliculi coordinate movements of head, eyes, and trunk in response to visual stimuli. Inferior colliculi coordinate movements of head, eyes, and trunk in response to auditory stimuli. Substantia nigra and red nucleus contribute to control of movement. Contains nuclei of origin for cranial nerves III and IV.

Dissection Shawn Miller, Photograph Mark Nielsen

CEREBELLUM

PART

FUNCTION

Smooths and coordinates contractions of skeletal muscles. Regulates posture and balance. May have role in cognition and language processing.

Dissection Shawn Miller, Photograph Mark Nielsen

DIENCEPHALON Thalamus: Relays almost all sensory input to cerebral cortex. Contributes to motor functions by transmitting information from cerebellum and basal nuclei to primary motor area of cerebral cortex. Plays role in maintenance of consciousness. Hypothalamus: Controls and integrates activities of autonomic nervous system. Produces hormones, including releasing hormones, inhibiting hormones, oxytocin, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Regulates emotional and behavioral patterns (together with limbic system). Contains feeding and satiety centers (regulate eating), thirst center (regulates drinking), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (regulates circadian rhythms). Controls body temperature by serving as body's thermostat. Epithalamus: Consists of pineal gland (secretes melatonin) and habenular nuclei. CEREBRUM Sensory areas of cerebral cortex are involved in perception of sensory information; motor areas control execution of voluntary movements; association areas deal with more complex integrative functions such as memory, personality traits, and intelligence. basal nuclei help initiate and terminate movements, suppress unwanted movements, and regulate muscle tone. limbic system promotes range of emotions, including pleasure, pain, docility, affection, fear, and anger.
Dissection Shawn Miller, Photograph Mark Nielsen

Dissection Shawn Miller, Photograph Mark Nielsen

Gyrus- folds of cerebral cortex Fissures- deep folds of cerebral cortex Sulcus- Shallow grooves

Cerebrum- frontal/parietal/occipital/temporal/insula Longitudinal fissure- separates the cerebrum right from left hemispheres Central sulcus- separates frontal lobe from the parietal lobe Insula- the 5th part of the cerebrum (cannot be seen at surface because it lies deep) Broadmans areas- numbered regions of the cortex that have been mapped (matched to a specific cognitive function -Sensory areas- areas of the cortex that are involved with perception of sensory information -Motor areas- areas of the cortex that control the execution of voluntary movements -Association areas- areas of the cortex that control complex/integrative functions (a lot of information is brought together ex: memory/personality traits/intelligence) Vision area- posterior tip of occipital lobe (mainly on medial surface) Gustatory area- found in parietal lobe (found inferior to primary sensory area) Auditory area- found in temporal lobe just inferior to parietal lobe (superior part of temporal lobe) Olfactory area- inferior/medial on temporal lobe Association tract- contain axons that conduct nerve impulses between gyri in the same hemisphere Commissural tracts- take nerve impulses from gyri in one hemisphere to another hemisphere Projection tracts- convey impulses from the lower parts of the nervous system to the cerebrum and vice versa Corpus callosum- (commissural tract) a thick band of axons that connects the two hemispheres

-linking the left motor cortex with the right motor cortex -left motor cortex controls the right side of the body -right motor cortex controls the left side of the body Basal Nuclei- centers of cell bodies that are found deep in the cortex (help initiate and terminate movements/help suppress unwanted movements/help regulate muscle tone) (help control subconscious contractions of skeletal muscle- when youre walking you swing your arms/if you hear something funny you will laugh) Limbic system- encircle the upper part of the brain stem and corpus callosum -A ring of structures on the inner border of our cerebrum -Associated with the floor of the Diencephalon -Does not represent any one part of brain (it is a functional unit of its own) -composed of parts of cerebral cortex/diencephalon/ midbrain -Sometimes called the emotional brain-plays primary role in your range of emotions (pleasure/pain/calmness/affection/fear/anger) -Works with the cerebrum to help with memory function (remembering something and it brings up a good or bad emotion) Brain Waves- (EEG- electro encephalogram-electrodes that are placed on the surface of head that measure brain function electricity coming off of brain) -EEG are useful in studying normal brain functions/changes- (ex: sleep disorder/epilepsy/metabolic disorders/sites of trauma) -EEG are used to determine if life is present (if there is detectable brain activity- the person is still alive) (brain death- if there is little or no brain activity) Alpha waves- waves that are present when you are awake and go away when you are asleep Beta waves- waves that are present with some sort of sensory input (nervous system is in an active state at that point) and mental activity Theta waves- waves that can indicate emotional stress and brain disorders Delta waves- waves that appear only when you are asleep (in adults) -Delta waves when you are awake can indicate brain damage

Cranial Nerves- 12 CN (1-12 using roman numerals) -They come off of our brain (not part of CNS) -has a single root -mostly mixed sensory and motor tracts (some sensory only) -Found in head/neck (vagus nerve is the exception) 1- Olfactory- sense of smell 2- Optic- sense of sight 3- Oculomotor (innervate the Extraocular muscles) supplies motor input to eyelid muscles/facilitates pupillary constriction 4- Trochlear(innervate the Extraocular muscles) 5- Trigeminal- the major sensory nerve of the face (has 3 large branches that supply the different areas of the face- othalamic/maxillary/mandibular branch) 6- Abducens(innervate the Extraocular muscles) 7- Facial (5 large somatic branches that innervate the muscles of facial expression) Gives a little bit of taste sensation to the anterior 2/3s of tongue (if we injury this nerve we can get bells palsy- lose innervation of facial expression muscles- inability to close eyes/impaired taste/loss of control over salivation) 8- Vestibulocochlear nerve- vestibule- inner ear- info about balance/ cochlear- helps innervate ears so that we can hear (damage to cranial nerve 8-vertigo/ringing of ears (tinnitus)/potentially deafness) 9- Glossopharyngeal- carry taste sensation/carry ANS impulses(action potentials) to salivary glands/innervates mechanoreceptors of carotid body/carotid sinus- important in sensing and dealing with changes in blood pressure) 10- Vagus Nerve- (wandering nerve) the nerve that leaves the head and neck/ responsible for carrying parasympathetic efferent motor neurons to organs in the thorax and abdomen 11- Spinal accessory nerve- gives us somatic motor innervation to the trapezius and the sternocleidomastoid

12- Hypoglossal nerve- (large nerve) a lot of innervation/resources that are sent to tongue (important for coordinative activities such as talking/chewing/swallowing)

CRANIAL NERVE

COMPONENTS

PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS

Olfactory (I) Optic (II) Oculomotor (III)

Special sensory Special sensory Motor Somatic Motor (autonomic)

Olfaction (smell). Vision (sight).

