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(g) Tension Capacity Tension Capacity of the member Ae = a1+f x a2 = Ae x Py

= 3a1/(3a1+a2)
Assume 20mm bolt connection 8 mm 71mm

a1 a2 f

= 71*8-22*8 = 71*8 = 0.73972603 Ae

= = = = =

324 342 576.986301 Ae x Py 158.671233

mm^2 mm^2 mm^2

Tension capacity of the member

kN

2388.65 2427.06 2473.26 2358.16 2948.91 2388.65 2427.06 2473.26 2358.16 2388.65 2427.06 2473.26 2358.16 2388.65 2427.06 2473.26 2358.16 1934.06 2114.28 2090.82 2069.89 2051.53 2036 2023.09 2013.02 2005.8 2001.45 2000 2001.45 2005.8 2013.02 2023.09 2036 2051.53 2069.89 2090.82 2114.28 1934.06 2948.91 2948.91 1934.06 2114.28 2090.82 2069.89 2051.53 2036 2023.09 2013.02 2005.8 2001.45 2000

Station mm 464 4600 3145 1770 4600 3145 1770 5438.09 4600 3145 1770 1770 3145 4600 5438.09 4752.38 4752.38 4142.86 4142.86 3609.52 3609.52 3152.58 3152.58 2771.43 2771.43 2466.67 2466.67 2238.09 2238.09 2085.71 2085.71 2009.52 2009.52 464 464 5438.09 5438.09 4752.38 4752.38 4142.86 4142.86 3609.52 3609.52 3152.58 3152.58 2771.43 2771.43 2466.67 2466.67

6 13 15 18 23 24 26 30 37 38 39 51 52 53 90 92 94 97 99 101 104 106 109 113 115 118 120 123 126 128 130 133 135 274 425 470 472 474 475 476 477 479 481 483 485 493 497 505 513 Dead+ Dead+ Dead+ Dead+ Dead+ Dead+ Dead+ Dead+

Deflections Case Com-Full live Com-Full live com-Live-half-L2 com-Live-half-L2 com-Live-L1L2-only com-Live-L1L2-only com-live-L2-0.4 com-live-L2-0.4 com-live-L1-only com-live-L1-only com-live-L2-only com-live-L2-only com-live-quater-L2 com-live-quater-L2 com-live-quater-L2B com-live-quater-L2B

2001.45 2005.8 2013.02 2023.09 2036 2051.53 2069.89 2090.82 2114.28 1934.06 2948.91

2238.09 2238.09 2085.71 2085.71 2009.52 2009.52 464

521 533 537 541 549 553 853

Deflections Max X Com-Full live Com-Full live com-Live-half-L2 com-Live-half-L2 com-Live-L1L2-only com-Live-L1L2-only com-live-L2-0.4 com-live-L2-0.4 com-live-L1-only com-live-L1-only com-live-L2-only com-live-L2-only com-live-quater-L2 com-live-quater-L2 com-live-quater-L2B com-live-quater-L2B Y Z Min X Y Z -0.369 -108.48 170583.4

10.06 0.4978 8.0195 -9.604 -0.7934 -129.78 57.1 0.3355 5.8303 -57.19

5.798 0.8369 33.635 -24.25 -0.9218 -121.28 56.64 0.7303 23.088 -57.49 -0.8325 -112.28 10.9 0.6319 13.936 55.01 55.68 3.569 55.03 10.98 55.04 2.324 55.63 4.106 56.08 -9.5 -0.7738 -131.27 0.255 5.8946 -52.28 -0.3541 -110.96 0.782 3.1258 -54.74 -0.5804 -88.347 0.0742 0.4873 0.6706 0.2782 0.2736 0.3685 0.9386 0.8963 4.3109 23.481 13.876 6.3185 18.91 24.885 16.961 4.2512 -0.552 -54.15 -9.68 -52.34 -12.96 -55.49 -12.84 -56.22 -0.1059 -0.5083 -0.8007 -0.3784 -0.591 -0.4884 -0.7982 -0.7539 -5.5964 -86.711 -132.22 -111.31 -48.775 -86.726 -85.034 -86.71

8.66 0.7423 5.3446 -8.605 -0.5384 -108.67

Reference

Calculation

Output

25M SPAN SINGLE LANE STEEL TRUSS BRIDGE


A. INTRODUCTION

This design report contains the analysis and design calculations for the single lane steel truss bridge of span 25m. The span of the this bridge is 25m , width of the lane is 3.7 m and 1.2 m wide shoulders both side. There is a 1.8 m height hand rail at both side of the bridge.

