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1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 COMPANY PROFILE Wheels India is promoted by the TVS Group and was started in the early 60's to manufacture automobile wheels. Today, Wheels India has grown as a leading manufacturer of steel wheels for passenger cars, utility vs, trucks, buses, agricultural tractors and construction equipment in India. The company supplies 2/3rd of the domestic market requirement and exports 18% of the turnover to North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and South Africa. The company also has a technical-financial collaboration with Titan Europe. Wheels India designs and manufactures wheels for the specific requirements of the customer. Our activities are driven by the following objectives:
Maintain leadership in the domestic market and presence in export

markets.
Ensure customer satisfaction through timely delivery of quality products

and services, at competitive prices.


Continuously improve & innovative product design, process technology

and work environment to offer better products.


Bring about involvement of all employees in achieving the above

objectives.
Wheels India has the ability to design the complete range of steel-wheels

to suit customer requirements, incorporating necessary styling and performance characteristics. 1.2 PRODUCTS The various types of products manufactured by Wheels India Limited are mentioned in the table 1.1 given below.

Table 1.1 PRODUCT TYPES Product Type Wheels for Heavy Vehicles (Trucks, Buses, Light Commercial Vs, Trailers, Tippers etc.) Click

Wheels for Light Vehicles (Passenger Cars, Mini Vans, SUV's & MUV's)

Wheels for Agricultural Applications (Tractors, Combines, Farm Equipments etc.)

Wheels for Off-Road Construction Equipments

Wire Wheels (For Contemporary & Classic Cars, MUV's & SUV's)

Air Suspension

1.3 MAJOR CUSTOMERS Hyundai Motors Eicher Caterpillar TAFE

1.4 PRODUCT EXPLANATION 1.4.1TRACTOR DISC The dimensions and properties of the work piece used in tractor disc is

Figure 1.1 TRACTOR DISC Weight : 40 kg (Approx) Dimension : 700 X 700 mm (Approx) Thickness : 10 mm (Approx) 1.4.2 COMMERCIAL VEHICLE DISC The dimensions and properties of the work piece used in commercial vehicle disc are

Figure 1.2 COMMERCIAL VEHICLE DISC


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Weight : 25 kg (Approx) Dimension : 545 mm (diameter) (Approx) Thickness : 11 to 16 mm (Approx) 1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT The main objective of this project is to provide a feasible solution to reduce the cycle time in forming operation and reduce the setup time during job change thus increasing productivity. The efforts in the project aim to reduce the cycle time by introducing efficient problem solving techniques like QC story. Using QC story the problem identification and solving becomes easier. The effective solution for the problem achieved with this technique. 1.6 PROPOSED SOLUTION The proposed corrective action based on the QC story will reduce the cycle time in forming operation and will reduce setup time during job change. It will increase the productivity. The other quality control tools like pareto diagram, fishbone diagram, whywhy analysis, brain storming and 4w1h table are also used.

2. EXPERIMENTAL WORK
2.1 QUALITY CONTROL TOOLS The following quality control tools were used for the completion of the project work. 2.1.1 PARETO CHART A Pareto Chart is a series of bars whose heights reflect the frequency or impact of problems. The bars are arranged in descending order of height from left to right. This means the categories represented by the tall bars on the left are relatively more significant then those on the right. This bar chart is used to separate the vital few from the trivial many. These charts are based on the Pareto Principle which states that 80 percent of the problems come from 20 percent of the causes. Pareto charts are extremely useful because they can be used to identify those factors that have the greatest cumulative effect on the system, and thus screen out the less significant factors in an analysis. Ideally, this allows the user to focus attention on a few important factors in a process.

Need of Pareto charts: You can think of the benefits of using a Pareto Charts in economic terms. A Pareto Chart breaks a big problem down into smaller pieces, identifies the most significant factors, shows where to focus efforts, and allows better use of limited resources. You can separate the few major problems from the many possible problems so you can focus your improvement efforts, arrange data according to priority or importance, and determine which problems are most important using data, not perception. A Pareto Chart can answer the following questions: What are the largest issues facing our team or business? What 20% of sources are causing 80% of the problems? A Pareto Chart is a good tool to use when the process you are investigating produces data that are broken down into categories and you can count the number of times each category occurs. A Pareto diagram puts data in a hierarchical order, which allows the most significant problems to be corrected first. The Pareto analysis technique is used primarily to identify and evaluate
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nonconformities, although it can summarize all types of data. It is the perhaps the diagram most often used in management presentations.

2.1.2 BRAINSTORMING Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s). Brainstorming was more effective than individuals working alone in generating ideas, although more recent research has questioned this conclusion. Today, the term is used as a catch all for all group ideation sessions.