Movement of eyeballs and upper eyelid. Adjusts lens for near vision (accommodation). Constriction of pupil.

Trochlear (IV)

Motor Somatic Movement of eyeballs.

Trigeminal (V)

Mixed Sensory Motor (branchial) Touch, pain, and thermal sensations from scalp, face, and oral cavity (including teeth and anterior twothirds of tongue). Chewing and controls middle ear muscle.

Abducens (VI)

Motor Somatic Movement of eyeballs.

Facial (VII)

Mixed Sensory Taste from anterior twothirds of tongue. Touch, pain, and thermal sensations from skin in external ear canal. Motor (branchial) Motor (autonomic) Control of muscles of facial expression and middle ear muscle. Secretion of tears and saliva. Hearing and equilibrium.

Vestibulocochlear (VIII)

Special sensory

CRANIAL NERVE

COMPONENTS

PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS

Glossopharyngeal (IX)

Mixed Sensory Taste from posterior onethird of tongue. Proprioception in some swallowing muscles. Monitors blood pressure and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in blood. Touch, pain, and thermal sensations from skin of external ear and upper pharynx. Motor (branchial) Motor (autonomic) Assists in swallowing. Secretion of saliva.

Vagus (X)

Mixed Sensory Taste from epiglottis. Proprioception from throat and voice box muscles. Monitors blood pressure and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in blood. Touch, pain, and thermal sensations from skin of external ear. Sensations from thoracic and abdominal organs. Motor (branchial) Motor (autonomic) Swallowing, vocalization, and coughing. Motility and secretion of gastrointestinal organs. Constriction of respiratory passageways. Decreases heart rate.

Accessory (XI)

Motor Branchial Movement of head and pectoral girdle.

Hypoglossal (XII)

Motor Somatic Speech, manipulation of food, and swallowing.

Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System

-ANS has sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions -ANS job is to contribute to homeostasis in body by responding to subconscious visceral sensations -Excites or inhibit smooth muscle/ cardiac muscle/ many glands -Includes autonomic sensory neurons/integration centers (in CNS)/autonomic motor neurons Enteric Nervous System- specialized network of nerves/ganglia that form an independent network (found in GI tract) -Somatic motor neurons- takes motor impulse from spinal cord to skeletal muscle -If this stopped, the muscle would lose muscle tone paralyzed muscle -Controls breathing -ANS operates without conscious control -Integration centers are usually found in hypothalamus/brain stem (regulation for ANS) -Sensory receptors- interoceptors- located in blood vessels/visceral organs/muscles (found throughout nervous system- job is to monitor the conditions of the internal environment) -Chemoreceptor- monitor carbon dioxide level in blood -Mechanoreceptors- monitor the degree of stretch in organs/blood vessels Autonomic motor neurons- increasing (excitability) or decreasing (inhibition) activities in tissues -Because it cannot be controlled- this is how we monitor people during polygraph (liedetector) tests -Biofeedback techniques- (people who do yoga) - learn to control processes like breathing How we get information to effectors-Pre-ganglionic neuron leads to intermediate ganglion -Post-ganglionic neuron that innervates an effector
Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System

Sensory input Control of motor output

From somatic senses and special senses. Voluntary control from cerebral cortex, with contributions from basal ganglia, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord. Oneneuron pathway:

Mainly from interoceptors; some from somatic senses and special senses. Involuntary control from hypothalamus, limbic system, brain stem, and spinal cord; limited control from cerebral cortex.

Motor neuron

Usually twoneuron pathway: Preganglionic neurons

Somatic Nervous System

Autonomic Nervous System

pathway

Somatic motor neurons extending from CNS synapse directly with effector.

extending from CNS synapse with postganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglion, and postganglionic neurons extending from ganglion synapse with visceral effector. Alternatively, preganglionic neurons may extend from CNS to synapse with chromaffin cells of adrenal medullae. All sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons release ACh. Most sympathetic postganglionic neurons release NE; those to most sweat glands release ACh. All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons release ACh. Chromaffin cells of adrenal medullae release epinephrine and norepinephrine. Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. Contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle; increased or decreased rate and force of contraction of cardiac muscle; increased or decreased secretions of glands.

Neurotransmitters and hormones

All somatic motor neurons release ACh.

Effectors Responses

Skeletal muscle. Contraction of skeletal muscle.

Divisions of the ANS-Most organs in the body are going to have duel innervations (information from sympathetic/parasympathetic neurons) -Nerve impulses from one division will excite an organ, while impulses from another division will decrease the activity of that organ Sympathetic division- (fight or flight response) (thoracolumbar division) -Major groups of the sympathetic ganglia-sympathetic preganglionic neurons exit spinal cord between T1-L2 (Sympathetic ganglia extends beyond T1-L2) Sympathetic trunk ganglia- (vertebral chain) Prevertebral Ganglia-postganglionic axons from prevertebral ganglia innervate organs below the diaphragm. There are five major prevertebral ganglia: Celiac ganglia- is on either side of the celiac trunk, an artery that is just inferior to the diaphragm. Renal Ganglia- are near the renal artery of each kidney. Superior mesenteric ganglia- is near the beginning of the superior mesenteric artery in the upper abdomen.