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code ARJ Date Date Page 01

Reference B. GENERAL DESIGN INFORMATION

Calculation

Output

B-1. Geometry of the Steel truss bridge


Span Max. Truss Height Spacing between two truss = = = 25.0 3.5 6.0 m m m

B-3 Load factors


As per Table 1 BS 5400 Part 2 : 1978

B-4 Design Codes ,Manuals and References


BS5400: 1978,British Standard institution Code of practice for bridge design Road Development Authority (RDA) of SriLanka Bridge Design Manual 1997

B-5 Software used


Modeling, Analysis and Design are carried out using SAP2000 version 9

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference

Calculation

Output

C. GENERAL LOAD EVALUATION


BS5400 Part 2 : 1978

C.1 Live Loads


Carriageway width = 3.7m = 1

cl 3.2.9.3.1

Number of notional lanes Width of a notional lane C.1.1: HA Loading Nominal HA loads

= 3.7m

cl 6.2.1 cl 6.2.2

Loaded length Uniformly distributed load Knife edge load

= 25m <30m = 30 kN/m per notional lane = 120 kN per notional lane

C.1.2: Horizontal loads and load effects Traction or Braking forces


cl 6.6.1

Nominal load for HA Loadings = 8 kN/m of loaded length+200 kN<700 kN Loaded length
Nominal load for HA Loadings

= 25m = 8x25+200 = 400 kN = = 30 15 kN/m kN/m

Uniformly Distributed Live load (per meter) along the bridge Uniformly Distributed Live load (per meter )along a one truss

Live load on each joint as Point load

= UDL x Spacing between two joints = 15x3.125 kN = 46.9 kN 60 kN

Knife edge load at the mid point of a one truss

= 120/2 =

C.2 Dead Loads


C.2.1. Weight of Deck slab Consider longitudinally 1 meter length along the bridge lane Thickness of the concrete deck slab Density of concrete Slab Load as UDL (0.28x 24x6.1) = 280 mm = 24 kN/m3 = 40.992 kN/m

C.2.2. Weight of Asphalt layer Consider longitudinally 1 meter length along the bridge lane Thickness of the asphalt layer = 50mm Density of the asphalt layer asphalt layer load as UDL (.05x25x3.7) = 25 kN/m3 = 4.625
Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code ARJ Date Date Page 03

kN/m

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

Reference C.2.3. Weight of guard rail

Calculation

Output

Consider longitudinally 1 meter length along the bridge lane Volume of the steel guard rail = 0.1m3 Weight of the steel guard rail = 0.1x7850x9.81/1000 = 7.70 kN Guard rail load as UDL = 7.7/25 = Dead load on each joint as point load 0.31 kN/m

= (40.99+4.625+.31)/2*3.125 = 71.8 kN

C.2.2. Selfweight of truss members Selfweights of members of main 2D truss are taken in to the analysis by softweare itself. Selfweights of other Other transverce members 1. Bottom cross bracing Load on a joint of a 2D main truss (2/PFC 380 x100 x 54- 6 m length) 2. Bottom chord wind bracing Load on a joint of a 2D main truss (EQA 75 x 75-6.76 m length) Point load on bottom truss joint 3. Top cross bracing Load on a joint of a 2D main truss (PFC 150 x90 x 24- 2.2 m length) 4. Top chord wind bracing Load on a joint of a 2D main truss (EQA 75 x 75-6.76 m length) Point load on top truss joint = (8.99kg/m x 9.81 kgms-1 /1000 x 6.76 m) = 0.596 kN = 2.003 kN = (23.9 kg/m x 9.81 kgms-1/1000x6.0m) = 1.407 kN = (8.99kg/m x 9.81 kgms-1 /1000 x 6.76 m) = 0.596 kN = 3.775 kN = (108 kg/m x 9.81 kgms-1/1000x6.0 m)/2 = 3.178 kN