2.1.3 FISH BONE DIAGRAM Fish Bone Diagram generally called as ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM is basically the Cause and Effect Diagram that identifies potential factors causing overall effect. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation. The categories typically include People/ Men: Anyone involved within process. Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations and laws. Machines: Any equipment, computers, tools, etc. Required to accomplish the job. Materials: Raw materials, parts, pens, paper, etc. Used to produce the final product. Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality. 2.1.4 WHY-WHY ANALYSIS The Why-Why Analysis or 5 Why Analysis is a question-asking technique used to explore the cause and effect relationships underlying a particular problem. The primary goal of technique is to determine the root cause of a defect or problem.

2.1.5 4W1H TABLE The 4W1H is a process (What, Where, When, Who and How), this tool is used to plan the troubleshooting for a raised issue. It defines, what problem has risen, Who is responsible for it, when does it occur, How it is going to be solved and where the corrective action is to be taken. For Any issue, if we apply this

method, it will be easy to find the solution and accomplish the given task at the right time. The issues will be raised in the review meeting, where the member who finds the problem in his task will raise in the meeting and an optimum solution will be deduced from the discussion.

2.2 DISC MANUFACTURING LINE The process flow for the manufacturing of commercial vehicle disc and tractor wheel disc are shown in the figure 2.1 and figure 2.2 respectively.

Figure 2.1 CV DISC PROCESS FLOW

Figure 2.2 TRACTOR DISC PROCESS FLOW

BLANKING A shearing operation creates a hole in sheet metal by separating an interior section. The removed piece of metal is the desired section. FORMING A forming operation is a plastic deformation of a metal in order to produce a useful shape. Sheet metal can be formed through operations that shear, stretch, bend, or compress the metal. PIERCING Piercing operations are defined as forming a hole in the sheet metal . In piercing the punched out piece is called as scrap. COINING A metal working operation is used to create raised surfaces and imprints in metal. Coining is a relatively severe operation that creates variations in metal thickness. NOTCHING A shearing operation removes a section from the outer edge of the metal strip or part. DEBURRING The removal of burrs on a part by processes such as grinding or filing is done during this operation. PLANISHING The planishing operation is finishing the surface by finely shaping and smoothing sheet metal. 2.3 PROBLEM SELECTION Various problems were reported by the workers to the management and which was recorded as a problem bank by the management. The problems in the problem bank are divided into three classes namely A, B, and C.
Type A - Minimum involvement of other department in solving them or can

be solved by the QCC Member itself. Type B - Involvement of other department is necessary. Type C - Problems can be solved with Management assistance. Based on the above conditions the problems in the problem bank are divided for better understanding which is shown in the table 2.1 given below.
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Table 2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF PROBLEM PROBLEM DESCRIPTION SL.NO 1 2 3 Raw material delay Raw material loading delay Loading conveyor forward not working 4 5 Loading conveyor chain cut Handling unit forward and reverse not working 6 Handling unit not pick the plate properly 7 8 9 10 11 Blank end cut Blank stopper not fixed Blank taper Unloading conveyor chain cut Blanking tool shut height to be standard 12 13 14 15 16 Machine loaded with tool Setting time high Auto oil apply unit not available Blank stuck with conveyor Forklift delay in blank scarp removing 17 1000 Ton to 1500 Ton conveyor length excess 18 Auto oil apply unit not available for forming A B C

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Loading power conveyor length less

20 21 22

Loading power less conveyor bend Tractor blank loading difficult Tractor blank loading Handling unit not available

23 24

Tractor blank square variation Tractor blank stopper not properly fixed

25 26 27

Tractor blank stopper height less Cushion pin height CV blank not seated properly in pressure plate

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Disc nave correction Blank wrong location Disc form correction High cycle time Disc height variation Disc forming scoring mark Knock out pin height variation Extractor bar broken Nave planishing operation elimination

37 38 39

CV Disc unloading fatigue high Tractor disc tilling fatigue high Forklift delay in screw press tool setting

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Planishing tool search time high

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41

Screw press load adjustment difficult

42 43 44

Bore locator searching time high Disc loading fatigue high Tractor disc loading fatigue high

As mentioned earlier the problems listed under the type a can be solved using QC members itself. Therefore the problem no. 13 and problem no. 31 are selected because they affect the productivity in large manner. The following issues are due to the above mentioned problem Unable to meet internal customers demand Unit turnover affected Manpower shortage issue