Inferior mesenteric ganglia- is near the beginning of the inferior mesenteric artery in the middle of the abdomen. Aorticorenal ganglia- (same as Renal Ganglia) -Axons can leave sympathetic trunk in 4 different ways: -Travel with spinal nerves -Form a network of periarterial (around artery) preganglionic neurons (travel superiorly and synapse with the cervical ganglia) -Post-ganglionic axons leave the sympathetic trunk and form sympathetic nerves that innervate heart and lungs. -Pre-ganglionic axons that leave sympathetic trunk without synapsing (form splenic nerve) -Some axons of some post ganglionic neurons leave sympathetic trunk through gray ramus and merge with anterior ramus of spinal nerve -Gray Rami Communicantes-sympathetic post ganglionic axons (jobs is to connect ganglia of sympathetic trunk to spinal nerves) - Sympathetic nervous system creates a diverging circuit (wide spread) -A single sympathetic pre ganglionic fiber synapse with 20 or more branches -Post ganglionic axons terminates with different effectors (Makes sympathetic responses wide spread) -Many of the sympathetic responses are very difficult to control (extreme anger) Parasympathetic division- (the rest and digest response) -Parasympathetic ganglia (terminal ganglia) - located far from own origin -the terminal end of pathways near effector organs (located close to where they work) -Cell body of pre-ganglionic neurons that participate in motor responses in PSNS- located in 4 cranial nerves found in brain stem (CN 3/7/9/10) -Also in lateral gray matter in sacral areas of the spinal cord (S2-S4) -CN 10 carries about 80% of parasympathetic flow to organs found in thorax and upper abdomen -Lower abdominal and pelvic organs are innervate by sacral output -Pelvic splenctic nerves synapse with parasympathetic post ganglionic neurons located in walls of viscera -From terminal ganglia post synaptic ganglia innervate smooth muscle and glands. (Walls of colon/ureters/urinary bladder/ reproductive organs)

-Pre synaptic parasympathetic neurons synapse with 4-5 post synaptic neurons -go to a single visceral effector -Parasympathetic stimulations goes to nice narrow specific destination
Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar) Parasympathetic (Craniosacral)

Distribution Location of preganglionic neuron cell bodies and site of outflow

Wide regions of body: skin, sweat glands, arrector pili muscles of hair follicles, adipose tissue, smooth muscle of blood vessels. Lateral gray horns of spinal cord segments T1 L2. Axons of preganglionic neurons constitute thoracolumbar outflow.

Limited mainly to head and to viscera of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis; some blood vessels. Nuclei of cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and lateral gray matter of spinal cord segments S2S4. Axons of preganglionic neurons constitute craniosacral outflow. Terminal ganglia. Typically near or within wall of visceral effectors. Preganglionic neurons with long axons usually synapse with four to five postganglionic neurons with short axons that pass to single visceral effector. Neither present.

Associated ganglia Ganglia locations Axon length and divergence

Sympathetic trunk ganglia and prevertebral ganglia. Close to CNS and distant from visceral effectors. Preganglionic neurons with short axons synapse with many postganglionic neurons with long axons that pass to many visceral effectors. Both present; white rami communicantes contain myelinated preganglionic axons; gray rami communicantes contain unmyelinated postganglionic axons. Preganglionic neurons release acetylcholine (ACh), which is excitatory and stimulates postganglionic neurons; most postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine (NE); postganglionic neurons that innervate most sweat glands and some blood vessels in skeletal muscle release ACh. Fightorflight responses.

White and gray rami communicantes

Neurotransmitters

Preganglionic neurons release ACh, which is excitatory and stimulates postganglionic neurons; postganglionic neurons release ACh.

Physiological effects

ANS Neurotransmitters-There are over 100 Neurotransmitters-Only 2 are used to a great degree

-Acetocholine-(ACh) transmit info from ANS -Norepinephrine(NE) -Synapses that uses ACh are cholinergic -Synapses that use NE are adrenergic -Neurotransmitters used in the Parasympathetic ganglia are ACh -Receptors that respond to this release are called cholinergic receptors (nicotinic-found in ganglia/muscarinic-found in synapses of effector organs) -Neurotransmitter used most at sympathetic post ganglionic synapses is NE -Synapses for sweat glands use ACh at sympathetic post ganglionic synapses -Neurotransmitter used at parasympathetic post ganglionic synapses is ACh
EFFECT OF SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION Visceral Effector Glands ( OR

Adrenergic Receptors, Except As Noted)*

Effect Of Parasympathetic Stimulation (Muscarinic ACh Receptors)

Adrenal medullae Lacrimal (tear) Pancreas

Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine (nicotinic ACh receptors). Slight secretion of tears (). Inhibits secretion of digestive enzymes and the hormone insulin ( ); promotes secretion of the hormone glucagon ( ). Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) ( ).

No known effect. Secretion of tears. Secretion of digestive enzymes and the hormone insulin. No known effect. No known effect. No known effect.

Posterior pituitary Pineal Sweat

Increases synthesis and release of melatonin (). Increases sweating in most body regions (muscarinic ACh receptors); sweating on palms and soles ( ). Lipolysis (breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol) ( ); release of fatty acids into blood ( and ). Glycogenolysis (conversion of glycogen into glucose); gluconeogenesis (conversion of noncarbohydrates into glucose); decreased bile secretion ( and ). Secretion of renin ( ).

Adipose tissue

No known effect.

Liver

Glycogen synthesis; increased bile secretion.

Kidney, juxtaglomerular

No known effect.