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference

Calculation

Output

C.3 Wind Loads


Wind loads on Superstructure Nominal Transverse wind load (pt)without LL vc
BS5400 Part 2 : 1978

Nominal Transverse wind load (pt)-with LL vc v = 22.2m/s 1.00 1.00 1.58 RDA manual 5.3.2.1.2 5.3.2.1.3 T2-5.3.2.1.4 vc=K1*v*s1*s2 0.613*vc2 q=0.613*vc2 T7 5.3.3.4

= 22.2m/s 1.00 1.00 1.58

RDA manual 5.3.2.1.2 5.3.2.1.3 T2-5.3.2.1.4 vc=K1*v*s1*s2 q=0.613*vc2

k1 = s1 = s2 = vc pt q

k1 = s1 = s2 =

= 34.76 m/s

vc = 34.76m/s pt q = 0.741kN/m2

= 0.741 N/m2 Cd = 2 Bottom chord

Cd =1.45 for all live parts 5.3.3.4

2 A = 0.35 m per meter of chords

Assume height of a threewheeler as 2m


2 A = 2 x1 m

pt = 0.35 x 2 x 0.721 = 0.50 kN/m Top chord 2 A = 0.15 m per meter of chords pt = 0.15 x 2 x 0.721 = 0.21 kN/m Diagnal Bracing 2 A = 0.15 m per meter of chords pt = 0.15 x 2 x 0.721 = 0.21 kN/m Nominal Longitudinal wind load is not considered due to small effect to truss bridge Nominal vertical wind load (pv)
BS5400 Part 2 : 1978

pt

= q x A x Cd

pt(withlive) = 2 x 1.45 x 0.721


= 2.1 kN/m

Nominal Vertical wind load (Pv) Pv q

Pv

q A Cl

= 0.671kN/m2 = 6m2/per meter of deck slab


= 0.75

A Cl = 0.75

= 0.671kN/m2 = 6 m2/per meter of deck slab

pv = 3.0kN per meter

pv = 3.0 kN per meter

C-3 Load Combinations


BS5400 Part 2 : 1978 Table 1

Ultimate Limite State Comb 1 Comb 2 = 1.15 x conc load+1.05 x steel loads+1.5 x live and parapet load = 1.15 x conc load+1.05 x steel loads+1.25 x live and parapet load+1.4 x wind loads

Servicibility Limit State


Com_Ser

= 1.0 x conc load+1.0 x steel loads+1.0 x live and parapet load

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference

Calculation

Output

D. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESULTS


The main steel truss is analysised (1) as a 2D truss for load combination1 ( Without lateral-wind forces ) (2) as a 3D truss for load combination2 ( With lateral-wind forces ) D.1 Servisibility Analysis for Deflection Servisibility analysised is used for checke the globle deflection of the entire bridge. Maximum vertical deflection at the middle of the truss at 2D SAP model (For com_ser 1) Maximum deflection at the middle of the truss at 3D SAP model (For com_ser 2) Horizontal Vertical = 25 mm = 50 mm = 38 mm

D.2 Analysised Results for Combination 1 All main truss members have axial forces only and no considerable bending moment generated by selfweight. Analysised reasulta are attached as Annex ( i ) D.2.1 Maximun Axial forces values ( Com 1) Member Top Chord Bottom chord Vertical members Diagnal members Tension kN 1221 159 612 Compression kN 1335 391

D.3 Analysised Results for Combination 2 All 3D truss members have axial forces only and no considerable bending moment generated by selfweight.. Analysised reasults are attached as Annex ( ii ) Member Top Chord Bottom chord Vertical members Diagnal members Tension kN 387 48 360 Compression kN 1006 280

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference

Calculation

Output

E. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
E.1 Top Chord Design Comb1 is critical for Top Chord Maximim axial force of Top chord (Compression) Length of a top Chord member Top chord is design as a compression member Selected section for top chord is 2/PFC 200 x 90 x 30 E.1.1 Section properties = 3125 mm = 1324 kN

b
T t

279 KNm
b d T t = = = = 90 200 14 7 mm mm mm mm Back to back space

P d N400x800
= 10 = 275 mm

=1.5x 1 bC F P P P30 Hi B E a L T

py

mm

Length of a member Both ends are pin-joints


E.1.2 Section Classifications Fig 3 BS 5950 d/t
Table 7 BS 5950

= 3125 mm

b/T

= =

90/14 148/(2*7)