2.4 PROBABLE CAUSES Some of the probable causes for increased cycle time in forming operations were found out by brain storming. The causes are Change into once mode Cycle time high 1000T forklift delay Tool forming correction Unloader break down Machine break down Untrained operator Operator fatigue due to heavy weight disc Dent mark in material Want of material 2.5 CAUSE VALIDATION The cause validation QC tool is used to select the most significant issue that causes this problem

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Table 2.2 CAUSE VALIDATION PROBLEM RELATED TO MEN/MACHINE/ MATERIAL/MET HOD MEN DESCRIPTION OF THE CAUSE CONSIDERED/ NOT CONSIDERED FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS NOT CONSIDERED REASON FOR ELIMINATING THE CAUSE

UNTRAINED OPERATOR

MEN MATERIAL MATERIAL MACHINE MACHINE

FORK LIFT DELAY WANT OF MATERIAL DENT MARK UNLOADER BREAKDOWN MACHINE BREAKDOWN

CONSIDERED CONSIDERED NOT CONSIDERED NOT CONSIDERED NOT CONSIDERED

TRAINED OPERATOR ISONLY WORKING ON ALL M/C TO BE CHECKED TO BE CHECKED VISUALLY CHECKED SPARE UNLOADER ARRANGED WE NOTED THE BREAKDOWN LOSS IT WAS BELOW AVERAGE TO BE CHECKED CANNOT RUN IN CONTINUOUS DUE TO SAFETY REASON

METHOD METHOD

CYCLE TIME HIGH CHANGE INTO ONCE MODE

CONSIDERED NOT CONSIDERED

2.6 ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS From the cause validation tool table shown above the significant causes for reduced productivity are Fork lift delay Want of material High cycle time. By drawing a fish bone diagram we can find the root cause for the reduced productivity. The effects of the first two causes are below the base line of productivity. The figure 2.3 represents the fish bone diagram.

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Figure 2.3 FISH BONE DIAGRAM

WHY-WHY ANALYSIS Using the why-why analysis, the root causes for the actual causes found above can be determined. The why-why made to find out the root causes are given below.

Why CV and TR disc cycle time is high

Forming operation takes more time

Manual intervention is more

Unloading is done manually

No automatic unloading system for TR and CV disc

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Therefore from the why-why analysis it is clear that high cycle time is the main reason for the reduced productivity. The graphical representation of cycle time for CV disc and tractor disc is shown in the figure 2.4 and figure 2.5.

Figure 2.4 CYCLE TIME FOR CV DISC

Figure 2.5 CYCLE TIME FOR TRACTOR DISC


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As shown in the above figure 2.4 loading the blank takes 2 sec, pressing the push button takes 2 sec, the operation takes place for 5 sec, and unloading the disc takes place for 2 sec. therefore the time spent in the machine is 5 seconds and time spent by the labour during one cycle is 6 seconds. Similarly from the figure 2.5 loading the blank takes 5 sec, pressing the push button takes 2 sec, the operation takes place for 5 sec, and unloading the disc takes place for 3 sec. therefore the time spent in the machine is 5 seconds and time spent by the labour during one cycle is 10 seconds. 2.7 POSSIBLE SOLUTION In order to reduce the unloading time, the unloading mechanism must be automated and the use of separate operators can be avoided. Based on the work place criteria a suitable automation system must be used. A combination of electric motors with vacuum cups or magnetic cups Pick and Place robots Hydraulic Cylinder and Pneumatic Cylinder. In the following sections we will see in detail about the above mentioned possible sections along with their pros and cons with respect to our problem. 2.7.1 ELECTRIC MOTORS Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy by the interaction between the magnetic fields setup in the stator and rotor windings. Industrial electric motors can be broadly classified as induction motors, direct current motors or synchronous motors. All motor types have the same four operating components: stator (stationary windings), rotor (rotating windings), bearings, and frame (enclosure). MOTOR TYPES The Electric motor may be broadly classified into: 1) Induction Motor
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2) Direct Current Motor 3) Synchronous Motor 4) Stepper Motor 5) Servo Motor INDUCTION MOTORS Induction motors are the most commonly used prime mover for various equipments in industrial applications. In induction motors, the induced magnetic field of the stator winding induces a current in the rotor. This induced rotor current produces a second magnetic field, which tries to oppose the stator magnetic field, and this causes the rotor to rotate. The 3-phase squirrel cage motor is the workhorse of industry; it is rugged and reliable, and is by far the most common motor type used in industry. These motors drive pumps, blowers and fans, compressors, conveyers and production lines. The 3-phase induction motor has three windings each connected to a separate phase of the power supply. DIRECT CURRENT MOTORS Direct-Current motors, as the name implies, use direct-unidirectional, current. Direct current motors are used in special applications- where high torque starting or where smooth acceleration over a broad speed range is required. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS AC power is fed to the stator of the synchronous motor. The rotor is fed by DC from a separate source. The rotor magnetic field locks onto the stator rotating magnetic field and rotates at the same speed. The speed of the rotor is a function of the supply frequency and the number of magnetic poles in the stator. While induction motors rotate with a slip, i.e., rpm is less than the synchronous speed, the synchronous motor rotate with no slip, i.e., the RPM is same as the synchronous speed governed by supply frequency and number of poles. The slip energy is provided by the D.C. excitation power.
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STEPPER MOTOR A stepper motor is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation into a number of equal steps. The motor position can then be commanded to move and hold at one of the steps without any feedback sensor as long as the motor carefully sized to the application.