EFFECT OF SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION Visceral Effector ( OR

Adrenergic Receptors, Except As Noted)*

Effect Of Parasympathetic Stimulation (Muscarinic ACh Receptors)

cells
Cardiac (Heart) Muscle

Increased heart rate and force of atrial and ventricular contractions ( ).


Smooth Muscle

Decreased heart rate; decreased force of atrial contraction.

Iris, radial muscle Iris, circular muscle Ciliary muscle of eye Lungs, bronchial muscle Gallbladder and ducts Stomach and intestines Spleen Ureter Urinary bladder

Contraction dilation of pupil ( No known effect.

).

No known effect. Contraction constriction of pupil. Contraction for close vision. Contraction airway constriction. Contraction release of bile into small intestine. ); Increased motility and tone; relaxation of sphincters. No known effect. Increases motility (?). Contraction of muscular wall; relaxation of internal urethral sphincter. Minimal effect.

Relaxation to adjust shape of lens for distant vision ( ). Relaxation airway dilation ( ).

Relaxation to facilitate storage of bile in the gallbladder ( ). Decreased motility and tone ( , contraction of sphincters ( ). ,

Contraction and discharge of stored blood into general circulation ( ). Increases motility ( ).

Relaxation of muscular wall ( ); contraction of internal urethral sphincter ( ). Inhibits contraction in nonpregnant women ( ); promotes contraction in pregnant women ( ). In males: contraction of smooth muscle of ductus (vas) deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicle resulting in ejaculation ( ). Contraction erection of hairs resulting in goosebumps ( ).

Uterus

Sex organs

Vasodilation; erection of clitoris (females) and penis (males). No known effect.

Hair follicles, arrector pili muscle


Vascular Smooth Muscle

EFFECT OF SYMPATHETIC STIMULATION Visceral Effector ( OR

Adrenergic Receptors, Except As Noted)*

Effect Of Parasympathetic Stimulation (Muscarinic ACh Receptors)

Salivary gland arterioles Gastric gland arterioles Intestinal gland arterioles Coronary (heart) arterioles

Vasoconstriction, which decreases secretion of saliva ( ). Vasoconstriction, which inhibits secretion ( Vasoconstriction, which inhibits secretion ( ). ).

Vasodilation, which increases secretion of saliva. Secretion of gastric juice. Secretion of intestinal juice. Contraction vasoconstriction.

Relaxation vasodilation ( ); contraction vasoconstriction ( , ); contraction vasoconstriction (muscarinic ACh receptors). Contraction vasoconstriction ( ).

Skin and mucosal arterioles Skeletal muscle arterioles

Vasodilation, which may not be physiologically significant. No known effect.

Contraction vasoconstriction ( ); relaxation vasodilation ( ); relaxation vasodilation (muscarinic ACh receptors). Contraction vasoconstriction ( , ). ).

Abdominal viscera arterioles Brain arterioles Kidney arterioles Systemic veins

No known effect. No known effect. No known effect. No known effect.

Slight contraction vasoconstriction (

Constriction of blood vessels decreased urine volume ( ). Contraction constriction ( dilation ( ). ); relaxation

-Sympathetic stimulations- leads to secretion of NE (in adrenal glands) result of secretion is an increase in rate and strength of heart beat/ constriction of blood vessels in non-essential organs (decrease gastrointestinal activity) / dilation of blood vessels in essential organs (skeletal muscle/cerebral cortex)/increase in rate and depth of breathing/ liver converts glycogen to glucose -Ex: arachnophobia (fear of spiders) - when you see a spider you either fight of flight Physiology of the ANS Parasympathetic responseSLUDD-Salivation (increased) -Lacrimation (increased) -crying

-Urination (increased) -Digestion (increased) -Defecation (increased) -Rate/force of heartbeat (decreased) -Airway size/breathing rate (decreased) -Pupil size (decreased)

(Know neurotransmitters/ Differences in organs effected/ Know tables)

Chapter 16: Sensory Motor and Integrative Systems


-Somatic and visceral -Carry information through nerve impulses from body to brain General Sensations -Sensory impulses reach CNS-they become of a large pool of sensory information -Each piece of incoming info is combined with other information (processed by integration) -Integration helps us find out what is important and what we should pay attention to -Integration- occurs in many places (along pathways in spinal cord/in brain stem/ in cerebellum/ the basal nuclei/ cerebral cortex) -The sensation is invoked in 2 ways: Conscious perception- consciously aware (hear Dr. Porter talking) Subconscious perception- Knowing you are sitting in a chair Complex integrative functions (a lot of integration of different senses) -When we are awake

-When we are asleep -When we are learning -When we are accessing memory (Ex: when you walk into a Starbucks- you can hear the music from the speakers/you can smell the coffee/ there are people all around you talking and moving) Sensory Modalities each type of sensation -Each sensory neuron carries information for one modality Somatic senses (body senses) - include tactile sensations (touch/pressure/tickling/itching/thermal sensation/pain/proprioception) -Proprioception- awareness of position (limbs or joints) Visceral senses- provide sensory information of internal organs Special senses- olfaction/vision/hearing

The process of sensation begins in a sensory receptor (can be either specialized cells or dendrites of a sensory neuron) -Stimulus- activates certain sensory receptors (stimulus- is a change in external/internal environment) (focus on one set of sensory receptors) -Selectivity- allows stimulus to selectively stimulate certain receptors -Sensory receptors produce 2 kinds of potentials: -Generator potential- stimulating the dendrites of the pre-nerve endings/encapsulated nerve endings -When a generator potential is large enough to reach threshold it will trigger 1 or more impulses in the axon (results in propagation of nerve impulse along axon to CNS) it generates an action potential -Receptor potential- sensory receptor that are separate cells produce graded potentials -For sensation to occur there usually needs to be 4 events: 1) Stimulation of sensory receptor have appropriate stimulus that occurs in receptors field 2) Transduction of the stimulus- the sensory receptor converts energy in a stimulus into a potential 3) Generation of nerve impulses- where potentials reach threshold in a first-order neuron