= =

6.43 10.57

= (275/275)^0.5 = 1

Internal element of compression flange b/T = 6.429 < 26

i.e.Section is plastic web with natural axis at mid depth d/t = 10.57 <79

i.e. section is plastic section is Non- slender


SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code ARJ Date Date Page 08

4 1 8

Reference
4.7.4. BS 5950

Calculation Compression capacity of the member For pc value, Table 27 ( c) (Rolled channel from table 25) (d) Calculation of = le/ = 3.125/0.0816 = (e) pc value pc = Ag = 241.1 N/mm2 (from Table 27( C) ,=38.3 and py=275)
2 7570 mm

Output

= Pc = Ag*pc

38.3

(f) Compression Capacity Compression capacity of members = = Maximum design compression = pc*Ag 1825 1324 kN kN

since1324<1825, proposed section is adequate when the compression capacity is considered

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference E.2 Bottom Chord Design Comb1 is critical for bottom Chord Maximum axial force of bottom chord (Tension) Length of a top Chord member Top chord is design as a tension member

Calculation

Output

= =

1212 3125

kN mm

Selected section for bottom chord is 2/PFC 200 x 90 x 30 E.2.1 Section properties

b
T t

N
b d T t = = = = 90 14 7 mm mm mm Back to back space = 10 = 275 mm 200 mm

py Length of a member

mm

= 3125 mm

Both ends are pin-joints


E.2.2 Design of bottom chord
cl 4.6.1

Tension capacity Pt = Ae x Py Anet connected + (3a1/(3a1+a2)) x Aoutstand = 2296 4648 mm2 mm2

cl 4.6.3.1

Ae = a1

use 16mm diameter bolts


cl 3.3.2

(Anet connected) a2 = (Anet outstand) Ae =


Table 6

2 5071 mm

Py = Pt = Pt >

2 275 N/mm

1395 kN 1212 kN

Proposed section is adequate when the tension capacity is considered


SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code ARJ Date Date Page 10

Reference E.3 Bottom cross bracing Design

Calculation

Output

E.3.1 Special load eveluation for Bottom cross bracing E.3.1.1 Live loads
Defined

= 30 kN/m per notional lane Knife edge load on a member = 120kN


HA load(on deck) Live load on member for 1m strip Live load on member for 1m strip = Udl x spacing between two joints + KEL = 30/3.7x3.125 + 120/6 = E.3.1.2 Dead Loads Slab Load asphalt layer load load of the guard rail Consider 1 meter of the deck. Dead load on 1m of member = (126.0+14.5+0.1)/6 = 23.6 kN/m 45.3 kN/m kN/m

= = 0.28x24x3.125x6 = = .05x25x3.7x3.125 = 0.31x3.125 kN =

126.000 14.453 0.969

kN kN kN

E.3.1.3 Self Weight Self weight Considering 1m of the deck Self weight

108

kN/m

= 108*9.81 = 1.06 kN/m

BS5400 Part 2 : 1978

E.3.1.4 Design Load Design load

= 1.15*conc load + 1.05*self weight + 1.5*live load = 96.23 kN/m = 96.2 kN/m

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference

Calculation Selected section for bottom chord is 2/PFC 380 x 100 x 54 E.3.2 Design of Bottom Cross Bracing E.3. 2.1 Section properties

Output

b
T t

279 KNm

b d T t

= = = =

100 380 9.5

mm mm

Back to back space

N 10 P = d 400x800

=1.5x F P P 1 P30 Hi B E a L bC T

17.5 mm mm

py

= 275

Length of a member cl3.1.2 property table E Ix 205 kN/mm2 30100 cm4 rx = Both ends are pinjoints
= =

= 3125 mm

7.4 cm

E.3.2.2 Section classifications


Fig 3 BS 5950

b/T d/t

= 100/17.5 = = 315/(9.5*2) =

5.71 16.58

= (275/275)^0.5 = 1

E.3.2.3 Local buckling check

Internal element of compression flange d/t b/T = = 16.6 < 79 5.71 < 79

i.e.Section is plastic Section is non slender


4.2.3. BS 5950

E.3.2.4 Shear capacity check Pv = 0.6*py*Av Av = txD = 9.5x380x2 = d/t = 16.58 < 63
Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code ARJ Date Date Page 12

Pv

1191.3 kN

7220 mm2

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

4 1 8

Reference

Calculation

Output

Maximum shear force due to load,

Fv

= Design load/2 = 288.7 kN

06*Pv =

0.6*386.1 714.8 kN > Fv

=
low shear

Check is OK
cl 4.2.5.