Figure 2.6 STEPPER MOTOR SERVO MOTOR A servo motor is a mechanical motorized device that can be instructed to move the output shaft attached to a servo wheel or arm to a specified position. Inside the servo box is a DC motor mechanically linked to a position feedback potentiometer, gearbox, electronic feedback control loop circuitry and motor drive electronic circuit. There are other types of motor which are of less significant and rarely used which are, Reluctance Motor Hysteresis Motor Brushless DC Motor Universal Motor.

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RELUCTANCE MOTOR A reluctance motor is a synchronous-induction motor. The rotor has salient poles and a cage so that it starts like an induction motor, and runs like a synchronous motor. HYSTERESIS MOTOR Hysteresis effect produces the torque which can be very tiny and used as the driver for electric clocks. BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR Brushless DC motor is a close cousin of a permanent magnet stepper motor with electronic controllers.

Figure 2.7 BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR UNIVERSAL MOTORS If a series of dc motors has a laminated stator frame, it can run effectively from an ac supply as well as dc. This kind of motors is known as universal motor.

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2.7.2 MOTOR SELECTION FACTORS The primary technical consideration defining the motor choice for any particular application is the torque required by the load, especially the relationship between the maximum torque generated by the motor (break-down torque) and the torque requirements for start-up (locked rotor torque) and during the acceleration periods. The duty / load cycle determines the thermal loading on the motor. One consideration with totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC) motors is that the cooling may be insufficient when the motor is operated at speeds below its rated value. Ambient operating conditions affect motor choice; special motor designs are available for corrosive or dusty atmospheres, high temperatures, restricted physical space, etc. An estimate of the switching frequency (usually dictated by the process), whether automatic or manually controlled, can help in selecting the appropriate motor for the duty cycle. The demand a motor will place on the balance of the plant electrical system is another consideration - if the load variations are large, for example as a result of frequent starts and stops of large components like compressors, the resulting large voltage drops could be detrimental to other equipment. RELIABLITY Reliability is of prime importance - in many cases, however, designers and process engineers seeking reliability will grossly oversize equipment, leading to sub-optimal energy performance. Good knowledge of process parameters and a better understanding of the plant power system can aid in reducing over sizing with no loss of reliability. INVENTORY Inventory is another consideration - Many large industries use standard equipment, which can be easily serviced or replaced, thereby reducing the stock
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of the spare parts that must be maintained and minimizing shut-down time. This practice affects the choice of motors that might provide better energy performance in specific applications. Shorter lead times for securing individual motors from suppliers would help reduce the need for this practice. COST Price is another issue - Many users are first-cost sensitive, leading to the purchase of less expensive motors that may be more costly on a lifecycle basis because of lower efficiency. For example, energy efficient motors or other specially designed motors typically save within a few years an amount of money equal to several times the incremental cost for an energy efficient motor, over a standard-efficiency motor. The cost benefits can be worked out on the basis of premium required for high efficiency vs. worth of annual savings. MAINTAINANCE Inadequate maintenance of motors can significantly increase losses and lead to unreliable operation. For example, improper lubrication can cause increased friction in both the motor and associated drive transmission equipment. Resistance losses in the motor, which rise with temperature, would increase. Providing adequate ventilation and keeping motor cooling ducts clean can help dissipate heat to reduce excessive losses. The life of the insulation in the motor
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would also be longer: for every 10 C increase in motor operating temperature over the recommended peak, the time before rewinding would be needed is estimated to be halved. DISADVANTAGES OF MOTORS BRUSH WEAR: Since they need brushes to connect the rotor winding. Brush wear occurs, and it increases dramatically in low pressure environment. The brushes life time is too little that is an average of one hour Sparks from the brushes may cause explosion if the environment contains explosive materials.
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RF noise from the brushes may interfere with nearby electronic devices and control panel. Few of these motors may be used only for low torque applications. 2.7.3 VACUUM CUPS Vacuum cup is a hallow suction cup used as a port for the vacuum hose. The various types of vacuum cups suitable are: Flat cups Single bellow cups Multi bellow cups Oval cups Universal cups Deep cups Ultra miniature cups Rigid cups and speciality cups Vacuum cup fittings FLAT CUPS Flat cups are used for our problem because they are precision moulded double lip flat cup for slightly curved surfaces. Double lip for additional security. If outside lip bends and loses its seal, the inner lip remains sealed. Outer ribs prevent the cup lip from being cut.