-First order neuron- first neuron in a specific tract 4) Integration of sensory input- occur when a particular region of the CNS integrates a number of sensory impulses -Result is conscious sensation or perceptions Sensory preceptors can be grouped in many classes: (functional/structurally) StructureFree nerve endings- are bare dendrites; they lack any structural specializations that can be seen under a light microscope -Receptors for pain, temperature, tickle, itch, and some touch sensations are free nerve endings Encapsulated nerve endings- Their dendrites are enclosed in a connective tissue capsule that has a distinctive microscopic structurefor example, Pacinian corpuscles -Receptors for other somatic and visceral sensations, such as pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations

Where it is found/ origin of stimuliExteroreceptors- found near external surfaces Interoceptors- found in internal surfaces (also called visceroceptors) (can be found in blood vessels/ visceral organs/ muscles/ within nervous system) -Nerve impulses made by interoceptors are not consciously perceived normally -When stimulus is very strong there can be activation of them that result in pain/pressure Proprioceptors- found in muscles/tendons/joints (help feel position/movement) -Proprioceptors are also located in inner ear (position/movement of whole body) Type of stimulus detectedMechanoreceptors- feel pressure/motion/sound/vibration/gravity (anything mechanical) Thermoreceptors- changes in temperature (hot/cold) Nociceptors- respond to pain Photoreceptors- activated by photons of light Chemoreceptors- changes in chemicals/individual types of molecules (internally) -Sense of taste and smell

-Important for differences in chemical stimuli to differences in body fluids Osmoreceptors- detect changes in osmotic pressure
Basis Of Classification Description

MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE Free nerve endings Encapsulated nerve endings Separate cells Bare dendrites associated with pain, thermal, tickle, itch, and some touch sensations. Dendrites enclosed in connective tissue capsule for pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations. Receptor cells synapse with firstorder sensory neurons; located in retina of eye (photoreceptors), inner ear (hair cells), and taste buds of tongue (gustatory receptor cells).

RECEPTOR LOCATION AND ACTIVATING STIMULI Exteroceptors Located at or near body surface; sensitive to stimuli originating outside body; provide information about external environment; convey visual, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, thermal, and pain sensations. Located in blood vessels, visceral organs, and nervous system; provide information about internal environment; impulses usually are not consciously perceived but occasionally may be felt as pain or pressure. Located in muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear; provide information about body position, muscle length and tension, position and motion of joints, and equilibrium (balance).

Interoceptors

Proprioceptors

TYPE OF STIMULUS DETECTED Mechanoreceptors Detect mechanical stimuli; provide sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, and hearing and equilibrium; also monitor stretching of blood vessels and internal organs. Detect changes in temperature. Respond to painful stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue. Detect light that strikes the retina of the eye. Detect chemicals in mouth (taste), nose (smell), and body fluids. Sense osmotic pressure of body fluids.

Thermoreceptors Nociceptors Photoreceptors Chemoreceptors Osmoreceptors

Adaptation- the receptor/generator potential decrease their amplitude -amplitude will decrease over time if there is a constant change

Ex: being in the elevator with a person with really bad cologne on- you can smell it really well (because of the tight space), but if you are in a lecture hall with that person you can barely smell the cologne after a while -Frequency of nerve impulses going to CNS will decrease (perception of information decreases even though it is still there) Rapidly adapting sensations- smell/touch/pressure Mechanoreception- a lot mechanoreceptors and Nociceptors in skin Nociception- pain is really important in terms of protective function -Important for survival -Have free nerve endings that activate by tissue damage (damage thermal/mechanical/chemical) -Nociceptors found in every tissue in body except brain Fast pain- occur rapidly (localized/acute pain) -Happens because nerve impulses propagate along medium diameter/myelinated fibers of the A nerve variety Slow pain- begins after a stimulus is applied/ gradually increases in intensity (can occur over a period of seconds/minutes/hours/days) (Ex: pain associated with a toothache) -Impulses go over small diameter C fibers (unmyelinated) Superficial somatic pain- pain that arises from stimulation of receptors in skin Deep somatic pain- From stimulation of receptors in skeletal muscle/ joints/ tendons/ fascia Visceral pain- result of Nociceptors stimulation in visceral organs (many times it is felt just deep to skin that overlays the organ) (Ex: if kidney hurts- your back will hurt that is just over the kidney) Referred pain- a surface far from the organ is sore/hurting (upper neck and shoulder can be referred pain for liver and gallbladder

ProprioceptionMuscle Spindles- proprioceptors in skeletal muscles -Monitor changes in muscle length -Give information about stretch reflex that the muscles do -The brain sets an overall level of muscle tone -Muscle tone- a small degree of contraction that is present when a muscle is at rest -Each muscle spindle consists of slowly adapting nerves (wrap around 3-10 specialized muscle fibers) -Connective tissue anchors spindle to Epimysium and perimysium -Very dense (many) in muscles that control fine motor movements (eyes/hands) -Less dense in muscles that control large forceful movements (quadriceps) Somatic Sensory PathwaysFirst-order neuron- Is unipolar in structure (their cell body is located in the dorsal root gangliafound just outside CNS) (The other end terminates in the posterior gray horns of spinal cord) Second-order neuron- conduct ascending impulses from brain stem to the thalamus -all of somatic sensory information from one side of the body reaches the thalamus on the opposite side (contralateral) Third-order neuron- conduct impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cortex (thalamus to cerebrum)