E.3.2.5 Moment capacity check Since the section is plastic and subject to low shear Mc S Z 1.2*Z Mc = = = = = = BMmax = = Py x S but
3 1870 cm 3 1580 cm

PyS <=1.2PyZ

1896 > Py x S

514.3 kNm Design Load x Length ^2 /8 433 kNm Mc > BMmax

Moment capacity check is O.K.

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference E.3.2.7 Deflection check


Table 5

Calculation

Output

Allowable deflection

= = = = E i i = = <

span / 360 6.0/360 16.67 mm 5wL4/384EI 205 kN/mm2 12.39 mm span / 360

Actual deflection
cl 3.1.2

Deflection check is satisfied

Proposed section is adequate

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference

Calculation

Output

E.4 Design of diagonals E.4.1. Compression capacity check.


Maximim axial force of diagonal (Compression) Length of maximum compression member Maximim axial force of diagonal (Tension) Length of maximum tension member = 4650 mm = = 4650 640 mm kN = 408 kN

Selected section for diaganol is 2/PFC 150 x 75 x 18 E.1.1 Section properties

b
T t

N
b d T t = = = = 75 10 5.5 mm mm mm Back to back space = 10 = 275 mm 150 mm

py Length of a member

mm

= 4650 mm

Both ends are pin-joints


E.1.2 Section Classifications b/T d/t = 75/10 = 7.50 9.27 = = = 150/(2*5.5) = (275/275)^0.5 1

Internal element of compression flange b/T = 7.5 < 26

i.e.Section is plastic web with natural axis at mid depth d/t = 9.273 <79

i.e. section is plastic section is Non- slender


SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB) Doc. No. Designed Checked Job Code ARJ Date Date Page 15

Reference
4.7.4. BS 5950

Calculation Compression capacity of the member For pc value, Table 27 ( c) (Rolled channel from table 25) (d) Calculation of = le/ = 4.650/0.0615 = (e) pc value pc = Ag = 169.8 N/mm2 (from Table 27( C) ,=75.61 and py=275)
2 4550 mm

Output

= Pc = Ag*pc

75.61

(f) Compression Capacity Compression capacity of members = = Maximum design compression = pc*Ag 773 408 kN kN

since408<773, proposed section is adequate when the compression capacity is considered

cl 4.6.1

E.4.2. Tension capacity check


Pt = Ae x Py Anet connected + (3a1/(3a1+a2)) x Aoutstand 1170 2560 2650
2 275 N/mm

cl 4.6.3.1

Ae = a1 = a2 = Ae =

cl 3.3.2

mm2 mm2

Table 6

Py = Pt = Pt >

728.8 kN 640 kN

since640<729, proposed section is adequate when the tension capacity is considered

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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Reference E.5 Design of vertical members Maximum axial force of diagonal (Tension) Length of maximum tension member

Calculation

Output

= =

167 3500

kN mm

Vertical member is design as a tension member Selected section for top chord is PFC 125 x 65 x 15 E.1.1 Section properties

b
T t

N
b d T t = = = = 65 9.5 5.5 mm mm mm Back to back space = 10 = 275 mm 125 mm

py Length of a member

mm

= 3500 mm

Both ends are pin-joints

cl 4.6.1

E.4.2. Tension capacity check


Pt = Ae x Py Anet connected + (3a1/(3a1+a2)) x Aoutstand 447.5 1080 1046
2 275 N/mm

cl 4.6.3.1

Ae = a1 = a2 = Ae =

cl 3.3.2

mm2 mm2

Table 6

Py = Pt = Pt >

287.7 kN 167 kN

Since167<288, proposed section is adequate when the tension capacity is considered

SINGLE LANE TRUSS BRIDGE- 25M SPAN DESIGN UNIT D E C EPC DIVISION CENTRAL ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY BUREAU (CECB)

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