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Figure 2.8 FLAT VACUUM CUP Though the flat vacuum cups may be used for the automation of the unloading mechanism, the electric motor which supports the vacuum cups is not suitable for this application. 2.7.4 PICK AND PLACE ROBOTS The pick and place robots are used to feed and disengage parts or tools to or from a machine, or to transfer parts from one machine to another. It offers new opportunities for flexibility and repeatability in consumer goods and other industries. This robot is a production developer, analyst and system integrator in the food, pharmaceutical, logistics and material handling industries. The robot saves time space and money and rugged industrial design ensures it can meet the needs of the most demanding production operations.

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Figure 2.9 PICK AND PLACE ROBOTS LIMITATIONS Expensive when compared to other options Magnetic cup holder has to be changed each time for different disc which increases the setup time Moreover programmes must be changed before the beginning of various operation, taking more time for setting up the job 2.7.5 CYLINDERS Cylinders are linear actuators which convert fluid power into mechanical power. They are also known as JACKS or RAMS. Hydraulic cylinders are used at high pressures and produce large forces and precise movement. For this reason they are constructed of strong materials such as steel and designed to withstand large forces. Because gas is an expensive substance, it is dangerous to use
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pneumatic cylinders at high pressures so they are limited to about 10 bar pressure. Consequently they are constructed from lighter materials such as aluminium and brass. Because gas is a compressible substance, the motion of a pneumatic cylinder is hard to control precisely. The basic theory for hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders is otherwise the same.

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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1 PROPOSED SOLUTION From the possible solutions mentioned above the best possible solution is the use of cylinders. Two types of cylinders may be used which are Hydraulic cylinders and Pneumatic cylinders. 3.1.1 PNEUMATIC VS HYDRAULIC CYLINDER Pneumatic cylinder offers a very clean system, suitable for food manufacturing processes and other processes which require no risk of contamination. Hydraulic cylinder is generally not used in these environments due to the risk of hydraulic oil leaks from faulty valves, seals or burst hoses. Pneumatics offer rapid movement of cylinders and have the great advantage of availability in very small sizes. This is mainly due to air compressor flow rates, air is very agile and can flow through pipes very quickly and easily with little resistance, while hydraulic oil is a viscous substance and requires more energy to move. Also in pneumatics, cylinders and valves can dump their compressed air straight to the atmosphere when they need to change direction or alter their state quickly, compared with hydraulics where the oil must be routed back to the reservoir. Pneumatics does not have the potential force that hydraulics has to offer. The lifting or moving of heavy loads is not best suited to pneumatics. Hydraulics can smoothly lift and move loads because the hydraulic oil is not compressible, compared to air which can become jerky and spongy as the air pressure fluctuates with cylinder movement or load changes. In general a much larger pneumatic cylinder is needed to obtain the same force that a hydraulic ram can produce. In terms of energy costs pneumatics is more costly than hydraulic cylinder; this is mainly due to the amount of energy lost through heat production while compressing air.

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From the above facts we may conclude that pneumatic cylinder is preferred to our automation system. 3.2 PNEUMATIC CYLINDERS Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion. Like hydraulic cylinders, something forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved. Engineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime because they are quieter, cleaner, and do not require large amounts of space for fluid storage. Because the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a requirement. GENERAL Once actuated, compressed air enters into the tube at one end of the piston and, hence, imparts force on the piston. Consequently, the piston becomes displaced (moved) by the compressed air expanding in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. COMPRESSIBLITY OF GASES One major issue engineers come across working with pneumatic cylinders has to do with the compressibility of a gas. Many studies have been completed on how the precision of a pneumatic cylinder can be affected as the load acting on the cylinder tries to further compress the gas used. Under a vertical load, a case where the cylinder takes on the full load, the precision of the cylinder is affected the most. FAIL SAFE MECHANISM Pneumatic systems are often found in settings where even rare and brief system failure is unacceptable. In such situations locks can sometimes serve as a safety mechanism in case of loss of air supply (or its pressure falling) and, thus, remedy [remedy] or abate any damage arising in such a situation. Due
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to the leakage of air from input or output reduces the pressure and so the desired output. TYPES Although pneumatic cylinders will vary in appearance, size and function, they generally fall into one of the specific categories shown below. However there are also numerous other types of pneumatic cylinder available, many of which are designed to fulfil specific and specialized functions. Single-acting cylinder Single-acting cylinders (SAC) use the pressure imparted by compressed air to create a driving force in one direction (usually out), and a spring to return to the "home" position. More often than not, this type of cylinder has limited extension due to the space the compressed spring takes up. Another downside to SACs is that part of the force produced by the cylinder is lost as it tries to push against the spring. Because of those factors, single acting cylinders are recommended for applications that require no more than 100mm of stroke length. 3.2.1 SINGLE ACTING CYLINDERS A simple single acting cylinder is shown below. The cylinder is only