-Happens on the same side of the brain (Ipsilateral) -Somatic sensory neurons and their neurons give us somatic sensations -Not evenly distributed throughout the body -There are peripheral areas of the brain that have the highest density (largest amount of gray matter) -Most sensitive areas are the tip our tongue/fingertips/lips Spinocereballar tracts- there are two major Spinocereballar tracts-Carry information from spinal cord to cerebellum -Not consciously perceived -Sensory impulses sent along are important for posture/balance/coordination of skilled movements Motor activity- begin in the primary motor areas of the precentral Gyrus and in other cerebral integrative centers Upper motor Neuron (UMN)-Any motor neuron that is not directly responsible for stimulating targeted muscle -Connect brain to appropriate level in spinal cord -Basal nuclei/cerebellum influence movements through their effects on UMN - Direct motor pathways- provide input to lower motor neurons via axons that extend directly from the cerebral cortex - Indirect motor pathways- provide input to lower motor neurons from motor centers in the basal nuclei, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. Lower motor Neurons (LMNs) - all excitatory and inhibitory signals that control movementconverge on second-order neurons (the second order neurons are called LMNs) -Descent of neurons that innervate skeletal muscles -LMNs are sometimes called the final common pathway- because they provide output of CNS to skeletal muscle fibers -Axons of the LMNs extend through cranial nerves to skeletal muscles (innervate muscles of head/face) -When they go through the spinal nerves they innervate the muscles of limbs and trunk -Two major tracts are the Lateral and Anterior- corticospinal tracts (start from cortex end in spinal cord Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum

The integrative functions include cerebral activities such as sleep and wakefulness, learning and memory, and emotional responses Humans sleep and awaken in a 24hour cycle called a circadian rhythm How does your nervous system make the transition between these two states? Because stimulation of some of its parts increases activity of the cerebral cortex, a portion of the reticular formation is known as the reticular activating system (RAS) Arousal, or awakening from sleep, also involves increased activity in the RAS. Learning- is the ability to acquire new information or skills through instruction or experience. Memory is the process by which information acquired through learning is stored and retrieved. Immediate memory is the ability to recall ongoing experiences for a few seconds. Shortterm memory is the temporary ability to recall a few pieces of information for seconds to minutes Information in shortterm memory may later be transformed into a more permanent type of memory, called longterm memory, which lasts from days to years. The reinforcement that results from the frequent retrieval of a piece of information is called memory consolidation. Longterm potentiation (LTP) (ptenshshun) is believed to underlie some aspects of memory; transmission at some synapses within the hippocampus is enhanced (potentiated) for hours or weeks after a brief period of highfrequency stimulation.

Chapter 17: The Special Senses


-Sensation can be conscious or subconscious in terms of our awareness of it -Can be a response from internal or external stimulus -Internal stimulus- molecules that transmit taste/smell to chemoreceptors on nose/tongue -Force of gravity acts on equilibrium receptors in inner ear (sense changes in inertia/motion)balance Special sense- smell/taste/vision/hearing/equilibrium -Head is a very important sensory platform for these senses -are concentrated in specific locations in the head -are anatomically distinct structures

-form complex neural pathways Olfaction and Gustation (taste)-Olfaction- process of perceiving smells -Both smell and taste are brought about through an interpretation of chemicals that we receive on our chemoreceptors -Travel not only to cerebral cortex and limbic system -We can have emotional responses to certain smells/tastes -Gustation and olfaction work together (olfaction is much stronger and much more sensitive) Olfactory epithelium- where we have chemoreceptors of olfaction -located in superior part of the nasal cavity -Covering the surface of the cribriform plate of ethmoid bone -Extends along the superior nasal concha -Consists of 3 kinds of cells: -Olfactory receptor- bipolar neuron/cilia is attached to it (cilia- olfactory hairs) (Between 10-100 in our nose that respond odor molecules) -Supporting cells- provides support/nourishment (takes care of olfactory receptors -Basal cells- stem cells replace olfactory receptors -Because it is more sensitive than gustation- it can be stimulated a 1000 times more than gustation -A smell can be detected by a concentration 1/25th of a billionth of a milligram per milliliter per air -When an odorant (odor molecule) binds to a receptor- it will initiate a cascade of events 1) G protein and secondary messenger lead to the production of C-amp that stimulates sodium channels to open 2) Inflow of sodium ions that helps us form are generator potentials 3) Once generated, nerve impulses travel through the two olfactory nerves to olfactory bulbs to olfactory tract to primary olfactory area in the temporal lobe of the cortex.

1) Nerve impulse travels through cranial nerve 1 (olfactory nerve) 2) Goes to olfactory bulb 3) Head to olfactory tract in temporal lobe of cortex The sense of olfaction is the only sensory modality that has direct sensory projection (goes directly to cortex) -Sensory pathways- they adapt -Olfactory receptors- adapt very little Olfactory sensory pathways-Decrease activity by 50% within the first minute -In 1-2 minutes you will be completely accommodated to that smell Parasympathetic motor- Supporting cells/glands are innervated by facial nerve (CN 7) (component provides parasympathetic motor innervation to lacrimal glands/mucous membranes in nasal cavity- this is why certain odors make your nose run/make you tear up)

Gustation (taste)Chemicals that stimulate our gustatory receptors (similar to olfaction- they are chemo senses) -once one of these chemicals dissolves in saliva it can come into contact with gustatory hair (sense of taste occurs) -Receptor potential- stimulates exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (gustatory cells) -Neurotransmitter molecule that triggers a nerve impulse- then it sends information to first order sensory neurons (synapse with gustatory cells) -Gustation is much simpler than olfaction -There are 5 primary tastes that we can distinguish: -Sour -Sweet -Bitter -Salty -Umami (savory or meaty) -Flavors that we actually taste are a combination of those 5 primary tastes and also from chemosensory cues from olfactory sense -Tactile sensation is very important (texture can cause someone to eat or not eat a certain food) Taste buds- 10,000 taste buds located on tongue/soft palate (back roof of mouth)/pharynx/larynx -Number of taste buds decreases with age -Gustatory receptor cells--Each taste bud consists of 50 receptor cells that are surrounded by supporting cells (mature basal cells) -Basal cells- located near the connective tissue base (multiply and differentiate) -First become supporting cells around the taste bud- then they become gustatory receptor cell inside the taste bud Gustatory hair- single long microvillus structure (project form each receptor cell to the surface through a taste pore) -Each gustatory receptor cell has a life span of about 10 days 3 different types of papillae: (elevation on tongue that provide a rough texture)

Vallate papillae- composed of 12 very large papillae -Found in a row at the back of the tongue -Each papillae houses 3-100 taste buds Fungiform papillae- have a mushroom shape -Scattered throughout entire surface of tongue -Contain about 5 taste buds each Foliate papillae- found in small trenches along the lateral margins of tongue -most of their taste buds degenerate in early childhood Filliform papillae- found over the entire surface of tongue -do not house any taste buds (They contain tactile receptors) -increase friction between tongue and food (makes it easier to move food around in the oral cavity)

3 cranial nerves that contribute to gustation- (axons of first-order gustatory neurons) -Facial nerve (7) - serve taste buds in the anterior 2/3s of tongue (mostly fungiform) -Glossopharyngeal (9) - posterior 1/3s of tongue (Vallate papillae)

-Vagus (10) - innervate taste buds in throat (pharynx/larynx) -Nerve impulses prorogated along cranial nerves into medulla oblongata (gustatory nucleus) -From medulla- axons carrying taste signals- project into limbic system/thalamus -Taste is perceived consciously from signals from thalamus- when they arrive at primary gustatory area (found at base of somatosensory cortex in parietal lobe (in cerebrum)) -Threshold for perceiving taste varies for each primary taste (most sensitive to bitter substances) (many poisonous substances are going to be bitter- evolutionary response) -Threshold for sour is somewhat higher than for bitter, followed by salty and sweet) -Gustation- we can adapt to taste relatively quickly through constant stimulation -Complete adaptation can occur in 1-5 minutes with constant stimulation VisionNot a chemo sense- (no chemical stimulation) -Visual stimulation depends on eye/associated structures -Optic tracts- information goes to primary visual cortex in its association areas -It is possible because photoreceptors can catch photons of radiation -What we can perceive is the visual light perspective (400 nanometers-700 nanometers) -Eye ball is usually going to be about 2.5 cm in diameter (of this 2.5 cm- the part that we can actually see is only about 16% of actual eye) -Pupil- the black hole in the center of eye (opening for light to pass into eye) -Palpebrae- upper and lower Palpebrae (eyelids) -Space between them is called palpebral fissure -Extraocular muscles- (CN 3- supplies 4 of them plus levator palpebral superiorus) -Conjunctiva- clear mucous membrane that covers the white part of the eye (white part is usually avascular) -CN 4/6 innervate some of the Extraocular muscles -Visceral motor parasympathetic input- constrict pupil/ cilliary muscles -Production of tears- produces superiorly and laterally- drain inframedially (closer to nose) -Tears have lysosomes in them- destroy bacteria

Lacrimal glands- about the size of an almond -6 to 12 excretory lacrimal ducts- coming from the lacrimal gland (lacrimal fluid runs from lacrimal gland into lacrimal ducts and onto the surface of the conjunctiva) -Often constant lacrimal fluid (tears) that keeps eyes moist/ evaporates off of surface of eyes (excess of lacrimal fluid- drain inframedially into lacrimal puncta) Lacrimal puncta- 2 opening on extreme edge of eyeball -Inferior/superior lacrimal canals- from lacrimal puncta to here - Nasolacrimal duct- from the lacrimal canals to here

Watery eyes-Blocked nasolacrimal ducts- obstruction- can be inflammation of nasal mucosa (if you have a cold) -Over production of lacrimal fluid Wall of eyeball is made into 3 different layers (tunics) -Fibrous tunic- outer layer (sclera/ cornea-transparent epithelial surface that protects the front of the eye) -Cornea- helps focus light into retina (Lasik eye surgery- performed on cornea of eye to correct vision) -Sclera- (white of eye) filled with a lot of collagen fibers (very tough) -Gives eye its shape/ protects internal anatomy of our eyes -Vascular tunic (middle tunic) - compose of choroid/cilliary body/iris Choroid-Major vascular portion

Cilliary body- contains cilliary muscle- change shape of lenses (adapt to near/far vision) Iris- colored portion of eyeball- consists of circular and radial smooth muscles -Nervous tunic (inner tunic) - innermost layer- contains retina -lines 2/3s of posterior portion of eye -Retina consists of pigmented epithelium -Retina- allows light to be absorbed (absorbed rather than scatter) -Retina doesnt need to cover whole eye, because light only strikes the back of eye Macula lutea- Retina is sometimes called this -Fovea centralis- in the center of macula lutea (no rods/no nerve cells)-high concentration of cones allows us to have very sharp vision Optic disc- where the optic nerve and retinal vessels enter and exit the eyeball -because we have this disc, there is a defect where we do not have any rods/cones on the retina (creates a blind spot in vision-brain will correct for it though) Photoreceptor cellsRods- abundant in the periphery on the retina Cones- found more densely packed in more central areas Rod-shape photoreceptors- each eye will contain about 120 of these -Rods are for low light threshold or low sensitivity -Produce low level images/black and white images -With age, rods start to go away Cones- function in bright light -Produce high resolution color images -3 varieties: correspond to pigment they contain (red/green/blue) -complete loss in cones would result in legal blindness -deficiency of cones in one type or another is called color-blindness The Pupillary ResponsePupil- the opening in the center of the iris -in the pupil there are radial muscles that radiate away from center and circular muscle -Constriction of inner circular muscle causes pupil to constrict -Constriction of radial muscles cause pupil to dilate