powered in one direction and needs another force to return it such as an external load (e.g. in a car hoist or jack) or a spring. No hydraulic fluid is present on the low pressure side.

Figure 3.1 SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER 3.2.2 DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDERS Double-acting cylinders (DAC) use the force of air to move in both extends and retract strokes. They have two ports to allow air in, one for outstroke and one
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for in stroke. Stroke length for this design is not limited however, the piston rod is more vulnerable to buckling and bending. Addition calculations should be performed as well.

Figure 3.2 DOUBLE ACTING CYLINDER 3.2.3 MULTI-STAGE, TELESCOPING CYLINDERS Telescoping cylinders, also known as telescopic cylinders can be either single or double-acting. The telescoping cylinder incorporates a piston rod nested within a series of hollow stages of increasing diameter. Upon actuation, the piston rod and each succeeding stage "telescopes" out as a segmented piston. The main benefit of this design is the allowance for a notably longer stroke than would be achieved with a single-stage cylinder of the same collapsed (retracted) length. One cited drawback to telescoping cylinders is the increased potential for piston flexion due to the segmented piston design. Consequently, telescoping cylinders are primarily utilized in applications where the piston bears minimal side loading. 3.2.4 RODLESS CYLINDERS Some rod less types have a slot in the wall of the cylinder that is closed off for much of its length by two flexible metal sealing bands. The inner one prevents air from escaping, while the outer one protects the slot and inner band. The piston is actually a pair of them, part of a comparatively long assembly. They seal to the bore and inner band at both ends of the assembly. Between the individual pistons, however, are clamming surfaces that "peel off" the bands as the whole sliding assembly moves toward the sealed volume, and "replace" them as the assembly moves away from the other end. Between the clamming surfaces is part of the moving assembly that protrudes through the slot to move the load. Of

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course, this means that the region where the sealing bands are not in contact is at atmospheric pressure. Another type has cables (or a single cable) extending from both (or one) end[s] of the cylinder. The cables are jacketed in plastic (nylon, in those referred to), which provides a smooth surface that permits sealing the cables where they pass through the ends of the cylinder. Of course, a single cable has to be kept in tension. Still others have magnets inside the cylinder, part of the piston assembly, that pull along magnets outside the cylinder wall. The latter are carried by the actuator that moves the load. The cylinder wall is thin, to ensure that the inner and outer magnets are near each other. Multiple modern high-flux magnet groups transmit force without disengaging or excessive resilience. 3.2.5 OTHER TYPES Although SACs and DACs are the most common types of pneumatic cylinder, the following types are not particularly rare. Through rod air cylinders: piston rod extends through both sides of the cylinder, allowing for equal forces and speeds on either side. Cushion end air cylinders: cylinders with regulated air exhaust to avoid impacts between the piston rod and the cylinder end cover. Rotary air cylinders: actuators that use air to impart a rotary motion. Rod less air cylinders: These have no piston rod. They are actuators that use a mechanical or magnetic coupling to impart force, typically to a table or other body that moves along the length of the cylinder body, but does not extend beyond it. Tandem air cylinder: two cylinders are assembled in series in order to double the force output. Impact air cylinder: high velocity cylinders with specially designed end covers that withstand the impact of extending or retracting piston rods. From the various type of cylinder, the double acting cylinder is most suitable for our problem since it requires only two motions forward stroke and reverse stroke.

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3.3 PARAMETERS 3.3.1 FORCE The fluid pushes against the face of the piston and produces a force. The force produced is given by the formula: F=pxA p is the pressure in N/m2 and A is the area the pressure acts on in m2. This assumes that the pressure on the other side of the piston is negligible. The diagram shows a double acting cylinder. In this case the pressure on the other side is usually atmospheric so if p is a gauge pressure we need not worry about the atmospheric pressure.