Refraction and Image-Normal image formation depends on refraction of light waves/accommodation of lenses/ constriction of pupil/convergence of the two eyes. Refraction is the process of bending light waves -Both cornea and lens of eye can refract light waves -Both cornea and lens must be functioning to focus light on the right spot for clear vision -Since the cornea has a fixed shaped, its focal length is also fixed -Fixed focal length causes the ability of cornea to refract light is fixed -Lens must change shape to focus light (depends on light waves we are imaging) Accommodation- increase in the curvature of lens for near vision (change shape of lens) -Near point vision- is the minimum distance from eye that an object can clearly focus (4 inchesincreases with age) Myopia- nearsightedness- only close objects can be seen clearly (light rays are coming in from a distant object/focused on retina/ appear blurry) -correcting this involves using concave lenses (negative lenses) Hyperopia- farsightedness- only distant objects can be seen clearly (light rays coming in from a near object/ focused on retina/ appear blurry) -Correcting this involves using convex lenses (positive lenses) Visual Transduction Light adaptation- going from dark conditions to light conditions (very quickly- in a matter of seconds) (changes when we get older) Dark adaptation- going from light conditions to dark conditions (can take minutes to occur) Color blindness- most forms are inherited -They are an inability to distinguish between certain colors

-Because of absence or deficiency of the cones (red/green is most common) Cause night blindness- (nyctalopia) can be caused by prolonged Vitamin A deficiency -inability to see well in low-light levels The Visual Pathway Optic nerve- the axons of the retinal ganglia cells travel back towards the light (exiting the eyeball) - this is where the optic nerve travels Optic Chiasm- where the axons have a crossing over point -Some Axons cross to opposite side from where they were originally received -After they pass through optic chiasm they pass through optic tracts (terminate at thalamus) -Once they travel to thalamus they synapse with axons that project with primary visual cortex (found in occipital lobe) Audition- process of hearing (through processing information from organs in the ear) -The ears also contain receptors for equilibrium -The ear is really good at picking up a lot of information such as sound vibrations External ear- air to collect and channel sound waves Middle ear- contains a bony system that amplify those sound vibrations Internal ear- produce action potentials to transmit sound/balance information to brain Pathways for sound transmission- start in ear and move to solid bone in middle ear and sound vibrations are transmitted to endolymph in inner ear. External ear- includes Auricle (outside part of ear that you can touch/ sometimes called pinna) -Flap of elastic cartilage covered by skin (contains ceruminous glands) External auditory canal- approximately 1 inch long and is curved (situated in temporal bone- from external auditory meatus to tympanic membrane) Tympanic membrane- delineation of outer ear to middle ear Middle ear- 3 auditory ossicles -Stapes- shaped like a stirrup -Incus- shaped like an anvil -Malleus- shaped like a hammer

-Tensor tympani and Stapedius- attached to auditory ossicles and dampen vibrations to prevent damage of sudden or loud sounds (Stapedius- one of smallest muscles in body) -Auditory ossicles- has a lot of mineral-makes them very stiff and good for sound vibration (peanut brittle- very stiff, but break easily) -Eustachian tube- connect middle ear to nasopharynx (upper portion of throat) -Consists of bone and hyaline cartilage -It is flat or closed in its passive state -We equalize pressure in our inner ear by swallowing- opens the tube Inner ear-Outer bony labyrinth- made up of tetras part of temporal bone- divided into 3 areas Semicircular canals-located above vestibule (contains receptors for dynamic equilibrium) Vestibule- middle part of bony labyrinth (contains receptors for static equilibrium) Cochlea- located anteriorly to vestibule (contains receptors for hearing) (snale shaped (there is perilymph and endolymph) -Scala vestibuli-channel above the cochlear duct is the scala vestibuli, which ends at the oval window -Scala tympani-which ends at the round window -Cochlear duct- a continuation of the membranous labyrinth into the cochlea; it is filled with endolymph -Perilymph carries vibrations from stapes to oval window (goes up and around the scala vestibule and around scala tympani) - causes endolymph to vibrate -Endolymph- in cochlear duct- pressure waves cause basilar membrane to vibrate -Causes hair cells in the spiral organ of Corti to move- move against gelatinous membrane (tectorial membrane) -Inner membranous labyrinthSpiral ganglia- cell bodies for sensory organs located here (nerve impulses passing along axons of these neurons- formed from cochlear branch of Vestibulocochlear CN) Nerve impulses follow CN 8 to medulla/pons/midbrain/thalamus -Go to primary auditory cortex in temporal lobe -Slight differences in the impulses arriving in pons that allow us to locate different sources in sound

Exam 4-What Dr. Porter said we should know


1) What are the major regions of the brain 2) What are the differences of brain/spinal cord 3) In terms of major regions of the brain, brain stem contains 3 different parts (pons/medulla/midbrain) 4) The diencephalon- made up of 3 parts: (Thalamus/hypothalamus/Epithalamus) 5) Cerebellum-little brain/major cerebral cortex/cerebrum 6) Layers covering brain/spinal cord (dura mater is different in brain-has 2 layers) 7) Dura mater- has some major extensions that separate different parts of the brain (major extension that separates cerebrum into 2 hemispheres- Falx cerebri) 8) One of the major ways we protect the brain- harmful substances stopped from blood into brain (blood-brain-barrier) 9) CSF is really important- because it carries chemicals like glucose/takes glucose from blood to neurons/neuroglia 10) CSF- maintain mechanical protection/ pH balance/ circulation 11) Structure in brain that is responsible for startle response- inferior colliculi 12) Different parts of the brain and their processes (what they are responsible for 13) Autonomic nervous system

14) Motor neurons and what activities they regulate (increase/decrease activities in activities in effector tissue 15) Post ganglionic neurons/preganglionic neurons in ANS 16) Sympathetic/Parasympathetic division (what they do) 17) Different receptors- cholinergic-divided into 2 types: muscaneric/nicotinic