Figure 3.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CYLINDER Let A be the full area of the piston and a be the cross sectional area of the rod. If the pressure is acting on the rod side, then the area on which the pressure acts is (A - a). F=pxA on the full area of piston.

F = p x (A-a) on the rod side. This force acting on the load is often less because of friction between the seals and both the piston and piston rod.

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3.3.2 SPEED The speed of the piston and rod depends upon the flow rate of fluid. The volume per second entering the cylinder must be the change in volume per second inside. It follows then that: Q m3/s = Area x distance moved per second Q m3/s = A x velocity (full side) Q m3/s = (A-a) x velocity (rod side) Note in calculus form velocity is given by v = A dx/dt and this is useful in control applications. In the case of air cylinders, it must be remembered that Q is the volume of compressed air and this changes with pressure so any variation in pressure will cause a variation in the velocity. 3.3.3 POWER Mechanical power is defined as Force x velocity. This makes it easy to calculate the power of a cylinder. The fluid power supplied is more than the mechanical power output because of friction between the sliding parts. P = F x v Watts 3.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 3.4.1 BODY Depending on the job specification, there are multiple forms of body constructions available Tie rod cylinders: The most common cylinder constructions that can be used in many types of loads. Has been proven to be the safest form. Flanged-type cylinders: Fixed flanges are added to the ends of cylinder; however, this form of construction is more common in hydraulic cylinder construction. One-piece welded cylinders: Ends are welded or crimped to the tube; this form is inexpensive but makes the cylinder non-serviceable.

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Threaded end cylinders: Ends are screwed onto the tube body. The reduction of material can weaken the tube and may introduce thread concentricity problems to the system. Tie rod cylinder is selected for our application since it is the most suitable to the given problem. 3.4.2 MATERIAL Upon job specification, the material may be chosen. Material ranges from nickel-plated brass to aluminium, and even steel and stainless steel. Depending on the level of loads, humidity, temperature, and stroke lengths specified, the appropriate material may be selected 3.4.3 ENG FIXINGS Depending on the location of the application and machinability, there exist different kinds of mounts for attaching pneumatic cylinders. The different types are Direct Rear Direct Foot Front Flange Rear Pivot Trunion Screwed Front The direct foot is selected for our problem since it is the only suitable way of supporting the cylinders by placing it on a table at a suitable height based on the operation carried out. 3.4.4 CYLINDER SPEED CONTROL The basic method of controlling the speed is by controlling the flow in or out of the cylinder. The simplest way is to place a restrictor port but this reduces the thrust and wastes energy through friction. This problem can be overcome and the speed can be controlled using a quick exhaustive valve.

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3.4.5 SIZE Air cylinders are available in a variety of sizes and can typically range from a small 2.5 mm air cylinder, which might be used for picking up a small transistor or other electronic component, to 400 mm diameter air cylinders which would impart enough force to lift a car. Some pneumatic cylinders reach 1000 mm in diameter, and are used in place of hydraulic cylinders for special circumstances where leaking hydraulic oil could impose an extreme hazard. Considering the forming operation of c v disc, a cylinder of diameter 40 mm with a stroke length of 500 mm may be used. Similarly the forming operation of tractor disc, a cylinder of diameter 50 mm with a stroke length of 800 mm may be used. Two quick exhaustive valves are used; one for each cylinder and a shock absorber is used for the cylinder with diameter of 50 mm. Four linear motion bearing, in which two bearings are of diameter 40 mm and remaining two bearing of diameter 50 mm are connected to the 40 mm and 50 mm cylinder respectively. The guide shafts are connected to the respective cylinder through the bearings. 3.5 CALCULATIONS 3.5.1 TRACTOR DISC OPERATION Weight of the work piece Force Pressure Area of the cylinder Diameter of the cylinder = 50 Kgs = 50 x 9.8 x 1.5 (FoS) = 735.75 N = 4 bars = 735.75/40000 = 48.39 mm = 4 x 100000 = 400000 N/m2 = 0.001839375 m2 = 50 mm

3.5.2 CV DISC OPERATION Weight of the work piece Force Pressure Area of the cylinder = 40 Kgs = 40 x 9.8 x 1.5 (FoS) = 441.45 N = 4 bars = 441.45/40000 = 4 x 100000 = 400000 N/m2 = 0.001103625 m2

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Diameter of the cylinder

= 37.49 mm

= 40 mm

The schematic diagram of the automated unloader is shown in the figure 3.4

Figure 3.4 AUTOMATED UNLOADER 3.6 BILL OF MATERIAL Table 3.1 BILL OF MATERIALS SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SPARES CYLINDER FESTODNC-40-500-PPV-A 163348 CYLINDER PNEUM FESTO DNC 50*800 PPV-A LM BRG FOR PICK PLACE LMF 30UU (B31) LM BRG LMF40 QUICK EXHAUST VALVE FESTO SEU-1/4 6753 SHOCK ABSORBER YSR-20-25-C FESTO 34574 GUIDE SHAFT QUANITY 1 1 2 2 4 2 2

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3.7 COMPARISON The changes achieved before and after implementing the automation system is mentioned in the figure 3.5. Moreover by changing the conveyor system connecting the two presses in which forming and piercing operation is carried out has to be changed. By changing the position of the conveyor belt the setup time for CV and tractor disc operation can reduced significantly

Figure 3.5 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON

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Figure 3.6 LAYOUT OF CONVEYOR SYSTEM BEFORE CHANGES

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Figure 3.7 LAYOUT OF CONVEYOR SYSTEM AFTER CHANGES


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1. Loading conveyor 2. Unloading conveyor for tractor wheel 3. 1500T loading conveyor 4. Unloading conveyor for CV 5. Common unloading conveyor The tractor wheel disc has to be unloaded manually by two operators. The two operators who places the blank inside the forming machine has to push the disc after the operation has been completed so that the work piece falls on the conveyer system which carries it to the next operation. The systematic representation of this process is mentioned below.

Figure 3.8 FORMING OPERATION OF TRACTOR DISC (EXISTING) The c v disc has to be unloaded manually by the operator. The operator has to pull the work piece and let it place on the conveyer system which carries it to the next operation. The systematic representation of this process is mentioned below
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Figure 3.9 FORMING OPERATION OF CV DISC (EXISTING) Now by adding the newly designed automation system the operators need not push the disc each time after the forming operation is completed. The schematic representation of CV reverse forming operation is shown below.

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Figure 3.10 FORMING OPERATION OF TRACTOR AND CV DISC(AFTER AUTOMATION) 3.8 RESULT After the corrective actions are made in the manufacturing line, the line is run for one week and the results are given in the figure 3.11

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Figure 3.11 COMPARISON OF CYCLE TIME The schematic representation of the automated system for CV disc and tractor disc are represented in figure 3.12 And figure 3.13 respectively

Figure 3.12 UNLOADER FOR CV DISC FORMING OPERATION

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Figure 3.13 UNLOADER FOR TRACTOR DISC FORMING OPERATION 3.9 COST ESTIMATION Table no 3.2 COST ESTIMATIONTABLE SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 SPARES CYLINDER FESTODNC-40-500PPV-A 163348 CYLINDER PNEUM FESTO DNC 50*800 PPV-A LM BRG FOR PICK PLACE LMF 30UU (B31) LM BRG LMF40 QUICK EXHAUST VALVE FESTO SEU-1/4 6753 SHOCK ABSORBER YSR-2025-C FESTO 34574 GUIDE SHAFT TOTAL COST QTY 1 1 2 2 4 2 2 COST(INR) TOTAL 4400 5900 2150 2150 400 6200 14800 4400 5900 4300 4300 1600 12400 29600 62500

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3.10 STANDARDIZATION As the corrective actions are found to be useful, steps are taken to make them permanent. The management is informed about the changes and the advantages of those changes and prior permission is received to make them. The corresponding standard operating procedures (SOP) are revised, FLM sheets are edited. The operators are informed about the changes and proper training is given to them on the new SOP. Periodic checking is done to make sure that the changes implemented are maintained.

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4. CONCLUSION
The implementation of the corrective actions discussed before is found to be efficient. The automation system implemented has a significant effect over the reduced productivity by reducing the cycle time. Moreover the job setup time can be reduced up to 15 minutes by changing the conveyor system layout connecting the forming and piercing operation. The following benefits can be achieved by implementing the above mentioned changes Productivity can be improved from 4725 to 6600. No sacrifice in quality. Man power Cost savings as Rs.400000/year. One manpower reduced. Able to meet internal customers demand in time. Manual unloading is eliminated.

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5. REFERENCES
1. Subburajramasamy, Total Quality Management, Tata McGraw hill, 2008. 2. Feigenbaum.A.V, Total Quality Management, McGraw hill, 1991. 3. G.K.Dubey, Fundamentals of Electrical Drives, Alpha Science International Ltd., 2001 4. Andrew Parr, .Hydraulics and Pneumatics (HB)., Jaico Publishing House, 1992. 5. M.P.Groover, Industrial Robotics Technology, Programming and Applications, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1986.

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